The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church
- Biographical entry of the cardinal created by Pope Leo X (1513-1521) in the consistory of August 9, 1520 (VIII).
- Biographical entry of the cardinal created by Pope Leo X (1513-1521) in the consistory of March 24, 1518 (VI).
- Biographical entries of the cardinals created by Pope Leo X (1513-1521) in the consistory of July 1, 1517 (V).
- On December 22, 2005, Pope Benedict XVI named Cardinal Javier Lozano Barragán, president of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral of Health, special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 14th World Day of the Sick that will take place in Adelaide, Australia, February 11, 2006. In Crónica - 2006.
- Catalog of cardinals camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church (1188-1431).
- Cardinal Leo Scheffczyk died on December 8, 2005, in Münich, Germany. A distinguished theologian, he was 85 years old and had been named cardinal by Pope John Paul II in the consistory of February 21, 2001. Upon learning the news of his death, Pope Benedict XVI sent a telegram to Cardinal Friedrich Wetter, archbishop of Münich und Freising. The archdiocese of Münich und Freising issued a communication detailing the death and funeral of the cardinal. In the morning of Tuesday, December 13, the body of the cardinal will be take to the metropolitan cathedral of Münich. Members of the religious family Das Werk, to which the cardinal belonged, will hold an all day long prayer guard in the cathedral. Cardinal Wetter will celebrate a pontifical requiem mass on Wednesday, December 14, at 10.30 a.m. in the metropolitan cathedral. The day of the funeral is Thursday, December 15 at 11 a.m.; a pontifical requiem mass will be celebrated in the parish church of Sankt Gallus in Bregenz, Vorarlberg, by Cardinal Joachim Meisner, archbishop of Cologne. The burial will be in the cemetery of the religious family "Das Werk" in the monastery of Thalbach, Bregenz, Austria. After the death of the cardinal, there are 179 members of the College of Cardinals of which 11 have been created by Pope Paul VI and 168 by Pope John Paul II. In Crónica - 2005.
- On December 7, 2005, Pope Benedict XVI accepted the resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Antananarivo, Madagascar, presented by Cardinal Armand Gaétan Razafindratandra, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. To succeed him, the pope named Odon Marie Arsène Razanakolona, until now bishop of Ambanja. In Crónica - 2006.
- Biographical entries of the cardinals created by Pope Leo X (1513-1521) in the consistory of April 1, 1517 (IV).
- On December 1, 2005, Cardinal Georges Marie Martin Cottier, O.P., ceased as pro-theologian of the Pontifical Household. To succeed him, Pope Benedict XVI named Father Wojciech Giertych, O.P., member of the general council of his order, professor of moral theology at the Pontifical University San Tommaso d'Aquino, Rome, and at the Studium of the Dominican province of Poland in Kraków. In Crónica - 2006.
- Biographical entries of the cardinals created by Pope Leo X (1513-1521) in the consistory of September 23, 1513 (I).
- Pope Benedict XVI issued the motu proprio De Basilicis Sancti Francisci et Sanctæ Mariæ Angelorum, dated November 9, 2005, containing new dispositions for the Basilica of San Francesco and the annexed Sacro Convento; as well as for the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Assisi. The pope established in number I of the document that a cardinal will be his legate to both basilicas and convent. The cardinal will not have jurisdiction but will have the task to perpetuate with his moral authority the close ties of communion between the sacred places dedicated to the memory of the Poverello and the Apostolic See. He will be able to impart the papal blessing in the celebrations that he will preside in occasion of the greater liturgical solemnities. The document was released on November 19, 2005. In Crónica - 2006.
- Cardinal Francis Arinze, prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, will be the special papal envoy to the First National Eucharistic Congress of Chad that will take place in Moundou on January 4 to 8, 2006. In Crónica - 2006.
- On November 11, 2005, at 11:30 a.m., in the altar of the Chair of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Pope Benedict XVI presided over the eucharistic celebration for the repose of the souls of the cardinals and bishops who died during the past twelve months. The pope also delivered the homily. The cardinals were Juan Carlos Aramburu, archbishop emeritus of Buenos Aires, Argentina (November 18, 2004); Jan Pieter Schotte, C.I.C.M., secretary general emeritus of the Synod of Bishops and president of the Office of Labor of the Apostolic See (January 10, 2005); Corrado Bafile, prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints (February 3, 2005); Jaime Lachica Sin, archbishop emeritus of Manila, Philippines (June 21, 2005); and Giuseppe Caprio, grand master emeritus of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem and president emeritus of the Prefecture of Economic Affairs of the Holy See (October 15, 2005). In Crónica - 2005.
- On November 9, 2005, Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio, S.J., archbishop of Buenos Aires, Argentina, was elected president of the Episcopal Conference of Argentina for the the triennium of 2005-2008. In Crónica - 2005.
- Cardinal Péter Erdő, archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest, Hungary, will be the special papal envoy to the solemn jubilar celebrations that will take place in the Shrine of Mariapócs, Hungary, on December 3, 2005. In Crónica - 2005.
- Cardinal Walter Kasper, president of the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity and of the Commission of the Holy See for Religious Relations with the Jews, represented Pope Benedict XVI at the International Conference on Peace and Tolerance - Dialog and Understanding in South East Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia, celebrated in Istanbul, November 7 to 9, 2005. In Crónica - 2005.
- The date of the promotion to the cardinalate has been added to the alphabetical catalog of the cardinals created from 1903 to 2003.
- Cardinal José Freire Falcão, archbishop emeritus of Brasília, Brazil, turned 80 years old on October 23, 2005, and, according to the regulation in the seventh paragraph of the introduction of the apostolic constitution Universi Dominici Gregis, lost the right to participate in the conclave. The cardinal electors are now 111; one has been created by Pope Paul VI and 110 by Pope John Paul II. In Crónica - 2005.
- Pope Benedict XVI has named Cardinal Anthony Olubunmi Okogie, archbishop of Lagos, Nigeria, special papal envoy to the National Eucharistic Congress of Ghana that will take place in Kumasi on November 19 to 20, 2005. In Crónica - 2005.
- Another funeral for Cardinal Giuseppe Caprio took place on October 19, 2005, in the parish church of S. Catarina d'Alessandria, Lapio, where he had been baptized; it was presided by Cardinal Crescenzio Sepe, prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, who concelebrated with Serafino Sprovieri, archbishop of Benevento, and all the bishops of the Irpina region. The remains of the cardinal were buried, according to his will, in that parish church.
- Forty two additional links to textual and pictorial information about the cardinals created by Pope Paul III (1534-1549) in his last six consistories are available in the site from the General List of Cardinals, courtesy of Mr. Francisco Vázquez, from Valencia, Spain.
- Cardinal Giuseppe Caprio, of the title of S. Maria della Vittoria, grand master emeritus of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem and president emeritus of the Prefecture of Economic Affairs of the Holy See, died in his Roman residence in the Palace of the Holy Office in the afternoon of October 15, 2005. Upon learning of his death, Pope Benedict XVI sent a telegram of condolence to his sister Signora Maria Caprio. Cardinal Angelo Sodano, secretary of State, sent an analogous telegram. The funeral, presided by the pope, will take place on Tuesday, October 18, 2005, at 11 a.m., in the altar of the chair of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. His remains will be buried in Lapio, his native town. After the death of the cardinal, there are 180 members of the College of Cardinals of which 11 have been created by Pope Paul VI and 169 by Pope John Paul II. In Crónica - 2005.
- Forty six additional links to textual and pictorial information about the cardinals created by Pope Paul III (1534-1549) in his first six consistories are available in the site from the General List of Cardinals, courtesy of Mr. Francisco Vázquez, from Valencia, Spain.
- One hundred and twelve additional links to textual and pictorial information about the cardinals created by Popes Adrian VI (1522-1523) and Clement VII (1523-1534) are available in the site from the General List of Cardinals, courtesy of Mr. Francisco Vázquez, from Valencia, Spain.
- Biographical entry of the cardinal created by Pope Adrian VI (1522-1523) in the consistory of September 10, 1523 (I). Also, biographical entry of quasi Cardinal Fabian Luzjañski (1523), contribution of Mr. Przemysław Zieliñski and Mr. Paweł Sobotko from Olsztyn, Poland.
- On October 4, 2005, the Vatican Information Service released the following communication: At 9.30 a.m. on Sunday, October 9, Cardinal José Saraiva Martins, C.M.F., prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, will preside at a Mass in St. Peter's Basilica during which Cardinal Clemens August von Galen (1878-1946), bishop of Münster, Germany, will be beatified. Cardinal von Galen was a vocal opponent of the Nazis' persecution of the Jews and of their euthanasia programs.
A note from the Office of Liturgical Celebrations of the Supreme Pontiff reads: "With the beatification of this generous pastor, the Church invites us to imitate, amid the vicissitudes of our own times, his brave and faithful witness."
At the end of the ceremony, Benedict XVI will arrive in the basilica in order to venerate the relics of the new blessed, greet those present and impart his apostolic blessing.
- The newspaper L'Express of Port Louis, Mauritius, reported today, October 2, 2005, that Cardinal Jean Margéot, bishop emeritus of that see, is in a state of semi-coma after suffering an "accident vasculaire cérébral". In Crónica - 2005.
- Biographical entries of the cardinals created by Pope Clement VII (1523-1534) in the consistory of November 7, 1533 (XIV).
- Biographical entry of the cardinal created by Pope Clement VII (1523-1534) in the consistory of September 22, 1531 (XI).
- Biographical entries of the cardinals created by Pope Clement VII (1523-1534) in the consistory of February 22, 1531 (X).
- On September 24, 2005, the Vatican Press Office announced that on November 11, 2005 at 11:30 a.m. in the altar of the Chair of Saint Peter, in the patriarchal Vatican basilica will take place the mass in suffrage of the cardinals and bishops who have died during the year. In Crónica - 2005.
- On September 24, 2005, the Vatican Press Office announced that the ceremony for the beatification of the Servant of God Cardinal Cardinal Clemens August von Galen wiil take place on Sunday October 9, 2005 at 10 a.m. in the patriarchal Vatican basilica. In Crónica - 2005.
- Biographical entry of the cardinal created by Pope Clement VII (1523-1534) in the consistory of June 8, 1530 (IX).
- On September 20, 2005, Cardinal Karl Lehmann, bishop of Mainz, Germany, was reelected president of the German Episcopal Conference for another six-year term. He has occupied the post since 1987. The Fall meeting of the conference took place in Fulda. In Crónica - 2005.
- Biographical entries of the cardinals created by Pope Clement VII (1523-1534) in the consistory of March 9, 1530 (VIII).
- Cardinal Jozef Tomko, president of the Pontifical Committee for the International Eucharistic Congress, will be the special papal envoy to the celebrations of the First Universitarian International Eucharistic Congress that will take place in Murcia, Spain, on November 9 to 13, 2005. In Crónica - 2005.
- Cardinal Peter Erdő, archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest and primate of Hungary, was elected president of the country's episcopal conference on September 7, 2005, for a period of five years. The election took place during the conference's three-day autumn meeting, September 6 to 8. In Crónica - 2005.
- On September 8, 2005, the Vatican Press Office announced that Pope Benedict XVI had named the following cardinals members of the XI Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops with the theme "The Eucharist: Source and Summit of the Life and Mission of the Church" that will take place at Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005:
Joachim Meisner, archbishop of Cologne; Miguel Obando Bravo, S.D.B., archbishop emeritus of Managua;
Jozef Tomko, president of the Pontifical Committee for International Eucharistic Congesses;
Adrianus Johannes Simonis, archbishop of Utrecht;
Edmund Casimir Szoka, president of the Governatorato of the State of Vatican City;
Vinko Puljić, archbishop of Vrhbosna (Sarajevo);
Paul Shan Kuo-Hsi, S.J., bishop of Kaohsiung;
Ivan Dias, archbishop of Bombay;
Francisco Javier Errázuriz Ossa, Institute of the Fathers of Schöntatt, archbishop of Santiago de Chile, president Latin American Episcopal Council (C.E.L.A.M.);
George Pell, archbishop of Sydney;
Marc Ouellet, P.S.S., archbishop of Québec;
Jorge Arturo Medina Estévez, prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments;
Jean-Louis Tauran, archivist and librarian of the Holy Roman Church;
Francesco Marchisano, archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica; and
Georges Marie Martin Cottier, O.P., pro-theologian of the Pontifical Household. In Crónica - 2005.
- On September 6, 2005, the archdiocese of Washington announced that the day before, Cardinal Theodore Edgar McCarrick, archbishop of that metropolitan see, had received a letter from the papal nuncio to the United States of America in which he was informed that Pope Benedict XVI had decided that the cardinal should continue to govern the archdiocese for another two years or so. Cardinal McCarrick had submitted his resignation on July 7, 2005 when he turned 75 years old as canon 401 of the Code of Canon Law requires. In Crónica - 2005.
- Biographical entries of the cardinal created by Pope Clement VII (1523-1534) in the consistory of December 7, 1527 (III); and of quasi Cardinal Davide Riccardi (1897), archbishop of Turin, Italy.
- Biographical entries of the cardinals created by Pope Clement VII (1523-1534) in the consistory of November 21, 1527 (II).
- The following press release was published by the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church in its website:
On the basis of the decision of His Beatitude Lubomyr Husar, the Head of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, and in accordance with canon 57 of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, from August 21, 2005 the see of the Major Archbishop of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church will be located in Kyiv, the capital of Ukraine. This was approved by the Synod of Bishops of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church which took place in Kyiv on October 5-12, 2004, and blessed by His Holiness Pope John Paul II. As of August 21, 2005 the title of the head of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church will be changed from "The Major Archbishop of Lviv" to "The Major Archbishop of Kyiv and Halych." In Crónica - 2005.
- Ninety nine additional links to textual and pictorial information about the cardinals created by Pope Paul III (1534-1549) in his last seven consistories are available in the site from the General List of Cardinals, courtesy of Mr. Francisco Vázquez, from Valencia, Spain.
- Biographical entries of the cardinals created by Pope Clement VII (1523-1534) in the consistory of May 3, 1527 (I).
- Links have been established from the obituary list of the pontificate of Pope Pius VI (1775-1799); and Vacant See 1799-1800 to the biographical entries of the cardinals who died during those years.
- Links have been established from the list of living cardinals arranged by date of birth to their biographical entries.
- Links have been established from the obituary list of the pontificate of Pope Pius VII (1800-1823) to the biographical entries of the cardinals who died during those years.
- Links have been established from the obituary list of the pontificate of Pope Leo XII (1823-1829); Vacant See 1829; the pontificate of Pope Pius VIII (1829-1830); Vacant See 1830-1831; and the pontificate of Pope Gregory XVI (1831-1846) to the biographical entries of the cardinals who died during those years.
- Obituary list of the pontificates of Popes Gregory XIII (1572-1585); and Sixtus V (1585-1590); Vacant See 1590; and the pontificates of Popes Gregory XIV (1590-1591); and Innocent IX (1591); and Vacant See 1591-1592. The obituary lists have been a contribution of Mr. Colin Mackie, Perth, Scotland. Also, links have been established from the obituary list of the pontificate of Pope Clement VIII (1592-1605) to the biographical entries of the cardinals who died during those years.
- Cardinal Armand Gaetán Razafindratandra, archbishop of Antananrivo, Madagascar, turned 80 years old on August 7, 2005, and, according to the regulation in the seventh paragraph of the introduction of the apostolic constitution Universi Dominici Gregis, lost the right to participate in the conclave. The cardinal electors are now 112; one has been created by Pope Paul VI and 111 by Pope John Paul II. In Crónica - 2005.
- Links have been established from the obituary list of the pontificate of Pope Leo XIII (1878-1903) to the biographical entries of the cardinals who died during those years.
- Biographical entries of the cardinals created by Pope Paul III (1534-1549) in the consistory of April 8, 1549 (XII).
- Biographical entries of the cardinals created by Pope Paul III (1534-1549) in the consistory of December 16, 1545 (IX).
- Biographical entries of the cardinals created by Pope Paul III (1534-1549) in the consistory of December 19, 1544 (VIII).
- Links have been established from the obituary lists of the pontificates of Pope St. Pius X (1903-1914); and Pope Benedict XV (1914-1922) to the biographical entries of the cardinals who died during those years.
- Links have been established from the obituary lists of the Vacant See 1922; the pontificates of Pope Pius XI (1922-1939); Pope Pius XII (1939-1958); the Vacant See 1958; and the pontificate of Pope John XXIII (1958-1963) to the biographical entries of the cardinals who died during those years. Moreover, biographical and bibliographic information has been added to the entries of the cardinals from Spain created in the 20th century.
- Biographical entries of the cardinals created by Pope Paul III (1534-1549) in the consistory of June 2, 1542 (VII).
- Cardinal Jozef Tomko, president of the Pontifical Committee for the International Eucharistic Congresses, will be special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the Slovakian National Eucharistic Congress that will take place in Bratislava-Petržalka on September 18, 2005. In Crónica - 2005.
- Cardinal Francisco Álvarez Martínez, archbishop emeritus of Toledo, Spain, turned 80 years old on July 14, 2005, and, according to the regulation in the seventh paragraph of the introduction of the apostolic constitution Universi Dominici Gregis, lost the right to participate in the conclave. The cardinal electors are now 113; one has been created by Pope Paul VI and 112 by Pope John Paul II. In Crónica - 2005.
- On July 9, 2005, the Vatican Press Office issued the following communique: On Friday July 8, took place at the Vatican the 39th reunion of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, presided by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, secretary of State.
Participated in the reunion Cardinals Thomas Stafford Williams, archbishop emeritus of Wellington, New Zealand; Roger Michael Mahony, archbishop of Los Angeles, United States of America; Camillo Ruini, vicar general of Rome; Jean-Claude Turcotte, archbishop of Montréal, Canada; Antonio María Rouco Varela, archbishop of Madrid, Spain; Ivan Dias, archbishop of Bombay, India; Cláudio Hummes, archbishop of São Paulo, Brazil; Edward Michael Egan, archbishop of New York, United States of America; and the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, Michel Sabbah.
The competent organs of the Holy See were represented by Cardinal Sergio Sebastiani and Bishop Franco Croci, respectively president and secretary of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See; Cardinal Attilio Nicora and Archbishop Claudio Maria Celli, respectively president and secretary of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See; and Cardinal Edmund Casimir Szoka, president of the Governatorato of the State of Vatican City.
Cardinal Sebastiani presented the annual financial statement of 2004 (205,663,266 Eur.) which showed a positive balance of 3,081,820 Eur over the one of 2003.(202.581.446 Eur).
Absent were the following members of the council: Joachim Meisner, archbishop of Cologne, Germany; Frédéric Etsou-Nzabi-Bamungwadi, archbishop of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo; Juan Sandoval Íñiguez, archbishop of Guadalajara, México; Aloysius Matthew Ambrozic, archbishop of Toronto, Canada; Dionigi Tettamanzi, archbishop of Milan, Italy; and Cormac Murphy-O'Connor, archbishop of Westminster, England. In Crónica - 2005.
- Cardinal Marco Cé, patriarch emeritus of Venice, Italy, turned 80 years old on July 8, 2005, and, according to the regulation in the seventh paragraph of the introduction of the apostolic constitution Universi Dominici Gregis, lost the right to participate in the conclave. The cardinal electors are now 114; one has been created by Pope Paul VI and 113 by Pope John Paul II. In Crónica - 2005.
- On July 2, 2005, the official Vatican newspaper, L'Osservatore Romano, published an edict, dated June 13, 2005, issued by Cardinal Camillo Ruini, vicar of Rome, according to which the process of beatification of Cardinal Eduardo Pironio, who was president of the Pontifical Council for the Laity, would begin shortly. In Crónica - 2005.
- Biographical entries of the cardinals created by Pope Paul III (1534-1549) in the consistory of December 19, 1539 (VI).
- New and improved photographs of Cardinals Ennio Antonelli, Francis Eugene George, O.M.I., Józef Glemp, Cláudio Hummes, O.F.M., Franciszek Macharski, Eduardo Martínez Somalo, Carlo Maria Martini, S.J., Joseph Alois Ratzinger, Óscar Andrés Rodríguez Maradiaga, Camillo Ruini, Jaime Lachica Sin, Jean-Louis Tauran and Christian Wiyghan Tumi have been added to the Photo Gallery (1903-2003), courtesy of Oskar Juchnik from Poland.
- Cardinal Jaime Lachica Sin, archbishop emeritus of Manila, Philippines, died at 6:17 a.m., Tuesday, June 21, 2005. He had been ill for years and was unable to participate in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005. He was hospitalized Sunday with a high fever and suffered multiple organ failure after a lengthy struggle with kidney problems and diabetes. Father Rufino Sescon, Cardinal Sin's secretary, said that he passed away at the Cardinal Santos Medical Center in San Juan, Metro Manila. The cardinal was his country's moral compass and was known for his vocal stances on subjects from birth control to poverty, politics and the U.S.-led war in Iraq. When he spoke, presidents listened. Declining health had forced him to curtail his appearances, but he still remained a staunch guardian of democracy. He had been created cardinal by Pope Paul VI in the consistory of May 24, 1976.
Upon receiving the news, Pope Benedict XVI prayed for the eternal repose of the cardinal's soul and sent a telegram of condolences to Archbishop Gaudencio Borbón Rosales, who succeeded Cardinal Sin in the archdiocese of Manila.
From the Cardinal Santos Medical Center, the cardinals remains were brought to the Arlington Funeral Homes in Quezon City for arrangements, and then transferred to the Manila cathedral, the Minor Basilica of the Immaculate Conception, for the vigil. The late cardinal's body arrived at the cathedral in an open bronze casket. Honor guards dressed in white lined both sides of the entrance to the church. Ten priests rolled the casket to the front of the altar. The clergy of Manila welcomed his remains in the cathedral, where he will lie in state until his burial. Archbishop Rosales led in the celebration at 1 p.m.of a requiem mass for him, the first since his death. The 100 priests in attendance were joined by early mourners led by former President Corazon C. Aquino and former Ambassadors Howard Dee and Henrietta de Villa, seminarians and lay people. The government of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo declared a seven-day mourning period until the day of the burial. She visited the cathedral for twenty minutes at 10:15 p.m.
A steady stream of mourners have flocked to the cathedral since June 21 to bid farewell to the late cardinal. The cathedral is open for the wake and vigil for the cardinal at all hours except from 3 to 5 a.m. daily until the burial on Tuesday, June 28. Public viewing is allowed all through the day, except during the hours when masses are celebrated, at 9 a.m., 12 noon and 7 p.m.; recitation of the rosary at 10:30 a.m. and 3 p.m.; evening prayers at 6:30 p.m. and Taize Prayer by the Youth at 8:30 p.m. In the meantime, all other liturgical activities or programs previously scheduled at the cathedral have been suspended or re-scheduled. In response to requests from various sectors of the local church and lay organizations for an opportunity to pay special tribute to the cardinal, a special schedule will be followed starting June 22. However, the public is welcome to go to the cathedral and pay their respects or participate in the liturgical activities.
The funeral has been scheduled for next Tuesday, June 28, 2005. Ceremonies on the day of his burial will be simple but solemn. From the foot of the altar, the casket will be carried down the aisle and out to the steps of the cathedral where state honors will be accorded by the government. President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo will be present during the ceremonies and will hand over the Philippine flag to the cardinal's next of kin or to Manila Archbishop Gaudencio B. Rosales. The casket will then be borne on a carriage and brought in procession around the plaza fronting the Cathedral for the cardinal's final journey amongst his people. Upon returning to the cathedral, the casket will be accompanied by about 50 of his closest family members and confreres for interment in the crypt beneath the altar. His body will be buried in a spot he had personally chosen, beside that of Archbishop Gabriel B. Reyes, the first Filipino archbishop of Manila. Cardinal Rufino Jiao Santos, the first Filipino to be elevated to the cardinalate, is also buried in that crypt.
Cardinals Ricardo Jamin Vidal, archbishop of Cebú, Philippines; Julius Riyadi Darmaatmadja, S.J., archbishop of Jakarta, Indonesia; Peter Seiichi Shirayanagi, archbishop emeritus of Tokyo, Japan; Roger Michael Mahoney, archbishop of Los Angeles, United States of America; Stephen Sou Hwan Kim, archbishop emeritus of Seoul, South Korea; and Paul Shan Kuo-Hsi, S.J., bishop of Kaohsiung, Taiwan, will attend the funeral.
The members of the College of Cardinals are now 181 and the electors 115. In Crónica - 2005.
- On June 15, 2005, it was announced that at Pope Benedict XVI's request, Cardinal Jozef Glemp, archbishop of Warsaw, Poland, will preside over the closing mass of the National Eucharistic Congress and the beatification of three Polish priests on Sunday, June 19, 2005. The future blessed are Fathers Ladislaw Findysz (1907-1964), martyr; Bornislaw Markiewicz, S.D.B. (1842-1912), parish priest; and seminary professor; and Ignatius Klopotowski (1866-1913), formator of youth. The solemn mass will be celebrated at Pilsudski Square in Warsaw. Pope Benedict XVI has revived a papal tradition of not presiding at beatifications, a practice that was interrupted in 1971 by Pope Paul VI, when beatifying Maximilian Kolbe. Pope John Paul II presided over the beatification of 1,330 Servants of God. In Crónica - 2005.
- Links have been established from the obituary lists of the pontificates of Pope Paul VI (1963-1978); Vacant See August 1978; Pope John Paul I (1978) Vacant See October 1978; and Pope John Paul II (1978-2005) to the biographical entries of the cardinals who died during those years. Moreover, biographical and bibliographic information has been added to the entries of the cardinals from the United States and Poland.
- On June 9, 2005, Pope Benedict XVI accepted the resignation from the pastoral government of the diocese of Nitra, Slovakia, presented by Cardinal Ján Chryzostom Korec, in conformity to canon 401 §1 of the Code of Canon Law. In Crónica - 2005.
- Pictures of Cardinals Agostino Bausa, O.P., Sebastiano Galeati, Johannes Haller, Lörinc Schlauch, Americo Ferreira dos Santos Silva, Luigi Trombetta and Isidoro Verga added to the Photo Gallery (1879-1903).
- One hundred and forty three additional links to textual and pictorial information about the cardinals created by Pope Paul III (1534-1549) in his first five consistories are available in the site from the General List of Cardinals, courtesy of Mr. Francisco Vázquez, from Valencia, Spain.
- On June 3, 2005, Pope Benedict XVI accepted the resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Kraków, Poland, submiited by Cardinal Franciszek Macharski, in conformity with canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. To succeed him, the pope named Stanisław Dziwisz, until now titular archbishop of San Leone and prefect adjunct of the Pontifical Household. Archbishop Dziwisz was the personal secretary of Pope John Paul II for thirty nine years. In Crónica - 2005.
- Biographical entries of the cardinals created by Pope Paul III (1534-1549) in the consistory of December 20, 1538 (IV).
- On Sunday, May 14, 2005, solemnity of Pentecost, at 5 p.m. at the Altar of the Chair in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Cardinal José Saraiva Martins, C.M.F., prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, will preside at a Eucharistic celebration and, as charged by His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI, will read the Apostolic Letter with which the pope has inscribed in the book of Blesseds the Servants of God: Ascensión Nicol Goñi, virgin and co-foundress of the Dominican Missionary Sisters of the Rosary, and Marianne Cope, virgin, of the Sisters of St. Francis, Syracuse, United States of America. In Crónica - 2005.
- Biographical entry of the cardinal created by Pope Paul III (1534-1549) in the consistory of October 18, 1538 (IV).
- Biographical entries of the cardinals created by Pope Paul III (1534-1549) in the consistory of December 22, 1536 (III).
- On April 30, 2005, Pope Benedict XVI approved the election, made by the cardinals of the order of bishops, of Cardinal Angelo Sodano, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Albano, secretary of State, as dean of the College of Cardinals. In addition, the pope also approved the election of Cardinal Roger Etchegaray, of the title of the suburbicarian see of Porto-Santa Rufina, president emeritus of the Pontifical Councils Iustitia et Pax and Cor Unum, as vice-dean of the same college. In Crónica - 2005.
- On April 25, 2005, Pope Benedict XVI promoted Cardinal Francis Arinze, prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, to the order of cardinal bishops assigning to him the suburbicarian see of Velletri-Segni. In Crónica - 2005.
- At 10 a.m., Sunday April 24, 2005, on the steps of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Pope Benedict XVI presided the mass for the beginning of his Petrine ministry. Before the eucharistic celebration, the pope and the concelebrant cardinals gathered in the basilica in the Confession of St. Peter. Then, the pope descended with the patriarchs of the Oriental Churches to the tomb of St. Peter and there they prayed and incensed the Apostolic Trophæum. During the mass on the steps of the basilica, after the proclamation of the Gospel, the new Roman Pontiff received the Petrine pallium from Cardinal Jorge Medina Estévez, protodeacon of S. Saba, and the ring of the Fisherman from Cardinal Angelo Sodano, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian sees of Ostia and Albano, dean of the College of Cardinals. Likewise, the pope received the obedience of 12 persons: three cardinals, Cardinal Sodano, Cardinal Stephen Sou-hwan Kim, archbishop emeritus of Seoul, South Korea, protopriest, and Cardinal Medina Estévez; a bishop, one priest, a deacon, a religious man, a religious woman, a married couple and their son, and two youngsters who had already received the sacrament of confirmation, in representation of the entire church. After this, the new pope delivered his homily in Italian. After the mass ended, the pope went around St. Peter's Square blessing the faithful from the popemobile. At 12:54 p.m., the pope entered the Vatican through the Arch of the Bells and at 1:08 p.m., met with the 141 delegations that had attended the ceremony of the inauguration of his pontificate. In Crónica - 2005.
- On April 21, 2005, Pope Benedict XVI named Cardinal Angelo Sodano, of the title of the suburbicarian see of Albano, as secretary of State. The pope confirmed, "donec aliter provideatur", the cardinals and archbishops who head of the dicasteries of the Roman Curia and the president of Pontificial Commission for the State of Vatican City, Cardinal Edmund Casimir Szoka.
The pope has also confirmed the substitute for the General Affairs of the Secretariat of State Leonardo Sandri, titular archbishop of Cittanova; and the secretary for the Relations with the States of the Secretariat of State Giovanni Lajolo, titular archbishop of Cesariana. Likewise, the pope has confirmed, for the quinquenium in course, the secretaries of the dicasteries of the Roman Curia. In Crónica - 2005.
- Vatican Information Service (V.I.S.), Fifteenth Year - N.80, April 20, 2005
BENEDICT XVI, A POPE OF CHRIST, COMMUNION, COLLEGIALITY
VATICAN CITY, APR 20, 2005 (VIS) - Following is the complete text of the first message of Pope
Benedict XVI which he delivered in Latin at the end of this morning's Mass with the members of the
College of Cardinals in the Sistine Chapel. Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger was elected as the 264th
successor to St. Peter in early evening yesterday.
"Grace and peace in abundance to all of you! In my soul there are two contrasting sentiments in these
hours. On the one hand, a sense of inadequacy and human turmoil for the responsibility entrusted to
me yesterday as the Successor of the Apostle Peter in this See of Rome, with regard to the Universal
Church. On the other hand I sense within me profound gratitude to God Who - as the liturgy makes
us sing - does not abandon His flock, but leads it throughout time, under the guidance of those whom
He has chosen as vicars of His Son, and made pastors.
"Dear Ones, this intimate recognition for a gift of divine mercy prevails in my heart in spite of
everything. I consider this a grace obtained for me by my venerated predecessor, John Paul II. It
seems I can feel his strong hand squeezing mine; I seem to see his smiling eyes and listen to his words,
addressed to me especially at this moment: 'Do not be afraid!'
"The death of the Holy Father John Paul II, and the days which followed, were for the Church and
for the entire world an extraordinary time of grace. The great pain for his death and the void that it left
in all of us were tempered by the action of the Risen Christ, which showed itself during long days in the
choral wave of faith, love and spiritual solidarity, culminating in his solemn funeral.
"We can say it: the funeral of John Paul II was a truly extraordinary experience in which was
perceived in some way the power of God Who, through His Church, wishes to form a great family of
all peoples, through the unifying force of Truth and Love. In the hour of death, conformed to his
Master and Lord, John Paul II crowned his long and fruitful pontificate, confirming the Christian
people in faith, gathering them around him and making the entire human family feel more united.
"How can one not feel sustained by this witness? How can one not feel the encouragement that
comes from this event of grace?
"Surprising every prevision I had, Divine Providence, through the will of the venerable Cardinal
Fathers, called me to succeed this great Pope. I have been thinking in these hours about what
happened in the region of Cesarea of Phillippi two thousand years ago: I seem to hear the words of
Peter: 'You are Christ, the Son of the living God,' and the solemn affirmation of the Lord: 'You are
Peter and on this rock I will build my Church ... I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven'.
"You are Christ! You are Peter! It seems I am reliving this very Gospel scene; I, the Successor of
Peter, repeat with trepidation the anxious words of the fisherman from Galilee and I listen again with
intimate emotion to the reassuring promise of the divine Master. If the weight of the responsibility that
now lies on my poor shoulders is enormous, the divine power on which I can count is surely
immeasurable: 'You are Peter and on this rock I will build my Church'. Electing me as the Bishop of
Rome, the Lord wanted me as his Vicar, he wished me to be the 'rock' upon which everyone may rest
with confidence. I ask him to make up for the poverty of my strength, that I may be a courageous and
faithful pastor of His flock, always docile to the inspirations of His Spirit.
"I undertake this special ministry, the 'Petrine' ministry at the service of the Universal Church, with
humble abandon to the hands of the Providence of God. And it is to Christ in the first place that I
renew my total and trustworthy adhesion: 'In Te, Domine, speravi; non confundar in aeternum!'
"To you, Lord Cardinals, with a grateful soul for the trust shown me, I ask you to sustain me with
prayer and with constant, active and wise collaboration. I also ask my brothers in the episcopacy to be
close to me in prayer and counsel so that I may truly be the 'Servus servorum Dei' (Servant of the
servants of God). As Peter and the other Apostles were, through the will of the Lord, one apostolic
college, in the same way the Successor of Peter and the Bishops, successors of the Apostles - and the
Council forcefully repeated this - must be closely united among themselves. This collegial communion,
even in the diversity of roles and functions of the Supreme Pontiff and the bishops, is at the service of
the Church and the unity of faith, from which depend in a notable measure the effectiveness of the
evangelizing action of the contemporary world. Thus, this path, upon which my venerated
predecessors went forward, I too intend to follow, concerned solely with proclaiming to the world the
living presence of Christ.
"Before my eyes is, in particular, the witness of Pope John Paul II. He leaves us a Church that is
more courageous, freer, younger. A Church that, according to his teaching and example, looks with
serenity to the past and is not afraid of the future. With the Great Jubilee the Church was introduced
into the new millennium carrying in her hands the Gospel, applied to the world through the authoritative
re-reading of Vatican Council II. Pope John Paul II justly indicated the Council as a 'compass' with
which to orient ourselves in the vast ocean of the third millennium. Also in his spiritual testament he
noted: ' I am convinced that for a very long time the new generations will draw upon the riches that this
council of the 20th century gave us'.
"I too, as I start in the service that is proper to the Successor of Peter, wish to affirm with force my
decided will to pursue the commitment to enact Vatican Council II, in the wake of my predecessors
and in faithful continuity with the millennia-old tradition of the Church. Precisely this year is the 40th
anniversary of the conclusion of this conciliar assembly (December 8, 1965). With the passing of time,
the conciliar documents have not lost their timeliness; their teachings have shown themselves to be
especially pertinent to the new exigencies of the Church and the present globalized society.
"In a very significant way, my pontificate starts as the Church is living the special year dedicated to
the Eucharist. How can I not see in this providential coincidence an element that must mark the
ministry to which I have been called? The Eucharist, the heart of Christian life and the source of the
evangelizing mission of the Church, cannot but be the permanent center and the source of the petrine
service entrusted to me.
"The Eucharist makes the Risen Christ constantly present, Christ Who continues to give Himself to
us, calling us to participate in the banquet of His Body and His Blood. From this full communion with
Him comes every other element of the life of the Church, in the first place the communion among the
faithful, the commitment to proclaim and give witness to the Gospel, the ardor of charity towards all,
especially towards the poor and the smallest.
"In this year, therefore, the Solemnity of Corpus Christ must be celebrated in a particularly special
way. The Eucharist will be at the center, in August, of World Youth Day in Cologne and, in October,
of the ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops which will take place on the theme "The Eucharist,
Source and Summit of the Life and Mission of the Church.' I ask everyone to intensify in coming
months love and devotion to the Eucharistic Jesus and to express in a courageous and clear way the
real presence of the Lord, above all through the solemnity and the correctness of the celebrations.
"I ask this in a special way of priests, about whom I am thinking in this moment with great affection.
The priestly ministry was born in the Cenacle, together with the Eucharist, as my venerated
predecessor John Paul II underlined so many times. 'The priestly life must have in a special way a
'Eucharistic form', he wrote in his last Letter for Holy Thursday. The devout daily celebration of Holy
Mass, the center of the life and mission of every priest, contributes to this end.
"Nourished and sustained by the Eucharist, Catholics cannot but feel stimulated to tend towards that
full unity for which Christ hoped in the Cenacle. Peter's Successor knows that he must take on this
supreme desire of the Divine Master in a particularly special way. To him, indeed, has been entrusted
the duty of strengthening his brethren.
"Thus, in full awareness and at the beginning of his ministry in the Church of Rome that Peter bathed
with his blood, the current Successor assumes as his primary commitment that of working tirelessly
towards the reconstitution of the full and visible unity of all Christ's followers. This is his ambition, this
is his compelling duty. He is aware that to do so, expressions of good feelings are not enough.
Concrete gestures are required to penetrate souls and move consciences, encouraging everyone to
that interior conversion which is the basis for all progress on the road of ecumenism.
"Theological dialogue is necessary. A profound examination of the historical reasons behind past
choices is also indispensable. But even more urgent is that 'purification of memory,' which was so often
evoked by John Paul II, and which alone can dispose souls to welcome the full truth of Christ. It is
before Him, supreme Judge of all living things, that each of us must stand, in the awareness that one
day we must explain to Him what we did and what we did not do for the great good that is the full and
visible unity of all His disciples.
"The current Successor of Peter feels himself to be personally implicated in this question and is
disposed to do all in his power to promote the fundamental cause of ecumenism. In the wake of his
predecessors, he is fully determined to cultivate any initiative that may seem appropriate to promote
contact and agreement with representatives from the various Churches and ecclesial communities.
Indeed, on this occasion too, he sends them his most cordial greetings in Christ, the one Lord of all.
"In this moment, I go back in my memory to the unforgettable experience we all underwent with the
death and the funeral of the lamented John Paul II. Around his mortal remains, lying on the bare earth,
leaders of nations gathered, with people from all social classes and especially the young, in an
unforgettable embrace of affection and admiration. The entire world looked to him with trust. To many
it seemed as if that intense participation, amplified to the confines of the planet by the social
communications media, was like a choral request for help addressed to the Pope by modern humanity
which, wracked by fear and uncertainty, questions itself about the future.
"The Church today must revive within herself an awareness of the task to present the world again
with the voice of the One Who said: 'I am the light of the world; he who follows me will not walk in
darkness but will have the light of life.' In undertaking his ministry, the new Pope knows that his task is
to bring the light of Christ to shine before the men and women of today: not his own light but that of
"With this awareness, I address myself to everyone, even to those who follow other religions or who
are simply seeking an answer to the fundamental questions of life and have not yet found it. I address
everyone with simplicity and affection, to assure them that the Church wants to continue to build an
open and sincere dialogue with them, in a search for the true good of mankind and of society.
"From God I invoke unity and peace for the human family and declare the willingness of all Catholics
to cooperate for true social development, one that respects the dignity of all human beings.
"I will make every effort and dedicate myself to pursuing the promising dialogue that my predecessors
began with various civilizations, because it is mutual understanding that gives rise to conditions for a
better future for everyone.
"I am particularly thinking of young people. To them, the privileged interlocutors of John Paul II, I
send an affectionate embrace in the hope, God willing, of meeting them at Cologne on the occasion of
the next World Youth Day. With you, dear young people, I will continue to maintain a dialogue,
listening to your expectations in an attempt to help you meet ever more profoundly the living, ever
"'Mane nobiscum, Domine!' Stay with us Lord! This invocation, which forms the dominant theme of
John Paul II's Apostolic Letter for the Year of the Eucharist, is the prayer that comes spontaneously
from my heart as I turn to begin the ministry to which Christ has called me. Like Peter, I too renew to
Him my unconditional promise of faithfulness. He alone I intend to serve as I dedicate myself totally to
the service of His Church.
"In support of this promise, I invoke the maternal intercession of Mary Most Holy, in whose hands I
place the present and the future of my person and of the Church. May the Holy Apostles Peter and
Paul, and all the saints, also intercede.
"With these sentiments I impart to you venerated brother cardinals, to those participating in this ritual,
and to all those following to us by television and radio, a special and affectionate blessing."
MESS/FIRST MASS BENEDICT XVI/... VIS 050420 (2370)
- After the election of Pope Benedict XVI, the cardinal electors are 116; two were created by Pope Paul VI; and 114 were created by Pope John Paul II. The cardinal non-electors are sixty six. The total number of cardinals is 182.
- Vatican Information Service (V.I.S.), Fifteenth Year - N.78, April 19, 2005
CARDINAL RATZINGER IS ELECTED AS NEW POPE, BENEDICT XVI
VATICAN CITY, APR 19, 2005 (VIS) - Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger was elected as Supreme Pontiff,
the 264th successor of Peter, and has chosen the name Benedict XVI.
The cardinal proto-deacon made the solemn announcement to the people at 6:43 p.m. from the external
loggia of the Hall of Blessings of the Vatican Basilica following the white smoke which occurred at 5:50
Following are the words of Cardinal Jorge Arturo Medina Estevez:
Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum;
Eminentissimum ac Reverendissimum Dominum,
Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Cardinalem Ratzinger
Qui sibi nomen imposuit Benedicti XVI
(I announce to you with great joy;
We have a Pope;
The most eminent and most reverend Lord
Cardinal of Holy Roman Church Ratzinger
Who has taken the name Benedict XVI)
The conclave that led to the election of Benedict XVI began on Monday, April 18, 2005 in the Sistine
Chapel of the Vatican Apostolic Palace, with the "extra omnes" pronounced at 5:25 p.m. by Archbishop
Piero Marini, master of the Liturgical Celebrations of the Supreme Pontiff, following the taking of the
oath by the 115 cardinal electors.
The first black smoke took place at 8:04 p.m. the same day.
On Tuesday, April 19, there was black smoke at 11:52 a.m.
On Tuesday, April 19, there was white smoke at 5:50 p.m.
At 6:48 p.m., the Holy Father Benedict XVI, preceded by the Cross, appeared on the external loggia to
greet the people and to impart the Apostolic Blessing "Urbi et Orbi" (to the city and to the world).
Prior to the blessing, the new Pontiff addressed the faithful with the following words:
"Dear Brothers and Sisters,
"After the great Pope John Paul II, the Lord Cardinals have elected me, a simple and humble worker in
the vineyard of the Lord. I am consoled by the fact that the Lord knows how to act, even with
inadequate instruments and above all I entrust myself to your prayers. In the joy of the Risen Lord,
trusting in His permanent help, as we go forward the Lord will help us, and His Mother, Mary Most
Holy, is on our side. Thank you."
OP/ELECTION BENEDICT XVI/... VIS 050419 (380)
BIOGRAPHY OF POPE BENEDICT XVI
VATICAN CITY, APR 19, 2005 (VIS) - Following is the official biography of the newly elected Pope
Benedict XVI, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger:
Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, former prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, President
of the Pontifical Biblical Commission and of the International Theological Commission, Dean of the
College of Cardinals, was born on April 16, 1927 in Marktl am Inn, Germany. He was ordained a priest
on June 29, 1951.
His father, a police officer, came from a traditional family of farmers from Lower Bavaria. He spent
his adolescent years in Traunstein, and was called into the auxiliary anti-aircraft service in the last
months of World War II. From 1946 to 1951, the year in which he was ordained a priest and began to
teach, he studied philosophy and theology at the University of Munich and at the higher school in
Freising. In 1953 he obtained a doctorate in theology with a thesis entitled: "The People and House of
God in St. Augustine's doctrine of the Church." Four years later, he qualified as a university teacher. He
then taught dogma and fundamental theology at the higher school of philosophy and theology of Freising,
in Bonn from 1959 to 1969, in Munster from 1963 to 1966, and in Tubinga from 1966 to 1969. From 1969,
he was professor of dogmatic theology and of the history of dogma at the University of Regensburg and
vice president of the same university.
He was already well known in 1962 when, at Vatican Council II at the age of 35, he became a
consultor to Cardinal Joseph Frings, archbishop of Cologne. Among his numerous publications, a
particular post belongs to the "Introduction to Christianity," a collection of university lessons on the
profession of apostolic faith, published in 1968; and to "Dogma and Revelation" an anthology of essays,
sermons and reflections dedicated to the pastoral ministry, published in 1973.
In March 1977, Paul VI appointed him Archbishop of Munich and Freising and on May 28, 1977 he
was consecrated - the first diocesan priest after 80 years to take over the pastoral ministry of this large
Created and proclaimed cardinal by Paul VI in the consistory of June 27, 1977, he assumed the titles of
the suburbicarian Church of Velletri-Segni (April 5, 1993) and of the suburbicarian Church of Ostia
(November 30, 2002).
On November 25, 1981 he was nominated by John Paul II as prefect of the Congregation for the
Doctrine of the Faith; and as president of the Biblical Commission and of the Pontifical International
He was relator of the 5th General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops (1980).
He was president delegate to the 6th Synodal Assembly (1983).
Elected vice dean of the College of Cardinals November 6, 1998, the Holy Father approved his election,
by the order of cardinal bishops, as dean of the College of Cardinals on November 30, 2002.
As President of the Commission for the Preparation of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, after 6
years of work (1986-92) he presented the New Catechism to the Holy Father.
He received an honoris causa degree in jurisprudence from the Free University of Maria Santissima
Assunta on November 10. 1999.
He became an honorary member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, November 13, 2000.
- Secretariat of State (second section).
- Oriental Churches, Divine Worship and Discipline of the Sacraments, Bishops, Evangelization of
Peoples, Catholic Education (congregations).
- Christian Unity (council).
- Latin America, Ecclesia Dei (commissions).
OP/BIO:BENEDICT XVI/... VIS 050419 (590)
APRIL 24, MASS TO INAUGURATE PONTIFICATE OF BENEDICT XVI
VATICAN CITY, APR 19, 2005 (VIS) - This evening, immediately after the election of the new
Pontiff, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, who took the name of Benedict XVI, Holy See Press Office Director
Joaquin Navarro-Valls made the following statement to journalists:
"The conclave having ended, the Holy Father Benedict XVI has decided to eat this evening with all the
other cardinals in the Domus Sanctae Marthae, where he will also spend the night.
"Tomorrow morning at 9, the Pope will preside the Eucharistic Celebration with the cardinals in the
Sistine Chapel and will deliver the homily in Latin.
"The Mass for the solemn inauguration of the pontificate will be celebrated at St. Peter's on Sunday,
April 24 at 10 a.m."
OP/.../NAVARRO-VALLS VIS 050419 (130)
- Vatican Information Service (V.I.S.), Fifteenth Year - N.78, April 19, 2005
CARDINALS FAIL TO ELECT NEW POPE IN MORNING BALLOTING
VATICAN CITY, APR 19, 2005 (VIS) - Black smoke appeared from the chimney of the Sistine
Chapel at 11:49 this morning to signal that the 115 cardinal electors had failed to select a new Pope in
the two ballots cast today.
Cardinals are expected to re-enter the Sistine Chapel this afternoon at 4 to vote again.
.../CONCLAVE/... VIS 050419 (70)
- Vatican Information Service (V.I.S.), Fifteenth Year - N.77, April 18, 2005 at 2:29 p.m. (EST)
CARDINALS ENTER CONCLAVE, BLACK SMOKE APPEARS AT 8:04 P.M.
VATICAN CITY, APR 18, 2005 (VIS) - The 115 cardinal electors from 52 countries of 5
continents entered into conclave in the Sistine Chapel this afternoon.
At 4:30 p.m. the cardinals gathered in the Hall of Blessings, which is located above the atrium of St.
Peter's Basilica, and overlooks the square. It is from the central loggia or balcony of this hall that the
new pontiff appears for the first time to the faithful.
Preceded by the Cross and followed by the Book of Gospels, the cardinals processed to the nearby
Sistine Chapel as the Litany of Saints was sung. Once in the chapel, after the singing of "Veni Creator,"
they pronounced their oath as established by the "Ordo Rituum Conclavis."
When the master of pontifical liturgical ceremonies declared "extra omnes," all those not involved in
the conclave left the chapel except the cardinal electors and Cardinal Tomas Spidlik, 85, who, when he
finished delivering the second meditation, also left the chapel.
Black smoke, indicating that the cardinals voted but that no Pope was elected, rose from the Sistine
Chapel chimney at 08:04 p.m.
CC/CONCLAVE/... VIS 050418 (140)
- Vatican Information Service (V.I.S.), Fifteenth Year - N.76, April 18, 2005
CARDINAL RATZINGER: LET US ASK GOD FOR A PASTOR TO LEAD US TO CHRIST
VATICAN CITY, APR 18, 2005 (VIS) - In the Vatican Basilica this morning, Cardinal Joseph
Ratzinger presided at the Mass "pro eligendo Summo Pontifice," concelebrated by all 115 cardinal
Cardinal non-electors, bishops, priests, male and female religious, and lay people present in Rome
participated in the Eucharistic celebration.
In his homily, Cardinal Ratzinger commented on the first reading from the Book of the prophet
Isaiah, in which the Messiah, speaking of Himself, said He was sent to "proclaim the year of the Lord's
favor, and the day of vengeance of our God." The cardinal affirmed that "we are called to promulgate -
not only with words but with life and with the effective signs of the Sacraments - the year of the Lord's
favor." With reference to "the day of vengeance of our God," the cardinal affirmed that "the Lord
offered an authentic commentary on these words with His death on the Cross."
"The mercy of Christ," he went on, "is not cut-rate grace, it does not presuppose that evil is
something banal. Jesus bears all the weight of evil, all its destructive force, in His body and upon His
soul. ... The day of vengeance and the year of the Lord's favor come together in the Paschal mystery,
in Christ Who died and rose again. This is the vengeance of God: He Himself, in the person of His
Son, suffers for us."
In the second reading, taken from the Letter to the Ephesians, St. Paul mentions "the measure of the
fullness of Christ" to which "we are called in order to truly become adults in the faith. We must not
remain children in the faith, without coming of age. What does it mean to be children in faith? St. Paul
says that it means being 'tossed to and fro and carried about with every wind of doctrine.' A very
"How many winds of doctrine have we known over the last few decades! How many ideological
currents! How many schools of thought! The little ship bearing the thoughts of many Christians has
frequently been shaken by these waves, thrown from one extreme to the other: from Marxism to
liberalism, even to libertarianism; from collectivism to radical individualism; from atheism to a vague
religious mysticism; from agnosticism to syncretism, and so on. Every day new sects arise, and St.
Paul's words concerning the deception of men and the cunning that leads into error come true. Having
a clear faith, according to the Creed of the Church, is often labeled as fundamentalism. While
relativism, in other words allowing oneself to be 'tossed to and fro with every wind of doctrine,'
appears as the only attitude appropriate to modern times, a dictatorship of relativism is being formed,
one that recognizes nothing as definitive and that has as its measure only the self and its desires.
"We, nonetheless, do have another measure: the Son of God, true man. He is the measure of true
humanism. An 'adult' faith does not follow the waves of fashion and the latest novelties; an adult and
mature faith is profoundly rooted in friendship with Christ. ... We must bring this adult faith to maturity,
to this faith we must lead Christ's flock. And it is this faith - faith alone - that creates unity and is
realized in charity. ... In the measure in which we approach Christ, so truth and charity come together
in our lives too."
The dean of the College of Cardinals then commented on the Gospel of St John, in which the Lord
says: "No longer do I call you servants, ... but I have called you friends." Christ "grants us His trust"
and "entrusts His body, the Church, to us. He entrusts His truth to our weak minds and our weak
hands. ... He has made us His friends. How do we respond?"
After recalling the gospel passage where Jesus says "I chose you and appointed you that you should
go and bear fruit and that your fruit should abide," Cardinal Ratzinger said: "We must feel animated by
holy restlessness; restlessness to bring everyone the gift of faith, of friendship with Christ. ... We
received the faith in order to give it to others. We are priests to serve others, and we must bear a fruit
"The only thing that remains forever is the human soul, man created by God for eternity. The fruit that
remains is, then, what we have sown in human souls, love and knowledge; the gesture capable of
touching the heart; the word that opens the soul to the joy of the Lord. Let us go then and pray to the
Lord that He help us bear fruit, a fruit that abides."
Cardinal Ratzinger concluded: "Let us now, above all, insistently pray to the Lord that, after the great
gift of Pope John Paul II, He again gives us a pastor according to the dictates of His heart, a pastor to
lead us to knowledge of Christ, to His love, to true joy."
.../MASS ELECTION POPE/RATZINGER VIS 050418 (860)
SISTINE CHAPEL STOVE FIRST USED FOR PAPAL ELECTION IN 1939
VATICAN CITY, APR 18, 2005 (VIS) - This afternoon, 115 cardinals from all over the world will
come together in the Sistine Chapel to begin the process of electing a new pope.
The interior of the Sistine Chapel has been prepared with 12 tables, six on each side; the lectern with
the Gospels upon which the cardinals will take their oath; the table holding the urns in which the ballots
will be collected, and the stove used to burn them with the chimney from which the smoke signals will
The stove in which the ballots will be burned and from which the white or black smoke signals will
appear, was first used in the conclave of 1939, when Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli was elected as Pope
Pius XII. Made of iron, it is one meter high and has a diameter of 45 centimeters. It has two doors, a
lower one behind which the fire is lit, and an upper one to introduce the documents to be burnt.
The dates (year and month) of the conclaves at which the stove has been used are stamped into the
top cover: 1939/III election of Pius XII, 1958/X election of John XXIII, 1963/VI election of Paul VI,
1978/VIII election of John Paul I, 1978/X election of John Paul II.
The black smoke signals, meaning that no Pope has yet been elected, are obtained simply by burning
the ballots; the white smoke, meaning a Pope has been elected, results from burning the ballots and
damp straw. For the first time, an electronically-controlled auxiliary stove will be used to create extra
smoke and increase the visibility of the signals.
.../STOVE CONCLAVE/... VIS 050418 (290)
- LAST GENERAL CONGREGATION IN VACANT SEE IS HELD
VATICAN CITY, APR 16, 2005 (VIS) - The following statement was released to journalists this
afternoon by Holy See Press Office Director Joaquin Navarro-Valls:
"Today, Saturday, April 16 the twelfth General Congregation took place in the presence of 143
"After the prayer 'Adsumus', Cardinal Edward Cassidy, who had just arrived, took the oath.
"The Cardinal Camerlengo Eduardo Martinez Somalo presented, in everyone's name, best wishes to
Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, Dean of the College of Cardinals, on the occasion of his birthday.
"Indications were given concerning entrance into the Domus Sanctae Marthae on Sunday the 17th in
the afternoon, for the Mass 'for the election of the Supreme Pontiff ' on Monday April 18 at 10 a.m.
and for entrance into conclave, the same day, at 4:30 p.m.
"The cardinal dean read messages from several cardinals who were not able to come to Rome. They
thanked everyone for the words of closeness and affection sent to them by the cardinal dean in the
name of everyone in the College of Cardinals.
"The cardinal camerlengo proceeded to the destruction of the Fisherman's Ring and the lead seal as
foreseen by the Apostolic Constitution 'Universi Dominici gregis' in art 13g.
"After having commented on several points of this same Apostolic Constitution, there was an
exchange of ideas on the problems of the Church and the world.
"The Regina Coeli prayer closed the last General Congregation."
OP/TWELFTH CONGREGATION/NAVARRO-VALLS VIS 050416 (240
- BRIEFING OF THE DIRECTOR OF THE PRESS OFFICE OF THE HOLY SEE, DR. JOAQUÍN NAVARRO-VALLS, APRIL 16, 2005
On Monday April 18, 115 cardinals from 52 countries representing five continents will begin
the first conclave of the third millennium to elect the 264th successor of St. Peter: in other words
the 265th Pope in the history of the Catholic Church.
The cardinals will move into the Domus Sanctae Marthae tomorrow afternoon, Sunday April
17. They will all meet together for dinner.
As previously announced, the Mass 'for the election of the Supreme Pontiff' will be
celebrated in the Vatican Basilica at 10 a.m. on Monday morning.
At 4.30 p.m. on Monday, the procession of cardinal electors will leave the Hall of Blessings
for the Sistine Chapel. This ritual will be transmitted live on television.
Once in the Sistine Chapel, all the cardinal electors will swear the oath. The cardinal dean
will read the formula of the oath, after which each cardinal, stating his name and placing his hand
on the Gospel, will pronounce the words: 'I promise, pledge and swear.' Over these days, there
has been frequent talk of the bond of secrecy concerning the election of the Pope. However, I
would like to reiterate that this is just part of the oath. First of all, an oath is made to observe the
prescriptions of the Apostolic Constitution Universi Dominici gregis; then another oath is made
that - and I quote - 'whichever of us by divine disposition is elected Roman Pontiff will commit
himself faithfully to carrying out the munus Petrinum of Pastor of the Universal Church.'
After the oath, the master of Liturgical Celebrations of the Supreme Pontiff pronounces the
'extra omnes,' and all those who do not participate in the conclave leave the Sistine Chapel. Only
the master of Liturgical Celebrations and Cardinal Tomáš pidlík remain for the meditation,
once that has finished they too leave the Sistine Chapel.
During the conclave, the cardinals will have the following timetable:
At 7.30 a.m., the celebration or concelebration of Mass will take place in the Domus Sanctae
Marthae. By 9 a.m., they will be in the Sistine Chapel. There they will recite the Lauds of the
Liturgy of the Hours and, immediately afterwards, voting will take place according to the
prescribed ritual (two votes in the morning, and two votes in the afternoon). In the afternoon,
voting will begin at 4 p.m. At the end of the second vote will be Vespers.
After the two votes of the morning and the two of the afternoon respectively, the ballots and
any notes the cardinals have made will be burnt in a stove located inside the Sistine Chapel.
Purely as an indication then, the smoke signals could appear at around 12 noon and at about 7
p.m. (unless the new Pope is elected either in the first vote of the morning or the first vote of the
afternoon, in which case the smoke signal will be earlier). In any case it is expected that, along
with the white smoke, the bells of St Peter will sound to mark a successful election.
You know well the indications of the Apostolic Constitution Universi Dominici gregis as
far as the voting goes. The valid quorum for electing the Pope is initially two thirds. After three
days of voting without an election, there will be a day at the most dedicated to reflection and
prayer, without voting. Thereafter, voting will resume for seven additional ballots, another pause
for reflection, another seven ballots, another pause and yet another seven ballots. After which
an absolute majority will decide how to proceed, that is, for either a vote by the absolute majority
or with balloting between two candidates. This will happen only in the event that the cardinals
arrive at the 33rd or 34th ballot without a positive result.
As far as the first vote on Monday, the cardinals will decided whether or not to vote after
they have entered into conclave on Monday afternoon, April 18. (1)
The location for the conclave is the Domus Sanctae Marthae and the Sistine Chapel.
The route, along the street behind the Vatican Basilica, can be followed by the cardinals on
foot or, if some prefer, by bus. Naturally this path will be clear of people. Access to the San
Damaso courtyard will be sealed.
These days tourists will not have access to either the dome of St. Peter's or the Vatican
It will, however, be possible for pilgrims to visit the tomb of John Paul II during the hours
the Vatican Grottoes are open.
The General Congregations of the cardinals conclude today.
At the end of these encounters I wish to add two brief notes.
The climate of these congregations has been one of great familiarity. This has been perhaps
an expression of the great responsibility that all the cardinals feel at this time. That allowed them
to find great consensus on the general themes faced in the discussions.
I can also confirm that in no congregation were names ever brought up.
[00453-02.01] [Original text: Italian]
(1) This seems to contradict was is stated in no. 63, par. 2, of the apostolic constitution Universi Dominici gregis: "Should the election begin on the afternoon of the first day, only one ballot is to be held; (...)".
- CARDINALS DISCUSS PROBLEMS FACED BY DICASTERIES OF CURIA
VATICAN CITY, APR 15, 2005 (VIS) - Today, at the end of the eleventh General Congregation of
Cardinals in the period of the vacant see, Holy See Press Office Director Joaquin Navarro-Valls
released the following statement to journalists:
"The 11th General Congregation of Cardinals was held this morning in the New Synod Hall.
"After reciting the prayer to the Holy Spirit, the cardinals dedicated the entire morning to an exchange
of ideas on the problems of the Church and of the world.
"Also today, several cardinals who headed congregations and pontifical councils of the Roman Curia
laid out the most important problems faced by their dicasteries.
"There were 138 cardinals in today's congregation.
"With the Regina Coeli prayer, the General Congregation concluded."
OP/ELEVENTH CONGREGATION/NAVARRO-VALLS VIS 050415 (140)
- BRIEFING OF THE DIRECTOR OF THE HOLY SEE PRESS OFFICE DR. JOAQUÍN NAVARRO-VALLS ON APRIL 14, 2005
Today, at the end of the tenth General Congregation of Cardinals in the period of the vacant
see, Holy See Press Office Director Joaquin Navarro-Valls released the following statement to
The tenth General Congregation began this morning at 9 in the New Synod Hall. There were
142 cardinals present.
After the invocation to the Holy Spirit, the cardinals listened to the first of the meditations
concerning the problems of the Church and the enlightened choice of the new Pontiff (Apostolic
Constitution, Universi Dominici gregis, no. 13d) given by Fr. Raniero Cantalamessa, O.F.M.
Cap., preacher of the Papal Household.
At the end of the meditation the cardinals dedicated a period of time to silence and prayer.
As of today the following are part of the Particular Congregation: Cardinals Giovanni
Battista Re for the Order of Bishops, Oscar Andres Rodriguez Maradiaga for the Order of Priests
and Crescenzio Sepe for the Order of Deacons.
There was a drawing of lots for the assignments of the rooms the cardinals will occupy in
the Domus Sanctae Marthae.
Following several clarifications on the interpretation of the Apostolic Constitution Universi
Dominici gregis, the cardinals resumed an exchange of ideas on the situation of the Church and
With the Regina Coeli prayer, today's General Congregation concluded.
[00448-02.01] [Original text: Italian]
- POLICE INSPECTORATE THANKED FOR ITS WORK IN RECENT DAYS
VATICAN CITY, APR 13, 2005 (VIS) - Yesterday evening, Holy See Press Office Director
Joaquin Navarro-Valls released the following declaration:
"This afternoon Archbishop Leonardo Sandri, substitute of the Secretariat of State, received
Salvatore Festa, head of the Italian Police Inspectorate for Vatican City State.
"The substitute of the Secretariat of State again wished to explicitly thank Festa, and with him each of
the functionaries and the agents of the Inspectorate, for their extraordinary commitment over the days
following the death of the Holy Father John Paul II, days that saw the arrival in the Vatican of
exceptional numbers of faithful and of civil and religious authorities.
"Archbishop Sandri praised the Inspectorate's exalted sense of responsibility and its tireless
dedication to ensure an orderly flow of pilgrims, as well as its fruitful collaboration with all the other
forces involved in organizing this exceptional event."
Statistics relative to the media presence, number of pilgrims in Rome and the welcome given them by
the city of Rome and the Vatican for the period of April 3 to 8 were released by the Vatican yesterday
More than 6,000 journalists, including those of print and electronic media, were given credentials by
the Holy See Press Office and the Pontifical Council for Social Communications, both of which were
given additional office space to accommodate the huge numbers of media people present for the
funeral of John Paul II. Though it is impossible to gauge the number of radio and TV stations that
transmitted the funeral service, says the communique, more than 80 TV stations were linked through
Mondovision and 137 television networks from 81 countries covered the funeral Mass and
The Vatican internet site reported that there were 1,300,000 visitors to its Streaming Live coverage
of the funeral Mass, reaching points of 54,000 simultaneous connections, and occupying a 9 gigabyte
per second band.
For the funeral Mass: 157 cardinals concelebrated; 700 archbishops and bishops were present, as
were 3,000 priests, of whom 300 distributed communion. There were 169 foreign delegations,
representatives from 23 Orthodox Churches, delegations from Judaism and 17 delegations of
non-Christian religions and organizations for inter-religious dialogue.
Among the statistics released today were those from the Italian Civil Protection and the city of Rome:
over 3 million pilgrims in Rome; 21,000 people per hour entered St. Peter's Basilica; average wait was
13 hours and the longest was 24 hours; on the day of the funeral, 500,000 people filled St. Peter's
Square and Via della Conciliazione; 600,000 were present in the areas where giant monitors were
available; 400 handicapped were near the altar.
Personnel involved in assisting pilgrims: 8,000 volunteers; 2,000 Boy Scouts; 11,900 security people;
1,000 firemen; 6 helicopters, 400 soldiers; 2,700 city police; 7,000 people from the State Railway
system; 4 disaster managers, more than 20,000 municipal employees and city volunteers assisted the
Other statistics: 1,000 special trains for 8,000 travellers; 6 special trains from Poland for 5,000
pilgrims; trains carried a total of 800,000 travellers; 29 giant TV screens throughout Rome; 3 million
bottles of water distributed; 3,600 chemical toilets; 21 portable medical units and 100 ambulances
added to medical facilities already available in Rome; 1,150 tents set up at Tor Vergata University for
8,000 people; 8 field kitchens, 400 water fountains; 5,000 beds set up at Rome's fairgrounds.
Rome's Call Center, which usually receives 8,000 calls per day, received over 20,000 calls a day
and its operators responded in Italian, English, French, German, Spanish, Chinese and Arabic.
Over 400,000 flyers - written in Italian and English - were distributed to pilgrims with useful
information on transportation, the location of basilicas and giant screens, etc.
The communique noted that on Sunday morning, April 3, the morning after John Paul's death, "the
city awoke to 3,500 posters, and two giant banners, 22 by 10 meters each, on both sides of the Tiber
river, which read 'Thank you - Rome cries for and salutes her Pope'."
OP/STATISTICS:GRATITUDE/NAVARRO-VALLS VIS 050413 (670)
CARDINALS RECEIVE CONDOLENCES FROM DIPLOMATIC CORPS
VATICAN CITY, APR 13, 2005 (VIS) - In the atrium of the Paul VI Hall today, Cardinal Joseph
Ratzinger, dean of the College of Cardinals, gave thanks in the name of the entire college to Giovanni
Galassi, dean of the diplomatic corps to the Holy See, and to the other ambassadors for their
condolences on the death of John Paul II. The Holy See currently maintains diplomatic relations with
Cardinal Ratzinger affirmed that John Paul II "guided the Church over 26 years, making it clear that,
as Vatican Council II recalls, she is 'a sign and instrument both of a very closely-knit union with God
and of the unity of the whole human race.' He brought the Church to hope with renewed impetus; he
introduced her to the third millennium, inviting Christians to carry Christ to the world and calling all
human beings of good will to goodness, peace, solidarity and sharing. He opened the heart of human
beings, especially the hearts of the young, to the message of the Good News.
"We have seen the consequences over these days, when innumerable people came to render homage
to His Holiness John Paul II. This Pope gave of himself to the limits of his strength in announcing the
Gospel on all continents, especially during his numerous journeys, showing the face of a Pope rich in
mercy, leading to Christ, man's Redeemer, inviting everyone to let the Holy Spirit dwell within them."
The dean of the College of Cardinals indicated that the sadness of this time is combined with
"profound thanksgiving to God, Who gave us a great pastor, and with an intense thank-you to John
Paul II for his actions and his teaching."
"You have been privileged witnesses of the activities of the Pope and the Church throughout the
world, and of the development of diplomatic relations, which have more than doubled over this
pontificate. How many times did Pope John Paul II exhort countries to find peaceful solutions and to
pursue dialogue? How many times did he call on the leaders of nations to give ever more concrete
attention to the people in their care, especially the weakest, the smallest and the poorest? How many
times did he recall the greatness of human life?"
Cardinal Ratzinger pointed out how all the Pope's exhortations "still resound for us today as a
commitment in favor of the human being, of all human beings." They represent, he said, "a message and
a call for us to greater service in favor of peace and solidarity among individuals and peoples, at the
service of human beings of all continents, in order that a reconciled humanity may spring forth in a
world where all are shareholders. This in particular is what the Pope tirelessly recalled to the civil
authorities, and to members of the diplomatic corps accredited to the Holy See."
.../CONDOLENCES DEATH POPE/RATZINGER VIS 050413 (490)
CARDINALS CONCLUDE NINTH GENERAL CONGREGATION
VATICAN CITY, APR 13, 2005 (VIS) - Today, at the end of the Ninth General Congregation of
Cardinals in the period of the vacant see, Holy See Press Office Director Joaquin Navarro-Valls
released the following statement to journalists:
"The ninth General Congregation of cardinals began at 9 this morning in the New Synod Hall in the
presence of 140 cardinals.
"The cardinals discussed several articles of Chapter IV of the Apostolic Constitution 'Universi
Dominici gregis'. (Chapter IV: Faculties of the Dicasteries of the Roman Curia during the vacancy of
the Apostolic See)
"The assembly continued their exchange of ideas on the situation of the Church and the world.
"The cardinals received condolences from the diplomatic corps accredited to the Holy See.
"Following the speech by Ambassador Giovanni Galassi of the Republic of San Marino, dean of the
diplomatic corps, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, dean of the College of Cardinals, thanked the chiefs of
mission, asking them to express the gratitude of the Sacred College to the authorities and the peoples
whom they represent.
"Joining the dean of the College of Cardinals, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, in greeting the diplomatic
corps were Cardinal Eduardo Martinez Somalo, camerlengo of Holy Roman Church, the vice dean,
Cardinal Angelo Sodano, the senior cardinal of the Order of Priests, Eugenio de Araujo Sales and the
cardinal proto-deacon, Jorge Arturo Medina Estevez.
"At the end of this morning's ninth congregation, the cardinals were given the series of 'sede vacante'
stamps issued by the Philatelic Office of Vatican City.
"The recitation of the Regina Coeli concluded the meeting."
OP/NINTH CONGREGATION/NAVARRO-VALLS VIS 050413 (250)
OFFICIAL OATH OF CONCLAVE ASSISTANTS
VATICAN CITY, APR 13, 2005 (VIS) - Today, the Office of Liturgical Celebrations of the
Supreme Pontiff made it known that in the Hall of Blessings at 5 p.m. on Friday, April 15 officials and
assistants of the conclave will be called to take their oath.
All those involved in the forthcoming conclave - both clergy and laity, as approved by the cardinal
camerlengo and by the three cardinal assistants, and in keeping with the norms of para. 48 of the
Apostolic Constitution 'Universi Domini gregis' - will have to swear and sign the prescribed oath. In
accordance with para. 46 of Universi Dominici gregis, the following people must be in the Sala Regia
at 4.30 p.m. on that day:
- The Secretary of the College of Cardinals.
- The master of the Liturgical Celebrations of the Supreme Pontiff.
- The masters of pontifical ceremonies.
- The religious who supervise the pontifical sacristy.
- The ecclesiastic chosen by the cardinal dean to help him in his duties.
- The religious charged with hearing confessions in the various languages.
- Doctors and nurses.
- The personnel for preparing meals and cleaning.
- Technical service personnel (Universi Dominici gregis, paras. 5 and 51).
- Personnel responsible for transporting the cardinal electors from the 'Domus Sanctae Marthae' to
the Apostolic Palace.
- Elevator attendants at the Apostolic Palace.
- Priests admitted as assistants to some of the Cardinals.
After having been instructed on the meaning of the oath, they will have to pronounce and personally
sign the prescribed formula before Cardinal Eduardo Martinez Somalo, camerlengo of Holy Roman
Church, and in the presence of two masters of pontifical ceremonies (Universi Dominici gregis, paras.
OCL/OATH CONCLAVE/... VIS 050413 (290)
- PAPAL APARTMENTS CLOSED WITH SEAL OF APOSTOLIC CAMERA
VATICAN CITY, APR 12, 2005 (VIS) - Today, at the end of the Eighth General Congregation of
Cardinals in the period of the vacant see, Holy See Press Office Director Joaquin Navarro-Valls
released the following statement to journalists:
"The 8th General Congregation of Cardinals began at 9 this morning in the New Synod Hall. There
were 137 cardinals present.
"After the opening prayer and the swearing of the oath by Cardinal Jean Margeot, who just arrived
today, several decisions were communicated on the matter of expenses that are incurred during the
period of the vacant see, as well as indications on the transportation of the cardinals from the Domus
Sanctae Marthae to the Sistine Chapel and back.
"Cardinal Sergio Sebastiani informed the cardinals on the consolidated financial statements of the
Holy See for 2004, and on several particulars of the consolidated budget for 2005.
"The cardinals then expressed their considerations on several articles of the Apostolic Constitution
'Universi Dominici gregis'.
"The participants of the General Congregation began an exchange of ideas on the general situation of
the Church in the World and on the Holy See.
"After the cardinal camerlengo informed the General Congregation about the definitive closing of the
pontifical apartment with the placement of the seals of the Apostolic Camera, the meeting concluded
with the recitation of the Regina Coeli.
"As was previously announced, tomorrow morning, April 13 at 10 a.m. in the atrium of the Paul VI
Hall, the cardinals will receive the condolences of the diplomatic corps.
"As to visits to the Vatican grottoes, which will be opened tomorrow morning at 7, the faithful will
enter through St. Peter's Basilica."
OP/EIGHTH CONGREGATION/NAVARRO-VALLS VIS 050412 (280)
APRIL 18: MASS FOR ELECTION OF POPE AND START OF CONCLAVE
VATICAN CITY, APR 12, 2005 (VIS) - In the Vatican Basilica at 10 a.m. on Monday, April 18,
Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, dean of the College of Cardinals, will preside at a Mass "for the election of
the Roman Pontiff," which will be concelebrated by the other cardinal electors.
A note from the Office of Liturgical Celebrations of the Supreme Pontiff states that, "in order to show
communion in prayer on the part of the entire Church at such an important moment, cardinal
non-electors, bishops, priests, deacons, and members of institutes of consecrated life and societies of
apostolic life are also earnestly invited to participate in the celebration, as are the lay faithful of all
God's people present in Rome."
"The entire Church, spiritually united with Mary Mother of Jesus, and called to persevere
unanimously in prayer following the example of the first Christian community, lifts humble and insistent
prayers to the Lord, that He may illuminate the minds of the electors and bring them to agreement, in
order to obtain a prompt and unanimous election of the new Pope."
At 4.30 p.m. on Monday, April 18 the entry into conclave and the oath for the election of the new
Roman Pontiff will take place in keeping with the norms laid down by the "Ordo Rituum Conclavis."
The cardinal electors, preceded by the Cross and the Book of the Gospels, and accompanied by the
singing of the Litany of the Saints, will enter in procession from the Hall of Blessings to the Sistine
Chapel where, after singing "Veni Creator," they will pronounce the prescribed oath.
In addition to the cardinal electors, others participating in the procession include the secretary of the
conclave, the master of Liturgical Celebrations of the Supreme Pontiff, the secretary of the cardinal
dean, the ecclesiastic who will preach the meditation, masters of ceremonies, the dean, ministrants, and
the "Cappella Musicale Pontificia."
At 4 p.m., the note concludes, the following people may access the Sistine Chapel: the substitute of
the Secretariat of State, the secretary for Relations with States, the prefect of the Pontifical Household,
the two religious who supervise the sacristy, the priests charged with hearing confessions and the
commander of the Swiss Guard. There will also be authorized personnel from the Swiss Guard, the
healthcare authorities, the floreria (a Vatican office in charge of furnishings), photographers, the
Vatican newspaper L'Osservatore Romano, the Vatican Television Center, and the Holy See Press
OCL/MASS ELECTION POPE:CONCLAVE/... VIS 050412 (420)
- FAITHFUL MAY VISIT JOHN PAUL'S GRAVE STARTING APRIL 13
VATICAN CITY, APR 11, 2005 (VIS) - Today, at the end of the Seventh General Congregation of
Cardinals in the period of the vacant see, Holy See Press Office Director Joaquin Navarro-Valls
released the following statement to journalists:
"The 134 cardinals present, after the opening prayer and after the three newly arrived cardinals
swore their oath, proceeded to the designation, through choosing lots, of the three new cardinal
assistants who, together with the camerlengo, compose the Particular Congregation (cf. Universi
Dominici gregis, no 7). They are: Cardinals Angelo Sodano for the Order of Bishops, Polycarp Pengo
for the Order of Priests and Walter Kasper for the Order of Deacons.
"The cardinals recommend to the bishops and priests of the Church to use the formula of the Mass
'pro eligendo Summo Pontifice' which is found in the edizione tipica (Latin edition) of the Roman
Missal. In this sense the cardinals renewed with insistence their exhortation to all the People of God to
accompany with intense prayers these days of preparation for the Conclave so that the Holy Spirit
may assist the cardinal electors.
"Several cardinals will lead special prayers and Eucharistic celebrations in their titular churches in
"The General Congregation began to examine the expenses that must be incurred during the period of
the vacant see and also examined the time of the General Congregations that, from now on, will begin
at 9 a.m.
"I can add that the Vatican Grottoes will be open to the faithful starting on Wednesday April 13, at 7
"Journalists interested in visiting the grave of the deceased Supreme Pontiff John Paul II must be at
the Arch of the Bells entrance tomorrow, Tuesday, April 12, at 3 p.m.
"The cardinals, after the celebration of the Cappella Papale tomorrow, will go down to the Vatican
Grottoes for a moment of prayer before the grave of John Paul II."
OP/SEVENTH CONGREGATION/NAVARRO-VALLS VIS 050411 (330)
- The Vatican Press Office announced today, April 9, 2005, that Cardinals Jaime Lachica Sin, archbishop emeritus of Manila, Philippines, and Adolfo Antonio Suárez Rivera, archbishop emeritus of Monterrey, México, will not be able to participate in the conclave for reasons of health. The cardinal electors taking part in the conclave will be 115.
- GRATITUDE OF HOLY SEE FOR EFFICIENCY IN WELCOMING PILGRIMS
VATICAN CITY, APR 9, 2005 (VIS) - Holy See Press Office Director Joaquín Navarro-Valls
released the following statement yesterday afternoon to journalists:
"The Holy See feels a duty to thank the Italian government and the city of Rome for the dedication and
the efficiency with which they welcomed the millions of pilgrims who came to Rome to pay their final
farewell to John Paul II and to participate in his funeral. It was an exceptional event, and run in a truly
"It also wishes to underline the availability and generosity of all the people involved in organizing an
event that was both without precedent and unpredictable in all of its dimensions.
"Special thanks go to the thousands of volunteers from all of Italy who gave of themselves with tireless
dedication, together with the Italian Civil Protection and the forces of law and order to assure an orderly
and tranquil flow of pilgrims.
"Lastly, special applause goes to all the citizens of Rome for their collaboration and patience in
accepting the inevitable discomfort of these days. Rome has once again given proof of its millennia-old
civility and its attachment to the deceased Pontiff."
OP/ROME:WELCOME PILGRIMSNAVARRO-VALLS VIS 050409 (210)
CARDINALS UNANIMOUSLY DECIDE TO AVOID MEDIA INTERVIEWS
VATICAN CITY, APR 9, 2005 (VIS) - At the end of today's Sixth General Congregation of Cardinals
during the vacant see period, Holy See Press Office Director Joaqíin Navarro-Valls, in a briefing held
for accredited journalists in the press office, released the following information:
"The Sixth General Congregation of Cardinals during the vacant see period was held this morning in the
New Synod Hall.
"After the opening prayer the cardinals who joined the assembly today took their oath. There were 130
"Cardinal Trujillo expressed gratitude to many people for yesterday's ceremony: Cardinal Joseph
Ratzinger, dean of the College of Cardinals, Cardinal Eduardo Martínez Somalo, camerlengo of Holy
Roman Church, and the diverse Vatican services; the Secretariat of State, the Office of the Master of
Liturgical Celebrations for the preparation, organization and unfolding of yesterday's intense funeral
"He then expressed a heartfelt thank-you to all the pilgrims present, especially those from Poland and
from all of Italy, just as he gave thanks for the welcome provided by the city of Rome for this
"At the meeting, particular thanks were expressed to the Italian authorities for the perfect and
much-appreciated organization of the exceptional events of these days.
"Certain considerations were then made concerning the celebration, beginning with yesterday's funeral
Mass, of the 'novendiali' (nine days of mourning) for the late Supreme Pontiff.
"The cardinals examined certain questions concerning their entry into the 'Domus Sanctae Marthae' and
the formal start of the Conclave, due to begin on Monday, April 18 at 4.30 p.m.
"The cardinals, after the funeral Mass of the Holy Father, began a more intense period of silence and
prayer, in view of the conclave. They unanimously decided to avoid interviews and encounters with the
media. Journalists are therefore courteously invited to abstain from asking the cardinals for interviews or
any other comments. This invitation should not be seen as an attitude of discourtesy or disinterest with
regards to the media - in fact the cardinals wish to thank them for the enormous interest with which they
are following events in this period - but rather as a gesture of great responsibility.
"Chapters 1 and 2 of the Apostolic Constitution 'Universi Dominici gregis' were read in the hall.
"Two cardinals have communicated that they will be unable to attend for reasons of health: Jaime L.
Sin, archbishop emeritus of Manila, the Philippines, and Adolfo Antonio Suarez Rivera, archbishop
emeritus of Monterrey, Mexico."
Navarro-Valls added that the diplomatic corps accredited to the Holy See will be invited to the Mass
"pro eligendo Summo Pontifice" on Monday morning, April 18. He also said that anyone who wished to
attend any of the remaining eight Masses of the novendiali, starting today at 5 p.m., may do so. There
will be no tickets for these celebrations.
He also said that he had received countless questions about the beatification process for John Paul II
and noted that this is entirely up to the new Supreme Pontiff.
OP/SIXTH CONGREGATION/NAVARRO-VALLS VIS 050409 (500)
VACANT SEE 2005 STAMPS TO BE ISSUED APRIL 12
VATICAN CITY, APR 9, 2005 (VIS) - The Philatelic and Numismatic Office of the Governorate of
Vatican City announced today that on Tuesday, April 12 the series of stamps for the "sede vacante" or
vacant see 2005 will be issued.
According to today's communique from the philatelic office, the series, composed of three stamps
which have the same subject and bear the insignia of the Apostolic Camera, will be sold directly and
exclusively by the post offices of Vatican City and the sales offices of the Office for Pilgrims and
Tourists, located in St. Peter's Square, according to their respective opening hours to the public.
This series of vacant see stamps will be valid only and exclusively during the period of the vacant see.
The communique adds that "the philatelic office will inform users of its services, via bulletins and forms,
how to acquire the stamps and their price. Subscribers will receive the series according to the quantity
and established times for ordinary issuances."
SCV/VACANT SEE STAMPS/... VIS 050409 (190)
- Bulletin from the Vatican Information Service (V.I.S.) on Friday, April 8, 2005:
MILLIONS, INCLUDING 200 HEADS OF STATE, ATTEND POPE'S FUNERAL
VATICAN CITY, APR 8, 2005 (VIS) - Before the start of the funeral Mass today for John Paul II in
St. Peter's Square in the presence of an estimated 300,000 people, including over 200 heads of State
and government, the deceased Pope's body was placed in a cypress casket and closed in the
presence of a number of witnesses.
Among those present for this rite were Cardinals Martinez Somalo, camerlengo of Holy Roman
Church, Angelo Sodano, former secretary of state, Joseph Ratzinger, dean of the College of
Cardinals, Camillo Ruini, vicar for the diocese of Rome, Francesco Marchisano, archpriest of the
Vatican Basilica, and Archbishops Stanislaw Dziwisz, the Holy Father's personal secretary and James
Harvey, prefect of the Papal Household.
The cardinal camerlengo introduced the rite of the closing of the casket. Archbishop Piero Marini,
master of papal liturgical ceremonies, then read the "Rogito," a summary of the life of the Pope, copies
of which were signed by those present. An antiphon and psalm were sung, followed by silent prayer.
The master of ceremonies than placed a veil of white silk over the head of the deceased and the
cardinal camerlengo sprinkled the body with holy water. The master of ceremonies then placed a bag
with some medals coined during the pontificate of the deceased and a lead tube containing the original
copy of the Rogito in the casket.
As the casket was closed, Psalm 41 was recited.
The casket of John Paul II was brought to St. Peter's Square in procession, placed on a carpet on
the ground in front of the main altar and a book of Gospels was placed on top of the casket and
opened. The procession included the College of Cardinals and the patriarchs of the Oriental Churches,
all in red vestments, who kissed the altar before taking their places. Mass was presided over by
Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger and concelebrated by 164 cardinals.
Millions of people who had come to Rome for John Paul's funeral but who could not be
accommodated in St. Peter's Square itself, watched the ceremony on 27 giant screens placed
throughout the city, including at the two football stadiums, Tor Vergata University, the Circus
Maximus, the basilicas of St. John Lateran, St. Mary Major and St. Paul's Outside-the-Walls, Piazza
del Popolo, Piazza Risorgimento near the Vatican, the Colosseum and Via della Conciliazione, the
broad avenue leading to St. Peter's Square.
Many of those in St. Peter's Square, at various times during the Mass, called out for John Paul II to
be proclaimed a saint. These calls, accompanied by sustained applause, began as Cardinal Ratzinger
finished his homily A number of banners could be seen with the words "Santo Subito" (a saint
immediately) and "John Paul II the Great" and one, with his papal crest, saying "Pope John Paul II -
Following the prayer after communion Cardinal Ratzinger proceeded to the rite of the final
recommendation and act of committal, standing by the casket of John Paul II. Cardinal Ruini then
stood next to the casket, the cantors sang the Litany of Saints and the cardinal vicar then concluded
the supplication of the Church of Rome with a prayer and returned to his seat.
At this point the patriarchs and archbishops major and metropolitans of the Catholic Oriental
metropolitan Churches "sui iuris", went to the casket and, facing the altar, recited the supplication of
the Oriental Churches from the Office of the Dead of the Byzantine liturgy. Everyone present prayed in
silence and Cardinal Ratzinger sprinkled holy water on the remains while the choir sang a response.
The casket of John Paul II was then brought into the Vatican Basilica to the place of burial as the
faithful sang the Magnificat. Those present earlier at the closing of the casket accompanied it into the
basilica. John Paul II was brought to the grotto area of St. Peter's Basilica for burial in a rite presided
over by the cardinal camerlengo.
The cypress casket with the mortal remains of John Paul II was tied with red ribbons on which were
placed the seals of the Apostolic Camera, the Prefecture of the Papal Household, the Office of
Liturgical Celebrations of the Supreme Pontiff and the Vatican Chapter. The cypress casket was then
placed in the zinc and wood caskets which were soldered shut and covered with the seals of the
aforementioned offices. On the top are the cross and coat-of-arms of John Paul II.
The notary of the Basilica Chapter verified the act of burial and read it to those present.
Attending today's funeral Mass for the Holy Father were reigning monarchs of 10 countries, 57
heads of State, 3 hereditary princes, 17 heads of government, the heads of 3 international
organizations and representatives from 10 others, 3 spouses of heads of State, 8 vice heads of State, 6
vice prime ministers, 4 presidents of parliaments, 12 foreign ministers, 13 ministers, and ambassadors
from 24 countries.
Religious delegations, numbering 140 people, included representatives from the Orthodox Church,
Oriental Orthodox Churches, Churches and ecclesial communions of the West, international Christian
organizations, the National Association of Evangelicals, representatives of Judaism, Islam and
delegations from non-Christian religions.
.../FUNERAL:JOHN PAUL II/... VIS 050408 (850)
BLESS US, HOLY FATHER, FROM THE WINDOW OF THE FATHER'S HOUSE
VATICAN CITY, APR 8, 2005 (VIS) - Below is the English translation of the homily, delivered in
Italian by Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, at the funeral Mass for the Holy Father John Paul II, held in St
Peter's Square this morning:
"'Follow me.' The Risen Lord says these words to Peter. They are his last words to this disciple,
chosen to shepherd his flock. 'Follow me' - this lapidary saying of Christ can be taken as the key to
understanding the message which comes to us from the life of our late beloved Pope John Paul II.
Today we bury his remains in the earth as a seed of immortality - our hearts are full of sadness, yet at
the same time of joyful hope and profound gratitude.
"These are the sentiments that inspire us, Brothers and Sisters in Christ, present here in Saint Peter's
Square, in neighboring streets and in various other locations within the city of Rome, where an
immense crowd, silently praying, has gathered over the last few days. I greet all of you from my heart.
In the name of the College of Cardinals, I also wish to express my respects to Heads of State, Heads
of Government and the delegations from various countries. I greet the Authorities and official
representatives of other Churches and Christian Communities, and likewise those of different religions.
Next I greet the Archbishops, Bishops, priests, religious men and women and the faithful who have
come here from every Continent; especially the young, whom John Paul II liked to call the future and
the hope of the Church. My greeting is extended, moreover, to all those throughout the world who are
united with us through radio and television in this solemn celebration of our beloved Holy Father's
"Follow me! As a young student Karol Wojtyla was thrilled by literature, the theatre, and poetry.
Working in a chemical plant, surrounded and threatened by the Nazi terror, he heard the voice of the
Lord: Follow me! In this extraordinary setting he began to read books of philosophy and theology, and
then entered the clandestine seminary established by Cardinal Sapieha. After the war he was able to
complete his studies in the faculty of theology of the Jagiellonian University of Krakow. How often, in
his letters to priests and in his autobiographical books has he spoken to us about his priesthood, to
which he was ordained on 1 November 1946. In these texts he interprets his priesthood with
particular reference to three sayings of the Lord. First: 'You did not choose me, but I chose you. And I
appointed you to go and bear fruit, fruit that will last' (Jn 15:16). The second saying is: 'The good
shepherd lays down his life for the sheep' (Jn 10:11). And then: 'As the Father has loved me, so I have
loved you; abide in my love' (Jn 15:9). In these three sayings we see the heart and soul of our Holy
Father. He really went everywhere, untiringly, in order to bear fruit, fruit that lasts. 'Rise, Let us be on
our Way!' is the title of his next-to-last book. 'Rise, let us be on our way!' - with these words he
roused us from a lethargic faith, from the sleep of the disciples of both yesterday and today. 'Rise, let
us be on our way!' he continues to say to us even today. The Holy Father was a priest to the last, for
he offered his life to God for his flock and for the entire human family, in a daily self-oblation for the
service of the Church, especially amid the sufferings of his final months. And in this way he became
one with Christ, the Good Shepherd who loves his sheep. Finally, 'abide in my love:' the Pope who
tried to meet everyone, who had an ability to forgive and to open his heart to all, tells us once again
today, with these words of the Lord, that by abiding in the love of Christ we learn, at the school of
Christ, the art of true love.
"Follow me! In July 1958 the young priest Karol Wojtyla began a new stage in his journey with the
Lord and in the footsteps of the Lord. Karol had gone to the Masuri lakes for his usual vacation, along
with a group of young people who loved canoeing. But he brought with him a letter inviting him to call
on the Primate of Poland, Cardinal Wyszynski. He could guess the purpose of the meeting: he was to
be appointed as the auxiliary Bishop of Krakow. Leaving the academic world, leaving this challenging
engagement with young people, leaving the great intellectual endeavor of striving to understand and
interpret the mystery of that creature which is man and of communicating to today's world the Christian
interpretation of our being - all this must have seemed to him like losing his very self, losing what had
become the very human identity of this young priest. Follow me - Karol Wojtyla accepted the
appointment, for he heard in the Church's call the voice of Christ. And then he realized how true are
the Lord's words: 'Those who try to make their life secure will lose it, but those who lose their life will
keep it' (Lk 17:33). Our Pope - and we all know this - never wanted to make his own life secure, to
keep it for himself; he wanted to give of himself unreservedly, to the very last moment, for Christ and
thus also for us. And thus he came to experience how everything which he had given over into the
Lord's hands came back to him in a new way. His love of words, of poetry, of literature, became an
essential part of his pastoral mission and gave new vitality, new urgency, new attractiveness to the
preaching of the Gospel, even when it is a sign of contradiction.
"Follow me! In October 1978 Cardinal Wojtyla once again heard the voice of the Lord. Once more
there took place that dialogue with Peter reported in the Gospel of this Mass: 'Simon, son of John, do
you love me? Feed my sheep!' To the Lord's question, 'Karol, do you love me?,' the Archbishop of
Krakow answered from the depths of his heart: 'Lord you know everything; you know that I love you.'
The love of Christ was the dominant force in the life of our beloved Holy Father. Anyone who ever
saw him pray, who ever heard him preach, knows that. Thanks to his being profoundly rooted in
Christ, he was able to bear a burden which transcends merely human abilities: that of being the
shepherd of Christ's flock, his universal Church. This is not the time to speak of the specific content of
this rich pontificate. I would like only to read two passages of today's liturgy which reflect central
elements of his message. In the first reading, Saint Peter says - and with Saint Peter, the Pope himself -
'I truly understand that God shows no partiality, but in every nation anyone who fears him and does
what is right is acceptable to him. You know the message he sent to the people of Israel, preaching
peace by Jesus Christ - he is Lord of all' (Acts 10:34-36). And in the second reading, Saint Paul - and
with Saint Paul, our late Pope - exhorts us, crying out: 'My brothers and sisters, whom I love and long
for, my joy and my crown, stand firm in the Lord in this way, my beloved' (Phil 4:1).
"Follow me! Together with the command to feed his flock, Christ proclaimed to Peter that he would
die a martyr's death. With those words, which conclude and sum up the dialogue on love and on the
mandate of the universal shepherd, the Lord recalls another dialogue, which took place during the Last
Supper. There Jesus had said: 'Where I am going, you cannot come.' Peter said to him, 'Lord, where
are you going?' Jesus replied: 'Where I am going, you cannot follow me now; but you will follow me
afterward.' (Jn 13:33,36). Jesus from the Supper went towards the Cross, went towards his
resurrection - he entered into the paschal mystery; and Peter could not yet follow him. Now - after the
resurrection - comes the time, comes this 'afterward.' By shepherding the flock of Christ, Peter enters
into the paschal mystery, he goes towards the cross and the resurrection. The Lord says this in these
words: '... when you were younger, you used to fasten your own belt and to go wherever you wished.
But when you grow old, you will stretch out your hands, and someone else will fasten a belt around
you and take you where you do not wish to go' (Jn 21:18). In the first years of his pontificate, still
young and full of energy, the Holy Father went to the very ends of the earth, guided by Christ. But
afterwards, he increasingly entered into the communion of Christ's sufferings; increasingly he
understood the truth of the words: 'Someone else will fasten a belt around you.' And in this very
communion with the suffering Lord, tirelessly and with renewed intensity, he proclaimed the Gospel,
the mystery of that love which goes to the end (cf. Jn 13:1).
"He interpreted for us the paschal mystery as a mystery of divine mercy. In his last book, he wrote:
The limit imposed upon evil 'is ultimately Divine Mercy' (Memory and Identity, pp. 60-61). And
reflecting on the assassination attempt, he said: 'In sacrificing himself for us all, Christ gave a new
meaning to suffering, opening up a new dimension, a new order: the order of love ... It is this suffering
which burns and consumes evil with the flame of love and draws forth even from sin a great flowering
of good' (pp. 189-190). Impelled by this vision, the Pope suffered and loved in communion with
Christ, and that is why the message of his suffering and his silence proved so eloquent and so fruitful.
"Divine Mercy: the Holy Father found the purest reflection of God's mercy in the Mother of God. He,
who at an early age had lost his own mother, loved his divine mother all the more. He heard the words
of the crucified Lord as addressed personally to him: 'Behold your Mother.' And so he did as the
beloved disciple did: he took her into his own home (eis ta idia: Jn 19:27) - 'Totus tuus.' And from the
mother he learned to conform himself to Christ.
"None of us can ever forget how in that last Easter Sunday of his life, the Holy Father, marked by
suffering, came once more to the window of the Apostolic Palace and one last time gave his blessing
'urbi et orbi.' We can be sure that our beloved Pope is standing today at the window of the Father's
house, that he sees us and blesses us. Yes, bless us, Holy Father. We entrust your dear soul to the
Mother of God, your Mother, who guided you each day and who will guide you now to the eternal
glory of her Son, our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen."
.../HOMILY FUNERAL POPE/RATZINGER VIS 050408 (1880)
- JOHN PAUL II'S SPIRITUAL TESTAMENT
VATICAN CITY, APR 7, 2005 (VIS) - Following is the text of the spiritual testament of John Paul
II, which was released today in an Italian translation of the original Polish. The translation from Italian
into English has been done by VIS:
The testament of 6.3.1979
(and successive additions)
"Totus Tuus ego sum"
In the Name of the Most Holy Trinity. Amen.
"Watch therefore, for you do not know on what day your Lord is coming" (cf. Mt 24, 42) - these
words remind me of the last call, which will happen at the moment the Lord wishes. I desire to follow
Him, and I desire that everything making up part of my earthly life should prepare me for this moment.
I do not know when the moment will come, but like everything else, I place it too in the hands of the
Mother of my Master: Totus Tuus. In the same maternal Hands I leave everything and everyone with
whom my life and vocation have linked me. In these Hands I leave, above all, the Church, as well as
my Nation and all humanity. I thank everyone. Of everyone I ask forgiveness. I also ask for prayer,
that the Mercy of God may appear greater than my weakness and unworthiness.
During the spiritual exercises I re-read the testament of the Holy Father Paul VI. That reading
prompted me to write this testament.
I leave no property behind me of which it is necessary to dispose. As for the everyday objects that
were of use to me, I ask they be distributed as seems appropriate. My personal notes are to be
burned. I ask that this be attended to by Fr. Stanislaw, whom I thank for his collaboration and help, so
prolonged over the years and so understanding. As for all other thanks, I leave them in my heart
before God Himself, because it is difficult to express them.
As for the funeral, I repeat the same dispositions as were given by the Holy Father Paul VI. (Here is
a note in the margin: burial in the bare earth, not in a sarcophagus, 13.3.92).
"apud Dominum misericordia
et copiosa apud Eum redemptio"
John Paul pp. II
After my death I ask for Masses and prayers.
Undated sheet of paper
I express my profound trust that, despite all my weakness, the Lord will grant me all the grace
necessary to face according to His will any task, trial or suffering that He will ask of His servant, in the
course of his life. I also trust that He will never allow me - through some attitude of mine: words, deeds
or omissions - to betray my obligations in this holy Petrine See.
24.II - 1.III.1980
Also during these spiritual exercises, I have reflected on the truth of the Priesthood of Christ in the
perspective of that Transit that for each of us is the moment of our own death. For us the Resurrection
of Christ is an eloquent (added above: decisive) sign of departing from this world - to be born in the
next, in the future world.
I have read, then, the copy of my testament from last year, also written during the spiritual exercises -
I compared it with the testament of my great predecessor and Father, Paul VI, with that sublime
witness to death of a Christian and a Pope - and I have renewed within me an awareness of the
questions to which the copy of 6.III.1979 refers, prepared by me (in a somewhat provisional way).
Today I wish to add only this: that each of us must bear in mind the prospect of death. And must be ready to present himself before the Lord and Judge - Who is at the same time Redeemer and Father. I
too continually take this into consideration, entrusting that decisive moment to the Mother of Christ and
of the Church - to the Mother of my hope.
The times in which we live are unutterably difficult and disturbed. The path of the Church has also
become difficult and tense, a characteristic trial of these times - both for the Faithful and for Pastors. In
some Countries (as, for example, in those about which I read during the spiritual exercises), the
Church is undergoing a period of such persecution as to be in no way lesser than that of early
centuries, indeed it surpasses them in its degree of cruelty and hatred. "Sanguis martyrum - semen
christianorum.". And apart from this - many people die innocently even in this Country in which we are
Once again, I wish to entrust myself totally to the Lord's grace. He Himself will decide when and how
I must end my earthly life and pastoral ministry. In life and in death, Totus Tuus in Mary Immaculate.
Accepting that death, even now, I hope that Christ will give me the grace for the final passage, in other
words (my) Easter. I also hope that He makes (that death) useful for this more important cause that I
seek to serve: the salvation of men and women, the safeguarding of the human family and, in that, of all
nations and all peoples (among them, I particularly address my earthly Homeland), and useful for the
people with whom He particularly entrusted me, for the question of the Church, for the glory of God
I do not wish to add anything to what I wrote a year ago - only to express this readiness and, at the
same time, this trust, to which the current spiritual exercises have again disposed me.
John Paul II
Totus Tuus ego sum
In the course of this year's spiritual exercises I have read (a number of times) the text of the testament
of 6.III.1979. Although I still consider it provisional (not definitive), I leave it in the form in which it
exists. I change nothing (for now), and neither do I add anything, as concerns the dispositions
The attempt upon my life on 13.V.1981 in some way confirmed the accuracy of the words written
during the period of the spiritual exercises of 1980 (24.II - 1.III).
All the more deeply I now feel that I am totally in the Hands of God - and I remain continually at the
disposal of my Lord, entrusting myself to Him in His Immaculate Mother (Totus Tuus)
John Paul pp.II
In connection with the last sentence in my testament of 6.III.1979 ("concerning the site / that is, the
site of the funeral / let the College of Cardinals and Compatriots decide") - I will make it clear that I
have in mind: the metropolitan of Krakow or the General Council of the Episcopate of Poland - In the
meantime I ask the College of Cardinals to satisfy, as far as possible, any demands of the
1.III.1985 (during the spiritual exercises)
Again - as regards the expression "College of Cardinals and Compatriots": the "College of Cardinals"
has no obligation to consult "Compatriots" on this subject, however it can do so, if for some reason it
feels it is right to do so.
Spiritual exercise of the Jubilee Year 2000 (12-18.III)
(for my testament)
1. When, on October 16, 1978 the conclave of cardinals chose John Paul II, the primate of Poland,
Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski told me: "The duty of the new Pope will be to introduce the Church into
the Third Millennium." I don't know if I am repeating this sentence exactly, but at least this was the
sense of what I heard at the time. This was said by the Man who entered history as the primate of the
Millennium. A great primate. I was a witness to his mission, to his total entrustment. To his battles. To
his victory. "Victory, when it comes, will be a victory through Mary" - The primate of the Millennium
used to repeat these words of his predecessor, Cardinal August Hlond.
In this way I was prepared in some manner for the duty that presented itself to me on October 16,
1978. As I write these words, the Jubilee Year 2000 is already a reality. The night of December 24,
1999 the symbolic Door of the Great Jubilee in the Basilica of St. Peter's was opened, then that of St.
John Lateran, then St. Mary Major - on New Year's, and on January 19 the Door of the Basilica of
St. Paul's Outside-the-Walls. This last event, given its ecumenical character, has remained impressed
in my memory in a special way.
2. As the Jubilee Year progressed, day by day the 20th century closes behind us and the 21st
century opens. According to the plans of Divine Providence I was allowed to live in the difficult
century that is retreating into the past, and now, in the year in which my life reaches 80 years
('octogesima adveniens'), it is time to ask oneself if it is not the time to repeat with the biblical Simeone
On May 13, 1981, the day of the attack on the Pope during the general audience in St. Peter's
Square, Divine Providence saved me in a miraculous way from death. The One Who is the Only Lord
of life and death Himself prolonged my life, in a certain way He gave it to me again. From that moment
it belonged to Him even more. I hope He will help me to recognize up to what point I must continue
this service to which I was called on October 16, 1978. I ask him to call me back when He Himself
wishes. 'In life and in death we belong to the Lord ... we are the Lord's. (cf. Rm 14,8). I also hope
that, as long as I am called to fulfil the Petrine service in the Church, the Mercy of God will give me the
necessary strength for this service.
3. As I do every year during spiritual exercises I read my testament from 6-III-1979. I continue to
maintain the dispositions contained in this text. What then, and even during successive spiritual
exercises, has been added constitutes a reflection of the difficult and tense general situation which
marked the Eighties. From autumn of the year 1989 this situation changed. The last decade of the
century was free of the previous tensions; that does not mean that it did not bring with it new problems
and difficulties. In a special way may Divine Providence be praised for this, that the period of the
so-called 'cold war' ended without violent nuclear conflict, the danger of which weighed on the world
in the preceding period.
4. Being on the threshold of the third millennium "in medio Ecclesiae" I wish once again to express
gratitude to the Holy Spirit for the great gift of Vatican Council II, to which, together with the entire
Church - and above all the entire episcopacy - I feel indebted. I am convinced that for a long time to
come the new generations will draw upon the riches that this Council of the 20th century gave us. As a
bishop who participated in this conciliar event from the first to the last day, I wish to entrust this great
patrimony to all those who are and who will be called in the future to realize it. For my part I thank the
eternal Pastor Who allowed me to serve this very great cause during the course of all the years of my
"In medio Ecclesiae".... from the first years of my service as a bishop - precisely thanks to the
Council - I was able to experience the fraternal communion of the Episcopacy. As a priest of the
archdiocese of Krakow I experienced the fraternal communion among priests - and the Council
opened a new dimension to this experience.
5. How many people should I list! Probably the Lord God has called to Himself the majority of them
- as to those who are still on this side, may the words of this testament recall them, everyone and
everywhere, wherever they are.
During the more than 20 years that I am fulfilling the Petrine service "in medio Ecclesiae" I have
experienced the benevolence and even more the fecund collaboration of so many cardinals,
archbishops and bishops, so many priests, so many consecrated persons - brothers and sisters - and,
lastly, so very, very many lay persons, within the Curia, in the vicariate of the diocese of Rome, as well
as outside these milieux.
How can I not embrace with grateful memory all the bishops of the world whom I have met in "ad
limina Apostolorum" visits! How can I not recall so many non-Catholic Christian brothers! And the
rabbi of Rome and so many representatives of non -Christian religions! And how many representatives
of the world of culture, science, politics, and of the means of social communication!
6. As the end of my life approaches I return with my memory to the beginning, to my parents, to my
brother, to the sister (I never knew because she died before my birth), to the parish in Wadowice,
where I was baptized, to that city I love, to my peers, friends from elementary school, high school and
the university, up to the time of the occupation when I was a worker, and then in the parish of
Niegowic, then St. Florian's in Krakow, to the pastoral ministry of academics, to the milieu of....to all
milieux....to Krakow and to Rome....to the people who were entrusted to me in a special way by the
To all I want to say just one thing: "May God reward you."
"In manus tuas, Domine, commendo spiritum meum."
.../JOHN PAUL II:TESTAMENT/... VIS 050407 (2100)
- Bulletin from the Vatican Information Service (V.I.S.) on Thursday, April 7, 2005:
140 CARDINALS DECIDE PROGRAM FOR START OF CONCLAVE
VATICAN CITY, APR 7, 2005 (VIS) - At the end of today's Fifth General Congregation of
Cardinals in the period of vacant see, Holy See Press Office Director Joaquín Navarro-Valls released
the following information to journalists:
"Following the opening prayer the cardinals who arrived yesterday in Rome swore their oath.
"There were 140 cardinals present.
"The College of Cardinals has delegated Cardinal Edmund Szoka the legislative power to mint coins
and print stamps for the period of the vacant see.
"The following program has been established for Monday, April 18, the start of the conclave.
- At 10 a.m. Mass "pro eligendo Summo Pontifice" in St. Peter's Basilica;
- At 4:30 p.m. Gathering in the Hall of Blessings in the Apostolic Palace (the Pauline Chapel is being
restored) for the start of the procession to the Sistine Chapel where the work of the conclave will
"The cardinals also examined several problems relative to the celebration of the funeral Mass and the
rite of the Holy Father's burial in the Vatican Grottoes.
"They also considered several questions relative to the start of the conclave and in this sense chose
the two preachers for the exhortations as established in the Apostolic Constitution "Universi Dominici
"Father Raniero Cantalamessa, O.F.M.Cap. will give his intervention on Thursday April 14 during the General
Congregation of the morning.
"Cardinal Tomá pidlík, S.J. will address the cardinals in the Sistine Chapel on Monday, April 18.
"The cardinals will receive condolences from the diplomatic corps on Wednesday, April 13 at 10
a.m. in the atrium of the Paul VI Hall.
OP/CONGREGATION:VACANT SEE/NAVARRO-VALLS VIS 050407 (270)
SCHEDULE FOR NOVENDIALI, NINE DAYS OF MOURNING FOR POPE
VATICAN CITY, APR 7, 2005 (VIS) - Archbishop Piero Marini, master of the Liturgical
Celebrations of the Supreme Pontiff, has published a note on the "novendiali" or period of nine days of
official mourning for the late Pope John Paul II, explaining the background and indicating the dates,
times and principal celebrants of each of the nine Masses.
The communique states that "according to an ancient custom, for nine consecutive days there are
special Eucharistic celebrations for the repose of the soul of the deceased Roman Pontiff, starting with
the funeral Mass which is determined by the Congregation of Cardinals (cf. Universi Dominici gregis,
n. 13 and 27)."
"Each day the celebration is open to everyone. It is, however, entrusted each day to a different
group, taking into account that group's links with the Roman Pontiff. This variety of the congregation
shows in a certain way both the milieu of the Supreme Pastor as well as the universality of the Church
of Rome (Ordo Exsequiarum Romani Pontifici, n. 133)."
"The funeral Mass for the Supreme Pontiff John Paul II will take place April 8 at 10 a.m. in St.
Peter's Square whereas in the Vatican Basilica, from the 9th to the 16th of April, the novendiali
celebrations for the repose of the soul of the deceased Pope, will continue in the following manner:
Day 1: Funeral Mass
Day 2: Saturday, April 9, at 5 p.m.: For the faithful of Vatican City: The concelebration will be
presided over by Cardinal Francesco Marchisano, archpriest of the Patriarchal Vatican Basilica.
Day 3: Sunday, April 10, 5 p.m. For the Church of Rome. Mass presided over by Cardinal Camillo
Ruini, vicar general for the diocese of Rome, and concelebrated by the clergy of Rome.
Day 4: Monday, April 11, 5 p.m. For the Chapters of the Patriarchal Basilicas. The concelebration
will be presided by Cardinal Bernard Francis Law, archbishop emeritus of Boston and archpriest of
the Patriarchal Basilica of St Mary Major.
Day 5: Tuesday, April 12, 5 p.m. Cappella Papale. Mass to be presided over by Cardinal Eugenio de
Araujo Sales, archbishop emeritus of Sao Sebastiao do Rio de Janeiro, proto-priest of the College of
Day 6: Wednesday, April 13, 5 p.m. For the Roman Curia. Concelebration will be presided over by
Archbishop Leonardo Sandri, substitute for General Affairs of the Secretariat of State.
Day 7: Thursday, April 14, 5 p.m. For the Oriental Churches. Divine Liturgy in the Oriental Rite to be
presided over by His Beatitude Pierre Nasrallah Sfeir, patriarch of Antioch of the Maronites.
Day 8: Friday, April 15, 5 p.m. For members of Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of
Apostolic Life. Mass presided over by Archbishop Piergiorgio Silvano Nesti, emeritus of
Camerino-San Severino Marche, secretary of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and
Societies of Apostolic Life.
Day 9: Saturday, April 16, Cappella Papale. The concelebration will be presided by Cardinal Jorge
Arturo Medina Estevez, prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of
the Sacraments, proto-deacon of the College of Cardinals.
All cardinals are invited to concelebrate in the Cappelle Papali on April 8, 12 and 16."
OLC/NOVENDIALI/MARINI VIS 050407 (530)
(1) This information is erroneous. Cardinal Stephen Sou-hwan, archbishop emeritus of Seoul, South Korea, is the protopriest. Both cardinals were created in the consistory of April 28, 1969 but Cardinal Kim was ahead of Cardinal Sales on the list and therefore, he has precedence over him.
- This is the summary of the briefing given by Dr. Joaquín Navarro Valls, director of the Vatican Press Office, published in the bulletin from the Vatican Information Service (V.I.S.) on Wednesday, April 6, 2005:
CONCLAVE TO START AFTERNOON OF APRIL 18
VATICAN CITY, APR 6, 2005 (VIS) - Holy See Press Office Director Joaquín Navarro-Valls gave a
briefing early this afternoon on the fourth General Congregation of cardinals that was held this morning in
the Vatican, during which he announced that the conclave to elect the successor of John Paul II will start
the afternoon of Monday, April 18.
He said that "the Fourth General Congregations of Cardinals was held this morning in the New Synod
Hall in the Vatican, beginning at 10 a.m.
"There were 116 cardinals present, 31 of whom are newly arrived, who swore their prescribed oath.
The number of cardinals present in Rome at this moment is 122.
"In today's general congregation the cardinals were informed of both the official delegations coming
from throughout the world for the funeral of the Holy Father on Friday morning, and the delegations from
diverse Christian denominations and from other religions.
"The cardinals also considered several particular questions relative to the funeral Mass of the Holy
Father and the celebrations of the 'novendiali', (nine official days of mourning with a Mass each day for
the Holy Father) in particular for the 'cappelle papali' of Saturday, April 9, Tuesday, April 12 and
Saturday, April 16.
"Also taken into consideration was the request made by many parties to bring the remains of the Holy
Father - on Friday, April 8, following the funeral Mass but before burial - to St. John Lateran Basilica to
allow for veneration by the Roman faithful and others who were unable to come to St. Peter's Basilica.
After attentively studying the matter it was concluded that this hypothesis was not technically possible.
Therefore, as pre-announced, the burial in the Vatican Grottoes will take place immediately after the
"The Will of the Holy Father was read and it was decided to publish it in its entirety tomorrow in the
original Polish language and in an Italian translation.
"The date for the start of the conclave was set for Monday, April 18. In the morning there will be the
votive Mass 'pro eligendo papa' in the Vatican Basilica. In early afternoon the cardinals will enter into
conclave in the Sistine Chapel.
"I can confirm that the Holy Father John Paul II, before his death, did not communicate the name of the
cardinal reserved 'in pectore' in the consistory of October 2003. Therefore, this is no longer a question."
Journalists asked if it would be possible for them to see the Sistine Chapel before the start of the
conclave and Navarro-Valls responded by noting that, as there are 3,500 accredited journalists, this
would be logistically impossible. He said that a video would be shown to them, featuring all the sites in
the Vatican associated with a conclave.
OP/CONCLAVE:PAPAL WILL/NAVARRO-VALLS VIS 050406 (470)
- It was announced on April 6, 2005, that Cardinal Jaime Lachica Sin, archbishop emeritus of Manila, Philippines, was too ill to attend the conclave. The number of participants will be 116 if all the other electors are able to attend.
- This is the bulletin from the Vatican Information Service (V.I.S.) for Tuesday, April 5, 2005:
THIRD CONGREGATION OF CARDINALS, INFORMATION ON VACANT SEE
VATICAN CITY, APR 5, 2005 (VIS) - In the Holy See Press Office today, Archbishop Piero
Marini, master of the Liturgical Celebrations of the Supreme Pontiff, and Holy See Press Office
Director Joaquin Navarro-Valls, held a press conference to provide some information on today's
meeting of cardinals and on the period of the vacant see.
Navarro-Valls explained that "the third general congregation held today was attended by 88 of the
91 cardinals present in Rome," and that those who participated considered themes "concerning the
Pope's funeral and the upcoming conclave, the date of which has yet to be established."
Later, replying to journalists' questions, he specified that "the name of the cardinal 'in pectore' had not
been made public. We must wait and see if it is given in the will, which has not yet been read."
The director of the Holy See Press Office confirmed that John Paul II would be buried in the earth,
as he himself wanted, and that the burial site would be the same as that in which Blessed John XXIII
had previously been interred."
According to tradition, the body of the Pope is placed in a triple casket: one of cypress wood, the
second of zinc and the outer one of fir wood. Another ritual involves covering the Pontiff's face with a
silken veil, prior to closing the first casket of cypress wood. Various bronze and silver medals from the
pontificate are also placed in the coffin, as is a parchment summarizing the life of the Pope which is
sealed in a lead tube.
Answering another question, Navarro-Valls emphasized that "John Paul's body has not been
Archbishop Marini suggested that journalists refer to the two volumes mentioned in no. 27 of Pope
John Paul's 1996 Apostolic Constitution "Universi Dominici gregis" for a better understanding of the
specific rites for the death and burial of a pope and the conclave to elect a new one, specifically "Ordo
Exsequiarum Romani Pontificis" and "Ordo Rituum Conclavis." He explained several of those rites in
great detail, adding that three persons in particular have prominent roles during the period of "sede
vacante" or vacant See: the camerlengo, the dean of the College of Cardinals, and the master of papal
He noted that there were three "statio" or places of gathering where specific rites would be
performed for the deceased pontiff: the "house" of the deceased, in this case the Clementine Hall,
where the Pope laid in state for nearly a day for visits by members of the Roman Curia; the Vatican
Basilica, where the faithful will have the chance to pay their respects for three days; and the Holy
Father's final resting place in the grotto area of St. Peter's Basilica.
He also underscored one of the innovations made by John Paul regarding the period of the conclave,
namely, that the cardinal electors - who now number 117 - be lodged in the Domus Sancta Marthae
residence in the Vatican, separately from where they will vote in the Sistine Chapel. They will have at
their disposal for liturgies the chapel of the residence and other chapels in the Vatican. Thus, he said,
Vatican City, not just the Sistine Chapel, is considered the site of the next conclave.
Cardinal electors must stay in the Vatican the entire time of the conclave, no one may approach them
as they transfer between the Sistine Chapel and the residence and all forms of communication with the
outside world are banned.
He said that, as has been done in the past, the stove in the Sistine Chapel will be used to burn the
ballots each time they are cast. The public will know the result of the balloting via the smoke coming
out of the Sistine Chapel chimney: black for no election, white for election.
OP/RITES:CONCLAVE/MARINI:NAVARRO-VALLS VIS 050405 (650)
- On April 4, 2005, at the end of the morning, the director of the Vatican Press Office, Dr. Joaquín Navarro-Valls, had a briefing for the accredited journalists These are terms of the briefing:
First and second general congregations of cardinals.
The first two General Congregations of the Cardinals in the period of Vacant See were held this
morning in the Bologna Room of the Vatican Apostolic Palace according to the norms of the Apostolic
Constitution "Universi Dominici gregis" (UDG).
Sixty-five cardinals took part in the First Congregation which began at 10 a.m. They swore an oath
according to para 12 of UDG.
In the second General Congregation, the 65 cardinals present made the most urgent decisions,
including the mode of transferring the body of the deceased pontiff to the Vatican Basilica, and the
date of the funeral Mass for John Paul II.
Also present at this morning's General Congregations were Archbishops Leonardo Sandri, substitute
at the Secretariat of State; Francesco Monterisi, the secretary of the College of Cardinals; and Piero
Marini, master of papal liturgical ceremonies, and several cerimonieri.
Transfer of the body of John Paul II.
At 5 p.m. today, Monday April 4, the body of John Paul II will be moved from the Clementine Hall
to the Vatican Basilica.
After a moment of prayer presided over by Cardinal Camerlengo Eduardo Martinez Somalo, the
transfer of the body will begin.
The procession will proceed along the Scala Nobile, the First Loggia, the Sala Ducale, the Sala
Regia, the Scala Regia and then, coming through the Bronze Door, it will cross St Peter's Square and
enter the basilica by the central doors.
In the Vatican Basilica, the Cardinal Camerlengo will preside at the Liturgy of the Word.
The visits of the faithful can begin at around 8 p.m.
For today it has been decided that the Vatican Basilica will remain open all night. It will close only
from 2 a.m. to 5 a.m. in order to allow for the technical maintenance of the basilica.
Funeral Mass for John Paul II.
The funeral Mass for John Paul II will be celebrated on Friday, April 8 at 10 a.m. in St. Peter's Square.
The funeral liturgy will be celebrated by the cardinals and the patriarchs of the Oriental Churches. Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, dean of the College of Cardinals, will preside.
At the end of the liturgy, will take place the last Commendatio and the Valedictio. After this, the casket of the Roman Pontiff will be brought into the Vatican Basilica and then into the Vatican Grottoes for burial.
Next General Congregations.
The next General Congregations of Cardinals, as of tomorrow morning, will take place in the New
Synod Hall starting at 10 a.m."
Dr. Navarro-Valls noted that the body of John Paul II will rest in the same place where Blessed Pope John XXIII was entombed. The remains of the this pope, who died in 1963, were moved from the grottos to the Vatican Basilica on June 3, 2001, nine months after his beatification on September 3, 2000.
- Text of the death certificate of Pope John Paul II issued by the Vatican Press Office, Bulletin No. 188:
I certify that His Holiness John Paul II (Karol Wojtyla) born in Wadowice (Krakow, Poland) on
May 18, 1920, residing in Vatican City, and a Vatican citizen, died at 9:37 p.m. on April 2, 2005 in
his apartment in the Apostolic Palace, Vatican City because of:
- septic shock.
- irreversible cardio-circulatory collapse.
In a person also affected by:
- Parkinson's disease.
- progressive episodes of acute respiratory insufficiency and a consequent tracheotomy.
- benign prostate hypertrophy complicated by urosepsis.
- hypertensive cardiopathy and ischemia.
The ascertainment of death was effected by means of an electrocardiogram which lasted 20 minutes.
I declare that the causes of death, according to my science and conscience, are those indicated
Vatican City, April 2, 2005
Director of Health and Hygiene of Vatican City State
Dr. Renato Buzzonetti
- In the morning of April 3, 2005, Holy See Press Office Director Joaquin Navarro-Valls released the following statement to journalists:
"The procedures foreseen by the Apostolic Constitution "Universi Dominici gregis" by John Paul II on the occasion of the death of a
Supreme Pontiff, are underway in the Vatican.
"Ascertainment of Death. This morning at 9.30, the rite of ascertainment of the death of John Paul II (Universi Dominici gregis, 17) took place. Cardinal Eduardo Martinez Somalo, Cardinal Camerlengo and Archbishop Paolo Sardi, vice Camerlengo, Archbishop Piero Marini, master of Papal Liturgical Celebrations, and the Cleric Prelates of the Apostolic Camera went into the apartment of the deceased pontiff with Dr. Renato Buzzonetti, the Pope's personal physician, to proceed with the ascertainment of death, according to the rite of "Ordo Exsequiarum Romani Pontifici."
"The Chancellor Secretary of the Apostolic Camera, Enrico Serafini, then prepared the official death certificate, attached to the medical certificate of Dr. Renato Buzzonetti.
"Exposition of the Body in the Apostolic Palace. At 12:30 the Cardinal Camerlengo will preside at a celebration to start the visits to the body of John Paul laid out in the Clementine Hall for the homage and prayers of members of the Roman Curia, civil and religious authorities and members of the Diplomatic Corps. Visits will end at 4 p.m.
"Transfer of the body to the Vatican Basilica for homage by all the faithful. The hour of the transfer of the body will be decided by the first congregation of Cardinals which will be held tomorrow morning at 10:30 in the Bologna Hall. As previously announced, it is expected that the transfer will take place about 5 p.m."
- Following are the two statements issued by Dr. Joaquí Navarro Valls on the death of Pope John Paul II:
BOLLETTINO N. 0184 - 02.04.2005
The Holy Father died at 9.37 this evening in his private apartment.
At 8 p.m. the celebration of Mass for Divine Mercy Sunday began in the Holy Father's room,
presided by Archbishop Stanisław Dziwisz with the participation of Cardinal Marian Jaworski,
of Archbishop Stanisław Ryłko and of Msgr. Mieczysław Mokrzycki.
During the course of the Mass, the Viaticum was administered to the Holy Father and, once
again, the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick.
The Holy Father's final hours were marked by the uninterrupted prayer of all those who were
assisting him in his pious death, and by the choral participation in prayer of the thousands of
faithful who, for many hours, had been gathered in St. Peter's Square.
Present at the moment of the death of John Paul II were: his two personal secretaries
Archbishop Stanisław Dziwisz and Msgr. Mieczysław Mokrzycki, Cardinal Marian Jaworski,
Archbishop Stanisław Ryłko, Fr. Tadeusz Styczeń, the three nuns, Handmaidens of the Sacred
Heart of Jesus, who assist in the Holy Father's apartment, guided by the Superior Sr. Tobiana
Sobódka, and the Pope's personal physician Dr. Renato Buzzonetti, with the two doctors on call,
Dr. Alessandro Barelli and Dr. Ciro D'Allo, and the two nurses on call.
Immediately afterwards Cardinal Secretary of State Angelo Sodano arrived, as did the
camerlengo of Holy Roman Church, Cardinal Eduardo Martmnez Somalo, Archbishop Leonardo
Sandri, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and Archbishop Paolo Sardi, vice-camerlengo of
Holy Roman Church.
Thereafter, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, dean of the College of Cardinals, and Cardinal Jozef
Tomko also arrived.
Tomorrow, Divine Mercy Sunday, at 10.30 a.m., a Mass for the repose of the soul of the
Holy Father will be celebrated in St. Peter's Square, presided over by Cardinal Angelo Sodano.
At 12 noon, the Marian prayer of Easter time, the Regina Coeli, will be recited.
BOLLETTINO N. 0184 - 02.04.2005 3
The body of the late pontiff is expected to be brought to the Vatican Basilica no earlier than
The first General Congregation of Cardinals will be held at 10 a.m. on Monday April 4 in
the Bologna Hall of the Apostolic Palace.
- On April 2, 2005 at 7:00 p.m., Roman time, at 7 p.m., Holy See Press Office Director Joaquin Navarro-Valls released the following declaration to journalists:
The clinical conditions of the Holy Father remain very serious.
In late morning a high fever developed.
When addressed by members of his household he responds correctly.
- On April 2, 2005 at 11:30 a.m,. Roman time, the Holy See Press Office Director Joaquín Navarro-Valls, held a briefing for accredited journalists in the press office to give them an update on the condition of the Holy Father John Paul II. Following is the text read by Dr. Navarro-Valls:
The following information is an update as of 9 this morning:
The general, cardio-respiratory and metabolic conditions of the Holy Father are substantially unchanged and therefore are very serious.
As of dawn this morning, the start of a compromised state of consciousness was observed.
Mass was celebrated at 7:30 this morning in the presence of the Pope.
Last evening the Pope probably had in mind the young people whom he has met throughout the world during his pontificate. In fact, he seemed to be referring to them when, in his words, and repeated several times, he seemed to have said the following sentence: "I have looked for you. Now you have come to me. And I thank you".
- April 1, 2005, at 6:59 p.m., Roman time, the director of the Vatican Press Office declared: "The general conditions and cardio-respiratory conditions of the Holy Father have further worsened. A gradual worsening arterial hypotension has been noted, and breathing has become shallow. The clinical picture indicates cardio-circulatory and renal insufficiency. The biological parameters are notably compromised. The Holy Father, with visible participation, is joining the continual prayers of those assisting him."
- On April 1, 2005, it was announced that the pope had accepted, on March 12, 2005, the resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Managua, Nicaragua, submitted by Cardinal Miguel Obando Bravo, S.D.B., upon having reached the age limit. At the same time, the pope appointed Bishop Leopoldo José Brenes Solórzano of Matagalpa as metropolitan archbishop of Managua. In Crónica - 2005.
- On April 1, 2005, the Vatican Press Office announced that on March 4, 2005, the pope had accepted the resignation from the pastoral government of the Military Ordinariate of New Zealand presented by Cardinal Thomas Stafford Williams, then archbishop of Wellington, New Zealand. To succeed him, the pope has named John Atcherly Dew, archbishop of Wellington, New Zealand. In Crónica - 2005.
- This is the announcement made on April 1, 2005 at 12:30 p.m., by Dr. Joaquín Navarro-Valls, director of the Vatican Press Office:
"The Pope is always conscious. This morning at 6 he celebrated Mass. About 7:15, realizing that today is Friday, a day in which he traditionally follows the Stations of the Cross, he asked that the 14 stations be read to him. He followed attentively the reading of the texts and made the sign of the cross at every station. After finishing the stations, he said he wished to recite the Liturgy of Hours and asked specifically that the Third Hour be read to him. I saw that this morning he received several of his collaborators: Cardinal Angelo Sodano, secretary of State; Archbishop Leonardo Sandri, substitute for General Affairs; Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, the dean of the College of Cardinals; Archbishop Giovanni Lajolo, secretary for Relations with States; and Archbishop Paolo Sardi, vice chamberlain (camerlengo). The situation now is stationary. The conditions of notable seriousness remain. The biological parameters are unsettled. His blood pressure is unstable. The Pope continues to remain lucid, fully aware and, I must say, very serene. Several minutes ago he asked that some passages from Sacred Scriptures be read to him, and he attentively following this reading."
Dr. Navarro-Valls added that the Press Office will remain open throughout the night and that urgent bulletins will be communicated at anytime.
- Following is the text of the statement on the health of Pope John Paul II, released by Dr. Joaquín Navarro-Valls, director of the Vatican Press Office, on Friday April 1, 2005 at 6:30 a.m., Rome time:
"Yesterday afternoon, March 31, as has beeen already announced, following a urinary infection, a state of septic shock and cardio-circulatory collapse set in.
The Holy Father was immediately assisted by the medical team in His Holiness's private apartements.
All appropriate therapeutic provisions and cardio-respiratory assistance were provided. The Holy Father's will to remain in his apartements was respected. They are equipped with complete and efficient health facilities.
Late yesterday afternoon there was temporary stabilisation of the clinical framework which, however, in the following hours evolved negatively.
The Holy Father's condition is being attentively monitored and watched over.
The Holy Father is conscious, lucid and tranquil.
At 7.17 p.m. (17.17 GMT Thursday) he received the Holy Viaticum. At 6.00 a.m. today, the Holy Father celebrated Holy Mass.
The cardinal secretary of state and the closest aides of the Holy Father are united with him in prayer and are following the clinical conditions of His Holiness.
The Pope is been assisted by his personal doctor, Renato Buzzonetti, as well as two intensive care specialists, a cardiologist and an ear, nose and throat specialist as well as two nurses."
- Pope John Paul II has named Cardinal Jean-Louis Tauran, archivist and librarian of the Holy Roman Church, special papal envoy to the central celebrations of the Extraordinary Jubilee Year of the diocese of Le Puy-en-Velay, France, that will take place on May 29, 2005 in the cathedral basilica of Notre Dame du Puy. In Crónica - 2005.
- On March 21, 2005, the pope accepted the resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Wellington, New Zealand, submitted by Cardinal Thomas Stafford Williams, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. He was succeeded by Archbishop John Atcherly Dew, coadjutor of the same archdiocese. In Crónica - 2005.
- Cardinal Antonio José González Zumárraga, archbishop emeritus of Quito, Ecuador, turned 80 years old on March 18, 2005, and, according to the regulation in the seventh paragraph of the introduction of the apostolic constitution Universi Dominici Gregis, lost the right to participate in the conclave. The cardinal electors are now 117; three have been created by Pope Paul VI and 114 by Pope John Paul II. In Crónica - 2005.
- Cardinal Jean-Louis Tauran, archivist and librarian of the Holy Roman Church, will take part, as representative of the pope, in the inauguration of the new Holocaust History Museum at Yad Vashem Mausoleum, Jerusalem, on March 15, 2005. In Crónica - 2005.
- On March 14, 2005, the pope accepted the resignation from the office of ordinary for Catholics of Oriental rite resident in France and without and ordinary of their own, canonically presented by Cardinal Jean-Marie Lustiger, archbishop emeritus of Paris. The pope nominated Archbishop André Vingt-Trois of Paris as the new ordinary. In Crónica - 2005.
- Pope John Paul II has named Cardinals Francis Arinze, prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments; Juan Sandoval Íñiguez, archbishop of Guadalajara, México; and Telesphore Placidus Toppo, archbishop of Ranchi, India, presidents delegate of the 11th General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops that will take place on October 2 to 29, 2005, at the Vatican, on "The Eucharist: fountain and culminate of the Life and Mission of the Church." Cardinal Angelo Scola, patriarch of Venice, Italy, has been named relator-general. In Crónica - 2005.
- New bibliographic entries added to the site during the month of February 2005.
- Cardinal Alexandre do Nascimento, archbishop emeritus of Luanda, Angola, turned 80 years old on March 1, 2005, and, according to the regulation in the seventh paragraph of the introduction of the apostolic constitution Universi Dominici Gregis, lost the right to participate in the conclave. The cardinal electors are now 118; three have been created by Pope Paul VI and 115 by Pope John Paul II. In Crónica - 2005.
- During the Ordinary Public Consistory celebrated in the morning of February 24, 2005, at the Clementine Hall of the Vatican and presided by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, secretary of State, in the name of the pope, who is at the Policlinico Gemelli for treatment because of a relapse of the flu that affected him earlier this month, Cardinals Luigi Poggi, Carlo Furno and Gilberto Agustoni were assigned presbyteral titles. Cardinal Poggi was assigned the presbyteral title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina; the other two cardinals, in keeping with their own wishes, had the diaconates they have held up to now elevated pro hac vice to presbyteral titles: Cardinal Furno, the title of the Sacro Cuore di Cristo Re; and Cardinal Agustoni, the title of Ss. Urbano e Lorenzo a Prima Porta. Finally, the pope confirmed the new cardinal protodeacon in the person of Cardinal Jorge Arturo Medina Estévez. Among the functions of the protodeacon is to announce the election of a new pope. In Crónica - 2005.
- Biographical entries of the cardinals created by Pope Paul III (1534-1549) in the consistory of May 21, 1535 (II).
- The newspaper The East African Standard (Nairobi) reported that Archbishop Raphael S. Ndingi Mwana'a Nzeki of Nairobi, Kenya, announced at a mass in the Assumption of Mary Catholic Church in Umoja, Nairobi, the beatification plans for Cardinal Maurice Otunga, archbishop emeritus of Nairobi, who died on September 6, 2003. The archbishop said that the body would be exhumed from St. Austin's cemetery and reburied at Resurrection Gardens in Karen, Nairobi, and a church would be built at that site where people can worship in a serene environment. Archbishop Ndingi, who appealed for individual contributions to attain the goal, said this would mark the first step towards declaring Cardinal Otunga a saint. "As soon as we get permission from the Government to exhume the body, we will start the process. It does not matter how much it will cost," he said.
The Bukusu community, from which the late cardinal came, expressed strong opposition to the exhumation of his remains for reburial, while some legal experts warned of a possible backlash over the move. The Bukusu, led by members of the Dini ya Musambwa sect, vowed to use all possible means to block the exhumation, arguing that the move was likely to bring a curse on the community. "We will not allow this exercise to take place. Otunga is our son and after he was buried, his peace should not be disturbed again," said Wamalwa Manai, the sect elder. "It is a taboo in our community to exhume a dead body especially after such a long period has elapsed since the burial. Those agitating for such an exercise must understand that we will oppose their move since it will make our ancestors angry," he added. In Crónica - 2005.
- On February 19, 2005, it was announced by the Vatican Press Office that Pope John Paul Il had accepted the resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Hà Nôi, Viêt Nam, submitted by Cardinal Paul Joseph Pham Ðinh Tung, in conformity with canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. The pope named to succeed him Joseph Ngô Quang Kiêt, until now bishop of Lang Són et Cao Bang and apostolic administrator sede plena of that archdiocese. In Crónica - 2005.
- Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., archbishop of Genoa, Italy, will preside, as special papal envoy, the funeral of Suor Lucia de Jesus dos Santos, the last survivor of the three shepherds to whom the Blessed Virgin of Fatima appeared for the first time on May 13, 1917. The funeral mass will be celebrated on Tuesday, February 15, 2005, at 4:00 p.m., in the cathedral of Coimbra, Portugal. In Crónica - 2005.
- On February 11, 2005, Pope John Paul II accepted the resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Paris, France, submitted at its time by Cardinal Jean-Marie Lustiger, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. At the same time, the pope appointed André Vingt-Trois, until now archbishop of Tours, as successor of the cardinal. In Crónica - 2005.
- On February 5, 2005, Pope John Paul II named Cardinal Francesco Marchisano, archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, as president of the Office of Labor of the Apostolic See. Likewise, the pope has appointed Angelo Comastri, until now archbishop-prelate of Loreto and pontifical delegate for the Lauretano Shrine, as coadjutor of the archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, and vicar general of the State of Vatican City and president of the Fabric of St. Peter's, posts until now occupied by the cardinal. In Crónica - 2005.
- Cardinal Corrado Bafile, of the title of S. Maria in Portico, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints, died on February 3, 2005, at Clinica Pio XI, Rome, where he was hospitalized because of the flu and old age. Born on July 4, 1903, he was the oldest living cardinal. The funeral will take place on Saturday, February 5, 2005, at 11 a.m. in the altar of the Cattedra in the patriarchal Vatican basilica. The liturgy will be presided by Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, dean of the College of Cardinals, who will concelebrate the mass with the other cardinals present. The body of the cardinal will be transferred to L'Aquila, his native city, and a funeral will take place in the cathedral of San Massimo at 6:30 p.m. He will be buried, temporarily, in his family's tomb in L'Aquila; later, will be translated to the church of S. Maria Paganica in that city, where he was baptized. The pope sent a telegram of condolences to Cardinal Ratzinger. The members of the College are now 183 of whom thirteen were created by Pope Paul VI and 170 by Pope John Paul II. In Crónica - 2005.
- According to a report in Catholic World News, published on February 3, 2005, the real date of birth of Cardinal Henryk Gulbinowicz, archbishop emeritus of Wroclaw, Poland, is October 17, 1923 and not 1928 as it had been listed until now. The report states that according to a Vatican official, his parents "altered his birth records, with the help of a local priest, so that the boy could avoid being enlisted in the Soviet armed forces, or sent to a labor camp. Lithuania, where the Gulbinowicz family lived, was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1944, and many seminarians were pressed into military service or sent to labor camps." Accordingly, Cardinal Gulbinowicz has already reached age 80 and lost the right to participate in a conclave. The cardinal electors are now 119; three created by Pope Paul VI and 116 by Pope John Paul II. In Crónica - 2005.
- Biographies of the cardinals created by Pope Paul III (1534-1549) in the consistory of December 18, 1534 (I).
- New biographical data added to the entries of the cardinals created by Pope Pius IX (1846-1878), contributed by Rev. Fr. Jean LeBlanc, author of Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chornologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002 (Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002). Fr. LeBlanc is currently working on a biographical dictionary of the cardinals of the 19th century. Also added, biographical sources of those entries.
- Cardinal Camillo Ruini, vicar general for the diocese of Rome and president of the Italian Episcopal Conference, will be special papal envoy to the 24th Italian Eucharistic Congress that will take place in Bari, May 21 to 29, 2005. In Crónica - 2005.
- With profound sorrow I have learned that Dr. Frank Burkle-Young died of cancer on January 17, 2005 in Arlington, Virginia, United States. A distinguished scholar and author, Frank was passionate about the subject of the College of Cardinals and its members. For half a century he studied, researched and wrote about the cardinals and specially about the conclaves. His generosity to share his vast knowledge and intellectual production was legendary. Even though we never met in person, we became good "virtual" friends through our common interest, the cardinals. He enriched the site with the section Chronicle of papal elections in the XV Century (1431-1492) as well as with countless commentaries and corrections that he sent since he found the site on the internet in November 1999. Among his works are The life of Cardinal Innocenzo del Monte : a scandal in scarlet ; together with materials for a history of the House of Ciocchi del Monte San Savino (1997); Passing the keys. Modern cardinals, conclaves and the election of the next pope (1999); and Papal elections in the age of transition 1878-1922 (2000). Please pray for the eternal repose of his soul.
- Obituary list of the pontificates of Popes Gregory XIV (1590-1591); Innocent IX (1591); and Clement VIII (1592-1605). The obituary lists have been a contribution of Mr. Colin Mackie, Perth, Scotland.
- Cardinal Jan Pieter Schotte, C.I.C.M., deacon of S. Giuliano dei Fiamminghi, secretary general emeritus of the Synod of Bishops and president of the Office of Labor of the Apostolic See, died on Monday, January 10, 2005, in the afternoon, after a brief illness, at the Policlinic "Agostino Gemelli", Rome. He was 76 years old. Pope John Paul II sent a telegram of condolences to Dr. Hubert Schotte, the cardinal's brother. The body of the cardinal will be exposed in the chapel of S. Stefano degli Abissini, at the Vatican, on Wednesday 12 and Thursday 13, 2005. The funeral will take place on Friday, January 14, 2005, at 11 a.m., at the altar of the Confession of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. It will be presided by the pope, who will deliver the homily and will have the Ultima Commendatio and the Valedictio. The mass will be celebrated by Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, dean of the College of Cardinals, with the other cardinals. The late cardinal will be buried, temporarily, in the chapel of the canons of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. He will be transferred to his deaconry of S. Giuliano dei Fiamminghi when his definitive tomb is finished in Autumn 2005. Cardinal Schotte had already made the plans for it since 2003. The cardinal's death reduces the number of members of the College of Cardinals to 184 of whom fourteen were created by Pope Paul VI and 170 by Pope John Paul II. The cardinal electors are 120; three created by Pope Paul VI and 117 by Pope John Paul II. In Crónica - 2005.
- Cardinal Jean-Marie Lustiger, archbishop of Paris, France, will be special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 60th anniversary of the liberation of the concentration camp of Auschwitz-Birkenau, Poland, on January 27, 2005. In Crónica - 2005.