8. Environments of Life: Some Concepts
    a. Habitat: Setting on or close to the Earth’s surface that are inhabited by life.
        i. Aquatic
            1. Marine (oceans and seas) Reefs
            2. Freshwater (lakes, rivers, and streams)
        ii. Terrestrial
    b. Ecology: the study of the factors that govern the distribution and abundance of organisms in natural environments
    c. Niche: relations between a given species and it environment
    d. Life Habitat: the way a species lives within its niche.
        i. Limiting factors: physical and chemical conditions that restrict every species to its niche.
    e. Population: group of individuals that belong to a single species
    f. Community: populations of several species living together in a habit. Some species feed on others
        i. Producers: the foundation of the system, photosynthesizing organisms or bacteria that harness the energy of chemical reactions
        ii. Consumers: herbivores which feed on producers
        iii. Carnivores, feed on other consumers
    g. Ecosystem: Organisms of an ecological community and the physical environment they occupy. Come in all sizes
        i. Fauna: The animals and protozoans (Protists) of an ecosystem
        ii. Flora: Plants and plantlike Protists of an ecosystem
        iii. Biota: Flora and fauna living together
        iv. Food Chain: sequence of species from producer to top carnivore
        v. Diversity: designate the number of species that live together within a community
        vi. Opportunistic species: species that specialize in invading newly vacated habitats, e.g, land cleared by fire, or shore areas formed along rivers that change course at flood stage.
    h. Biogeography: Distributions and abundances of organisms on a broad geographic scale.
        i. Realms: a primary marine or terrestrial biogeographic division of the earth's surface
            1. Terrestrial
            2. Marine
                a. Plankton: organisms that drift in water
                    i. Phytoplankton
                    ii. Zooplankton
                b. Nekton: Animals that move through the water primarily by swimming
                c. Pelagic: plankton and nekton in the open ocean
                d. Benthos: immobile and mobile organisms that populate the seafloor.
                e. Benthic herbivores graze on plantlike forms like algae
                    i. Suspension feeders: strain phytoplankton and plan debris from the water.
                    ii. Deposit feeders: Consume sediment and digest organic mater mixed in with mineral grains.