The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
(1903-2011)
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AGNELO, Geraldo Majella
(1933-

Birth. October 19, 1933, Juiz de Fora, Mina Gerais, Brazil. Third of the eight children of António and Sylvia Spagnolo. He was baptized on February 11, 1934 in the church of São Mateus in Juiz de Fora. His godparents were António José Ribeiro Pinto e Maria José de Oliveira Pinto, who supported his priestly studies.

Education. Completed his elementary studies at the institute Santos Anjos of the Carmelite Sisters of the Divine Providence from 1942 to 1944; then, he did his liceale course at Santo António Minor Seminary, Juiz de Fora, from 1945 to 1947; in 1948, he continued his studies at São Paulo Minor Seminary of Pirapora do Bom Jesus, directed by the Fathers Premostratense; at this time, his family moved to São Paulo; in 1951, he started his studies in philosophy at the Imaculada Conceição do Ipiranga Central Seminary, São Paulo; e obtained the degree in philosophy at the Faculty of Philosophy of the University of Mogi das Cruzes; in 1954, he started his theological studies at the Theological faculty Nossa Senhora da Assunção of São Paulo; in 1957, he obtained the degree in that discipline. Later, from October 1967, he studied at the Liturgical Institute of the Pontifical Athenaeum of S. Anselmo, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in theology with specialization in sacred liturgy on December 3, 1969 with a thesis entitled "Servitus nel Sacramentario veronese. Significato e Dottrina, Contributo alla conoscenza del significato teologico del servizio liturgico".

Priesthood. Ordained, June 27, 1957, metropolitan cathedral of São Paulo, by António Maria Alves de Siqueira, titular archbishop of Calcide di Siria, coadjutor of São Paulo. From the beginning of 1958, he was collaborator in Santo António parish, in Barra Funda, São Paulo. Fom 1958 to 1959, he was spiritual director and professor in the pre-seminary Santo Curato d'Ars, for adult vocations, in the Freguesia do Ó, São Paulo. Assistant to the Femenine Catholic Student Youth. Notary of the Ecclesiastical Tribunal of São Paulo. Director and faculty member of the Philosophical Seminary of the archdiocese of São Paulo in Aparecida from 1960 to 1963. Named canon of the cathedral chapter of São Paulo by Cardinal Carlos Carmelo de Vasconcellos Motta, archbishop of that see, at the beginning of 1964 until 1978; he was also ceremoniere of the cathedral. Spiritual director and professor of theology at the Central Seminary Imaculada Conceição do Ipiranga, São Paulo, from 1964 to 1967; at the same time, he was professor of philosophy at the Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo. Further studies, Rome, 1967-1969; during his stay in that city, he resided at Pontificio Collegio Pio Brasiliano, participating every week in the program of Vatican Radio for Brazil, entitled "Liturgia e Vita"; and collaborating pastorally in the parish of San Clemente Papa in the neighborhood of Montesacro. When he returned to Brazil, he was coordinator of diocesan pastoral and professor of theology from 1970 until 1974. During that period, he was professor of liturgical and sacramental theology at the Theological Institute Pio XI, at the Major Seminary João XXIII, and at the Theological Faculty Nossa Senhora da Assunção of São Paulo, of which he was rector from 1974 until 1978.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Toledo, Brazil, May 14, 1978. Consecrated, August 6, 1978, cathedral of Nossa Senhora Assunção e São Paulo, São Paulo, by Cardinal Paulo Evaristo Arns, O.F.M., archbishop of São Paulo, assisted by Benedito de Ulhoa Vieira, archbishop of Uberaba, and by Angelico Sandalo Bernardino, titular bishop of Tambee, auxiliary of São Paulo. His episcopal motto is Caritas cum fide. He was co-founder, rector and professor of the Faculty of Human Sciences "Arnaldo Busato" of Toledo. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Londrina, October 4, 1982. From 1983 until 1987, he was president of the Liturgical Commission of the National Conference of Brazilian Bishops (CNBB). In April 1991, during the Plenary Assembly of the Latinamerican Episcopal Council celebrated in Buenos Aires, he was elected president of the Department of Liturgy. Named secretary of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments on September 16, 1991. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992; by papal appointment. On June 3, 1994, he was named member of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America. Nominated member of the Central Committee for the Grand Jubilee of 2000, March 17, 1995; president of its Liturgical Commission. On October 30, 1997, he was named member of the Pontifical Committee for International Eucharistic Congress. Transferred to the metropolitan see of São Salvador da Bahia, January 13, 1999. From May 1999 until May 2003, he was second vice-president of the Latinamerican Episcopal Council (CELAM). Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. He published the books Liturgia, Serviço Cultural do povo de Deus, sentido e Doutrina de Servitus no Sacramentário Veronense; Os Sacramentos e o Mistérios do Santo Ambrósio; Pastoral do Batismo. Subsídios Teológico-litúrgicos; as well as articles for Brazilian journals, especially Revista de Liturgia e Teologia em Diálogo; and in Italian liturgical publications such as Notitiae and L'Osservatore Romano, daily edition.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of S. Gregorio Magno alla Magliana Nuova, February 21, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Elected president of the Episcopal Conference of Brazil for four years, May 5, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Named one of the three presidents of the Fifth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place in Aparecida, Brazil, from May 13 to 31, 2007. On January 12, 2011, the pope accepted his resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of São Salvador da Bahia in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. The pope named new metropolitan archbishop of that see Murilo Sebastião Ramos Krieger, S.C.I., until then archbishop of Florianópolis. Cardinal Agnelo was apostolic administrator until the installation of his successor on March 25, 2011. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on October 19, 2013.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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AGRÉ, Bernard
(1926-2014)

Birth. March 2, 1926, Monga, archdiocese of Abidjan, prefecture of Alépé, Ivory Coast. He was a member of the Mbatto people. Son of Jean Manda Agré and Jeanne Yomin. Baptized, September 2, 1932, Memni, his parish of origin.

Education. Completed his primary education in the school of the Catholic Mission of Memni from 1936 to 1941; then, studied at the Minor Seminary of Bingerville from 1941 to 1947; in 1947, he studied at the lyceum of the Minor Seminary of Bingerville; then, studied philosophy at the Major Seminary of Bingerville for one year; in 1948, he transferred to the Major Seminary of Quidah, in Dahomey (now Benin), where he completed his theological studies in 1953, in that seminary, he started a durable friendship with Bernardin Gantin, future cardinal; in 1957, he was sent to study at Pontifical Urbanian University, where he earned a doctorate summa cum laude in theology in 1960, with a concentration in canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 20, 1953, in the Minor Seminary of Bingerville, by Jean Baptiste Boivin, S.M.A., titular bishop of Onufi, apostolic vicar of Abidjan. Vicar in Dabou and teacher and director of the school from 1953 until 1956. Rector of the pre-seminary minor of Bingerville, 1956-1957. Further studies, Rome, 1957-1960. Returned to Ivory Coast and became pastor of the parish of Notre Dame in Treichville, 1960-1962. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, December 8, 1961 (title changed to prelate of honor in 1968). Vicar general of Abidjan, in charge of private education and of the eeminaries, 1963-1968.

Episcopate. Elected first bishop of Man, June 8, 1968. Consecrated, October 3, 1968, church of Saint Thèrése, Abidjan, by Bernard Yago, archbishop of Abidjan, assisted by Bernardin Gantin, archbishop of Cotonou, and by Guy Marie Joseph Riobé, bishop of Orléans. His episcopal motto was Étre tout á tous. Took possession of the see on the following October 8. From 1972 to 1996, he was president of the Episcopal Commission of the Means of Social Communication of the Regional Episcopal Conference of Western Africa (CERAO). President of the Regional Episcopal Conference of Western Africa (CERAO), 1985-1991. President of the Episcopal Conference of Ivory Coast from 1986 to 1991. Transferred to the new see of Yamoussoukro, March 6, 1992; took possession of the see the following May 17. In that diocese is the largest church of the African continent, inspired in the Basilica of Saint Peter in Rome. President of the Pan African Episcopal Committee of Social Communications (CEPACS) from 1993 to 2000. During his episcopate, he faced a period of difficult political transition following the death in 1993 of the father of Ivory Coast's independence, President Felix Houphouet-Boigny, who governed for 33 years; when political violence exploded several times between 1998 and 2000 after contested elections and a military-led coup, leaving hundreds dead, Cardinal Agré criticized those attempting to exploit religious differences. The struggle for control over resources and the concept of "Ivorian" reappeared at the death of the father of independence. Promoted to metropolitan see of Abidjan, December 19, 1994; took possession of the see on February 26, 1995. Received the pallium from Pope John Paul II on June 29, 1995, feast of Saints Peter and Paul, in the patriarchal Vatican basilica. The cardinal multiplied the positions taken in the Ivorian and international press, not doubting to criticize the French intervention in the country as an unspoken intention to reduce the country again into a French colony. He criticized the growing gap between the rich of Ivory Coast and the country's "new poor", including jobless college graduates, agricultural workers and youths. He said such poverty was abnormal and a menace to social peace. He was president of the Episcopal Commission of the Social and Charitable Actions of Ivory Coast. Member of the Committee of the Grand Jubilee of the Year 2000.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of S. Giovanni Crisostomo a Monte Sacro Alto, February 21, 2001. Attended Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001; one of the three presidents delegate. In November 2003, Ivory Coast officials said they uncovered a plot to assassinate Cardinal Agré and other political and religious leaders to undermine the administration of President Laurent Gbagbo. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, March 2, 2006. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese was accepted on May 2, 2006, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. After his retirement, the cardinal continued to speak to the media, which he had always held as an essential agent of democracy in Africa. In 2009, he presided over the National Day for Peace, remembering the 75 years of Ivorian clergy and the 50 years of the Major Seminary Sacré-Coeur de Marie of Anyama. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World". During the Synod, the cardinal spoke out against the injustice of many African nations being forced to "mortgage their natural resources" to pay the never-ending interest on development loans. He said that prevented governments from adequately funding education and health care for their people. He was criticized for his support to former President Laurent Gbagbo after his defeat in the presidential election in late 2010. He was a member of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples; and of the Pontifical Councils for the Family, Iustitia et Pax and Social Communications.

Death. June 9, 2014, around 9 a.m., from a cardiac stroke, at Bichat-Claude Bernard Hospital, Paris, France, where he had been interned for two months. Upon learning the news of his death, Pope Francis sent a telegram of condolence (1) to Cardinal Jean-Pierre Kutwa, archbishop of Abidjan. A mass was celebrated on Saturday June 14, 2014 at 11 a.m. in the cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris by Cardinal André Vingt-Trois, archbishop of Paris. Cardinal Jean-Pierre Kutwa, archbishop of Abidjan, was present. The body of the late cardinal arrived at the Félix Houphouet Boigny Airport in Port Bouët, on June 14, at 6 p.m. accompanied by Cardinal Kutwa. At 6:30, the body arrived at the parish Notre Dame du Perpétuel Secours of Treichville and vespers were sang. On Friday July 4, 2014, at 9:30 a.m., took place the requiem mass at the parish of Saint Ambroise du Jubilé d'ngré, celebrated by Cardinal Kutwa. At 11 a.m., the cortege departed for the cathedral of Saint Paul du Plateau. At 12:30 p.m., took place the inhumation inside Saint Paul's Cathedral in private. The tomb of the cardinal is in the left aisle of the cathedral, beside that of Cardinal Bernard Yago, first cardinal of Ivory Coast.

Links. Biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms and biography, in French, Wikipedia; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Monseigneur Bernard Agré: il faut trouver «une solution humaine au problème ivoirien» by Emmanuel D'Abzac, RFI, article publié le : vendredi 24 décembre 2010 - dernière modification le : vendredi 24 décembre 2010; 2 ans aprés la chute du Prêsident Gbagbo: Cardinal Agrê fait des confidences by Ferdinand Bailly, Civox, Jeudi 11 Avril 2013 - 09:35; Décès du Cardinal Bernard Agré à Paris, video, @bidj@n.net, lundi 9 juin 2014; African Card. Agré passes away, number of cardinals down to 213, video, Rome Reports, Jun 10, 2014; Le cardinal Bernard Agré voulait une Afrique libre et debout by Jean-Claude Djereke, Civox, Jeudi 12 Juin 2014 - 10:01; Mort du cardinal ivoirien Agrê, figure de l'Église africaine by Samuel Lieve, La Croix, 10/6/14 - 16 H 56; Exclusif Messe en Memoire du Cardinal Bernard Agré a Paris, video, Eventnewtv Presse, You Tube, Jun 16, 2014; Côte d'Ivoire : Bernard Cardinal Agré repose désormais en la cathédrale St Paul du Plateau by JEN, Agence pour la Recherche et le Traitement de l'Information Côte d'Ivoire, vendredi 4 juillet 2014 17:13.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Press Office of the Holy See:

Monsieur le Cardinal Jean-Pierre Kutwa Archevêque dAbidjan.

Apprenant avec émotion le décès du Cardinal Bernard Agré, Archevêque émérite d'Abidjan, je tiens à vous exprimer mon union dans la prière avec les Pasteurs et les fidèles de Côte d'Ivoire ainsi qu'avec la famille et les proches du défunt. Je prie le Seigneur d'accueillir dans sa paix et dans sa lumière ce Pasteur fidèle qui, au cours dun long et fructueux épiscopat, a servi lÉglise avec foi et générosité comme Évêque de Man et premier Évêque de Yamoussoukro, avant de devenir Archevêque d'Abidjan. À travers une intense activité pastorale, le Cardinal défunt s'est manifesté comme un homme de Dieu passionné par l'annonce de lÉvangile et le développement humain et spirituel des personnes. En gage de réconfort, je vous adresse une particulière Bénédiction apostolique, ainsi qu'aux Évêques de Côte d'Ivoire, à la famille du Cardinal défunt et à ses proches, à ses anciens diocésains, et à toutes les personnes qui prendront part à la célébration des obséques.

FRANCISCUS PP.


Analogous telegram was sent by Cardinal Pietro Parolin, secretary of State.


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AGUSTONI, Gilberto
(1922-

Birth. July 26, 1922, Schaffhausen, diocese of Lugano, Switzerland. He was the son of a civil servant who came from Ticino and who moved to Eastern Switzerland for work reasons. He had four brothers and one sister. Two of his brothers were also priests. Their mother came from a village on the shores of Lake Constance.

Education. Seminary of Lugano; because of the war, his bishop, Angelo Jelmini, kept his student in Switzerland and had him continue his studies at the University of Fribourg, University of S. Tommaso d'Aquino, Rome; Pontifical Lateran University, Rome (licentiates in theology and law).

Priesthood. Ordained, April 20, 1946, Lugano. Successively, 1946-1950, vice-assessor of the diocesan Catholic Action; pastoral ministry with students in several Swiss universities; pastoral ministry with the Catholic Scouts Association. In 1950, Msgr. Alfredo Ottaviani, then assessor of the S.C. of the Holy Office, asked the Bishop of Lugano for the young priest Father Agustoni, whom he had met on several occasions. On the senior prelate's persistence, the bishop finally agreed, although not without regret. Father Agustoni eventually became Msgr. Ottaviani's secretary. He entered the service of the Holy See, July 1, 1950. Further studies in Rome and office chief and commissary the of S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments for matrimonial causes; consultor of the S.C. for Divine Worship, 1950 - 1970. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, January 6, 1956; November 3, 1958. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, May 23, 1964. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, May 5, 1970.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Caorle and appointed secretary of the Congregation for Clergy, December 18, 1986. Consecrated, January 6, 1987, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Josè Tomás Sánchez, archbishop emeritus of Nueva Segovia, secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. In the same ceremony was consecrated Dino Monduzzi, titular bishop of Capri, prefect of the Pontifical Household, another future cardinal. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Pro-prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of Apostolic Signature and pro-president of the Appeal Court of Vatican City, April 2, 1992. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 - 29, 1994.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ss. Urbano e Lorenzo a Porta Prima, November 26, 1994. Appointed prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, November 26, 1994. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of third centenary of miraculous image of Blessed Virgin Mary venerated in the cathedral, Gyor, Hungary, March 15-17, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Resigned prefecture, October 5, 1998. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, July 26, 2002. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the centennial of the coronation of the image of Mater Dolorosa in the Shrine of Telgte, diocese of Münster, Germany, July 3, 2004. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, February 24, 2005.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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ÁLVAREZ MARTINEZ, Francisco
(1925-

Birth. July 14, 1925, Santa Eulalia de Ferroñes, Llanera, archdiocese of Oviedo, Spain.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Oviedo; at the Pontifical University of Salamanca; and at the Pontifical University of Comillas, where he obtained a doctorate in canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 11, 1950, Oviedo. In the archdiocese of Oviedo, pastoral ministry and private secretary to the archbishop for 7 years; secretary-chancellor; pro-vicar general.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tarazona, April 13, 1973. Consecrated, June 3, 1973, cathedral of Tarazona, by Luigi Dadaglio, titular archbishop of Daro, nuncio in Spain, assisted by Pedro Cantero Cuadrado, archbishop of Zaragoza, and by José Méndez Asensio, archbishop of Pamplona. Apostolic administrator sede plena of Calahorra-La Calzada y Logroño, July 7, 1975. Transferred to the see of Calahora y La Calzada-Logroño, December 20, 1976. Transferred to the see of Orihuela-Alicante, May 12, 1989. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of Toledo, June 23, 1995. Attended the II Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999, by papal appointment.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria "Regina Pacis" a Monte Verde, February 21, 2001. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, October 24, 2002. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, July 14, 2005.

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 138.

Links. Los Arzobispos de Toledo, in Spanish, archdiocese of Toledo, Spain; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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AMBROZIC, Aloysius Matthew
(1930-2011)

Birth. January 27, 1930, Gabrje, archdiocese of Ljubljana, Slovenia, Yugoslavia. Second of the seven children of Aloysius Ambrozic and Helen Pecar. His family escaped to Austria in May 1945 and lived in refugee camps of Vetrnj, Peggez and Spittal an der Drau. Migrated to Canada in September 1948. He had an uncle who was a Franciscan priest. He is also listed as Alojzij Ambrožič.

Education. Initial studies in Dobrova; then, studied at Lyceum of Ljubljana (classics); finished his secondary education in Austria; attended St. Augustine Seminary, Scarborough, Toronto, 1948-1955; later, studied at the Pontifical Angelicum Athenaeum, Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in theology, in 1958; also at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, earning a licentiate in Sacred Scriptures, in 1960; and finally at the University of Würzburg, Germany, where he obtained a doctorate in theology, in 1970.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 4, 1955, Toronto, by Cardinal James Charles McGuigan, archbishop of Toronto. Pastoral ministry at the parish of St. Teresa's, Port Colborne, 1955-1956. Professor of Latin at the Seminary of Toronto, 1956-1957. Further studies in Rome, 1958-1960. Professor of Sacred Scriptures, St. Augustine Seminary, Toronto, 1960-1967; and 1970-1976; prefect of studies, 1971-1976. Further studies in Germany, 1967-1970. From 1970 to 1976, professor of New Testament exegesis, School of Theology of Toronto; dean of studies, St. Augustine Seminary, Toronto, 1971-1976; and pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Toronto. From 1971-1975 he was a member of the Archdiocesan Senate of Priests.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Valabria and appointed auxiliary of Toronto, March 26, 1976. Consecrated, May 27, 1976, Toronto, by Philip Francis Pocock, archbishop of Toronto, assisted by Francis Valentine Allen, titular bishop of Avensa, auxiliary of Toronto, and by Francis Paul McHugh, S.F.M., titular bishop of Legis di Volumnio, prelate emeritus of Itacoatiara. His episcopal motto was Jesus est Dominus. Promoted to archbishop coadjutor with right of succession of Toronto, May 22, 1986. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Toronto, March 17, 1990. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, February 21, 1998. He hosted the Seventeenth World Youth Day, July 23 to 28, 2002, Toronto. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, December 16, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Toronto, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law, was accepted by the pope on December 16, 2006. He was the ninth Archbishop of Toronto. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when he turned eighty years old on January 27, 2010. He was a member of the Congregations for the Oriental Churches; for Divine Worship and Discipline of the Sacraments; and for the Clergy; and of the Pontifical Councils for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People; and for Culture. He was a tireless advocate for refugees and immigrants.

Death. August 26, 2011, peacefully, after a lengthy illness with progressive supranuclear palsy, a brain disorder, at the Scarborough General Hospital, Toronto, surrounded by his family. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Benedict XVI prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to Archbishop Thomas Collins of Toronto. The funeral Mass for Cardinal Ambrozic took place on Wednesday, August 31, 2011, at 10:30 a.m. at St. Michael's Cathedral. The funeral mass was presided over by Archbishop Collins of Toronto, who also delivered the homily, and concelebrated by several bishops, among them the auxiliaries of Toronto John A. Boissonneau, William McGrattan and Vincent Nguyen; and the retired auxiliary bishop of Toronto, M. Pearse Lacey. Present were Cardinal Jean-Claude Turcotte, archbishop of Montréal, Canada; Archbishop Anton Stres of Ljubljana, president of the Episcopal Conference of Slovenia; and Monsignor Luca Lorusso, representing the Vatican in Canada. About a thousand people gathered at the cathedral to remember the late cardinal. Federal Finance Minister Jim Flaherty, Ontario Lieutenant-Governor David Onley, Toronto Mayor Rob Ford and Mississauga Mayor Hazel McCallion were among the dignitaries attending the funeral at the cathedral. The body of the late cardinal was buried in the Bishops Mausoleum at Holy Cross Cemetery, Thornhill, Ontario, where his immediate predecessor, Cardinal Gerald Emmett Carter, is also buried.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 285-286.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sla Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph, arms and biography, in English, archdiocese of Toronto; photograph and biography, in English, Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops; photography and biography, in French, Conférence des Évêques Catholiques du Canada; photograph and biography, in Slovenian, rkc.si; his arms and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Iindirizzo di ommaggio del Cardinale Aloysisu Matthew Ambrozi all'inizio della concelebrazione eucaristica della XVII GMG, Sunday July 28, 2002; statement of Cardinal Franc Rodé, C.M., on the death of Cardinal Ambrozic, in Slovenian, rkc.si.; statement on the death of the cardinal from Archbishop Anton Stres of Ljubljana, president of the Episcopal Conference of Slovenia, in Slovenian, rkc.si; Homily for the funeral of Cardinal Aloysius Ambrozic, Salt+Light.


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AMIGO VALLEJO, O.F.M., Carlos
(1934-

Birth. August 23, 1934, Medina de Rioseco, archdiocese of Valladolid, Spain.

Education. Studied at the Medical Faculty of Valladolid (medicine); soon after, he left and joined the Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans). Studied philosophy in Rome; and at the Central University of Madrid he studied psychology. Received the diaconate from Cardinal Fernando Quiroga Palacios, archbishop of Santiago de Compostela.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 17, 1960, Rome, by Miguel Nóvoa Fuente, titular bishop of Chitri, auxiliary of Santiago de Compostela. Further studies, Rome. In Madrid, pastoral ministry; further studies; professor of philosophy of science and anthropology in different educational centers. Provincial of the Franciscan province of Santiago, 1970.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Tanger, Morocco, December 17, 1973. Consecrated, April 28, 1974, church of San Francisco el Grande, Madrid, by Cardinal Marcelo González Martín, archbishop of Toledo, assisted by Félix Romero Menjíbar, archbishop of Valladolid, and by Francisco Aldegunde Dorrego, O.F.M., former archbishop of Tanger. His episcopal motto is Gratia et pax. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. In several occasions acted as mediator to solve conflicts between the countries of Magreb (Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Mauritania, Tunisia) and Spain. Transferred to metropolitan see of Seville, May 22, 1982; received the pallium from Antonio Innocenti, titular archbishop of Eclano, nuncio in Spain, on June 29, 1982 during the installation mass at the metropolitan cathedral of Sevilla. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; by papal appointment. President of the Episcopal Commission for the Fifth Centennial of the Evangelization of America. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992, as an invited guest. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Member of the Academies of Buenas Letras, Medicina and Bellas Artes of Seville. Decorated with the Orden al Mérito de los Padres de la Patria Dominicana, the highest decoration granted by the Dominican Republic, February 1995. Granted a doctorate honoris causa by the Technological University of Cibao, Dominican Republic, February 1995. Granted the silver medal of the Republic of Panamá, September 2000.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria in Montserrato degli Spagnoli, October 21, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. On November 5, 2009, he resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Sevilla in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. On June 4, 2011, the pope named him special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the Jubilar Year of the 500th anniversary of the canonical erection of the first ecclesiastical circumscriptions in America: Santo Domingo and La Vega, Dominican Republic; and San Juan de Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico, programmed for August 7 and 8, 2011. On September 22, 2012, the pope named him special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the fifth centennial of the arrival in Puerto Rico of the first bishop, Don Alonso Manso, which took place in the city of San Juan, Puerto Rico, on November 19, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on August 23, 2014.

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 139.

Links. His photograph, arms and biography, in Spanish, archdiocese of Sevilla; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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ANGELINI, Fiorenzo
(1916-

Birth. August 1, 1916, Rome, Italy.

Education. Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome; Pontifical Lateran University, Rome; Pontifical Theological Faculty Marianum, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, February 3, 1940. Pastoral ministry, diocese of Rome, 1940-1956. National Ecclesiastical Assistant of the Men's Catholic Action, 1945-1959. Master of Pontifical Ceremonies, 1947-1954. Commendatario of S. Spirito in Sassia, delegate of the cardinal vicar of Rome for clinics and hospitals. Ecclesiastical assistant of the Union of Men of the Catholic Action.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Messene and appointed Commendatory of Santo Spirito, June 27, 1956. Consecrated, July 29, 1956, church of S. Ignazio, Rome, by Cardinal Giuseppe Pizzardo, bishop of Albano, secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, prefect of the S.C. of Seminaries and Universities, assisted by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome, and by Mario Ismaele Castellano, bishop of Volterra, assistant general of the Italian Catholic Action. His episcopal motto is Evangelizo pacem evangelizo bonum. Founder and National Ecclesiastical Assistant of the Association of Italian Catholic Physicians in 1959. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Delegate for hospitals for the cardinal vicar of Rome, 1967-1985. Auxiliary bishop of Rome, January 6, 1977 to February 16, 1985. Promoted to the dignity of archbishop and appointed pro-president of the Pontifical Commission for the Pastoral Assistance to Health Care Workers, February 16, 1985. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. President of the Pontifical Commission for the Pastoral Assistance to Health Care Workers, March 1, 1989. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 28, 1991; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Spirito in Sassia, June 28, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly of Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Special Assembly of Synod of Bishops for Africa, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Special papal envoy to the opening of the celebrations of the Fifth centennial of Saint John of God's birth, Montemor-o-Nuovo, Portugal, March 8, 1995. Special papal envoy to the Fourth World Day of the Sick, held at the shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe, México, México, February 11, 1996. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, August 1, 1996. Resigned the presidency of the Pontifical Commission for the Pastoral Assistance to Health Care Workers, October 31, 1996. Special papal envoy to the Fifth World Day of the Sick, held at the shrine of Our Lady of Fátima, Portugal, February 11, 1997; to the Seventh World Day of the Sick, February 11, 1999, Harissa, Lebanon. Opted for order of priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, February 26, 2002.

Links. His arms and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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ANTONELLI, Ennio
(1936-

Birth. November 18, 1936, Todi, Italy.

Education. After completing his middle and ginnasiali studies at the Episcopal Seminary of Todi, he attende the Lyceum of the Regional Seminary of Assisi; then, his bishop sent him to Rome as student at the Pontifical Roman Seminary; and completed his philosophical and theological formation at the Pontifical Lateran University; later, he studied at the State University of Perugia, where he earned a doctorate in classical letters.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 2, 1960, cathedral of S. Maria Assunta, Todi, by Ilario Alcini, titular archbishop of Nicea, visitor of the Italian seminaries; incardinated in the diocese of Todi. Professor, vice-rector and rector of the Seminary of Perugia. Professor of dogmatic theology in the Regional Seminary of Assisi from 1968 to 1983; professor of art history in the Superior Institutes of Assisi and Deruta; ecclesiastical assistant of the Catholic "Laureati" and pastor.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Gubbio, May 25, 1982. Consecrated, August 29, 1982, cathedral of the Assumption, Todi, by Decio Lucio Grandoni, bishop of Orvieto and of Todi, assisted by Santo Bartolomeo Quadri, bishop of Terni e Narni, and by Antonio Fustella, bishop of Saluzzo. His episcopal motto is Voluntas Dei pax nostra. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Perugia-Città della Pieve, October 6, 1988. Secretary general of the Italian Episcopal Conference, May 25, 1995. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Perugia-Città della Pieve, May 26, 1995. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Florence, March 21, 2001; occupied the see until June 7, 2008.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Andrea delle Fratte October 21, 2003. Member of the Pontifical Councils for the Laity, for the Pastoral for Migrants and Intinerants and for Social Communications. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. On June 7, 2008, he was appointed president of the Pontifical Council for the Family. Apostolic administrator of the archdiocese of Florence from June 7, 2008 until the installation of his successor. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". Special papal envoy to the conclusive ceremonies of the Pauline Year observed on June 29, 2009, in Malta. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World". Pope Benedict XVI accepted the resignation from the post of president of the Pontifical Council for the Family on June 26, 2012. Named member of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints on September 15, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints on December 19, 2013. On March 19, 2014, he was named special papal envoy to the commemorative celebration of the 70th anniversary of the destruction-reconstruction of the Abbey of Montecassino, programmed for March 21, 2014. On July 19, 2014, he was named special papal envoy to the consecration of the new Shrine of San Gabriele dell'Addolorata, Teramo, Italy, programmed for September 21, 2014.

Links. His photograph, arms and biography, in Italian, archdiocese of Florence; his photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa dell Santa Sede; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Cardinal Antonelli on International Day of the Family: "The role of the family cannot be replaced", video, Rome Reports, 2012-05-15 18:02:44; Cardinal Antonelli praises those few conscious families that go against the tide by Domenico Agasso jr, Vatican Insider, 05/24/2012; Cardinal Ennio Antonelli: World Meeting of Families will boost healthy family life, Rome Reports, 2012-05-27 08:00:00; "Normal" families are happier, says Cardinal Antonelli by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 05/29/2012; Cardinal Antonelli leaves the Pontifical Council for the Family, Rome Reports, 2012-06-27 16:49:34.


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ANTONETTI, Lorenzo
(1922-2013)

Birth. July 31, 1922, Romagnano Sesia, diocese of Novara, Italy. Son of Leopoldo Antonetti and Maddalena Tinelli.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Novara; at Almo Collegio Capranica, Rome; at the Pontifical University of S. Tommaso d'Aquino (Angelicum), Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in theology; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in canon law; and, from 1949 to 1950, at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy).

Priesthood. Ordained, May 26, 1945, Novara, by Leone Giacomo Ossola, O.F.M.Cap., bishop of Novara. Pastoral ministry in diocese of Novara, 1946. Further studies, Rome, 1947-1951. Joined the Vatican Secretariat of State, 1951. Attaché and later secretary in the nunciature in Lebanon, 1952-1955. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, July 28, 1952. Secretary in the nunciature in Venezuela, 1956 to 1959. Worked in the section of Extraordinary Affairs, Secretariat of State, 1959 to 1963. Counselor in the nunciature in France, 1963 to 1967. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, August 18, 1964. Counselor in the apostolic delegation in the United States, 1968.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Roselle, February 23, 1968. Named nuncio in Honduras and Nicaragua, February 24, 1968. Consecrated, May 12, 1968, Romagnano Sesia, by Cardinal Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, secretary of State, assisted by Placido Maria Cambiagli, bishop of Novara, and by Edoardo Piana Agostinetti, titular bishop of Eurea di Fenicia, auxiliary of Novara. His episcopal motto was Caritas et patientia Christi. Pro-nuncio in Zaïre, June 29, 1973. Secretary of the Administration of Patrimony of Holy See, June 15, 1977. Nuncio in France, September 23, 1988. Pro-president of the Administration of Patrimony of Apostolic See, June 24, 1995. Attended the Special Assembly for America of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Agnese in Agone, February 21, 1998. President of the Administration of Patrimony of Apostolic See, February 23, 1998. Special papal envoy to the closing of the celebrations of the 9th centennial of the Abbey of Notre-Dame de Cîteaux, France, October 17, 1998. Resigned the presidency of the Administration of Patrimony of Apostolic See, November 5, 1998. Pontifical delegate to the patriarchal basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi, November 5, 1998. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, July 31, 2002. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, March 1, 2008.

Death. April 10, 2013, in the early morning, at Casa della Divina Provvidenza, Novara. The body of the late cardinal will be exposed at the bishopric of Novara starting in the evening. The funeral mass took place on Friday April 12 in the church of Romagnano Sesia, his native town, and was be presided by Bishop Franco Giulio Brambilla of Novara. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Francis sent a telegram of condolence to the bishop of Novara (1). In his will, Cardinal Antonetti had expressed his wish that his remains be interred at the Chiesa Abbaziale della Santissima Annunziata e di San Silvano, via Generale Ragni n. 24, Romagnano Sesia. However, due to a number of bureaucratic problems, his wish could not be realized at this time, and thus, his remains were laid to rest in the family chapel at Cimitero Comunale of Romagnano Sesia, until a definitive tomb is finished at the abbey church.

Bibliography. Code, Bernard. American Bishops 1964-1970. St. Louis : Wexford Press, 1970, p. 21.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Press Office of the Holy See; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Press Office of the Holy See:
Nell'apprendere la triste noticia della scomparsa del venerato Cardinale Lorenzo Antonetti, desidero esprimere sentimenti di vivo cordoglio a codesta comunità diocesana, che lo annovera tra i suoi figli più illustri, come pure al nipote Mario, agli altri nipoti e rispettivi familiari e a quanti lo hanno conosciuto e stimato. Ricordo il compianto Porporato per tanti anni solerte collaboratore della Santa Sede, in particolare come Rappresentante pontificio in diversi Paesi, in Segreteria di Stato, poi come Presidente dell'Amministrazione del Patrimonio della Sede Apostolica e infine quale Delegato pontificio per la Basilica Papale di San Francesco in Assisi: ovunque egli ha reso apprezzata testimonianza di fervoroso zelo sacerdotale e di fedeltà al Vangelo. Mentre elevo fervide preghiere al Signore Gesù affinchè, auspice la Vergine Maria, voglia donare al defunto Cardinale il premio eterno promesso ai suoi fedeli discepoli, invio di cuore a Vostra Eccellenza, all'intero presbiterio e a quanti condividono il dolore per la sua dipartita, una speciale confortatrice Benedizione Apostolica.

FRANCISCUS P P.
Dal Vaticano, 10 aprile 2013.

Analogous telegram was sent by Cardinale Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., secretary of State.


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ARAÚJO, Serafim Fernandes de
(1924-

Birth. August 13, 1924, Minas Novas, diocese of Araçuaí, Brazil. Son of José Fernandes de Araújo and Gabriela Leite Araújo. He is the eldest of sixteen children.

Education. Initial studies in 1937 at Coronel Jonas Câmara School, in Itamarandiba; in 1937, he entered the Seminary of Diamantina, where he obtained a licentiate in philosophy in 1944; then, he studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome from 1945, obtaining doctorates in theology in 1949; and in canon law in 1951.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 12, 1949, at the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. Further studies, Rome, 1949-1951. Since the beginning of his priestly ministry, he was profoundly identified with the educational work and social communications. Returned to Brazil and exercised his pastoral ministry as pastor in the city of Gouveia from 1951 to 1957, and at the same time, in 1956, he was professor of canon law at the Provincial Seminary of Diamantina; director of Catechesis of that archdiocese; and professor of religion at the Escola Normal of Diamantina. He was pastor of the city Curvelo from 1957 to 1959, teaching, at the same time, at Padre Curvelo School; at the Institute Santo Antônio; and at the Escola Normal. Concurrently, from 1956 until 1957, he was chaplain of the Third Battalion of Police, in Diamantina; 1956-1959, faculty member, Provincial Seminary of Diamantina; archdiocesan director of catechesis; faculty member, Teacher's School of Diamantina and several schools in Gouveia.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Verinopoli and appointed auxiliary of Belo Horizonte, January 19, 1959. Consecrated, May 7, 1959, Diamantina, by José Newton de Almeida Baptista, archbishop of Diamantina, assisted by João Resende Costa, S.D.B., titular archbishop of Martirano, coadjutor of Belo Horizonte, and by José Maria Pires, bishop of Araçuaí. His episcopal motto is Serafim juxta eum. In 1960, he was chosen as rector of the Catholic University of Belo Horizonte, recently founded in Minas Gerais (now Pontifical University) of which law school he was professor; he held this office until 1981, when he left the university with twenty three academic degrees and 15,000 students. He continued with his international experience as an educator. In Brazil, he created links between universities and the workplace and supported many poor students through the establishment of scholarships. He dedicated himself to restructure on a more consistent and dynamic means of social communication available to the archdiocese, revising, planning and modernizing the facilities and technical installations of the Radios América and Cultura, giving new impetus to the Jornal de Opinião, which replaced the weekly Lar Católico. Participated in the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopal Council (CELAM), January 27 to February 13, 1979, Puebla, México. Promoted to coadjutor archbishop with right succession of Belo Horizonte, November 22, 1982. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Belo Horizonte, February 5, 1986. In 1989 he was appointed member of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America (CAL). Member of the Pontifical Council for Social Communications from 1990 to 1995. For several years he was responsible for a daily program, "A Palavra de Deus" broadcast by Rádio América in Belo Horizonte; and another Sunday program in three different television channels in the capital of Minas Gerais (Bandeirantes, Globo and Minas). On August 15, 1990, proposed that the local Church of Belo Horizonte concentrated a massive effort of evangelization, inviting her to become a missionary Church, participatory and merciful, through the Pastoral Care Project "Construir a Esperança" which became the pastoral model for several dioceses in Brazil, with the approval and the seal of the National Episcopal Conference. The climax of the project was the implementation of the First Assembly of the People of God on October 12, 1996 .Vice-president of the National Conference of Brazilian Bishop from 1991 to 1995. He was chosen as head of the Sector of Social Communications of the National Episcopal Conference of Brazilian Bishops and was part for several years of the Department of Social Communication of the Latin American Episcopal Council (CELAM). Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopal Council (CELAM), Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992; one of its three presidents. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. In 1995, he organized and celebrated in Belo Horizonte the Fifth Latin American Missionary Congress (COMLA V). President of the Association Nossa Senhora da Conceição, working to provide assistance to street children and ion the Pastoral Care of Children and marginalized groups, and dedicated, above all, to offer spiritual and material support to the terminally ill patients who lack assistance. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. He was granted several honorary doctorates as well as the title of Commander of the National Order of Educational Merit, with the grand medal of the Inconfidência and with the medal Santos Dumont. He received the title of honorary citizen of the cities of Pedro Leopoldo, Curvelo, Itabira, Luz, Nova Lima, Belo Horizonte, Contagem, Itamarandiba, Diamantina, Bom Despacho and Caeté.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of S. Luigi Maria Grignion de Montfort, February 21, 1998. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese upon having reached the age limit, January 28, 2004. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, August 13, 2004.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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