Benefits to Forensic ScienceIn forensic and paternity determinations, exclusions of potential perpetrators are relatively straightforward. Specific variable areas of each individual's DNA in question are examined for uniqueness or lack of it. If the defendant or presumptive parent's DNA does not "match" the genetic material at the scene of the crime or the child's DNA, then he or she is excluded and another suspect(s) must be procured.
If, on the other hand, the DNA profile of the suspect(s) is identical to the evidence DNA, then forensic scientist are required to generate probability calculations that state the chances that an individual, in addition to the defendant, in a given population, has the same profile. Since these calculations are populations-specific, it is necessary to generate databases of DNA profiles from different populations. If the defendant's DNA pattern is compared to the DNA profile database of a population in which his/her DNA type is very rare, then the probability of finding another individual with the same DNA profile may be very rare, or nil. In such cases, the probability calculations will bias against the defendant. Therefore, it is imperative to have a sufficient number of databases from different populations to generate probabilities that will yield conservative values. The forensic profiles of the populations in the FIU DNA/cellular repository are currently being systematically examined in an effort to have a more complete picture of the genetic diversity among human groups worldwide. This information is being provided to the national forensic DNA bank of the FBI in Quantico, Virginia and is utilized by crime laboratories all over the world in their probability calculations. Currently, there are 13 main DNA locations recommended for examination by the FBI. In collaboration with forensic laboratories worldwide, the laboratory has provided the FBI, thus far, with Egyptian, Indian, Pakistani, and Omani databases. These analyses will be extended to all of the growing number of populations.