The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
(1903-2011)
A

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AGAGIANIAN, Grégoire-Pierre XV
(1895-1971)

Birth. September 18, 1895, Akhaltzikhe, Armenian ordinariate of Caucasus, Russia. His baptismal name was Gazaros (the Armenian equivalent of Lazarus, or Lazare in French). He was known as Gazaros Agagianian until he was elected patriarch of Cilicia of the Armenians. He is also listed as Krikor Bedros XV Aghadjanian.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Tifflis, Georgia, Russia; and at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 23, 1917, Rome. Pastoral ministry, Tifflis, 1918-1921. Faculty member and vice-rector of the Pontifical Armenian College, Rome, 1921-1932; faculty member of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, 1922-1932; rector of the Pontifical Armenian College, Rome, 1932-1937. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, August 5, 1932. Apostolic Visitor to the Patriarchal Institute of Bzommar, Beirut, Lebanon, 1935.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Comana di Armenia, July 11, 1935. Consecrated, July 21, 1935, church of S. Nicola Tolention, Rome, by Serge Der Abrahamian, titular bishop of Cucuso, ordinating prelate for the Armenian rite in Rome, assisted by Bartolomeo Cattaneo, titular archbishop of Palmira, general treasurer of the Apostolic Chamber, and by Pietro Pisani, titular archbishop of Tomi, delegate of the Oriental Church in Rome. His episcopal motto was Iustitia et Pax. Elected patriarch of Cilicia by the Armenian Synod, November 30, 1937; received papal confirmation, December 13, 1937. He took the name Grégoire-Pierre XV, or Krikhor-Bedros XV in Armenian.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Bartolomeo all ' Isola, February 22, 1946. President of the Pontifical Commission for the Revision of the Code of Oriental Canon Law, July 2, 1955. Pro-prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, June 18, 1958 until July 18, 1960; prefect, July 18, 1960 until October 19, 1970. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Papal legate to the Marian Congress, Saigon, South Vietnam, January 31, 1959. Papal legate to the Patrician Congress, Dublin, Ireland, June 15 to 23, 1961, to commemorate the 1500th Anniversary of the death of St. Patrick, patron saint of Ireland. Resigned patriarchate, August 25, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965; member of the Board of Presidency, 1963-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Papal legate to the 38th International Eucharistic Congress, Bombay, India, November 11, 1964. Participated in the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, April 28, 1969 until May 18, 1970. Cardinal bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Albano, October 22, 1970.

Death. May 16, 1971, of cancer, in Rome; Pope Paul VI had visited him a few weeks before his death. Buried in the Armenian church of S. Nicola da Tolentino, Rome.

Bibliography. Croaty, A. Cardinal Agagianian, papal legate: a profile. Dublin: J. Duffy, 1961.

Links. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; and Gallery of the Armenian Catholic Patriarchs, HaYaSeR 2002.


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AGNELO, Geraldo Majella
(1933-

Birth. October 19, 1933, Juiz de Fora, Mina Gerais, Brazil. Third of the eight children of António and Sylvia Spagnolo. He was baptized on February 11, 1934 in the church of São Mateus in Juiz de Fora. His godparents were António José Ribeiro Pinto e Maria José de Oliveira Pinto, who supported his priestly studies.

Education. Completed his elementary studies at the institute Santos Anjos of the Carmelite Sisters of the Divine Providence from 1942 to 1944; then, he did his liceale course at Santo António Minor Seminary, Juiz de Fora, from 1945 to 1947; in 1948, he continued his studies at São Paulo Minor Seminary of Pirapora do Bom Jesus, directed by the Fathers Premostratense; at this time, his family moved to São Paulo; in 1951, he started his studies in philosophy at the Imaculada Conceição do Ipiranga Central Seminary, São Paulo; e obtained the degree in philosophy at the Faculty of Philosophy of the University of Mogi das Cruzes; in 1954, he started his theological studies at the Theological faculty Nossa Senhora da Assunção of São Paulo; in 1957, he obtained the degree in that discipline. Later, from October 1967, he studied at the Liturgical Institute of the Pontifical Athenaeum of S. Anselmo, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in theology with specialization in sacred liturgy on December 3, 1969 with a thesis entitled "Servitus nel Sacramentario veronese. Significato e Dottrina, Contributo alla conoscenza del significato teologico del servizio liturgico".

Priesthood. Ordained, June 27, 1957, metropolitan cathedral of São Paulo, by António Maria Alves de Siqueira, titular archbishop of Calcide di Siria, coadjutor of São Paulo. From the beginning of 1958, he was collaborator in Santo António parish, in Barra Funda, São Paulo. Fom 1958 to 1959, he was spiritual director and professor in the pre-seminary Santo Curato d'Ars, for adult vocations, in the Freguesia do Ó, São Paulo. Assistant to the Femenine Catholic Student Youth. Notary of the Ecclesiastical Tribunal of São Paulo. Director and faculty member of the Philosophical Seminary of the archdiocese of São Paulo in Aparecida from 1960 to 1963. Named canon of the cathedral chapter of São Paulo by Cardinal Carlos Carmelo de Vasconcellos Motta, archbishop of that see, at the beginning of 1964 until 1978; he was also ceremoniere of the cathedral. Spiritual director and professor of theology at the Central Seminary Imaculada Conceição do Ipiranga, São Paulo, from 1964 to 1967; at the same time, he was professor of philosophy at the Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo. Further studies, Rome, 1967-1969; during his stay in that city, he resided at Pontificio Collegio Pio Brasiliano, participating every week in the program of Vatican Radio for Brazil, entitled "Liturgia e Vita"; and collaborating pastorally in the parish of San Clemente Papa in the neighborhood of Montesacro. When he returned to Brazil, he was coordinator of diocesan pastoral and professor of theology from 1970 until 1974. During that period, he was professor of liturgical and sacramental theology at the Theological Institute Pio XI, at the Major Seminary João XXIII, and at the Theological Faculty Nossa Senhora da Assunção of São Paulo, of which he was rector from 1974 until 1978.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Toledo, Brazil, May 14, 1978. Consecrated, August 6, 1978, cathedral of Nossa Senhora Assunção e São Paulo, São Paulo, by Cardinal Paulo Evaristo Arns, O.F.M., archbishop of São Paulo, assisted by Benedito de Ulhoa Vieira, archbishop of Uberaba, and by Angelico Sandalo Bernardino, titular bishop of Tambee, auxiliary of São Paulo. His episcopal motto is Caritas cum fide. He was co-founder, rector and professor of the Faculty of Human Sciences "Arnaldo Busato" of Toledo. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Londrina, October 4, 1982. From 1983 until 1987, he was president of the Liturgical Commission of the National Conference of Brazilian Bishops (CNBB). In April 1991, during the Plenary Assembly of the Latinamerican Episcopal Council celebrated in Buenos Aires, he was elected president of the Department of Liturgy. Named secretary of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments on September 16, 1991. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992; by papal appointment. On June 3, 1994, he was named member of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America. From May 1999 until May 2003, he was second vice-president of the Latinamerican Episcopal Council (CELAM). Nominated member of the Central Committee for the Grand Jubilee of 2000, March 17, 1995; president of its Liturgical Commission. On October 30, 1997, he was named member of the Pontifical Committee for International Eucharistic Congress. Transferred to the metropolitan see of São Salvador da Bahia, January 13, 1999. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. He published the books Liturgia, Serviço Cultural do povo de Deus, sentido e Doutrina de Servitus no Sacramentário Veronense; Os Sacramentos e o Mistérios do Santo Ambrósio; Pastoral do Batismo. Subsídios Teológico-litúrgicos; as well as articles for Brazilian journals, especially Revista de Liturgia e Teologia em Diálogo; and in Italian liturgical publications such as Notitiae and L'Osservatore Romano, daily edition.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of S. Gregorio Magno alla Magliana Nuova, February 21, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Elected president of the Episcopal Conference of Brazil for four years, May 5, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Named one of the three presidents of the Fifth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place in Aparecida, Brazil, from May 13 to 31, 2007. On January 12, 2011, the pope accepted his resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of São Salvador da Bahia in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. The pope named new metropolitan archbishop of that see Murilo Sebastião Ramos Krieger, S.C.I., until then archbishop of Florianópolis. Cardinal Agnelo was apostolic administrator until the installation of his successor on March 25, 2011. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on October 19, 2013.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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AGOSTINI, Carlo
(1888-1952)

Birth. April 22, 1888, S. Martino di Lupari, diocese of Treviso, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Treviso (humanities); sent to Rome in 1906 to further his studies, he attended the Pontifical Roman Academy of St. Thomas Aquinas, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in philosophy; and the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in theology. While studying in Rome, he developed a close acquaintance with Pope Pius X, who received him in several private audiences.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 24, 1910, church S. Dona di Piave, by Andrea Giacinto Longhin, O.F.M.Cap., bishop of Treviso. The pope granted him a dispensation for reason of young age to receive the priesthood. Professor of biblical theology at the Seminary of Treviso, 1910-1912; professor of moral theology, 1912-1932; its rector, 1925-1932. He taught religion at the Scuole Medie of Palazzo Filodrammatici; and at Collegio Nicolò Tommaseo, where he also served as spiritual director. Vicar of the parish of S. Biagio di Callalta, for a short period between 1914 and 1918. Canon of the cathedral chapter in 1928.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Padua, January 30, 1932. Consecrated, April 10, 1932, Treviso, by Andrea Giacinto Longhin, O.F.M.Cap., bishop of Treviso, assisted by Elia dalla Costa, archbishop of Florence, and by Eugenio Beccegati, bishop of Ceneda; took possession of the diocese on the following May 8. Apostolic administrator of the see of Treviso, March 8 to December 6, 1936. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, March 25, 1942. Promoted to the patriarchate of Venice, February 5, 1949. President of the ecclesiastical tribunal, he testified in the beatification process of Pope Pius X.

Cardinalate. On November 29, 1952, the announcement of his creation as cardinal was made, for the consistory of January 12, 1953, but he died before the consistory was celebrated.

Death. December 28, 1952, from Parkinson's disease (he had also been suffering from leukemia for a long time), in Venice. Buried in S. Michele cemetery, Venice. Transferred to the crypt of the patriarchal cathedral of Venice in November 1957.

Bibliography. Niero, Antonio. I patriarchi di Venezia. Da Lorenzo Giustiniani ai nostri giorni. Venice : Studium Cattolico Veneziano, 1961. (Collana Storica, 3), pp. 218-222.


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AGRÉ, Bernard
(1926-

Birth. March 2, 1926, Monga, archdiocese of Abidjan, Ivory Coast. He is a member of the Mbatto people. Son of Jean Manda e Agré and Jeanne Yomin. Baptized, September 2, 1932, Memni, his parish of origin.

Education. Completed his primary education in the school of the Catholic Mission of Memni from 1936 to 1941; then, studied at the Minor Seminary of Bingerville from 1941 to 1947; nd studied philosophy at the Major Seminary of Bingerville from 1947 to 1948; in 1948, he entered the Major Seminary of Quidah, Dahomey (now Benin) to study theology until 1953; in 1957, he was sent to study at Pontifical Urbanian University, where he earned a doctorate summa cum laude in theology in 1960; he also studied canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 20, 1953, in the Minor Seminary of Bingerville, by Jean Baptiste Boivin, S.M.A., titular bishop of Onufi, apostolic vicar of Abidjan. Vicar in Dabou, teacher and director of the school, 1953-1956. Rector of the pre-seminary minor of Bingerville, 1956-1957. Further studies, Rome, 1957-1960. Returned to Ivory Coast and became pastor of the parish of Notre Dame in Treichville, 1960-1962. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, December 8, 1961 (title changed to prelate of honor in 1968). Vicar general of Abidjan, in charge of private education and of the Seminaries, 1963-1968.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Man, June 8, 1968. Consecrated, October 3, 1968, church of St. Thèrése, Abidjan, by Bernard Yago, archbishop of Abidjan, assisted by Bernardin Gantin, archbishop of Cotonou, and by Guy Marie Joseph Riobé, bishop of Orléans. Took possession of the see on the following October 8. From 1972 to 1996, he was president of the Episcopal Commission of the Means of Social Communication of the Regional Episcopal Conference of Western Africa (CERAO). President of the Regional Episcopal Conference of Western Africa (CERAO), 1985-1991. Transferred to the new see of Yamoussoukro, March 6, 1992; took possession of the see the following May 17. President of the Panafrican Episcopal Committee of Social Communications (CEPACS) from 1993 to 2000. Promoted to metropolitan see of Abidjan, December 19, 1994; took possession of the see on February 26, 1995. Received the pallium from Pope John Paul II on June 29, 1995, feast of Saints Peter and Paul, in the patriarchal Vatican basilica. He was president of the Episcopal Commission of the Social and Charitable Actions of Ivory Coast. Member of the Committee of the Grand Jubilee of the Year 2000.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of S. Giovanni Crisostomo a Monte Sacro Alto, February 21, 2001. Attended Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001; one of the three presidents delegate. In November 2003, Ivory Coast officials said they uncovered a plot to assassinate Cardinal Bernard Agre and other political and religious leaders to undermine the administration of President Laurent Gbagbo. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, March 2, 2006. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese was accepted on May 2, 2006, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World". He was a member of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples; and of the Pontifical Councils for the Family, Iustitia et Pax and Social Communications.

Link. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; his photograph, Araldica Vaticana; Monseigneur Bernard Agré: il faut trouver «une solution humaine au problème ivoirien» by Emmanuel D'Abzac, RFI, article publié le : vendredi 24 décembre 2010 - dernière modification le : vendredi 24 décembre 2010.


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AGUIRRE GARCÍA, O.F.M., Gregorio María
(1835-1913)

Birth. March 12, 1835, Pola de Gordón, diocese of Oviedo, Spain.

Education. Seminary of Leon, Leon. Joined the Order of Friars Minor Discalced (1) of Alcántara, Colegio de Pastrana, May 1856; professed in 1857.

Priesthood. Ordained, end of September 1859, by Cardinal Cirilo de Alameda y Brea, OFM, archbishop of Toledo. He celebrated his first mass on the following October 4. Faculty member and rector of several theological colleges of his order in Spain and Philippines: lector of philosophy, 1860-1863; and theology, 1863-1879; rector of the schools of Consuegra, 1867-1870; Pastrana, 1870-1876; Almagro, 1878; and Puebla de Montalbán, 1881. Perpetual lector in theology and canon law. Honorary definitor of his order. Penitentiary of patriarchal Lateran Basilica, Rome, 1884; he never took possession of the post.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Lugo, Spain, March 27, 1885. Consecration, June 21, 1885, church of San Fernando, Piarists Fathers, Madrid, by Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro, titular archbishop of Eraclea di Europa, nuncio in Spain, assisted by Benito Sanz y Forés, archbishop of Valladolid, and by Tomás Jenaro de Cámara y Castro, O.S.A., bishop of Salamanca. Senator of the Spanish kingdom, 1893-1895, and 1902 until his death. Promoted to metropolitan see of Burgos, May 21, 1894. Apostolic administrator of Calahorra y La Calzada, December 2, 1899.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 15, 1907; received the red hat and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, December 19, 1907. Transferred to primatial see of Toledo and patriarchate of West Indies, April 29, 1909. Papal legate to Eucharistic Congress, Madrid, June 5, 1911.

Death. October 10, 1913, in Toledo. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Toledo.

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 52; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 163 and 350; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, p. 9, 23 and 372.

Link. Photographs, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) In 1897 it merged into the Order of Friars Minor.


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AGUSTONI, Gilberto
(1922-

Birth. July 26, 1922, Schaffhausen, diocese of Lugano, Switzerland. He was the son of a civil servant who came from Ticino and who moved to Eastern Switzerland for work reasons. He had four brothers and one sister. Two of his brothers were also priests. Their mother came from a village on the shores of Lake Constance.

Education. Seminary of Lugano; because of the war, his bishop, Angelo Jelmini, kept his student in Switzerland and had him continue his studies at the University of Fribourg, University of S. Tommaso d'Aquino, Rome; Pontifical Lateran University, Rome (licentiates in theology and law).

Priesthood. Ordained, April 20, 1946, Lugano. Successively, 1946-1950, vice-assessor of the diocesan Catholic Action; pastoral ministry with students in several Swiss universities; pastoral ministry with the Catholic Scouts Association. In 1950, Msgr. Alfredo Ottaviani, then assessor of the S.C. of the Holy Office, asked the Bishop of Lugano for the young priest Father Agustoni, whom he had met on several occasions. On the senior prelate's persistence, the bishop finally agreed, although not without regret. Father Agustoni eventually became Msgr. Ottaviani's secretary. He entered the service of the Holy See, July 1, 1950. Further studies in Rome and office chief and commissary the of S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments for matrimonial causes; consultor of the S.C. for Divine Worship, 1950 - 1970. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, January 6, 1956; November 3, 1958. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, May 23, 1964. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, May 5, 1970.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Caorle and appointed secretary of the Congregation for Clergy, December 18, 1986. Consecrated, January 6, 1987, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Josè Tomás Sánchez, archbishop emeritus of Nueva Segovia, secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. In the same ceremony was consecrated Dino Monduzzi, titular bishop of Capri, prefect of the Pontifical Household, another future cardinal. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Pro-prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of Apostolic Signature and pro-president of the Appeal Court of Vatican City, April 2, 1992. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 - 29, 1994.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ss. Urbano e Lorenzo a Porta Prima, November 26, 1994. Appointed prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, November 26, 1994. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of third centenary of miraculous image of Blessed Virgin Mary venerated in the cathedral, Gyor, Hungary, March 15-17, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Resigned prefecture, October 5, 1998. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, July 26, 2002. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the centennial of the coronation of the image of Mater Dolorosa in the Shrine of Telgte, diocese of Münster, Germany, July 3, 2004. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, February 24, 2005.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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ALBAREDA, O.S.B., Joaquín Anselmo María
(1892-1966)

Birth. February 16, 1892, Barcelona, Spain. Son of Vicente Albareda and María Ramoneda. His baptismal name was Joaquín.

Education. Joined the Order of St. Benedict at monastery of Montserrat, Montserrat, 1904; professed, November 4, 1908; took name of Anselmo María. Athenaeum of St. Anselm, Rome; Faculty of Paleography and Archives, Fribourg, Germany.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 7, 1915, Montserrat. Member of the community of Montserrat, 1915-1921. Further studies, 1921-1923. Archivist, monastery of Montserrat, 1923-1936. Prefect of the Vatican Library, June 19, 1936. Titular abbot of Santa Maria de Ripoll, May 5,1950; blessed by Cardinal Eugène Tisserant, bishop of Ostia and Porto e Santa Rufina, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Montserrat, August 26, 1951.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 19, 1962; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Apollinare, March 22, 1962.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Gissaria, April 5, 1962. Consecrated, April 19, 1962, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Cardinal Giuseppe Pizzardo and by Cardinal Benedetto Aloisi Masella. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinals Antonio Bacci, Augustin Bea, S.J., Francesco Bracci, Michael Browne, O.P., William Theodore Heard, Alberto di Jorio, André Jullien, P.S.S., Arcadio María Larraona, C.M.F., Francesco Morano, Alfredo Ottaviani and Francesco Roberti. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI.

Death. July 19, 1966, of cancer, Barcelona. Buried in the Benedictine monastery of Montserrat.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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ALFRINK, Bernardus Johannes
(1900-1987)

Birth. July 5, 1900, Nijkerk, archdiocese of Utrecht, Holland. Son of Theodorus Johannes Alfrink and Elisabeth Catherina Ossenvoort. He was the fifth child of the family. Baptized by Fr. Johannes Verstege in Nijkerk. When he was one year old, his mother died after giving birth to twins who did not survive either. Received his first communion in 1911.

Education. In 1913, he entered the archdiocesan minor seminary in Culemborh (philosophy, 1914-1920; then he studied theology at the Seminary of Rijsenburg, from 1920 to 1924; after his ordination, he was sent to Rome to study at the Pontifical Biblical Institute (licentiate in Sacred Scriptures, magna cum laude, 1927; doctorate, June 5, 1930; dissertation "Israelite and Babylonic Ideas of the Hereafter"); during his stay in Rome he lived at Collegio Germanico dell'Alma; in Jerusalem, 1928-1929, he lived at the recently established house of studies of the Pontifical Biblical Institute; and attended the lectures at the Dominican École Biblique et Archéologique Française de Jérusalem, especially by Fathers Marie-Joseph Lagrange, O.P., and Louis-Hugues Vincent, O.P.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 15, 1924, metropolitan cathedral of St. Catharina, Utrecht, by Henricus van de Wetering, archbishop of Utrecht. Further studies, 1924-1930. Curate in Maarssen, archdiocese of Utrecht, 1930-1933. In October 1933, he was named professor of Holy Scripture at the Major Seminary of Rijsenburg, Utrecht, 1933-1945. Professor of Old Testament and Hebrew at the Catholic University of Nijmegen, 1945-1951; during those years he wrote more than sixty five articles about the Old Testament problems as well as contributions to the Dutch Biblical Dictionary.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tiana and appointed coadjutor of Utrecht, May 28, 1951. Consecrated, July 17, 1951, metropolitan cathedral of St. Catharina, Utrecht, by Paolo Giobbe, titular archbishop of Tolemaide di Tebaide, nuncio-internuncio in Holland, assisted by Willem Lemmens, bishop of Roermond, and Jan Smit, titular bishop of Paralo. His episcopal motto was "Evangelizare Divitias Christi". Apostolic administrator of Utrecht, September 8, 1955. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Utrecht, October 31, 1955. Military vicar of Holland, April 16, 1957.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 28, 1960; received the red hat and the title of S. Gioacchino (ai Prati di Castello), March 31, 1960. Attended Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965; member of its Board of Presidency, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. President of the Episcopal Conference of Holland. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, December 6, 1975. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Meeting of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 8, 1979. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, July 5, 1980. Attended the Second Plenary Meeting of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 23 to 26, 1982, Vatican City. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; special guest.

Death. December 16, 1987, Nijmegen, Holland. Buried in St. Barbara cemetery, in the court of St. Catharina metropolitan cathedral, Utrecht (1). His predecessor, Cardinal Jan de Jong; and his successor, Cardinal Johannes Willebrands, are also buried there.

Bibliography. Alfrink en de kerk : 1951-1976 : historische en theologische essays, aangeboden aan kardinaal Alfrink bij zijn zilveren bisschopsjubileum. Baarn : Ambo, 1976; Oostveen, Ton. Bernard Alfrink, katholiek. 's-Hertogenbosch : Malmberg, 1972; Schaik, Ton H. M. van. Alfrink: een biografie. Amsterdam : Anthos, 1997; Schillebeeckx, O.P., Edward. Bernard Jan Cardinal Alfrink. Translated by C. A. L. Jarrot. Notre Dame, Indiana : University of Notre Dame Press, 1965. (The men who make the Council, 24).

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription in his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

BERNARDUS JOHANNES
KARDINAAL ALFRINK
* 5. 7. 1900    + 17. 12. 1987
AARTBISSCHOP VAN UTRECHT
VAN 4. 12. 1955    TOT 9. 12. 1975


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ALMARAZ Y SANTOS, Enrique
(1847-1922)

Birth. September 22, 1847, La Vellés, diocese of Salamanca, Spain. Received the sacrament of confirmation, July 13, 1856.

Education. Central Seminary of Salamanca, Salamanca (doctorate in theology, 1876; licentiate in canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained, in 1874, Salamanca. Pastoral ministry in diocese of Salamanca. Faculty member of the Seminary of Salamanca; canon schoolmaster at cathedral of Salamanca, 1874; secretary of the cathedral chapter. Privy chamberlain. Named preacher of the Royal Chamber, Madrid, by King Alfonso XII. Archpriest of the cathedral chapter of Madrid. Secretary to the bishop of Madrid-Alcalá. Faculty member of Seminary of Madrid. Vicar capitular of Madrid, April 1886 (1). Dean of cathedral chapter of Madrid, 1891.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Palencia, January 19, 1893. Consecrated, April 16, 1893, cathedral of San Isidro, Madrid, by Ciriaco María Sancha Hervás, archbishop of Valencia, assisted by José María Cos y Macho, archbishop-bishop of Madrid, and by Jaime Cardona y Tur, titular bishop of Sion, pro-military vicar general. Senator of the Spanish kingdom from the archdiocese of Burgos, 1899-1902. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Seville, April 18, 1907. Senator of the Spanish kingdom, November 1907 until his death. Decorated with the Grand Cross of Carlos III. Named adoptive son of Sevilla, Palencia and Puerto de Santa María.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 27, 1911; received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, December 2, 1912. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Transferred to the primatial see of Toledo, December 16, 1920. He died on the same day that Pope Benedict XV died.

Death. January 22, 1922 (2), in Madrid. Buried, according to his will, in front of the chapel of Santa Teresa in the metropolitan cathedral of Toledo.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti", Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 1926, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1926, p. 63; Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 58; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, p. 435-436; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 11, 24, 200 and 372.

Links. His photograph, Araldica Vaticana; and Los Arzobispos de Toledo, in Spanish, archdiocese of Toledo, Spain.

(1) Narciso Martínez Izquierdo , first bishop of Madrid-Alcalá, was assassinated in his cathedral on April 19, 1886, by a deranged priest.
(2) This is according to "Cardinali defunti", Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 1926, p. 63; Echeverría, Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985, p. 58; and Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, IX, 11, 24 and 372. Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, VIII, p. 436, says that he died on January 23, 1922.


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ALOISI MASELLA, Benedetto
(1879-1970)

Birth. June 29, 1879, Pontecorvo, Italy. Nephew of Cardinal Gaetano Aloisi Masella (1887).

Education. Studied at theSeminary of Ferentino; while in Rome, he resided at Almo Collegio Capranica; then, he studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; later, at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare"; and finally at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, where he studied diplomacy.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 1, 1902, Rome. Secretary to his uncle Cardinal Gaetano Aloisi Masella. Staff member, Secretariat of State, 1906-1908. Secretary of the nunciature in Portugal, 1908-1910; chargé d'affaires of the nunciature in Portugal, 1910-1919. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, December 25, 1914. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, September 29, 1917. Nuncio in Chile, November 20, 1919.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cesarean di Mauritania, December 15, 1919. Consecrated, December 21, 1919, chapel of the Pontifical Collegio Pio Latino Americano, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, secretary of State, assisted by Sebastião Leite de Vasconcellos, titular archbishop of Damiata, and by Antonio Maria Iannotta, bishop of Sora, Aquino e Pontecorvo. Papal legate to the Coronation of Our Lady of Monte Carmelo, Santiago, Chile, November 29, 1926. Named nuncio in Brazil, April 26, 1927.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Vallicella, February 22, 1946. Papal legate to the Coronation of Our Lady of Fatima, Portugal, April 28, 1946. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, June 21, 1948. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, October 27, 1954. Prefect of the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments, October 27, 1954. Papal legate to the 36th International Eucharistic Congress, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, June 21, 1955. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, October 9, 1958. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 19, 1962 until September 26, 1964. Cardinal bishop of title of suburbicarian see of Palestrina, November 17, 1966 (1). Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 19, 1967 until 1968. Participated in the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Resigned prefecture, January 11, 1968, and became prefect emeritus. Participated in the Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969.

Death. September 30, 1970, from kidney disease, Rome. Buried in the cathedral of Pontecorvo. At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.There is a street in Torrevecchia, Rome, named after him and there is another one in Pontecorvo.

Links. His arms and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; portrait, photographs and biography by Eman Bonnici, Find a Grave; photographs, portarit and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his arms on a medal during the Vacant See of 1958, Black Mountain Coins; Il nostro animo, lettera del Papa Paolo VI al Cardinal Benedetto Aloisi Masella in occasione della deposizione della carica di Prefetto della Congregazione per il Culto Divino e la Disciplina dei Sacramenti, in Italian, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 11 gennaio 1968; Lettera del Papa Paolo VI al Cardinal Benedetto Aloisi Maseella in occasione del 90º genetliaco, in Italian, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 24 giugno 1969.

(1) The motu proprio Suburbicariis sedibus, issued by Pope John XXIII on April 11, 1962, established that the cardinal bishops would have no ordinary jurisdiction over their suburbicarian sees. These dioceses were to be ruled by bishops with complete and independent ordinary power; cardinal bishops would only retain the title of the see. The disposition applied only to the cardinal bishops appointed in 1961 and later. The others, Cardinals Eugène Tisserant, Clemente Micara, Benedetto Aloisi Masella and Giuseppe Pizzardo, retained the denomination of bishops of their sees. On November 17, 1966, they were listed as bishops of the title of their suburbicarian sees in Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 1967, except Cardinal Micara, who had died in 1965.


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ÁLVAREZ MARTINEZ, Francisco
(1925-

Birth. July 14, 1925, Santa Eulalia de Ferroñes, Llanera, archdiocese of Oviedo, Spain.

Education. Seminary of Oviedo, Oviedo; Pontifical University of Salamanca, Salamanca; Pontifical University of Comillas, Comillas (doctorate in canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 11, 1950, Oviedo. In the archdiocese of Oviedo, pastoral ministry and private secretary to the archbishop for 7 years; secretary-chancellor; pro-vicar general.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tarazona, April 13, 1973. Consecrated, June 3, 1973, cathedral of Tarazona, by Luigi Dadaglio, titular archbishop of Daro, nuncio in Spain, assisted by Pedro Cantero Cuadrado, archbishop of Zaragoza, and by José Méndez Asensio, archbishop of Pamplona. Apostolic administrator sede plena of Calahorra-La Calzada y Logroño, July 7, 1975. Transferred to the see of Calahora y La Calzada-Logroño, December 20, 1976. Transferred to the see of Orihuela-Alicante, May 12, 1989. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of Toledo, June 23, 1995. Attended the II Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999, by papal appointment.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria "Regina Pacis" a Monte Verde, February 21, 2001. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, October 24, 2002. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, July 14, 2005.

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 138.

Links. Los Arzobispos de Toledo, in Spanish, archdiocese of Toledo, Spain; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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AMBROZIC, Aloysius Matthew
(1930-2011)

Birth. January 27, 1930, Gabrje, archdiocese of Ljubljana, Slovenia, Yugoslavia. Second of the seven children of Aloysius Ambrozic and Helen Pecar. His family escaped to Austria in May 1945 and lived in refugee camps of Vetrnj, Peggez and Spittal an der Drau. Migrated to Canada in September 1948. He had an uncle who was a Franciscan priest. He is also listed as Alojzij Ambrožič.

Education. Initial studies in Dobrova; then, studied at Lyceum of Ljubljana (classics); finished his secondary education in Austria; attended St. Augustine Seminary, Scarborough, Toronto, 1948-1955; later, studied at the Pontifical Angelicum Athenaeum, Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in theology, in 1958; also at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, earning a licentiate in Sacred Scriptures, in 1960; and finally at the University of Würzburg, Germany, where he obtained a doctorate in theology, in 1970.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 4, 1955, Toronto, by Cardinal James Charles McGuigan, archbishop of Toronto. Pastoral ministry at the parish of St. Teresa's, Port Colborne, 1955-1956. Professor of Latin at the Seminary of Toronto, 1956-1957. Further studies in Rome, 1958-1960. Professor of Sacred Scriptures, St. Augustine Seminary, Toronto, 1960-1967; and 1970-1976; prefect of studies, 1971-1976. Further studies in Germany, 1967-1970. From 1970 to 1976, professor of New Testament exegesis, School of Theology of Toronto; dean of studies, St. Augustine Seminary, Toronto, 1971-1976; and pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Toronto. From 1971-1975 he was a member of the Archdiocesan Senate of Priests.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Valabria and appointed auxiliary of Toronto, March 26, 1976. Consecrated, May 27, 1976, Toronto, by Philip Francis Pocock, archbishop of Toronto, assisted by Francis Valentine Allen, titular bishop of Avensa, auxiliary of Toronto, and by Francis Paul McHugh, S.F.M., titular bishop of Legis di Volumnio, prelate emeritus of Itacoatiara. His episcopal motto was Jesus est Dominus. Promoted to archbishop coadjutor with right of succession of Toronto, May 22, 1986. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Toronto, March 17, 1990. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, February 21, 1998. He hosted the Seventeenth World Youth Day, July 23 to 28, 2002, Toronto. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, December 16, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Toronto, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law, was accepted by the pope on December 16, 2006. He was the ninth Archbishop of Toronto. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when he turned eighty years old on January 27, 2010. He was a member of the Congregations for the Oriental Churches; for Divine Worship and Discipline of the Sacraments; and for the Clergy; and of the Pontifical Councils for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People; and for Culture. He was a tireless advocate for refugees and immigrants.

Death. August 26, 2011, peacefully, after a lengthy illness with Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, a brain disorder, at the Scarborough General Hospital, Toronto, surrounded by the love of his family. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Benedict XVI prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to Archbishop Thomas Collins of Toronto. Cardinal Franc Rodé, C.M., prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life, a Slovenian born, issued a statement on the death of the cardinal; Archbishop Anton Stres of Ljubljana, president of the Episcopal Conference of Slovenia, also issued a statement. Prime Minister Stephen Harper of Canada; Ontario Premier Dalton McGuinty; and Toronto Mayor Rob Ford also expressed their sorrow over the death of Cardinal Ambrozic. The archdiocese of Toronto published the details of the visitation and funeral for the late cardinal: The body of Cardinal Ambrozic arrived at St. Michael's Cathedral on Tuesday, August 30, 2011 at 1:30 p.m. At that time the Rite of Reception was held. His Eminence laid in state for visitation at the cathedral Tuesday afternoon from 2:00 - 4:00 p.m. and 7:00 - 9:00 p.m. with the Office for the Dead being celebrated at 8:30 p.m. All Tuesday events were open to the public, who were most welcome to visit the cathedral to pay their respects. The funeral Mass for Cardinal Ambrozic took place on Wednesday, August 31, 2011, at 10:30 a.m. at St. Michael's Cathedral. Due to renovations currently underway at the cathedral, and the participation by up to 500 priests, family, friends, etc. there was extremely limited public seating available. In lieu of flowers, those who wished to pay tribute to the Cardinal were invited to donate to one of His Eminence's favorite charities, the Shepherds' Trust. The funeral mass was presided over by Archbishop Collins of Toronto, who also delivered the homily, and concelebrated by several bishops, among them the auxiliaries of Toronto John A. Boissonneau, William McGrattan and Vincent Nguyen; and the retired auxiliary bishop of Toronto, M. Pearse Lacey. Present were Cardinal Jean-Claude Turcotte, archbishop of Montréal, Canada; Archbishop Anton Stres of Ljubljana, president of the Episcopal Conference of Slovenia; and Monsignor Luca Lorusso, representing the Vatican in Canada. About a thousand people gathered at the cathedral to remember the late cardinal. Federal Finance Minister Jim Flaherty, Ontario Lieutenant-Governor David Onley, Toronto Mayor Rob Ford and Mississauga Mayor Hazel McCallion were among the dignitaries attending the funeral at the cathedral. The funeral arrangements were entrusted to the Newediuk Funeral Home, Kipling Chapel, 2058 Kipling Avenue, Toronto. The body of the late cardinal was buried in the Bishops Mausoleum at Holy Cross Cemetery, Thornhill, Ontario, where his immediate predecessor, Cardinal Gerald Emmett Carter, is also buried.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 285-286.

Links. Photograph, arms and biography, in English, archdiocese of Toronto; photograph and biography, in English, Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops; photography and biography, in French, Conférence des Évêques Catholiques du Canada; photograph and biography, in Slovenian, rkc.si; his arms and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Iindirizzo di ommaggio del Cardinale Aloysisu Matthew Ambrozi all'inizio della concelebrazione eucaristica della XVII GMG, Sunday July 28, 2002; statement of Cardinal Franc Rodé, C.M., on the death of Cardinal Ambrozic, in Slovenian, rkc.si.; statement on the death of the cardinal from Archbishop Anton Stres of Ljubljana, president of the Episcopal Conference of Slovenia, in Slovenian, rkc.si; Homily for the funeral of Cardinal Aloysius Ambrozic, Salt+Light.


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AMETTE, Léon-Adolphe
(1850-1920)

Birth. September 6, 1850, Douville, diocese of Evreux, France. Fifth child of Célestine-Léon Amette and Victoire-Adélaide-Elisa Leory; the other siblings were Ambroise, who became a priest; Gabriel, who also became a priest; Hectorine, Ludovica, Marie-Régina and Elise-Marie, who became a nun. He was baptized on the following September 17 in the parish of Douville-sur-Andelle, by tha pastor Fr. J.-C. Boutelon; his godparents were Ambroise Amette and Léocadie Leory. He received the sacrament of confirmation on October 19, 1861, at the Minor Seminary of Evreux.

Education. Entered the Minor Seminary of Saint-Aquilin, Evreux, on October 2, 1861; went to study at the Seminary of Seminary of Issy-les-Moulineaux, Paris, in July 1867; entered the Grand Seminary of Saint-Sulpice, Paris in September 1869. He received the subdiaconate on May 25, 1872; and the diaconate on December 21, 1872.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 20, 1873, Paris, by Joseph-Hippolyte Guibert, O.M.I., archbishop of Paris. He celebrated his first mass on the following day at the chapel of Sacré-Cœur, in the church of Saint-Sulpice. Pastoral ministry at the cathedral of Evreux and secretary to its bishop, 1873-1889; titular canon, 1884; vicar general, January 22, 1889 until November 28, 1898; vicar capitular at the death of the bishop, 1890.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Bayeux, November 28, 1898. Consecrated, January 25, 1899, cathedral of Evreux, by Cardinal Guillaume Marie Romain Sourrieu, archbishop of Rouen, assisted by François Sueur, archbishop of Avignon, and by Philippe Meunier, bishop of Evreux. Promoted to titular archbishop of Side and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Paris, February 21, 1906. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Paris, January 28, 1908.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 27, 1911; received the red hat and the title of S. Sabina, November 30, 1911. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV.

Death. August 29, 1920, suddenly, at 6 a.m., while on vacation at Antony, near Paris. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Notre-Dame, Paris. His memorial is in the chapel of Saint Vincent de Paul in that cathedral.

Bibliography. Cordonnier, Charles. Le Cardinal Amette, archevêque de Paris. 2 vols. Paris: Les Editions du Mortainais, 1949.

Links. His episcopal lineage, in English; his photograph, Araldica Vaticana; and his photograph with the Comité de Secours aux Églises Dévastées.


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AMIGO VALLEJO, O.F.M., Carlos
(1934-

Birth. August 23, 1934, Medina de Rioseco, archdiocese of Valladolid, Spain.

Education. Studied at the Medical Faculty of Valladolid (medicine); soon after, he left and joined the Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans). Studied philosophy in Rome; and at the Central University of Madrid he studied psychology. Received the diaconate from Cardinal Fernando Quiroga Palacios, archbishop of Santiago de Compostela.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 17, 1960, Rome, by Miguel Nóvoa Fuente, titular bishop of Chitri, auxiliary of Santiago de Compostela. Further studies, Rome. In Madrid, pastoral ministry; further studies; professor of philosophy of science and anthropology in different educational centers. Provincial of the Franciscan province of Santiago, 1970.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Tanger, Morocco, December 17, 1973. Consecrated, April 28, 1974, church of San Francisco el Grande, Madrid, by Cardinal Marcelo González Martín, archbishop of Toledo, assisted by Félix Romero Menjíbar, archbishop of Valladolid, and by Francisco Aldegunde Dorrego, O.F.M., former archbishop of Tanger. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. In several occasions acted as mediator to solve conflicts between the countries of Magreb (Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Mauritania, Tunisia) and Spain. Transferred to metropolitan see of Seville, May 22, 1982; received the pallium from Antonio Innocenti, titular archbishop of Eclano, nuncio in Spain, on June 29, 1982 during the installation mass at the metropolitan cathedral of Sevilla. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; by papal appointment. President of the Episcopal Commission for the Fifth Centennial of the Evangelization of America. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992, as an invited guest. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Member of the Academies of Buenas Letras, Medicina and Bellas Artes of Seville. Decorated with the Orden al Mérito de los Padres de la Patria Dominicana, the highest decoration granted by the Dominican Republic, February 1995. Granted a doctorate honoris causa by the Technological University of Cibao, Dominican Republic, February 1995. Granted the silver medal of the Republic of Panamá, September 2000.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria in Montserrato degli Spagnoli, October 21, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. On November 5, 2009, he resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Sevilla in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. On June 4, 2011, the pope named him special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the Jubilar Year of the 500th anniversary of the canonical erection of the first ecclesiastical circumscriptions in America: Santo Domingo and La Vega, Dominican Republic; and San Juan de Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico, programmed for August 7 and 8, 2011. On September 22, 2012, the pope named him special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the fifth centennial of the arrival in Puerto Rico of the first bishop, Don Alonso Manso, which took place in the city of San Juan, Puerto Rico, on November 19, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis.

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 139.

Links. His photograph, arms and biography, in Spanish, archdiocese of Sevilla; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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ANDRIEU, Paulin-Pierre
(1849-1935)

Birth. December 7, 1849, Seysses, archdiocese of Toulouse, France.Received the sacrament of confirmation, 1861.

Education. Seminary of Toulouse, Toulouse.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 30, 1874, Toulouse. Pastoral ministry, Toulouse, 1874-1875. In the archdiocese of Toulouse, secretary to the archbishop, 1875-1880; honorary canon of its cathedral chapter, 1876; its vicar general, 1880-1901.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Marseilles, April 18, 1901. Consecrated, July 25, 1901, cathedral of Toulouse, by Jean-Augustine Germain, archbishop of Toulouse, assisted by Victor Delannoy, bishop of Aire, and by François Jauffret, bishop of Bayonne.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1907; received the red hat and the title of S. Onofrio, December 19, 1907. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Bordeaux, January 2, 1909. Fought Modernism and in 1910, condemned the "Sillon". Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Issued the first public condemnation of the French hierarchy against L'Action Française, in 1926.

Death. February 15, 1935, at half past midnight, after a week of illness. Bordeaux. Buried in the crypt of the chapel of the Sacred Heart in the metropolitan cathedral of Bordeaux. At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 167-168.

Link. Photographs, Araldica Vaticana.


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ANGELINI, Fiorenzo
(1916-

Birth. August 1, 1916, Rome, Italy.

Education. Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome; Pontifical Lateran University, Rome; Pontifical Theological Faculty Marianum, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, February 3, 1940. Pastoral ministry, diocese of Rome, 1940-1956. National Ecclesiastical Assistant of the Men's Catholic Action, 1945-1959. Master of Pontifical Ceremonies, 1947-1954. Commendatario of S. Spirito in Sassia, delegate of the cardinal vicar of Rome for clinics and hospitals. Ecclesiastical assistant of the Union of Men of the Catholic Action.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Messene and appointed Commendatory of Santo Spirito, June 27, 1956. Consecrated, July 29, 1956, church of S. Ignazio, Rome, by Cardinal Giuseppe Pizzardo, bishop of Albano, secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, prefect of the S.C. of Seminaries and Universities, assisted by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome, and by Mario Ismaele Castellano, bishop of Volterra, assistant general of the Italian Catholic Action. His episcopal motto is Evangelizo pacem evangelizo bonum. Founder and National Ecclesiastical Assistant of the Association of Italian Catholic Physicians in 1959. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Delegate for hospitals for the cardinal vicar of Rome, 1967-1985. Auxiliary bishop of Rome, January 6, 1977 to February 16, 1985. Promoted to the dignity of archbishop and appointed pro-president of the Pontifical Commission for the Pastoral Assistance to Health Care Workers, February 16, 1985. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. President of the Pontifical Commission for the Pastoral Assistance to Health Care Workers, March 1, 1989. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 28, 1991; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Spirito in Sassia, June 28, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly of Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Special Assembly of Synod of Bishops for Africa, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Special papal envoy to the opening of the celebrations of the Fifth centennial of Saint John of God's birth, Montemor-o-Nuovo, Portugal, March 8, 1995. Special papal envoy to the Fourth World Day of the Sick, held at the shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe, México, México, February 11, 1996. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, August 1, 1996. Resigned the presidency of the Pontifical Commission for the Pastoral Assistance to Health Care Workers, October 31, 1996. Special papal envoy to the Fifth World Day of the Sick, held at the shrine of Our Lady of Fátima, Portugal, February 11, 1997; to the Seventh World Day of the Sick, February 11, 1999, Harissa, Lebanon. Opted for order of priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, February 26, 2002.

Links. His arms and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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ANTONELLI, Ennio
(1936-

Birth. November 18, 1936, Todi, Italy.

Education. After completing his middle and ginnasiali studies at the Episcopal Seminary of Todi, he attende the Lyceum of the Regional Seminary of Assisi; then, his bishop sent him to Rome as student at the Pontifical Roman Seminary; and completed his philosophical and theological formation at the Pontifical Lateran University; later, he studied at the State University of Perugia, where he earned a doctorate in classical letters.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 2, 1960, cathedral of S. Maria Assunta, Todi, by Ilario Alcini, titular archbishop of Nicea, visitor of the Italian seminaries; incardinated in the diocese of Todi. Professor, vice-rector and rector of the Seminary of Perugia. Professor of dogmatic theology in the Regional Seminary of Assisi from 1968 to 1983; professor of art history in the Superior Institutes of Assisi and Deruta; ecclesiastical assistant of the Catholic "Laureati" and pastor.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Gubbio, May 25, 1982. Consecrated, August 29, 1982, cathedral of the Assumption, Todi, by Decio Lucio Grandoni, bishop of Orvieto and of Todi, assisted by Santo Bartolomeo Quadri, bishop of Terni e Narni, and by Antonio Fustella, bishop of Saluzzo. His episcopal motto is Voluntas Dei pax nostra. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Perugia-Città della Pieve, October 6, 1988. Secretary general of the Italian Episcopal Conference, May 25, 1995. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Perugia-Città della Pieve, May 26, 1995. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Florence, March 21, 2001; occupied the see until June 7, 2008.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Andrea delle Fratte October 21, 2003. Member of the Pontifical Councils for the Laity, for the Pastoral for Migrants and Intinerants and for Social Communications. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. On June 7, 2008, he was appointed president of the Pontifical Council for the Family. Apostolic administrator of the archdiocese of Florence from June 7, 2008 until the installation of his successor. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". Special papal envoy to the conclusive ceremonies of the Pauline Year observed on June 29, 2009, in Malta. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World". Pope Benedict XVI accepted the resignation from the post of president of the Pontifical Council for the Family on June 26, 2012. Named member of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints on September 15, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints on December 19, 2013. On March 19, 2014, he was named special papal envoy to the commemorative celebration of the 70th anniversary of the destruction-reconstruction of the Abbey of Montecassino, programmed for March 21, 2014.

Links. His photograph, arms and biography, in Italian, archdiocese of Florence; his photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa dell Santa Sede; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Cardinal Antonelli on International Day of the Family: "The role of the family cannot be replaced", video, Rome Reports, 2012-05-15 18:02:44; Cardinal Antonelli praises those few conscious families that go against the tide by Domenico Agasso jr, Vatican Insider, 05/24/2012; Cardinal Ennio Antonelli: World Meeting of Families will boost healthy family life, Rome Reports, 2012-05-27 08:00:00; "Normal" families are happier, says Cardinal Antonelli by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 05/29/2012; Cardinal Antonelli leaves the Pontifical Council for the Family, Rome Reports, 2012-06-27 16:49:34.


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ANTONELLI, O.F.M., Ferdinando Giuseppe
(1896-1993)

Birth. July 14, 1896, Subbiano, diocese of Arezzo, Italy.

Education. Joined the Order of Friars Minor, Florence, 1909; professed, April 7, 1914. Military service during W.W. I. Pontifical Antonianum Athenaeum, Rome; Pontifical Institute of Christian Archeology, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 25, 1922, Rome. Further studies, 1922-1928. Faculty member of the Pontifical Antonianum Athenaeum, Rome, 1928-1965; rector magnifico, 1937-1943, and 1953-1959. General definitor of his order, 1939-1945. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965, as expert. Secretary of the S.C. of Rites, January 26, 1965.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Idicra, February 19, 1966. Consecrated, March 19, 1966, patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, by Pope Paul VI, assisted by Francesco Carpino, titular archbishop Sardica, assessor of the S.C. Consistorial and secretary of the Sacred College of Cardinals, and by Ettore Cunial, titular archbishop of Soteropoli, vice-gerent of Rome. In the same ceremony was consecrated Giuseppe Violardo, titular archbishop of Satafi, secretary of the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments, future cardinal. Named secretary of the S.C. for the Causes of the Saints, May 7, 1969.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Sebastiano al Palatino, March 5, 1973. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, July 14, 1976. Attended the I Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, February 2, 1983.

Death. July 12, 1993, Rome. Buried in La Pietà chapel, Franciscan shrine of La Verna (1). At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B., André and Charles N. Bransom. "Franciscan bishops." Franciscan Studies, XLVIII (1988), 310; Giampietro, Nicola. Il cardinale Giuseppe Ferdinando Antonelli e gli sviluppi della riforma liturgica dal 1948 al 1970. Romae : [s.n.], 1996. (Thesis ad lauream ; n. 229; Variation: Thesis ad lauream (Pontificio Ateneo S. Anselmo) ; n. 229).

(1) This is the text of the inscription on a commemorative plaque near his resting place, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

IN QUESTO SACRO MONTE DELLA VERNA
OVE INIZIO LA SUA VITA FRANCESCANA
FERDINANDO GIUSEPPE ANTONELLI CARDINALE DI S.R. CHIESA
DELLA DIACONIA DAL TITOLO DI S. SEBASTIANO AL PALATINO
ORIUNDO DEL CASENTINO
OTTENNE QUESTO ONORATO PATRIO SEPOLCRO.
PRESULE ESIMIO PER ELOQUENZA E DOTTRINA NELLE COSE SACRE
ESEGUÌ CON DILIGENZA PARI ALLA MAESTRIA
GLI ARDUI COMPITI AFFIDATIGLI DAI ROMANI PONTEFICI.
NEL CORSO DELLA SUA LUNGA VITA FECE CRESCERE SEMPRE PIÙ
QUELLA FIAMMA DI AMORE VERSO DIO E VERSO GLI UOMINI
CHE FIN DA GIOVANETTO ATTINSE IN QUESTO LUOGO.
MORÌ IL 12 LUGLIO 1993 VISSE ANNI 97
ANIMA PIISSIMA VIVI PER SEMPRE IN CRISTO!


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ANTONETTI, Lorenzo
(1922-2013)

Birth. July 31, 1922, Romagnano Sesia, diocese of Novara, Italy. Son of Leopoldo Antonetti and Maddalena Tinelli.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Novara; at Almo Collegio Capranica, Rome; at the Pontifical University of S. Tommaso d'Aquino (Angelicum), Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in theology; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in canon law; and, from 1949 to 1950, at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy).

Priesthood. Ordained, May 26, 1945, Novara, by Leone Giacomo Ossola, O.F.M.Cap., bishop of Novara. Pastoral ministry in diocese of Novara, 1946. Further studies, Rome, 1947-1951. Joined the Vatican Secretariat of State, 1951. Attaché and later secretary in the nunciature in Lebanon, 1952-1955. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, July 28, 1952. Secretary in the nunciature in Venezuela, 1956 to 1959. Worked in the section of Extraordinary Affairs, Secretariat of State, 1959 to 1963. Counselor in the nunciature in France, 1963 to 1967. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, August 18, 1964. Counselor in the apostolic delegation in the United States, 1968.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Roselle, February 23, 1968. Named nuncio in Honduras and Nicaragua, February 24, 1968. Consecrated, May 12, 1968, Romagnano Sesia, by Cardinal Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, secretary of State, assisted by Placido Maria Cambiagli, bishop of Novara, and by Edoardo Piana Agostinetti, titular bishop of Eurea di Fenicia, auxiliary of Novara. His episcopal motto was Caritas et patientia Christi. Pro-nuncio in Zaïre, June 29, 1973. Secretary of the Administration of Patrimony of Holy See, June 15, 1977. Nuncio in France, September 23, 1988. Pro-president of the Administration of Patrimony of Apostolic See, June 24, 1995. Attended the Special Assembly for America of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Agnese in Agone, February 21, 1998. President of the Administration of Patrimony of Apostolic See, February 23, 1998. Special papal envoy to the closing of the celebrations of the 9th centennial of the Abbey of Notre-Dame de Cîteaux, France, October 17, 1998. Resigned the presidency of the Administration of Patrimony of Apostolic See, November 5, 1998. Pontifical delegate to the patriarchal basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi, November 5, 1998. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, July 31, 2002. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, March 1, 2008.

Death. April 10, 2013, in the early morning, at Casa della Divina Provvidenza, Novara. The body of the late cardinal will be exposed at the bishopric of Novara starting in the evening. The funeral mass took place on Friday April 12 in the church of Romagnano Sesia, his native town, and was be presided by Bishop Franco Giulio Brambilla of Novara. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Francis sent a telegram of condolence to the bishop of Novara (1). In his will, Cardinal Antonetti had expressed his wish that his remains be interred at the Chiesa Abbaziale della Santissima Annunziata e di San Silvano, via Generale Ragni n. 24, Romagnano Sesia. However, due to a number of bureaucratic problems, his wish could not be realized at this time, and thus, his remains were laid to rest in the family chapel at Cimitero Comunale of Romagnano Sesia, until a definitive tomb is finished at the abbey church.

Bibliography. Code, Bernard. American Bishops 1964-1970. St. Louis : Wexford Press, 1970, p. 21.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Press Office of the Holy See; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Press Office of the Holy See:
Nell'apprendere la triste noticia della scomparsa del venerato Cardinale Lorenzo Antonetti, desidero esprimere sentimenti di vivo cordoglio a codesta comunità diocesana, che lo annovera tra i suoi figli più illustri, come pure al nipote Mario, agli altri nipoti e rispettivi familiari e a quanti lo hanno conosciuto e stimato. Ricordo il compianto Porporato per tanti anni solerte collaboratore della Santa Sede, in particolare come Rappresentante pontificio in diversi Paesi, in Segreteria di Stato, poi come Presidente dell'Amministrazione del Patrimonio della Sede Apostolica e infine quale Delegato pontificio per la Basilica Papale di San Francesco in Assisi: ovunque egli ha reso apprezzata testimonianza di fervoroso zelo sacerdotale e di fedeltà al Vangelo. Mentre elevo fervide preghiere al Signore Gesù affinchè, auspice la Vergine Maria, voglia donare al defunto Cardinale il premio eterno promesso ai suoi fedeli discepoli, invio di cuore a Vostra Eccellenza, all'intero presbiterio e a quanti condividono il dolore per la sua dipartita, una speciale confortatrice Benedizione Apostolica.

FRANCISCUS P P.
Dal Vaticano, 10 aprile 2013.

Analogous telegram was sent by Cardinale Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., secretary of State.


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ANTONIUTTI, Ildebrando
(1898-1974)

Birth. August 3, 1898, Nimis, archdiocese of Udine, Italy. Sixth of the seven children of Giuseppe Antoniutti and Anna Comelli.

Education.. Initial studies in Nimis; Seminary of Cividale, Friuli (classics); Seminary of Udine, Udine (theology); Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome (theology); Pontifical Lateran University, Rome (doctorates in philosophy, theology and canon law, July 1920).

Early life. During the years 1915 to 1918 of the First World War, he accompanied the archbishop in his frequent visits to military hospitals and to parishes in the occupied zones. In 1917, the day after the Battle of Caporeto, he followed the archbishop in the vicissitudes caused by the advance of the Austro-Hungarian troops. At the beginning of November 1917, he went to Rome and continued his theological studies while in his free time assisting the seminarians from Friuli who had escaped the war.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 5, 1920, Udine, by Antonio Anastasio Rossi, archbishop of Udine. Celebrated his first mass on December 8, 1920 in the altar of the Madonna Constantinopolitana in the basilica of S. Giustina, Padua. Faculty member, Seminary of Udine, 1921-1927. Secretary to the archbishop of Udine, 1921-1927. Entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See and was named secretary of the apostolic delegation in China, 1927-1930; auditor, 1930-1933; chargé d'affaires ad interim, 1933-1934. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, September 24, 1931. Auditor of the nunciature in Portugal, 1934-1936.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Sinnada di Frigia, and appointed Apostolic delegate to Albania, May 19, 1936. Consecrated, June 29, 1936, chapel of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Fumasoni Biondi, prefect of S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, assisted by Antonio Anastasio Rossi, titular Latin patriarch of Constantinople, prelate nullius of Pompei, and by Celso Costantini, titular archbishop of Teodosiopoli di Arcadia, secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide. He remained in the post until August 1936. Named special papal envoy to Spain during Civil War on July 25, 1937 for the exchange of prisoners and to give assistance to the priests who had escaped from the Communist controlled zones. On September 21, 1937, he was named chargé d'affaires before the Nationalist Government, presenting his credentials to General Francisco Franco on October 7, 1937 in Burgos. Named apostolic delegate in Canada and Newfoundland, July 14, 1938. Nuncio in Spain, October 21, 1953.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 19, 1962; received the red hat and the title of S. Sebastiano alle Catecombe, May 24, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Prefect of the S.C. for Religious, July 28, 1963. President of the Commission on Religious of the Second Vatican Council, August 7, 1963. Papal legate to the 4th Centennial Celebration of the Evangelization of the Philippines, Cebú, February 25, 1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, September 29 to October 29, 1967, Vatican City; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, October 11 to 28, 1969, Vatican City; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, September 30 to November 6, 1971, Vatican City. Resigned the prefecture, September 13, 1973. Cardinal bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Velletri, September 13, 1973. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, from 1973 until his death. He left Rome on August 1, 1974, to go to Nimis, his native city, for a period of rest; after a stop in Florence, he took the highway del Sole; on the bypass of Bologna, his car collided with a heavy vehicle; in the accident, the cardinal died almost instantly.

Death. August 1, 1974, in a car accident near Bologna. On August 3, 1974, the body was transferred to Nimis, where the funeral, presided by Cardinal Ermenegildo Florit, archbishop of Florence, was concelebrated by Cardinal Albino Luciani, patriarch of Venice, and nine bishops; numerous priests and a multitude of faithful from Nimis participated. Buried in the parish church of Ss. Gervasio e Protasio, Nimis, where he had celebrated his first mass; the stone over his sepulchre has his coat of arms and the inscription: Ildebrandus Antoniutti - S.R.E. Cardinalis - 1898-1974. On August 2, 1974, Pope Paul VI celebrated a mass for the eternal repose of the soul of the late cardinal and sent telegrams of condolence to the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, to the archbishop of Udine and to the relatives of the cardinal. In the afternoon of August 3, a funeral took place in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, where Annibale Bugnini, C.M., titular archbishop of Diocleziana, celebrated the requiem mass; in attendance were the cardinals and prelates present in Rome, the diplomatic corps, numerous priests, religious and faithful as well as Cardinal Jean Villot, secretary of State and Giovanni Benelli, titular archbishop of Tusuro, substitute of the secretariat of State, and a delegation of the Italian government.

Bibliography. Antoniutti, Ildebrando. Memorie autobiografiche. Udine : Arti grafiche friulane, 1975; "Il Cardinale Ildebrando Antoniutti". L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, CII, n. 65 (March 20-21, 1962), p. 5; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 262-264.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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APONTE MARTÍNEZ, Luis
(1922-2012)

Birth. August 4, 1922, Lajas, diocese of Ponce, Puerto Rico. Son of Santiago Evangelista Aponte and Rosa María Martínez. He was the eighth of eighteen children. He served as altar boy with several of his brothers at the parish church of Lajas and this experience moved him to enter the priesthood.

Education. Elementary studies in the public school of Lajas "Luis Muñoz Rivera"; later, studied at superior school "Lola Rodríguez de Tió" in San Germán; on September 18, 1940, he entered the Minor Seminary "San Ildefonso", in Old San Juan, to start his priestly studies; and from 1943, he studied philosophy and theology at St. John's Seminary, Brighton, Massachusetts; he obtained a master's degree at the University of Boston.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 10, 1950, church of San Germán de Auxerre, San Germán, Puerto Rico, by James Edward McManus, C.Ss.R., bishop of Ponce. From 1950-1960, pastoral ministry in the diocese of Ponce, working in the parishes of Maricao, Santa Isabel, Patillas y Aibonito. In 1955, he became secretary of Bishop McManus of Ponce. He was also vice-chancellor; superintendent of Catholic schools; director of the development office of the Catholic University of Puerto Rico, Ponce campus; and chaplain to the National Guard.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Lares and appointed auxiliary of Ponce, July 23, 1960. Consecrated, October 12, 1960, church María Reina, Ponce, by Cardinal Francis Spellman, archbishop of New York, assisted by James Peter Davis, archbishop of San Juan, and by Edward John Harper, C.Ss.R., titular bishop of Eraclea, prelate nullius of the Virgin Islands. His episcopal motto was In virtute Dei. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Named coadjutor of Ponce, with right of succession, April 16, 1963. Succeeded to the see of Ponce, November 18, 1963; he was installed on February 22, 1964. Promoted to the metropolitan see of San Juan, November 4, 1964; he took possession on January 15, 1965, as the first Puertorican to become archbishop. President of the Junta de Síndicos of the Pontifical Catholic University of Puerto Rico, 1965-1999. In 1966, he established the Episcopal Conference of Puerto Rico and became its president until 1982. Participated in the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria della Provvidenza a Monteverde, March 5, 1973. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 26, 1999; apostolic administrator sede vacante, March 26 to May 8, 1999. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, August 4, 2002. He was the first cardinal from Puerto Rico.

Death. April 10, 2012, at 4 a.m., of cardiovascular and renal complications, in the Hospital "Auxilio Mutuo", Hato Rey, San Juan. Governor Luis Fortuño of Puerto Rico decreed five days of mourning because of the passing of the cardinal; and the mayor of San Juan, Jorge Santini, also decreed five days of mourning in the capital city. Religious leaders of Puerto Rico lamented the death of the cardinal and prayed for him and his family. A mass with the family of the cardinal was celebrated on Tuesday April 10, at 7:30 p.m. in the metropolitan cathedral of San Juan by Archbishop Roberto Octavio González Nieves, O.F.M. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Benedict XVI prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence (1) to Archbishop González Nieves. On Wednesday, April 11, the body of the cardinal was taken from the funeral home Guaynabo Memorial to Lajas, where he was born, where a mass was celebrated in the parish church of Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria, at 7:30 p.m., by the bishop of Mayagüez, Álvaro Corrada del Río, S.J. On Thursday April 12, the body was transferred to San Germán, where the cardinal was ordained priest, and a mass was offered at 11:00 a.m. On Friday April 13, the body of the late cardinal was in the cathedral of Ponce. On Saturday April 14 in the morning, the wake began in the church of Santa Teresita and continued on Sunday at 5:00 p.m., after the masses of the day. On Monday morning, April 16, the body was taken to the metropolitan cathedral of San Juan, in Old San Juan, where it was exposed until 3:00 p.m.; and then the exequial mass was presided over by Cardinal Carlos Amigo Vallejo, O.F.M., archbishop emeritus of Sevilla, Spain. Successively, the late cardinal was buried in that cathedral in a white marble sarcophagus inscribed "Su Eminencia Reverendísima Luis Cardenal Aponte Martínez".

Bibliography. Aponte Martínez, Luis. Unde hoc mihi = por qué a mí? : memorias del Cardenal Luis Aponte Martínez, arzobispo emérito de San Juan de Puerto Rico. Bogotá ; San Juan, P.R. : Grupo Editorial Norma, 2005. Other titles: Por qué a mí?; Memorias del Cardenal Luis Aponte Martínez; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 438.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Spanish, archdiocese of San Juan; honorary doctorates and memberships, Spanish, archdiocese of San Juan; his arms and explanation, in Spanish, archdiocese of San Juan; his episcopal motto, in Spanish, archdiocese of San Juan; publications, in Spanish, archdiocese of San Juan; biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; interview on the occasion of his 60th priestly anniversary and 50th episcopal anniversary, in Spanish, El Visitante de Puerto Rico, YouTube.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Press Office of the Holy See:

MONS. ROBERTO OCTAVIO GONZÁLEZ NIEVES, O.F.M.
ARZOBISPO DE SAN JUAN DE PUERTO RICO

PROFUNDAMENTE ENTRISTECIDO POR LA MUERTE DEL QUERIDO CARDENAL LUIS APONTE MARTÍNEZ, ARZOBISPO EMÉRITO DE ESA ARQUIDIÓCESIS, DESPUÉS DE UNA ENFERMEDAD VIVIDA CON GRAN SERENIDAD, EXPRESO MI MAS SENTIDO PÉSAME A USTED, A LOS FAMILIARES DEL DIFUNTO Y A TODO ESE QUERIDO PUEBLO PUERTORRIQUEÑO. ME UNO A TODOS PARA ENCOMENDAR A LA MISERICORDIA DEL PADRE CELESTIAL A ESTE CELOSO PASTOR QUE CON TANTA CARIDAD Y SENCILLEZ HA SERVIDO A SU PUEBLO.
LLEVÓ A CABO UN GENEROSO E INTENSO MINISTERIO EPISCOPAL EN PONCE, Y LUEGO COMO ARZOBISPO DE SAN JUAN. PARTICIPÓ EN EL CONCILIO VATICANO II IMPLANTANDO EN ESA IGLESIA PARTICULAR SUS DISPOSICIONES, TESTIMONIÓ SU GRAN AMOR A DIOS Y A LA IGLESIA, ASÍ COMO SU GRAN DEDICACIÓN A LA CAUSA DEL EVANGELIO.
EN ESTOS MOMENTOS DE DOLOR, ME ES GRATO IMPARTIRLES CON AFECTO LA CONFORTADORA BENDICIÓN APOSTÓLICA, COMO SIGNO DE FE Y ESPERANZA EN EL SEÑOR RESUCITADO.


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ARAMBURU, Juan Carlos
(1912-2004)

Birth. February 11, 1912, Reducción, diocese of Río Cuarto, Argentina. Spent his infancy in Reducción, Spain and Buenos Aires.

Education. Colegio De La Salle, Buenos Aires; Seminary of Córdoba, Córdoba (1923); Collegio Pio Latino Americano, Rome; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome ( doctorates in philosophy and canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained, October 28, 1934, Collegio Pio Latino Americano, Rome. Successively, 1934-1946, pastoral ministry in the diocese of Río Cuarto; vicar cooperator of Villa del Rosario parish, province of Córdoba; professor of canon law and vice-rector of Nuestra Señora de Loreto Seminary, Córdoba; faculty member of National University of Córdoba.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Platea and appointed auxiliary of Tucumán, October 7, 1946. Consecrated, December 15, 1946, at the cathedral of Córdoba, by Fermín Lafitte, archbishop of Córdoba, assisted by Leopoldo Buteler, obispo de Río Cuarto, and Ramón José Castellano, titular bishop of Flaviade, auxiliary of Córdoba. Named bishop of Tucumán, August 28, 1953. Promoted to archbishop when Tucumán was elevated to metropolitan see, March 13, 1957. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Transferred to titular see of Torri di Bizancena and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Buenos Aires, June 14, 1967. Attended the Second General Conference of the Latin American Episcopal Council, August 24 to September 6, 1968, Medellín, Colombia; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969. Succeeded to the primatial see of Buenos Aires, April 22, 1975. Ordinary for the faithful of Oriental rite in Argentina who did not have an ordinary of their own rite.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 24, 1976; received the red biretta and the title of S. Giovanni Battista dei Fiorentini, May 24, 1976. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; the First Plenary Meeting of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979, Vatican City. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, May 31, 1981. President of the Episcopal Conference of Argentina, 1982-1985. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, July 10, 1990. Special papal envoy to the centennial celebration of the coronation of the image of Our Lady of del Valle, Catamarca, Argentina, April 12, 1991. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, February 11, 1992. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992.

Death. November 18, 2004, suffered a fatal cardiac failure as he prepared to go and hear confessions at the Shrine of San Cayetano, in Buenos Aires. Buried in the chapel of San Juan Bautista, in front of the altar of Nuestra Señora de los Desamparados, in the metropolitan cathedral of Buenos Aires (1), contiguous to the chapel where his successor, Cardinal Antonio Quarracino, is buried.

Link. Photograph and biography, in Spanish.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, kindly provied by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

ADVENIAT REGNUM TUUM
JUAN CARLOS CARDENAL ARAMBURU
Iª ARZOBISPO DE TUCUMÁN
IXª ARZOBISPO DE BUENOS AIRES
11.II.1912      18.XI.2004


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ARAÚJO, Serafim Fernandes de
(1924-

Birth. August 13, 1924, Minas Novas, diocese of Araçuaí, Brazil. Son of José Fernandes de Araújo and Gabriela Leite Araújo. He is the eldest of sixteen children.

Education. Initial studies in 1937 at Coronel Jonas Câmara School, in Itamarandiba; in 1937, he entered the Seminary of Diamantina, where he obtained a licentiate in philosophy in 1944; then, he studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome from 1945, obtaining doctorates in theology in 1949; and in canon law in 1951.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 12, 1949, at the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. Further studies, Rome, 1949-1951. Since the beginning of his priestly ministry, he was profoundly identified with the educational work and social communications. Returned to Brazil and exercised his pastoral ministry as pastor in the city of Gouveia from 1951 to 1957, and at the same time, in 1956, he was professor of canon law at the Provincial Seminary of Diamantina; director of Catechesis of that archdiocese; and professor of religion at the Escola Normal of Diamantina. He was pastor of the city Curvelo from 1957 to 1959, teaching, at the same time, at Padre Curvelo School; at the Institute Santo Antônio; and at the Escola Normal. Concurrently, from 1956 until 1957, he was chaplain of the Third Battalion of Police, in Diamantina; 1956-1959, faculty member, Provincial Seminary of Diamantina; archdiocesan director of catechesis; faculty member, Teacher's School of Diamantina and several schools in Gouveia.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Verinopoli and appointed auxiliary of Belo Horizonte, January 19, 1959. Consecrated, May 7, 1959, Diamantina, by José Newton de Almeida Baptista, archbishop of Diamantina, assisted by João Resende Costa, S.D.B., titular archbishop of Martirano, coadjutor of Belo Horizonte, and by José Maria Pires, bishop of Araçuaí. His episcopal motto is Serafim juxta eum. In 1960, he was chosen as rector of the Catholic University of Belo Horizonte, recently founded in Minas Gerais (now Pontifical University) of which law school he was professor; he held this office until 1981, when he left the university with twenty three academic degrees and 15,000 students. He continued with his international experience as an educator. In Brazil, he created links between universities and the workplace and supported many poor students through the establishment of scholarships. He dedicated himself to restructure on a more consistent and dynamic means of social communication available to the archdiocese, revising, planning and modernizing the facilities and technical installations of the Radios América and Cultura, giving new impetus to the Jornal de Opinião, which replaced the weekly Lar Católico. Participated in the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopal Council (CELAM), January 27 to February 13, 1979, Puebla, México. Promoted to coadjutor archbishop with right succession of Belo Horizonte, November 22, 1982. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Belo Horizonte, February 5, 1986. In 1989 he was appointed member of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America (CAL). Member of the Pontifical Council for Social Communications from 1990 to 1995. For several years he was responsible for a daily program, "A Palavra de Deus" broadcast by Rádio América in Belo Horizonte; and another Sunday program in three different television channels in the capital of Minas Gerais (Bandeirantes, Globo and Minas). On August 15, 1990, proposed that the local Church of Belo Horizonte concentrated a massive effort of evangelization, inviting her to become a missionary Church, participatory and merciful, through the Pastoral Care Project "Construir a Esperança" which became the pastoral model for several dioceses in Brazil, with the approval and the seal of the National Episcopal Conference. The climax of the project was the implementation of the First Assembly of the People of God on October 12, 1996 .Vice-president of the National Conference of Brazilian Bishop from 1991 to 1995. He was chosen as head of the Sector of Social Communications of the National Episcopal Conference of Brazilian Bishops and was part for several years of the Department of Social Communication of the Latin American Episcopal Council (CELAM). Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopal Council (CELAM), Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992; one of its three presidents. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. In 1995, he organized and celebrated in Belo Horizonte the Fifth Latin American Missionary Congress (COMLA V). President of the Association Nossa Senhora da Conceição, working to provide assistance to street children and ion the Pastoral Care of Children and marginalized groups, and dedicated, above all, to offer spiritual and material support to the terminally ill patients who lack assistance. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. He was granted several honorary doctorates as well as the title of Commander of the National Order of Educational Merit, with the grand medal of the Inconfidência and with the medal Santos Dumont. He received the title of honorary citizen of the cities of Pedro Leopoldo, Curvelo, Itabira, Luz, Nova Lima, Belo Horizonte, Contagem, Itamarandiba, Diamantina, Bom Despacho and Caeté.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of S. Luigi Maria Grignion de Montfort, February 21, 1998. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese upon having reached the age limit, January 28, 2004. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, August 13, 2004.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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ARCE Y OCHOTORENA, Manuel
(1879-1948)

Birth. August 18, 1879, Ororbis, diocese of Pamplona, Spain.

Education. Conciliar Seminary of Pamplona; Pontifical Seminary of Zaragoza; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; Pontifical Roman Academy of St. Thomas Aquinas, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 17, 1904, Rome. Faculty member of the Conciliar Seminary of Pamplona; doctoral canon of Pamplona; vicar capitular; vicar general. Apostolic protonotary, December 3, 1926.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Zamora, Spain, February 5, 1929. Consecrated, June 16, 1929, cathedral of Pamplona, by Federico Tedeschini, titular archbishop of Lepanto, nuncio in Spain, assisted by Tomás Muniz Pablos, bishop of Pamplona, and by Mateo Múgica y Urrestarazu, bishop of Vitoria. Transferred to the see of Oviedo, January 22, 1938. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Tarragona, March 29, 1944.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Vitale, Valeria, Gervasio e Protasio, February 22, 1946. Papal legate to the celebrations of Our Lady of Montserrat, Montserrat, April 12, 1947.

Death. September 16, 1948, Tarragona. Buried in the chapel of the baptistry of the metropolitan cathedral of Tarragona.

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 91.

Link. His tomb, fourth photo on the page.


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ARINZE, Francis
(1932-

Birth. November 1, 1932, Eziowelle, a little rural village, archdiocese of Onitsha, Nigeria. Third of the seven children of Joseph Arinze Nwankwu and Bernadette Ekwoanya, from Abagana. The other siblings were Christopher, Linus, Justin, Cecilia, Victoria and Catherine. He was born to the Igbo faith and converted to Catholicism at age nine. He was baptized on November 1, 1941 by Fr. Cyprian Michael Tansi, future blessed. He also made his first confession and received his first communion from Fr. Tansi. He speaks English, Italian and Spanish.

Education. Primary school at St. Anthony's, Dunukofia, until 1946; Junior Seminary of Nnewi, Nnewi (1947-1953); Brigard Memorial Seminary, Enugu 1953-1956 (philosophy); Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide", Rome, 1955-1960 (bachelor's in theology 1957; master's degree, 1959; doctorate, summa cum laude (1), 1960); University of London, London, England.

Priesthood. Ordained, November 23, 1958, chapel of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide", Rome, by Cardinal Grégoire-Pierre Agagianian, pro-prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith. Further studies, 1958-1961, Rome. Successively, 1961-1963, faculty member, Seminary of Enugu; regional secretary of Catholic education in Western Nigeria. Further studies, 1963-1964, London.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Fissiana and appointed coadjutor of Onitsha, July 6, 1965. Consecrated, August 29, 1965, by Charles Heerey, archbishop of Onitsha, assisted by John Kwao Amuzu Aggey, archbishop of Lagos, and by Dominic Ekandem, bishop of Ikot Ekpene. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Onitsha, Nigeria, June 26, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. President of the Episcopal Conference of Nigeria, 1979-1984. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Elected vice-president for Africa of the United Biblical Societies, 1982. Pro-president of the Secretariat for Non-Christians, April 8, 1984. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 9, 1985.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Giovanni della Pigna, May 25, 1985. President of the Secretariat for Non-Christians, May 27, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Special papal envoy to the celebration of First centennial of the introduction of Catholicism in Kenya, August 8 to 12, 1991, Nairobi. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. Special papal envoy to the National Eucharistic Congress, Owerri, Nigeria, December 4 to 6, 1992. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, April 10 to May 8, 1994; president delegate; member of the Council of the General Secretariat of the Special Assembly for Africa. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the Tenth anniversary of the visit of Pope John Paul II, Rabat, Morocco, October 20 to 22, 1995. Opted for the order of priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, January 29, 1996. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. On October 24, 1999, he received a Golden Medallion from the International Council of Christians and Jews for his "outstanding achievements in inter-faith relations". Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the centennial of the Catholic Church in Malawi that took place in Lilongwe on July 28, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, October 1, 2002; ceased as president of the Pontifical Council for Inter-religious Dialog on that same day. Special papal envoy to the Third National Eucharistic Congress, Ibadan, Nigeria, November 15-17, 2002. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reappointed prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, April 21, 2005. Promoted to the order of cardinal bishops and assigned the title of the suburbicarian see of Velletri-Segni, April 25, 2005. President-delegate of the Ninth General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Special papal envoy to the First National Eucharistic Congress of Chad, in Moundou on January 4 to 8, 2006. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church"; elected member of the Twelfth Council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, October 22, 2008. Pope Benedict XVI accepted his resignation, presented for having reached the age limit, from the prefecture of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments on December 9, 2008. Preached the Lent Spiritual Exercises for Pope Benedict XVI and the Roman Curia from March 1 to 7, 2009, at the chapel Redemptoris Mater in the Apostolic Palace of the Vatican; the theme of the meditations was "The priest finds Jesus and follows him." Special papal envoy to the Ninth Plenary Assembly of the Federation of Episcopal Conferences of Asia, which took place in Manila, Philippines, on August 11 to 16, 2009. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World"; its first president-delegate. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on November 1, 2012.

Bibliography. Arinze, Francis A. ; O'Connell, Gerard. God's invisible hand. The life & work of Cardinal Arinze. Interviewed by Gerard O'Connell. Nairobi, Kenya : Paulines Publications, 2003; Miranda, Salvador. "Arinze, Francis A." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyla years. Detroit : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, pp. 251-252.

Link. Photograph and biography, in English, Catholic Bishop's Conference of Nigeria; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) The first part of his doctoral thesis, "Igbo Sacrifice as an introduction to the Catechesis of Holy Mass", was later to become a reference work for many scholars after it was published by the Ibadan University Press under the title "Sacrifice in Igbo Religion" in 1970.


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ARNS, O.F.M., Paulo Evaristo
(1921-

Birth. September 14, 1921, Forquilhinha, diocese of Tubarão, Brazil. Fifth of the 13 children of Gabriel Arns and Helena Steiner. His brothers and sisters were João Crisóstomo (priest), Osvaldo, Maria Gabriela (nun), Otília, Maria Helena (nun), Hilda (nun), Felippe, Max, Ida, Bertoldo, Zilda and Zélia.

Education. Joined the Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans); took the name Evaristo; professed, December 10, 1943. Franciscan houses of studies, Brazil; Faculty of Philosophy, Curitiba, 1941-1943; Franciscan Theological Institute, Petrópolis, 1944-1947; training periods: three in Germany, two in England, one in Holland, Belgium, United States of America and Canada, 1948-1950; University of La Sorbonne, Paris (licentiate in letters: Brazilian, Latin, Greek and Ancient History studies, 1950; doctorate in letters, très honorable", May 3, 1952; Thesis: "La technique du livre d' après Saint Jérome; secondary thesis: "Les Confessions de Saint Augustin dans l'oeuvre de Saint Bonaventure e Thesaurus linguæ latinæ"; Institut National de Recherche Pédagogique, 1950-1952; Institut des Hautes Etudes, Paris, 1950-1952 (ancient literature). Received the diaconate on November 29, 1944.

Priesthood. Ordained, November 30, 1945, Petrópolis, by José Pereira Alves, bishop of Niterói. Substitute professor, Ginásio de Rio Negro, 1946. Further studies, 1947-1953. Professor of French and classic letters, Seminary "Santo Antonio", Agudos, 1953-1955. Founder of the Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters of Bauru, 1954. Professor of French language and literature, Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters of Bauru, 1954-1955. Professor and counselor of "Campanha de Aperfeiçoamento do Ensino Secundário" of the Ministry of Education and Culture, Juiz de Fora and Curitiba, 1955-1957. Professor of Christian literature and history of the ancient church, Theological Institute of Petrópolis, 1956. Master of clerics and prefect of studies of his order, Petrópolis, 1956-1966. Professor of general didactics, Faculty of Philosophy of Petrópolis, 1958. Chaplain of the community "São José Operário", Itamarati, Petrópolis, 1956-1966. Journalist (non-professional): registered in the 14th Reginal Delegation of Labor, Petrópolis, 1961-1966; and in São Paulo, 1966 to May 1976; journalist "militante": Associação Brasileira de Imprensa, named May 5, 1976 and invested on May 30, 1976, São Paulo. Elected vice-provincial of the Province "Imaculada Conceição" of the Friars Minor, January 12, 1961; occupied the post until 1966. Director of the monthly review for religious Sponsa Christi, and of the Franciscan publication center Vozes, Petrópolis. Member of the International Commission for the Reform of the Constitutions of the Friars Minor, Rome, 1976.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Respetta and appointed auxiliary of São Paulo, Brazil, May 2, 1966. Consecrated, July 3, 1966, Sacred Heart church, Forquilhinha, by Cardinal Agnelo Rossi, archbishop of São Paulo, assisted by Anselmo Pietrulla, bishop of Tubarão, and by Honorato Piazera, titular bishop of Castello Jabar. His episcopal motto is Ex spe in spem. Episcopal vicar of the North Region of the archdiocese of São Paulo, July 2, 1966 to October 22, 1970. Promoted to the metropolitan see of São Paulo, October 22, 1970. Grand chancellor of the Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo, November 1, 1970. Grand chancellor of the Theological Faculty "Nossa Senhora da Assunção", November 1, 1970.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the title of S. Antonio da Padova a via Tuscolana, March 5, 1973. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Second Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 23 to 26, 1982; the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; member of the general secretariat, 1983-1986; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985, membership extended until 1987. Attended the Third Plenary Assembly of the College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 21 to 23, 1985; the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, April 9, 1998; apostolic administrator, April 9 to May 23, 1998. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, September 14, 2001. He became cardinal protoprete on July 9, 2012, at the death of Cardinal Eugénio de Araújo Sales, archbishop emeritus of Sáo Sabastiáo do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. On December 12, 2012, the Brazilian Federal Senate awarded him the Prize "Dom Helder Câmara" to honor his defense of human rights.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B., André and Charles N. Bransom. "Franciscan bishops." Franciscan Studies, XLVIII (1988), 310; Paulo Evaristo Arns : cardeal de esperança e pastor da Igreja de São Paulo. São Paulo, SP : Edições Paulinas, 1989. (Série Teologia em diálogo).

Links. Photographs, videos, bibliography and biography, in Portuguese, arquidiocese de São Paulo; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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ARRIBA Y CASTRO, Benjamín de
(1886-1973)

Birth. April 8, 1886, Santa Maria de Peñamayor, diocese of Lugo, Spain. Son of Antonio de Arriba and Pilar de Castro.

Education. Conciliar Seminary of Madrid; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; Pontifical University of Toledo, Toledo; Pontifical Roman Academy of St. Thomas Aquinas, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 14, 1912, Rome, by Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val, secretary of State. Faculty member of the Conciliar Seminary of Madrid, 1913-1921. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Madrid, February 17, 1921. Secretary of the chamber and government of the diocese of Madrid, 1921-1930; provisor and pro-vicar general, 1930-1932; vicar general, 1932-1935.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Mondoñedo, May 1, 1935. Consecrated, June 16, 1935, cathedral of San Isidro, Madrid, by Leopoldo Eijo Garay, bishop of Madrid, assisted by Prudencio Melo y Alcalde, archbishop of Valencia, and by Manuel González y García, bishop of Málaga. His episcopal motto was Traham eos in vinculis caritatis. Awarded the grand cross of Naval Merit, with distinctive white ribbon.Transferred to the see of Oviedo, August 8, 1944. Decorated with the grand cross of the Order of Isabel la Católica. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Tarragona, January 22, 1949. Decorated with the grand cross of the Order of Alfonso X el Sabio.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat on October 29, 1953, together with new Cardinals Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, Gaetano Cicognani, Pietro Ciriaci and Fernando Quiroga y Palacios, in a special consistory that lasted fifteen minutes, and also the title of Ss. Vitale, Valeria, Gervasio e Protasio. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, November 19, 1970. Lost the right to participate in the conclave for being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971.

Death. March 8, 1973, at 3:45 p.m., of tumor related complications, after hearing mass and receiving communion at the Chiron Clinic in Barcelona, where he had been admitted due to a flu-type respiratory disorder. His body was laid out in state for two days at the archbishop's palace of Tarragona, prior to the celebration of a solemn funeral mass at the metropolitan cathedral of the city. Buried in the floor of the presbytery of the parish church of San Pablo, Tarragona, without any ornaments, according to his wishes; he had opened and blessed that church. A memorial plaque was later inaugurated in the parish in his memory (1).

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 96.

Link. Biography, in Spanish, Galicia Dixital; same biography, in English, Galicia Dixital; same biography, in Galego, Galicia Dixital; and photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on the plaque, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

Paulus vel solus sufficeins mihi fuisset
Christi argumentum
haec verba sculpi voluit
emmus. ac. revdmus. Beniaminus
Cardinalis de Arriba y Castro
Olim Archipiscopus Tarraconensis
Obit VIII idus Martias A. D. MCMLXXIII
orate pro eo.


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ARTEAGA Y BETANCOURT, Manuel
(1879-1963)

Birth. December 28, 1879, Puerto Príncipe (now Camagüey), archdiocese of Santiago de Cuba, Cuba. Son of Rosendo Arteaga Montejo and Delia Betancourt Guerra. Baptized on April 17, 1880, at the principal parish church of Puerto Príncipe, by Father Virgilio Arteaga; he received the names Manuel Francisco del Corazón de Jesús. Received the sacrament of confirmation on November 17, 1882, in Puerto Príncipe, from José Martín de Herrera y de la Iglesia, archbishop of Santiago de Cuba. His paternal uncle, Father Ricardo Arteaga Montejo, who had left Cuba for Venezuela for political reasons, took the future cardinal to that country in 1892.

Education. Studied at the Central University of Venezuela, obtaining a bachelor in philosophy on June 15, 1898); entered the Capuchin convent in Caracas in 1900; for health reasons had to leave the convent and entered the Seminary of Santa Rosa de Lima, Caracas, on April 12, 1901; received the clerical tonsure and the four minor orders on August 10, 1902; the subdiaconate on November 10, 1902; and the diaconate on December 7, 1902.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 17, 1904, Caracas, by Juan Bautista Castro, archbishop of Caracas. Pastoral ministry, Cumaná , Venezuela, 1906-1912; Camagüey, Cuba, 1912-1915. Provisor and vicar general of the diocese of San Cristóbal de La Habana, 1915-1941; canon schoolmaster, 1916. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 31, 1926. Vicar capitular of the archdiocese of San Cristóbal de La Habana, January 3, 1940.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of San Cristóbal de La Habana, December 26, 1941. Consecrated, February 24, 1942, cathedral of San Cristóbal de La Habana, by Giorgio Caruana, titular archbishop of Sebaste, nuncio in Cuba, assisted by Valentín Zubizarreta Unamunzaga, O.C.D., archbishop of Santiago de Cuba, and by Eduardo Martínez Dalmau, C.P., bishop of Cienfuegos.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, February 28, 1946. Papal legate to the First National Eucharistic Congress, La Habana, January 10, 1946; to the coronation of Our Lady of Coromoto, Venezuela, July 30, 1952. Participated in the Fifth Interamerican Congress of Catholic Education, Colegio de Belén, La Habana, Cuba, December 1954 (1). Attended the First General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 25-August 4, 1955. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Persecuted by Communist regime of Fidel Castro, sought asylum in the Argentinean Embassy and in the apostolic nunciature, 1961-1962; in "San Juan de Dios" Hospital, where he died, 1962-1963. He was the first Cuban cardinal.

Death. March 20, 1963, of natural causes, after a long history of failing health, at Hospital San Juan de Dios, La Habana. Buried in "Cristóbal Colón Cemetery", La Habana, in a tomb that he had built several years earlier (2).

Bibliography. Gaínza González, Fernando. El Cardenal Arteaga. Havana: Editorial Lex, 1949. Del Valle, Raúl. El Cardenal Arteaga: Resplandores de la púrpura cubana. Havana: Impresos Ramallo, 1954.

Link. Biography, in Spanish, Episcopologio dela Iglesia Católica en Cuba; and his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) At the end of the congress, on December 1, 1954, Pope Pius XII delivered a radio message in which he had prophetic words concerning the future of Cuba.
(2) This is the inscription in his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici from Malta:

MANUEL, CARDENAL ARTEAGA Y BETANCOURT
PULVIS ES
1879 - 1963


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ASCALESI, Alessio
(1872-1952)

Birth. October 22, 1872, Casalnuovo, archdiocese of Naples, Italy. He spent his infancy in Umbria.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Spoleto.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 8, 1895, Spoleto. Joined the Congregation of the Most Precious Blood, an association of secular priests living in community, whose principal aim is to give missions and retreats. Pastoral ministry, Spoleto, 1895-1909: pastor of the parish of Montemurano and for several years its economous. Prior pastor in Collegio S. Bartolomeo, in the city of Montefalco, and vicar foraneus.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Muro Lucano, April 29, 1909. Consecrated. August 8, 1909, church of S. Chiara, Montefalco, by Domenico Serafini, O.S.B., archbishop of Spoleto, assisted by Giovanni Grazziani, bishop of Todi, and by Ercolano Marini, bishop of Norcia. His episcopal motto was Ut ad Deum ascendam. Transferred to see of Sant'Agata dei Goti, June 19, 1911. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Benevento, December 9, 1915.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 4, 1916; received the red hat and the title of S. Callisto, December 7, 1916. Apostolic administrator of Lucera, December 8, 1918. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Naples, March 7, 1924. Papal legate to the consecration of cathedral of Siracusa, Sicily, December 26, 1926; to the Eucharistic Congress of Calabria, Reggio, August 10, 1928; to the consecration of cathedral of Messina, Sicily, July 18, 1929; to the Plenary Council of Campagna, Naples, September 4, 1932; to the Regional Eucharistic Congress, Catanzaro, October 9, 1933; to the Regional Eucharistic Congress, Reggio Calabria, March 10, 1934. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII.

Death. Sunday May 11, 1952, at 12:55 a.m., Naples. The funeral took place on the following Tuesday May 13, at 10 a.m., in the metropolitan cathedral of Naples; the mass was celebrated by Alfonso Castaldo, titular archbishop of Tessalonica, coadjutor of Naples, assisted by the metropolitan cathedral chapter. Buried in the ipogeo reserved for the bishops in the metropolitan cathedral of Naples. Later, his remains were transferred to the basilica dell'Incoronata Madre del Buon Consiglio, Capodimonte. A Neapolitan hospital and the Major Archiepiscopal Seminary of the city bear the name of Cardinal Ascalesi.

Links. His photograph, Primi Giuseppini, Parrocchia della Sacra famiglia, Naples; and three photographs and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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