The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
(1903-2011)
B

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BACCI, Antonio
(1885-1971)

Birth. September 4, 1885, Giugnola, archdiocese of Florence, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Florence.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 9, 1909, Florence. Faculty member and spiritual director of the Seminary of Florence, 1910-1922. Honorary chamberlain of His Holiness, March 15, 1923. Staff member of the Secretariat of State, 1922-1931. Secretary of Briefs to the Princes, 1931-1960. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, August 1, 1931.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 28, 1960; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Eugenio, March 31, 1960. His cardinalitial motto was Non nomen sed virtus.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Colonia de Cappadocia, April 5, 1962. Consecrated, April 19, 1962, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Cardinal Giuseppe Pizzardo and by Cardinal Benedetto Aloisi Masella. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinals Joaquín Anselmo María Albareda, O.S.B., Augustin Bea, S.J., Francesco Bracci, Michael Browne, O.P., William Theodore Heard, Alberto di Jorio, André Jullien, P.S.S., Arcadio María Larraona, C.M.F., Francesco Morano, Alfredo Ottaviani and Francesco Roberti. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Lost his right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971. Called "Cultor e Amator" of the Latin Language, he was the leading Vatican Latin expert, publishing along the years four editions of a Latin dictionary (Lexicon vocabulorum quae difficilius latine redduntur); the work included terms that did not exist in Cæsar's day, and the cardinal himself coined such gems as gummis salivaria "chewing gum" and barbara sahatio "the twist". He also published Viva Maria!, a famous poem in ottava rima which narrates the Aretine Uprisings against the French in 1799; as well as Daily Meditations, which were translated to various languages.

Death. January 20, 1971, Vatican City. Buried in the small cemetery of Piancaldoli, Firenzuola, Florence.

Links. His arms, Araldica Vaticana; I cardinali Antonio Bacci e Pericle Felici. Due latinisti in un ricordo by Oronzo De Simone, L'Ora del Salento, venerdì, giugno 7th, 2013.


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BAČKIS, Audrys Juozas
(1937-

Birth. February 1, 1937, Kaunas, Lithuania. Second son of Dr. Stasys Antanas Bačkis and Ona Galvydaité-Bačkiené, a teacher. He has an older brother, Ričardas, who was a diplomat and prolific publicists. In 1938, he went with his parents to Paris, where his father was a diplomat at the Lithuanian Embassy. Because of the Soviet occupation of Lithuania, the family could not go back and he had to wait fifty years to be able to visit his country in 1988.

Education. He finished his secondary education at the Institute Saint-Marie-de-Monceau in Paris in 1954. Entered the Theological Seminary of Saint-Sulpice of the archdiocese of Paris in Issy-les-Moulineaux, where he studied philosophy. In 1957, he went to Rome and studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, where he obtained a licentiate in theology; while in Rome, he lived in the Lithuanian College of St. Casimir. From 1964, he attended the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, studying diplomacy; then, he attended the Pontifical Lateran University, where he earned a doctorate in canon law. Besides his native Lithuanian, he speaks Italian, English, French, Spanish and Portuguese. He understands German and Dutch.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 18, 1961, Rome, by Cardinal Luigi Traglia, vicar general for Rome and its district. Incardinated in the archdiocese of Kaunas. Pastoral care of Lithuanian communities in the United States. Further studies, Rome, 1964. Entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See, 1964. Secretary of the nunciature in the Philippines (1964-1965); in Costa Rica (1965-1967); in Turkey (1967-1970); in Nigeria (1970-1973). Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, June 26, 1965 (title changed to chaplain of His Holiness, 1968). Called to the Council of Public Affairs of the Church at the Secretariat of State, 1973. Delegate of the Holy See at the United Nations Conference in Vienna, 1975. Vice-secretary of the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church, 1979. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, June 18, 1979. From 1974 pastoral ministry in different parishes in Rome, especially working with young people and families, giving retreats and running many debating groups. From 1979, he taught diplomatic law at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Meta, with personal title of archbishop, and appointed nuncio in the Netherlands, August 5, 1988. Consecrated, October 4, 1988, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Cardinal Achille Silvestrini and by Juozas Praikšas, titular bishop of Egnazia, apostolic administrator of Kaunas. His episcopal motto is Sub tuum praesidium. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Vilnius, December 24, 1991. Took possession of the see on March 3, 1992. Received the pallium from Pope John Paul II on June 29, 1992, at the patriarchal Vatican basilica. From September 4 to 8, 1993, he hosted Pope John Paul II in Lithuania. President of the Lithuanian Bishops' Conference, 1993-1999 and 2002-2005; vice-president, 1999-2002; and 2005-2013. In 1997 he was decorated with the cross of merit, second class, of the Order of Merit of the Kingdom of Norway (Den Kongelege Norske Fortenstordenen). Received an honorary doctorate from the Pedagogical University of Vilnius on April 30, 1997. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. On February 16, 2000, he was decorated with the cross of merit, first class, of the Order of Merit of "Gediminas" of the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos didžiojo kunigaikščio Gedimino ordino Komandoro kryžius).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of Natività di Nostro Signore Gesù Cristo a Via Gallia, February 21, 2001. Member of the Congregation for Catholic Education; of the Pontifical Council for Social Communications; of the Pontifical Commission for Cutural Patrimony; and of the Special Council for Europe of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops. On February 3, 2003, he was decorated with the cross of merit, first class, of the Order of Merit of "Vytautas Magnus" of the Republic of Lithuania (Vytauto Didžiojo ordino Didysis kryžius). Received an honorary doctorate from the Pontifical Theological Faculty of Kraków on May 13, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Vilnius was accepted by Pope Francis on April 5, 2013. He was apostolic administrator of the archdiocese until the installation of his successor, Gintaras Linas Grušas, until then military ordinary of Lithuania, on April 23, 2013. On June 15, 2013, he was named special papal envoy to the celebrations for the 1025th anniversary of the "baptism" of the Rus', programmed in Kyiv, Ukraine, on August 17 and 18, 2013. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Lithuanian Bishops' Conference; photograph and biography, in Lithuanian, Lithuanian Bishops' Conference; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; photograph and biography, in Spanish, ACI Prensa; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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BAFILE, Corrado
(1903-2005)

Birth. July 4, 1903, L'Aquila, archdiocese of L'Aquila, Italy. The youngest of the twelve children of Vincenzo Bafile, a physician, and Maddalena Tedeschini D'Annibale. He was baptized in the church of Santa Maria Paganica, L'Aquila.

Education. Initial studies in the public elementary school, L'Aquila; Lyceum "Domenico Cotugno," L'Aquila; Faculty of Chemistry, University of Münich, Münich, Germany; after the death of his father, entered the Faculty of Law, University of Rome, Rome, (doctorate in law, 1926); Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (philosophy for one year); Major Roman Seminary, Rome; Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome (doctorate in canon law); Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome (1936-1939).

Early life. Once he passed the exam for the practice of the profession of legal procurator, he was inscribed in the register of the Court of Appeals of L'Aquila, June 1927. Entered the seminary in 1932 after the death of a brother.

Priesthood. Ordained, Holy Saturday, April 11, 1936, Rome. Further studies, 1936-1939. Attached to the Vatican Secretariat of State and pastoral ministry in Rome, 1939-1960. At the same time, he did pastoral ministry as chaplain to the Abruzzi community in Rome and as national chaplain to the Legion of Mary in Italy. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 24, 1954.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Antiochia di Pisidia and appointed nuncio in Germany, February 13, 1960. Consecrated, March 19, 1960, at the Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Diego Venini, titular archbishop of Adana, privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Peter Canisus van Lierde, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, papal sacristan. His episcopal motto was Obedientia et pax. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Appointed pro-prefect of the S.C. for the Causes of the Saints, July 18, 1975.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 24, 1976; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Maria in Portico Campitelli, May 24, 1976. Prefect of S.C. for the Causes of the Saints, May 25, 1976. Attended the IV Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Resigned the prefecture, June 27, 1980. Attended the Second Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 23 to 26, 1982, Vatican City. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, July 4, 1983. Attended the Third Plenary Assembly of the College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 21 to 23, 1985. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated, pro illa vice, to title, June 22, 1987. He was well enough to be received by Pope John Paul II on the occasion of his one hundredth birthday.

Death. February 3, 2005, of influenza related complications, at Clinica Pio XI, in Rome. His funeral mass was presided by Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, dean of the College of Cardinals. Buried, temporarily, in his family's tomb in L'Aquila. In July 2006, his remains were transferred to the parish church of S. Maria Paganica, L'Aquila, where he was baptized, and placed in a specially constructed sarcophagus at the right of the church entrance, following a ceremony presided by Archbishop Giuseppe Molinari of L'Aquila. At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Link. His photograph and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.


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BAGGIO, Sebastiano
(1913-1993)

Birth. May 16, 1913, Rosà, diocese of Vicenza, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Vicenza, Vicenza (classics); Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (theology; doctorate in canon law); School of paleography, diplomacy, and library science, Vatican City.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1935. Entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See, 1936; attaché of the nunciature in Austria, 1936-1938; in El Salvador, 1938-1940; secretary of the nunciature in Bolivia, 1940-1942; in Venezuela, 1942-1946; in Austria, August to December 1946. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, March 3, 1939. Attaché of the first section of the Secretariat of State, 1946-1948. Chargé d'affaires of the nunciature in Colombia, 1948-1950. Substitute of the S.C. Consistorial, June 1950 to 1953. National chaplain of the Italian Catholic Scouts and liaison between the Holy See and the International Federation of Scoutism, 1950. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, October 4, 1951.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Efeso, June 30, 1953. Appointed nuncio in Chile, July 1, 1953. Consecrated, July 26, 1953, church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, by Cardinal Adeodato Giovanni Piazza, O.C.D., bishop of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, assisted by Antonio Samorè, titular archbishop of Tirnovo, secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Carlo Zinato, bishop of Vicenza. His episcopal motto was Operando custodire. Apostolic delegate in Canada, March 12, 1959. Nuncio in Brazil, May 26, 1964. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ss. Angeli Custodi a Città Girardino, April 30, 1969. Named archbishop of Cagliari, June 23, 1969. Prefect of the S.C. for Bishops, February 26, 1973. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Sebastiano alle Catecombe, December 21, 1973. Special papal envoy to the Bolivarian Eucharistic Congress, Quito, Ecuador, June 9 to 16, 1974. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Named cardinal bishop of title of suburbicarian see of Velletri, December 12, 1974; on October 21, 1981, the see of Segni was united with the suburbicarian see of Velletri and they became the see of Velletri e Segni; on September 30, 1986, the name was changed to Velletri-Segni. Special papal envoy to the Ninth Brazilian National Eucharistic Congress, Manaus, July 6-20, 1975. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; president delegate. Appointed one of the three presidents of the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, February 2, 1978; the assembly was scheduled for October 12 to 28, 1978, Puebla, México; it was suspended because of the death of the pope. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Confirmed as prefect of the S.C. for Bishops and president of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America, August 28, 1978. Confirmed as a president delegate of the Third General Assembly of the Latin American Episcopate, August 30, 1978. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Confirmed as prefect of the S.C. for Bishops and president of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America, October 28, 1978. Attended the Third General Conference of Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; one of its three presidents delegate. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980, Vatican City; the Second Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 23 to 26, 1982; the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Resigned the prefecture of the Congregation for Bishops, April 8, 1984. President of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City, April 8, 1984. Cardinal patronus of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, May 26, 1984. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, March 25, 1985. Special papal envoy to the Tenth Brazilian National Eucharistic Congress, Aparecida, July 16-21, 1985. Attended the Third Plenary Assembly of the College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 21 to 23, 1985; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Subdean of the College of Cardinals, April 15, 1986. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Resigned the presidency of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City, October 31, 1990. Attended the Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991.

Death. March 21, 1993, of a brain hemorrhage, at "Agostino Gemelli Policlinico", in Rome. Buried in the family tomb in Rosà.

Bibliography. "Baggio, Sebastiano." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1970. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1970, p. 35*; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 265-266.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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BALLAND, Jean
(1934-1998)

Birth. July 26, 1934, Bué, archdiocese of Bourges, France. From a family of winemakers.

Education. Seminary of Bourges, Bourges; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (licentiateship in philosophy, 1956, and in theology, 1962); La Sorbonne University, Paris (doctorates in philosophy and theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, September 3, 1961, Bourges. Further studies in Rome, 1961-1962; and in Paris, 1963-1965. Successively, faculty member of the Seminary of Bourges, Bourges, 1962-1968; faculty member of the Major Regional Seminary of Tours, Tours, 1967-1973; faculty member of the Major Seminary of Poitiers, Poitiers, 1971-1972. Pastoral ministry in rural areas, Cher, 1973; episcopal vicar of Cher, 1974; diocesan assistant of the Christians in the Rural World Movement, Bourges; and vicar general of the archdiocese of Bourges, 1980-1982.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Dijon, November 6, 1982. Consecrated, December 12, 1982, cathedral of Dijon, by Paul Vignacour, archbishop of Bourges, assisted by Albert Decourtray, archbishop of Lyon, and by Lucien Charles Gilbert Daloz, archbishop of Besançon. His episcopal motto was Veritatem facientes in caritate. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Reims, August 8, 1988. Apostolic visitor to the French seminaries, 1992-1994. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Lyon, May 27, 1995.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, February 21, 1998.

Death. March 1, 1998, of lung cancer, Hôpital de la Croix-Rousse, Lyon. Buried in Saint-Jean metropolitan and primatial cathedral, Lyon.

Bibliography. Jore, Alexander. Épiscopologe Français de 1592 à 1973. Mis à jour et continué jusqu'en 2004. Complément de l'article "France" du Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie Ecclésiastiques t. XVIII, colonnes 161 à 532. Pro-Manuscripto, 25 - III- 2004, no. 3261.

Link. Photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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BALLESTRERO, O.C.D., Anastasio Alberto
(1913-1998)

Birth. October 3, 1913, Genoa, Italy. Oldest of the five children of Giacomo Ballestrero and Antonietta Daffunchio. He was baptized on November 2, 1913 in the parish of S. Zita; received the name Alberto. He was confirmed on May 3, 1923 in the church of S. Martino di Albaro, Genoa; and received the first communion on June 21, 1923.

Education. Attended elementary school in Genoa, 1919-1922; then, Collegio Belimbau, Genoa, 1922-1923. Entered the Novitiate of the Discalced Carmelites of Deserto di Varazze, October 2, 1924; joined the Order of Carmelites Discalced, province of Liguria, in Loana, Savona; took the habit, October 12, 1928 and the name of Anastasio del Santissimo Rosario; emitted the first vows, October 17, 1929; transferred to the convent of S. Anna, Genoa. September 1932 (philosophy and theology); recovered in a local hospital from a life-threatening infection, October-December 1932; solemn profession, October 5, 1934, convent of S. Anna, Genoa; received the subdiaconate, March 1935; and the diaconate, December 1935.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 6, 1936, metropolitan cathedral of S. Lorenzo, Genoa, by Cardinal Dalmazio Minoretti, archbishop of Genoa. Named professor of philosophy in the studentato of Genoa-S. Anna, August 13, 1936. Initiated his preaching apostolate in the clinic "Bertani", Genoa, January 1, 1937. Elected prior of the convent of S. Anna, April 22, 1945; occupied the post until 1948. Elected provincial of Liguria, April 3, 1948; occupied the post until May 7, 1954. Elected prior of the convent of S. Anna, again, May 7, 1954. Elected preposito general of the order, April 9, 1955; reelected, April 21, 1961; occupied the post until May 20, 1967; visited all 350 Carmelite convents and 850 Carmelite monasteries in the world except Hungary, which did not allow him to enter the country. Participated in the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. President of the Union of Superior Generals.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Bari, Italy, December 21, 1973. Consecrated February 2, 1974, Rome, by Cardinal Sebastiano Baggio, prefect of S.C. for Bishops, assisted by Michele Mincuzzi, titular bishop of Sinnipsa, auxiliary of Bari, and by Enrico Romolo Compagnone, O.C.D., bishop of Terracina-Latina, Priverno e Sezze. His episcopal motto was In omnia bonitate et caritate. Transferred to metropolitan see of Turin, Italy, August 1, 1977. Attended Fourth Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Elected vice-president of Italian Episcopal Conference, May 25, 1978; named by Pope John Paul II its president, May 18, 1979; occupied the post until July 3, 1985.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979, Vatican City. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Special papal envoy to the inaugural ceremonies of the Theresian Year commemorating the 4th centennial of the death of St. Theresa of Avila, October 14 to 15, 1981, Alba de Tormes and Avila, Spain. Attended the Second Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 23 to 26, 1982, Vatican City; the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the Third Plenary Assembly of the College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 21 to 23, 1985; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, January 31, 1989. He retired to the monastery of S. Croce in Bocca di Magra, La Spezia. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 3, 1993.

Death. June 21, 1998, in his residence of Fortino Santa Maria, Bocca di Magra, La Spezia. After a solemn funeral celebrated in the metropolitan cathedral of Turin, he was buried in the crypt of the church of S. Giuseppe del Deserto (Eremo del Deserto), Carmelite monastery, Varazze, Savona, Italy.

Beatification. The Council of Bishops of Piedmont announced on February 4, 2014 the opening of the process for his beatification.

Bibliography. "Date principali di 'Una vita donata'." Ite ad Joseph, LXXXVI, No. 4 (Luglio-Agosto 1998), 4-6.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Ballestrero, 100 anni by Renzo Savarino, archdiocese of Turin, 29 settembre 2013; Padre, vescovo e maestro by Giuseppe Ghiberti, archdiocese of Turin, 29 settembre 2013; Ballestrero «Carmelo, la mia patria» by Filippo Rizzi, in Italian, Avvenire, 19 dicembre 2013; Al via la causa beatificazione di Ballestrero, Vino Nuovo, 07 febbraio 2014.


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BALTHASAR, Hans Urs von
(1905-1988)

Birth. August 12, 1905, Lucerne, Switzerland. Of an old patrician family. Son of Oscar Ludwig Carl von Balthasar, the Lucerne canton builder, and Gabrielle Pietzcker, co-foundress and first general secretary of the Swiss League of Catholic Women. He had a sister, Renée, who was superior general of the Franciscan Sisters of Saint-Marie des Anges from 1971 to 1983; and a younger brother, Dieter, who served as an officer in the Swiss Guard. He was baptized and received first communion in the Franciscan church of Lucerne. He had an extraordinary talent for music and for a long time he wavered between musical and literary studies.

Education. Benedictine high school, Engelber, Switzerland; Jesuit high school, Feldkirch, Switzerland; left a year before graduating; the program in German studies, leading to a doctorate, consisted of nine study semesters alternating between three universities: University of Zürich, Switzerland; University of Vienna, Austria; and University of Berlin, Germany (dissertation: Geschichte des eschatologischen Problems in der moderners deutschen Literatur, 1930). In the summer of 1927, he attended a thirty-day retreat directed by Fr. Friedrich Krtonseder, S.J.; this was a decisive turning point in his life. Joined the Society of Jesus, October 31, 1929; novitiate at Feldkirch of the Jesuit Province of Southern Germany, November 18, 1929-1931; one of his classmates was Alois Grillmeier, future cardinal; philosophy at Berchmanskolleg, Pullach, Münich, 1931-1933; theology at Fourviere, Lyons, 1933-1937; he studied under Henri de Lubac, future cardinal (obtained licentiates in philosophy and theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 26, 1936, Münich, by Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber, archbishop of München und Freising. Associate editor of the journal Stimmen der Zeit, München, Germany, 1937-1939. Jesuit tertianship, Pullach, Münich, Germany, 1939; under the direction of Fr. Albert Steger; he did another thirty-day retreat. University chaplain, Basel, Switzerland, 1940-1948 (1). Founder and director of "Johannes Verlag", Einsiedeln, publishing firm, 1947. With Adrienne von Speyr, a Swiss physician and visionary and the wife of Werner Kaegi, later professor of history at Basel, he founded and worked in the Community of Saint John, Basel, Switzerland. His Jesuit superiors thought that this work was not compatible with membership in the Society. Left the Society of Jesus on February 11, 1950; it was not until February 2, 1956, that the bishop of Chur, Switzerland, granted him incardination in his diocese. Publisher and theological writer, Basel, Switzerland, 1950-1988. For several years, he fell out of favor and was not invited to be present at the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Doctor honoris causa, theological faculty of Münster, Germany, and Edinburgh, Scotland, 1965. Doctorate in theology honoris causa, University of Fribourg, 1967. Pope Paul VI appointed him member of the International Theological commission, 1969; remained a member until his death. Co-founder, with Joseph Ratzinger, future cardinal and Pope Benedict XVI, of Communio: International Catholic Review. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; assistant to the special secretary. Received a doctorate honoris causa in human letters, The Catholic University of America, Washington, United States of America, 1980. Received the "Pope Paul VI International Prize", June 23, 1984. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; special guest. Awarded the "Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Prize" in Innsbruck, Austria, May 22, 1987. The announcement of his creation as a cardinal was made on May 29, 1988; he had declined the promotion in the past.

Episcopate. Asked the pope to be excused from receiving episcopal consecration because of advanced age.

Cardinalate. Was to be created cardinal deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere in the consistory of June 28, 1988 but died two days earlier. He is considered one of the greatest Catholic theologians of the 20th century. He was called "the pope's favorite theologian" in the pontificate of Pope John Paul II and greatly influenced Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger's theological thought. Feeling the end was near, he wrote to a friend: "Those above, seem to have a different plan", shortly before his elevation to the Sacred College of Cardinals and his unexpected demise.

Death. June 26, 1988, Basel, suddenly, as he was preparing to celebrate morning mass. Buried in his family's vault at the cemetery of Sankt Leodegar im Hof church, Lucerne.

Bibliography. Balthasar, Hans Urs von. My work : in retrospect. San Francisco : Ignatius Press, 1993. (Communio books). Note: Translation of: Mein Werk--Durchblicke; The Cambridge companion to Hans Urs von Balthasar. Edited by Edward T. Oakes and David Moss. Cambridge, U.K. ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2004. (Cambridge companions to religion); Dickens, William Thomas. Hans Urs von Balthasar's theological aesthetics : a model for post-critical biblical interpretation. Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press, 2003. Contents: Theological Aesthetics: A Methodological and Historical Orientation --; Theological Hermeneutics --; The Unity of Scripture --; The Authority of Scripture --; Theological Exegesis; Hans Urs Von Balthasar. Edited by Martin Redfern. Sheed and Ward : London, 1972; O'Donnell, John. Hans Urs von Balthasar. Michael Glazier : Collegeville, 1992. (Outstanding Christian Thinkers); Schindler, David. L. Hans Urs von Balthasar: His life and work. San Francisco : Communio Books, Ignatius Press, 1991; Scola, Angelo. Hans Urs Von Balthasar. A Theological Style. Eerdmans : Grand Rapids, 1995.

Links. Biography and bibliography, in English, Ignatius Insight; biography, in English, Wikipedia; bibliography and biography, in German, Academic dictionaries and encyclopedias his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Von Balthasar a Patmos by Cardinal Angelo Scola, Avvenire, 13 settembre 2013 .

(1) At the beginning of the Second World War, his superiors gave him the choice of going to Rome as a professor of the Pontifical Gregorian University or to Basel as a student chaplain; in Rome, he and other Jesuits were to set up an institute for ecumenical studies, a project that never materialized; he chose Basel because he preferred pastoral ministry.


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BARBARIN, Philippe
(1950-

Birth. October 17, 1950, Rabat, Morocco. Son of M. Barbarin and Yvonne Maria Roques. His baptismal name is Philippe Xavier Christian Ignace Marie. He has six sisters (two religious) and four brothers.

Education. Studied at the secondary lyceum "Marcellin Berthelot", Saint-Maur, at Val-de-Marne; "Francs-Bourgeois" College, Paris, (bachelor); at the Major Seminary, Paris (philosophy); military service; at "Institut de Philosophies Comparées" (philosophy); at La Sorbonne University, Paris (doctorate in philosophy); at "Institut Catholique de Paris", in the Seminary "des Carmes", Paris (licentiate in theology). Received the diaconte on the Feast of Pentecost 1976. Besides his native French, he speaks correctly Italian, English, Spanish, German and Malagasy.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 17, 1977, by Robert-Marie-Joseph François de Provenchères, bishop of Créteil, for the diocese of Créteil, France. From 1977 to 1985, vicar in two parishes: Notre-Dame d'Alfortville and Notre-Dame de Vincennes; 1985 to 1990, member of the pastoral group of the parish of Saint François de Sales d'Adambille en Saint-Maur and chaplain of the lyceum and school of Saint-Maur; diocesan delegate for ecumenism; and in addition, vicar in Saint-Hilaire de la Varenne; 1991 to 1994 pastor of Saint Léger Parish, Boissy Saint Léger; 1994 to 1998, in Madagascar as priest "Fidei donum" was a professor of theology at the Major Seminary of Vohitsoa, archdiocese of Fianarantsoa; pastor, Bry-sur-Marne, Créteil.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Moulins, France, October 1, 1998. Consecrated, November 22, 1998, cathedral basilica of Notre-Dame, Moulins, by Philibert Randriambololona, archbishop of Fianarantsoa, Madagascar, assisted by André Bernard Michel Quélen, bishop emeritus of Moulins, and by Daniel Camille Victor Marie Labille, bishop of Créteil. His episcopal motto is Qu'ils soient un. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lyon, July 16, 2002; as such, he is chancellor of the Catholic University of Lyon. On December 31, 2002, he was named knight of the Légion d'Honneur.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, October 21, 2003. Member of the Congregations for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, and for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. On May 8, 2007, he was named officer of the Ordre National du Mérite. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". On April 15, 2012, he was named officer Légion d'Honneur. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life on March 29, 2014.

Bibliography. Jore, Alexander. Épiscopologe Français de 1592 à 1973. Mis à jour et continué jusqu'en 2004. Complément de l'article "France" du Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie Ecclésiastiques t. XVIII, colonnes 161 à 532. Pro-Manuscripto, 25 - III- 2004, no. 3358.

Links. Photograph and biography, in French, archdiocese of Lyon; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Le luci di Lione. Intervista con il cardinale Philippe Barbarin, by Gianni Valente. in Italian, 30Giorni, 01/02 - 2009; Cardinal Philippe Barbarin - Witness, in French with English subtitles, You Tube, uploaded on Jan 27, 2012; France : Mgr Barbarin hausse le ton, InfoCatho.be, JJD (avec news.va), mardi, 14 août 2012; Matrimoni gay, il cardinale Barbarin: choc di civiltà, si apra un dibattito pubblico, Chiesa, Avvenire, 14 agosto 2012; Francia: Prohibido rezar. El cardenal Barbarin responde a las críticas a una oración por la familia. By Anne Kurian, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 19-08-2012; Cardinal Philippe Barbarin: From Marocco and Madagascar, to Lyon France, video, Rome Repotrs, 2013-03-09 17:00:00.


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BARBIERI, O.F.M.Cap., Antonio María
(1892-1979)

Birth. October 12, 1892, Montevideo, Uruguay. Son of José P. Barbieri and Mariana Romano. His baptismal name was Alfredo.

Education. Joined the Order of Friars Minor Capuchins on December 8, 1913; in 1915 he was sent to Italy and on September 8 of that year he received the religious habit of a novice in the convent of S. Barnaba, Genoa; emitted his religious vows in 1916; took the name Antonio María. Houses of studies of his order; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (obtained a doctorate in theology, July 9, 1923).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 17, 1921, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome. He declined a professorship in "Collegio Internzionale" of his order in Rome and returned to Uruguay. Pastoral ministry and studies in the Capuchin convent of Montevideo. Rector of "Colegio Concordia", Buenos Aires, 1926. Guardian of "Colegio de San Antonio de Padua", Montevideo, 1929. Elected superior of the Capuchin mission, November 1931; reelected in 1936.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Macra and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Montevideo, October 6, 1936. Consecrated, November 8, 1936, metropolitan cathedral basilica of the Immaculate Conception, Montevideo, by Filippo Cortesi, titular archbishop of Sirace, nuncio in Uruguay, assisted by Francisco Aragone, archbishop of Montevideo, and by Alfredo Viola, titular bishop of Bitilio, coadjutor, with right of succession, of Salto. His episcopal motto was Adveniat regnum tuum. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Montevideo, November 20, 1940. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, November 11, 1953. Attended the First General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 25 to August 4, 1955.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Crisogono, December 18, 1958. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 12, 1972. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, November 17, 1976. He was the first Uruguayan cardinal. He was a member "de número" of the "Instituto Histórico y Geográfico del Uruguay".

Death. July 6, 1979, Montevideo. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral basilica of the Immaculate Conception of Montevideo. A square was named after him in Montevideo; as well as the library of Colegio y Liceo San José de la Providencia.

Bibliography. González, Ariosto Domingo. Su eminencia el cardenal Antonio María Barbieri. Montevideo, [s.n.], 1965. Note : "Apartado de Perfiles."

Links. Biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; his photograph, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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BAUDRILLART, Orat., Alfred-Henri-Marie
(1859-1942)

Birth. January 6, 1859, Paris, France. Son of Henri Baudrillart, professor of political economy at Collège de France (1), and Marie Sacy. He grew up in the Quartier Latin of Paris.

Education. École Bossuet, Paris from 1868; Collège Louis le Grande, Paris; at seventeen, he decided to enter the priesthood; Superior Normal School, Paris, from 1878; Institut Catholique, Paris, from 1878-1881 (doctoral thesis: Philippe V et la Cour de France, 1890; obtained a doctorate in theology in 1895); joined the Oratory of St. Philip of Neri in 1890.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 9, 1893, Paris. Professor of history at the Institut Catholique, Paris, 1894-1907; rector, 1907-1942. Founder of Revue practique d'apologetique, 1905. Collaborator, 1891-1897, and director, 1898-1908, of Bulletin critique. General assistant of the Oratory, 1898-1908, and 1919-1921. Honorary canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Paris, 1906. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, April 17, 1907. Vicar general of Paris, October 10, 1908. Founder of the Catholic Committee of French Foreign Propaganda, February 1915. Elected member of the Academie Française, May 2, 1918; reception, April 10, 1919. Knight of the Légion d'honneur, 1920.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Hemeria in Osrhoëne, July 29, 1921. Consecrated, October 28, 1921, metropolitan cathedral of Paris, by Cardinal Louis-Ernest Dubois, archbishop of Paris, assisted by Stanislas-Arthur-Xavier Touchet, bishop of Orléans, and by Joseph-Marie Tissier, bishop of Châlons. Assistant at Pontifical Throne, November 20, 1925. Named Roman count in 1925. Promoted to titular archbishop of Melitene, April 12, 1928. Officer of the Légion d'honneur in 1931; commander, July 25, 1935.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1935; received the red hat and the title of S. Bernardo alle Terme, December 19, 1935. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Accused of insulting the Third Reich, he was placed under scrutiny and strict surveillance by the Nazis during the Second World War. He carried out several important missions charged by Popes Benedict XV, Pius XI and Pius XII. Honorary canon of the cathedral chapters of Toulouse, Bourges, Reims Carthage, Autun, Blois, Chartres, Séez, Le Mans, La Rochelle and Bayonne. Doctor honoris causa of Fordham University, New York; and of the Theological Faculty of the University of Prague. Honorary member of the Superior Council of the Catholic University of Santiago de Chile. Honorary member of the academies of Caen, Metz, Marseille and Besançon. Honorary member of the Hispanic-American Academy of Cádiz; of the Academy of the Catholic Religion, Rome; of the Scientific Society of Brussels; and of the Academy of Education and Social Assistance. By the time of his death, he had lost his eyesight.

Death. May 19, 1942, Paris. Buried, chapel Des Carmes, Institute Catholique, Paris.

Bibliography. Baudrillart, Alfred ; Christophe, Paul. Les carnets du cardinal Baudrillart. 9 vols. Paris : Editions du Cerf, 1994-2003. Contents: [1] 1914-1918 -- [2] 20 novembre 1935-11 avril 1939 -- [3] 11 avril 1939-19 mai 1941 -- [4] 20 mai 1941-14 avril 1942 -- [5] 1er janvier 1919-31 décembre 1921 -- [6] 1er janvier 1922-12 avril 1925 -- [7] 13 avril 1925-25 décembre 1928 -- [8] 26 décembre 1928-12 février 1932 -- [9] 13 février 1932-19 novembre 1935; Cardinal Alfred Baudrillart. Paris : Cerf, 2006. (Histoire ; Variation: Histoire (Editions du Cerf)). Conference author: Apport des Carnets du cardinal Baudrillart à l'histoire du XXe siècle (2003 : Paris, France). Note: Papers given at a colloquium entitled L'apport des Carnets du cardinal Baudrillart à l'histoire du XXe siècle, held at the Institut catholic de Paris, Nov. 19, 2003, and articles published by Paul Christophe in the journals Mélanges de science religieuse and Ensemble; Le cardinal Baudrillart 1859-1942 : témoignages et souvenirs. Preface by Paul LeSourd. Paris: Letouzey et Ané, 1943; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 181-182; Grente, Georges. Oraison funèbre de l'éminentissime cardinal Baudrillart [Texte imprimé], de l'Académie française, recteur de l'Institut catholique de Paris, prononcée à Notre-Dame de Paris, le 25 novembre 1942. Paris : la Bonne presse, 1943; Rossi, Rodolfo. Baudrillart e la coscienza nazionale della Francia : 1905-1921. Roma : Studium, 2002. (Religione e società ; 41.; Storia della Chiesa e dei movimenti cattolici; Variation: Religione e società (Edizioni Studium) ; 41 ; Religione e società (Edizioni Studium).; Storia della Chiesa e dei movimenti cattolici).

(1) He was also redactor in chief of the Journal des économistes; contributor of numerous articles to the Journal des débates and the Revue des Deux Mondes; and, from 1863, member of Académie des sciences morales et politiques. His maternal grand-father, Samuel Ustazade de Sacy, was redactor in chief of the Journal des débates and member of the Academie Françiase.

Links. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs, Araldica Vaticana.


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BAUER, František Saleský
(1841-1915)

Birth. January 26, 1841, Hrachovec, archdiocese of Olomouc, Bohemia, Austrian Empire. Received the sacrament of confirmation, 1852.

Education. Seminary of Olomouc, Olomouc; Theological Faculty, Olomouc (doctorate in theology, June 30, 1869). Received the insignias of the clerical character, December 14, 1859; minor orders, December 19, 1860; subdiaconate, December 20, 1862; diaconate, February 28, 1863.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 19, 1863, Olomouc. Further studies, Olomouc, 1863-1869. Cooperator, and later second chaplain in the parish of Wischau, archdiocese of Olomouc, 1863 until February 3, 1865. Faculty member of the Theological Faculty of Olomouc, February 4, 1865; dean, 1869. Faculty member of the University of Prague, September 19, 1873. Rector of the Archiepiscopal Seminary of Prague, 1879.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Brno (Brünn), Moravia, July 3, 1882. Consecrated, August 15, 1882, metropolitan cathedral of Olomouc, by Cardinal Frederick Landgraf von Füstenberg, archbishop of Olomouc, assisted by Gustav von Belript-Tissac, titular bishop of Germaniciana, auxiliary of Olomouc, and by Karol Franz Prucha, titular bishop of Joppe, auxiliary of Prague. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, December 14, 1886. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Olomouc, May 10, 1904. As archbishop of Olomouc he was also prince, duke of Hotzenplote, counselor to the emperor, and senator.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 27, 1911; received the red hat and the title of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, December 2, 1911. Did not participate in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV, for reasons of health.

Death. November 25, 1915, in Olomouc (1). He received a special blessing from the pope on his deathbed. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral, Olomouc.

Bibliography. Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1922, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1921, p., 64; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 11, and 279.

Links. Biography, in Czech, Biskupství brněnské his portrait, Biskupství brněnské; and his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 11; Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1922, p. 64, says that he died on November 26, 1915.


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BAUM, William Wakefield
(1926-

Birth. November 21, 1926, Dallas, United States of America. Son of Harold E. White and Mary Leona Hayes. He was a young child when his father died and the family moved to Kansas City, Missouri; subsequently, his mother married Jerome C. Baum, who adopted William.

Education. Primary education at St. Peter's parochial school, Kansas City; St. Johns Minor Seminary, Kansas City, 1939; Kenrick Seminary, St. Louis (philosophy and theology); Pontifical Angelicum Athenaeum, Rome, 1956-1958 (doctorate in theology, 1958).

Priesthood. Ordained, May 12, 1951, church of St. Peter, Kansas City, by Edwin Vincent O'Hara, bishop of Kansas City. Pastoral ministry, Kansas City, and faculty member of St. Theresa College, 1951-1956. Further studies, 1956-1958. Successively, 1958-1962, in the diocese of Kansas City-Saint Joseph, pastoral ministry, notary of the ecclesiastical tribunal, secretary of the liturgical diocesan commission, examiner of the clergy. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, January 27, 1961. Vice chancellor of the diocese of Kansas City-Saint Joseph, 1962-1965. Expert at the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Executive secretary of the episcopal committee for Ecumenical Affairs, U.S. National Conference of Catholic Bishops, 1964-1967. Chancellor of the diocese of Kansas City-Saint Joseph, 1967-1970. Papal prelate, July 13, 1968.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Springfield-Cape Girardeau, February 18, 1970. Consecrated, April 6, 1970, cathedral of St. Agnes, Springfield, by Cardinal John Joseph Carberry, archbishop of St. Louis, assisted by Charles Herman Helmsing, bishop of Kansas City-Saint Joseph, and by Joseph Vincent Sullivan, titular bishop of Tagamuta, auxiliary of Kansas City-Saint Joseph. His episcopal motto is Ministerium reconciliationis. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Promoted to the archdiocesan see of Washington, March 5, 1973.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 24, 1976; received the red biretta and the title of S. Croce in Via Flaminia, May 24, 1976. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5-9, 1979. Prefect of the S.C. for Catholic Education and grand chancellor of the Pontifical Gregorian University, January 15, 1980. Resigned pastoral government of the archdiocese of Washington, March 18, 1980. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Grand chancellor of the Pontifical Institute of Christian Archeology, November 26, 1980. Attended the Second Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 23-26, 1982; the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the Third Plenary Assembly of the College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 21-23, 1985; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Penitentiary Major, April 6, 1990. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the First Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Resigned post of penitentiary major, November 22, 2001. Represented the pope at the funeral of Cardinal James Aloysius Hickey, archbishop emeritus of Washington, celebrated at the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception in Washington, in October 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old on November 21, 2006. In later years, he has suffered from deteriorating eyesight. He retired to Washington, D.C. He was the last cardinal elector created by Pope Paul VI. He resides at the Jeanne Jugan Home in Washington.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1790-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 159; Burton, Richard. "Baum, William Wakefield." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyła years. Detroit, MI : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, p. 253.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, College of Cardinals, Vatican Press Office; photograph and biography, in Italian, Collegio Cardinalizio, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of Washington; and photographs, arms and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.


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BEA, S.J., Augustin
(1881-1968)

Birth. May 28, 1881, in the small village of Riedböhringen, archdiocese of Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany. His parents, Karl Bea and Maria Merk, married somewhat late in life and he was an only child. The father was a carpenter and builder and owned a farm; he built many of the houses of Riedböhringen.

Education. When he was six, he started his initial studies at the village school, where he was tutored by the parish priest; in 1893, he went to the Lander Institute, Sasbach, for his secondary education; then, for six months, to the Gymnasium (high school) at Constance where he entered into contact for the first time in his life with Lutheran students; and then to the diocesan borading school in Rastatt; at seventeen, he thought of a religious vocation in the Society of Jesus; in 1898, he made a retreat with the Jesuits in Feldkirch, Austria, and decided to join them; his father did not favor his decision because he would have to go abroad since the Society had been expelled from Germany in 1872; four years later, he acquiesce; in 1900, he began studies at the University of Freiburg, where Professor Franz Kraus interested him in archeology, ethnology, philology, dogma, Dante, and Oriental studies; he joined the Society of Jesus on April 18, 1902, in Blyeenbeek, Holland; after two years of novitiate, 1902-1904, and his first vows, he did his philosophical studies at Valkenburg in Limburg (for three years he studied logic, theories of knowledge, cosmology, psychology, metaphysics, natural theology and ethics, all in the Scholastic tradition; Father Victor Cathrein, S.J., ethnologist and sociologist, made a great impact on the young student); for three years he did his magisterium, teaching in a Dutch Jesuit school for boys; an appendicitis operation interrupted his teaching and he spent half a year at Innsbruck studying Latin and Greek philology; in 1910, he started his theological studies at the Theological Faculty of Valkenburg, Holland; two year later, he was ordained to the priesthood; in 1913, he went to the University of Berlin for courses in ancient Oriental languages; then did his year of probation, the final stage of the Jesuit formation.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 25, 1912; Otto Karrer served his first mass. Because some of the laws of the Kulturkampf were still in place he had to obtain permission from the authorities to celebrate his first high mass at the parish of Riedböhringen; the permission stipulated that no other Jesuit priest could accompany him. Further studies, 1912-1913. In 1913, he suffered a serious attack of pleurisy, which impeded the plan of sending him to Rome for further studies. Superior of the Jesuit residence, Aix-la-Chapelle, 1914-1917. Professor of Old Testament exegesis at the the Theological Faculty, Valkenburg, 1917-1921; and prefect of studies for two years. First provincial of the new Jesuit province of Southern Germany, 1921-1924. After the General Congregation of his order, he was named superior of the Biennial House of Formation, Rome, post which he occupied from 1924 until 1928. Faculty member, Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, 1924-1949. Rector of the Institute of Superior Ecclesiastical Studies, Rome, 1924-1930. Consultor to several Roman congregations, 1924-1959. Member of the commission for the Revision of Catholic University statutes, 1929; the result was the apostolic constitution Deus Scientiarum Dominus of May 24, 1931. Visitor to the Catholic University of Tokyo, Japan, 1929-1930. Rector of the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, 1930-1949. Director of the journal Biblica, 1930-1949. Consultor of the Pontifical Biblical Commission, 1931; of the S.C of Universities and Seminaries, 1936; of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, 1949; and of the S.C. of Rites, 1950. His ecumenical interests appear to have started as early as 1935, when, with the permission of Pope Pius XI, he attended a biblical conference at the University of Göttingen and established ties of personal and mutual respect. Many of his theological and biblical ideas anticipated the encyclical Divino Afflante Spiritu issued by Pope Pius XII in 1943, which still is a landmark of Catholic biblical criticism in modern history. Confessor of Pope Pius XII, 1945-1958. In 1946, Pope Pius XII wanted to raise Father Bea to the cardinalate but Jesuit Superior General Father Jean-Baptiste Janssens asked the pope not to, because some Vatican veterans felt that the Jesuits had been overly favored as the pontiff had turned over to the Jesuits both the Vatican radio and the observatory at Castel Gandolfo; and had two Jesuit private secretaries. In 1954, the English Society for the Study of the Old Testament (Protestant) visited Rome and were received with great cordiality by Father Bea, and through him by Pope Pius XII. Father Bea remained an honorary member of the society throughout his life.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 14, 1959; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Saba, December 17, 1959. His cardinalitial motto was "In Nomine Domini Jesu". Named president of the Secretariat for Christian Unity on June 6, 1960; confirmed in this post on January 3, 1966.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Germania di Numidia, April 5, 1962. Consecrated, April 19, 1962, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Cardinal Giuseppe Pizzardo and by Cardinal Benedetto Aloisi Masella. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinals Joaquín Anselmo María Albareda, O.S.B., Antonio Bacci, Francesco Bracci, Michael Browne, O.P., William Theodore Heard, Alberto di Jorio, André Jullien, P.S.S., Arcadio María Larraona, C.M.F., Francesco Morano, Alfredo Ottaviani and Francesco Roberti. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. He received honorary doctoral degrees from the Universities of Vienna; Freiburg im Breisgau; Fribourg (Switzerland); Fordham (New York); Boston College (Boston, Massachusetts); Harvard (Cambridge, Massachusetts); and The Catholic University of America (Washington). He published ten books and between 1918 and 1968, he published 430 articles dealing with archeological issues, exegesis of Old Testament texts, mariology, papal encyclicals, the unity of Christians, anti-semitism, Second Vatican Council, relations to Protestantism and the Eastern Orthodox Churches, and ecumenism (1).

Death. November 16, 1968, from a bronchial infection, in a clinic in Rome. Buried in the apsis of the parish church of Saint Genesius, Riedböhringen. There is a museum dedicated to him in Riedböhringen.

Bibliography. Bea, Augustin. Augustin Cardinal Bea: spiritual profile; notes from the Cardinal's diary, with a commentary, edited by Stjepan Schmidt ; translated (from the Italian MS) by E. M. Stewart. London : G. Chapman, 1971; Leeming, Bernard. Agostino Cardinal Bea. Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press, 1964. (The Men who make the Council, 1); Martin, Malachi . Three Popes and the Cardinal. New York : Farrar, Straus and Giroux , 1972; Schmidt, Stjepan. Agostino Bea, cardinale dell'ecumenismo e del dialogo. Cinisello Balsamo (Milano) : San Paolo, 1996. (Grandi biografie ; 5); Schmidt, Stjepan. Augustin Bea, the cardinal of unity. Translated from the Italian by Leslie Wearne. New Rochelle, N.Y. : New City Press, 1992. Translation of Agostino Bea--il cardinale dell'unità; Stanley, David M. "Bea, Augustin." New Catholic Encyclopedia. Prepared by an editorial staff at the Catholic University of America. 19 vols. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1967-1996, 16, 23-24.

Links. Photographs and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and biography, in German, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the list of the books he published, taken from his biography in English in Wikipedia, linked above: De Pentateucho Institutiones Biblicæ Scholis Accomodatæ, Romæ, 1933 De Inspiratione Sacræ Scripturæ, Romæ, 1935; Archeologica biblica, Romæ, 1939; La nuova traduzione Latina del Salterio, Romæ 1946; Maria in der Offenbarung Katholische Marienkunde Bd. I Hugo Rahner, Augustin Bea, Schöningh, Paderborn, 1947; Liber Ecclesiasticæ qui ab Hebraeis appelatur Qohelet, Romæ, 1950; Canticum Canticorum Salomonis, Romæ, 1953; Imagen de María en la Antigua Alianza, Buenos Aires, Revista Bíblica,1954; Cor Jesu Commentationes in Litteras encyclicas Pii Papae XII Haurietis Aquas, Herder Freiburg 1959; Die Kirche und das judische Volk, (German Translation of La Chiesa e il popolo ebraico) Herder Frieburg 1966.


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BÉGIN, Louis-Nazaire
(1840-1925)

Birth. January 10, 1840, La Pointe-Lévis, archdiocese of Québec, Canada. Of a modest family of farmers originally from Normandy, France, whose ancestors arrived in Canada in 1655. Son of Charles Bégin, a farmer, and Luce Paradis, a cousin of Bishop Ignace Bourget of Montréal.

Education. Primary studies, École modèle, Lévis; and collège commercial, St-Michel de Bellechasse; Seminary of Québec, 1862-1863 (classicas and one year of theology); University of Laval, Québec; Pontifical French Seminary, Rome, September 1863 until 1867; Pontifical Gregorian University (doctorate in theology, 1866; also, studied Hebrew, Chaldean, Syrian and Arabic); Theological Faculty, Innsbruck, 1867-1868 (perfected his previous studies and learned German). Received all the sacred orders in Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 10, 1865, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Costantino Patrizi Naro, vicar of Rome. Further studies, 1865-1867. Travelled to Palestine and spent five months in the Holy Land, October 1867 to February 1868. Professor of dogmatic theology and ecclesiastical history at the Seminary of Québec, July 1868 to 1884; he obtained the agregation (competitive examination for positions on the teaching staff of lyceums and universities) in 1869; successively, 1876-1883, occupied several administrative posts such as director of the boarding school; of students; of seminarians; prefect of studies. Professor of religious culture at the University of Laval, Québec, October 1870 to 1875. From the end of 1883 to the beginning of 1884, he took several months to rest and recuperate. Travelled to Europe from April to December 1884 with Cardinal Elzéar-Alexandre Taschereau, archbishop of Québec, acting as his secretary. Principal of the Normal School of Laval, January 1885 to October 1888.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Chicoutimi, Canada, October 1, 1888. Consecrated, October 21 (1), 1888, metropolitan cathedral basilica of Québec, by Cardinal Elzéar-Alexandre Taschereau, archbishop of Québec, assisted by Louis-François Richer dit Laflèche, bishop of Trois-Rivières, and by Jean-Pierre-François Laforce dit Langevin, bishop of Rimouski. His episcopal motto was In spiritu lenitatis. Promoted to titular archbishop of Cirene, December 18, 1891. Appointed coadjutor of Québec, December 22, 1891. Given the right of succession, March 22, 1892. Apostolic administrator of Québec, September 3, 1894. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Québec, April 12, 1898. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, April 22, 1898. Participated in the First Plenary Council of Québec, September 10 to November 1, 1909.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1914; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Vitale, Gervasio e Protasio, May 28, 1914. Arrived late to the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Arrived late to the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. He was stricken by paralysis on June 12, 1925 and died shortly after. He was a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and author of a number of religious works. He tirelessly defended the rights of minorities and helped build a public Catholic culture in the province of Québec.

Death. July 19, 1925, of uremia followed by paralysis, Québec (2). Buried in the crypt of the metropolitan cathedral basilica of Québec on July 25, 1925.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1938, p. 76; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 297-299; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, p. 12, 25; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 201 and 473.

Links. Photograph and biography by Roberto Perin, in English, Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 15, University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2005, photograph and biography by Roberto Perin, in French, Dictionnaire biographique du Canada, vol. 15, Université Laval/University of Toronto, 2005, photograph and biographical data, in French, Archive of the Seminary of Québec, Québec, Canada; his photograph, Division des Archives, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada; and his arms and photographs, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 201; Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada, p. 297, indicates that he was consecrated on October 28, 1888.
(2) Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 473, indicates that he died on July 18 (al. 19), 1925; Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 12, says he died on July 19 (al. 18); "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939, p. 76, says that he died on July 18, 1925; and Le Blanc, Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada, p. 298, indicates that he died on July 19, 1925.


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BELLO, António Mendes
(1842-1929)

Birth. June 18, 1842, parish of São Pedro, Gouveia, diocese of Coimbra (now Guarda), Portugal. From a humble family. Son of Miguel Mendes Bello and Rosalina dos Santos de Almeida Mota. His last name is also listed as Belo.

Education. After his initial education, he studied at the Seminary of Coimbra from 1856 to 1862; then, he enrolled in the Faculty of Law of Coimbra but had to abandon his studies and return to Gouveia shortly after due to bad health; and at the University of Coimbra from 1866 to 1870, where he obtained a licentiate in law; he was invited by the Faculty to obtain a doctorate, what amounted to an invitation to compete for a professorship; he declined for reasons unknown and returned to Gouveia. Received the insignias of the clerical character and the minor orders on December 21, 1860; the subdiaconate on May 21, 1864; and the diaconate on December 17, 1864.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 10, 1865. Pastoral work and vicar general of the diocese Funchal, 1865-1874. Professor of theology at the Seminary of Pinhel (the diocese was suppressed on September 30, 1881 and transferred to Guarda); pastoral ministry in the parish of Nossa Senhora de Espinheiro de Sêda, in the diocese of Elvas and professor of theology in its seminary (the diocese was suppressed on September 30, 1881 and transferred to Evora); honorary canon of Cabo Verde; vicar general of the diocese of Pinhel, October 1874-1881; and of the diocese of Aveiro, 1881 (the diocese was suppressed and united with Coimbra); vicar general of Lisbon, 1881-1884.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Mitilene and appointed suffragan of Lisbon, March 24, 1884. Consecrated, April 27, 1884, patriarchal cathedral of Lisbon, by Cardinal José Sebastião Neto, patriarch of Lisbon, assisted by José da Silva Ferrão, bishop of Portalegre, and by Antonio Thomas da Silva Leitão e Castro, bishop of Angola. Presented by King Luís I of Portugal for the see of Faro on September 11, 1884. Transferred by the pope to the see of Faro, with the title of archbishop ad personam, November 13, 1884. He was decorated with the grand cross of the Order of Nossa Senhora da Conceição de Vila Viçosa in 1897. He was presented for the patriarchate of Lisbon by the king of Portugal, Carlos I, by decree of November 7, 1907. He was promoted to the patriarchate by Pope Pius X on the following December 19; he was granted the pallium on that same day. He was the thirteenth patriarch of Lisbon.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest and reserved in pectore, November 27, 1911. The political convulsions in Portugal impeded his publication as cardinal. Expelled from Lisbon for two years, 1911-1913, for infraction of the law of separation between Church and State; resided in Gouveia. Published, May 25, 1914; on June 13, 1914, he received in Lisbon the red skullcap sent by the pope with the apostolic delegate, the duke de la Vera and marquis of Ávila-Fuente, grande de Espña and papal noble guard; received the red biretta on September 4, 1914; and the red hat and the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro on September 8, 1914; took possession of his title on the following September 17. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. He belonged to the Academy of Sciences of Lisbon from 1923. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Braga, 1924; to the Portuguese National Council, Lisbon, August 5, 1926.

Death. August 5, 1929, Lisbon. Buried, patriarchal vault, church of São Vicente de Fora, Lisbon. A street was named after him in the parish of São Pedro, council of Gouveia, district of Guarda.

Bibliography. Ayres Pacheco, António. A expulsão do senhor patriarcha d. António I : documentos para a historia da perseguição religiosa em Portugal. Lisboa : A. d'Almeida e Costa, 1912; Magalhães, José Maria Barbosa de. Elogio histórico de d. António Mendes Belo. Lisboa : Ottosgrafica, 1931. Note: "Discurso proferido na sessão solene de 26 de fevereiro de 1931"; Moura, Maria Lúcia Brito de. "D. António Mendes Bello (1908-1929)" in Os patriarcas de Lisboa. Coordenação D. Carlos Azevedo, Sandra Costa Saldanha, António Pedro Boto de Oliveira. Palavra de apresentação do Cardeal Patriarca, D. José da Cruz Policarpo. Lisboa : Centro Cultural do Patriarcado de Lisboa; Alêtheia Editores, 2009, p. 129-141; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 12 and 227-228; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 388 and 451.

Links. His portrait, arms and biography, in Portuguese, Wikipedia; biography, in Portuguese, Biblioteca Municipal Vergílio Ferreira, Gouveia; biography, in Portuguese, Instituto de História Contemporânea, Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa; his portrait and genealogy, in Portuguese, Geneall; in brief biographical entry, in Portuguese, Os Cardeais Portugueses, patriarcado de Lisboa; and his portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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BELTRAMI, Giuseppe
(1889-1973)

Birth. January 17, 1889, Fossano, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Fossano; at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome, where he earned doctorates in theology and canon law; and at the Royal University of Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in letters.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 5, 1916, Fossano. Chaplain in the Italian Army in the First World War, 1916-1919. Further studies, 1919-1923. Staff member of the Vatican Library, 1923-1926. Honorary chamberlain of His Holiness, July 14, 1924. Staff member of the Secretariat of State, 1926-1940. Lawyer for the causes of canonization and beatification in the S.C. of Rites, 1926-1940. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, July 9, 1926; reappointed, March 3, 1939.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Damasco and appointed nuncio in Guatemala and El Salvador, February 20, 1940. Consecrated, April 7, 1940, church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, by Cardinal Luigi Maglione, secretary of State, assisted by Gabriele Vettori, archbishop of Pisa, and by Angelo Soracco, bishop of Fossano. His episcopal motto was Illuminatio mea Dominus. Nuncio in Colombia, November 15, 1945. Papal legate to National Eucharistic Congress, Bogotá, June 29, 1946. Nuncio at the disposition of Secretariat of State, 1948-1950. Nuncio in Lebanon, October 4, 1950. Nuncio-internuncio in Holland, January 31, 1959. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 26, 1967; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Liberatrice al Monte Testaccio, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, June 29, 1967. Lost right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971.

Death. December 13, 1973, of a sudden embolism, in Rome. In accordance with his wishes, he was buried at the cathedral of Fossano, beside the altar of S. Giovenale, patron saint of the city.

Bibliography. Restrepo Posada, José. "Galería de representantes de la Santa Sede en Colombia." Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Historia Eclesiástica, V (January-June, 1970), 241-242.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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BENELLI, Giovanni
(1921-1982)

Birth. May 12, 1921, Poggiole di Vernio, diocese of Pistoia, Italy. Youngest of the five surviving children of Luigi Benelli and Maria Simoni; his uncle Guido Benelli entered the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans) and died with fame of holiness. He was baptized the day after his birth in the church of S. Leonardo in S. Quirico di Vernio.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Pistoia (entered on October 18, 1931); while in Rome, he resided at the Pontifical French Seminary, studying at the Pontifical Gregorian University from 1943 until 1947; amd later, at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy). Received the ecclesiastical tonsure, December 23, 1939, from Giuseppe Debernardi, bishop of Pistoia; the subdiaconate, June 29, 1942, at the cathedral of Pistoia, from the same bishop; and the diaconate, June 12, 1943, at the cathedral of Pistoia, also from the same bishop.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 31, 1943, parish church of Poggiole di Vernio, by Giuseppe Debernardi, bishop of Pistoia; with dispensation for not having reached yet the canonical age. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, 1943-1950. Further studies, Rome, 1943-1947. Attached to the Secretariat of State; private secretary to Giovanni Battista Montini, substitute of the Secretariat of State, August 1, 1947. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, July 16, 1950. Secretary of the nunciature in Ireland, 1950-1953. Secretary of the nunciature in France, 1953-1960. Auditor of the nunciature in Brazil, 1960-1962. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, August 1, 1961. Counselor of the nunciature in Spain, 1962-1965. Permanent observer of the Holy See before UNESCO, Paris, May 11, 1965 to June 11, 1966.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tusuro and appointed pro-nuncio in Senegal and apostolic delegate in Western Africa, June 11, 1966. Consecrated, September 11, 1966, Rome, by Cardinal Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, secretary of State, assisted by Pietro Sigismondi. titular archbishop of Neapoli di Pisidia, secretary of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, and by Mario Longo Dorni, bishop of Pistoia. His episcopal motto was Virtus ex alto. Substitute of the Secretariat of State and secretary of the cipher, June 29, 1967. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Florence, June 3, 1977.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 27, 1977; received the red biretta and the title of S. Prisca, June 27, 1977. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980.

Death. October 26, 1982, suddenly, of a heart attack, in his office at the archiepiscopal palace of Florence. The funeral, presided by Cardinal Agostino Casaroli, secretary of State, took place on October 29, 1982, at the metropolitan cathedral basilica of S. Maria del Fiore, Florence. His remains were buried in the crypt underneath the chapel of the Most Blessed Sacrament of that cathedral; a simple marble stone marks his final resting place (1).

Bibliography. Il Cardinale Giovanni Benelli. Giovanni Battista Re, et al. Roma : Edizioni Studium, 1992. (Coscienza studi, 22); In memoriam di S.Em. Il Cardinale Giovanni Benelli, arcivescovo di Firenze. Florence: Curia Arcivescovile, 1982; Lovascio, Antonio. Giovanni Benelli. Un pastore coraggioso e innovatore. Prefazione di Giuseppe Betori. Firenze : Società Editrice Fiorentina, 2012.

Links. Biography by Bruna Bocchini Camaiani, Andrea Riccardi, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 34 (1988), Treccani; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the inscription in his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

JOHANNES CARD. BENELLI
MCMXXI      MCMLXXXII


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BENGSCH, Alfred
(1921-1979)

Birth. September 10, 1921, Berlin, Germany. His father, Leo Bengsch, was a postal service employee.

Education. Jesuit gymnasium of Berlin-Charloteetenber, 1932-1937; Superior School of Philosophy and Theology, Fulda; Archdiocesan Seminary "Bernardinum," Neuzelle/Oder; Theological Faculty of Münich. Drafted by German Army in the Second World War; wounded and captured by the U.S. Army, August, 1944.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 2, 1950, Berlin, by Cardinal Konrad von Preysing, bishop of Berlin. Pastoral ministry in diocese of Berlin, 1950-1954. Faculty member of the Seminary of Erfurt, 1954-1956. Faculty member of the Archdiocesan Seminary "Bernardinum," Neuzelle/Oder, 1956-1959. Regent of the Seminary of Erfurt, April 1, 1959.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tubia and appointed auxiliary of Berlin, May 2, 1959. Consecrated, June 11, 1959, Berlin, by Cardinal Julius Döpfner, bishop of Berlin, assisted by Friedrich Maria Rintelen, titular bishop of Chusira, auxiliary of Paderborn, and by Otto Spulbeck, bishop of Meissen. His episcopal motto was Adjutores gaudii vestri. Transferred to the see of Berlin, August 16, 1961. Received title of archbishop ad personam, January 14, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 26, 1967; received the red biretta and the title of S. Filippo Neri in Eurosia, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, June 23, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, l971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979.

Death. December 13, 1979, of a hemorrhage during treatment for cancer, in Berlin. Buried in the diocesan cathedral (now metropolitan) of Berlin (1).

Bibliography. Pilvousek, Josef. "Bengsch, Alfred." Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1945 2001 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Unter Mitwirkung von Franz Xaver Bischof ... [et al.] ; herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 2002, p. 94-97.

Links. His arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

ADIUTORES GAUDII VESTRI
ALFRED CARDINAL BENGSCH
ERZBISCHOF BISCHOF VON BERLIN
16.8.1961       13.12.1979


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BENLLOCH Y VIVÓ, Juan Bautista
(1864-1926)

Birth. December 29, 1864, Valencia , Spain. He is also listed as Joan Baptista Benlloch i Vivó.

Education. Seminary of Valencia, Valencia. Obtained doctorates in theology and canon law in Valencia, October 1887.

Priesthood. Ordained, February 25, 1888, Valencia. Auxiliary professor at the Seminary of Valencia and coadjutor in Almácera, town very near that city; later, for five years from 1893, pastor of the parish of Santos Juan Evangelista y Bautista, known as los Santos Juanes, in the city of Valencia. In the diocese of Segovia, professor at its seminary; chantre of its cathedral chapter; provisor and vicar general, 1899-1900; and vicar capitular, 1900-1901.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Ermopoli Maggiore and appointed apostolic administrator of Solsona, by decree of the apostolic nunciature, December 16, 1901. Consecrated, February 2, 1902, church of San Francisco el Grande, Madrid, by Jaime Cardona y Tur, titular bishop of Sion, military pro-vicar general and pro-chaplain of the Royal Palace, assisted by José Cadena y Eleta, bishop of Segovia, and by Salvador Castellote y Pinazo, bishop of Jaén. Transferred to the see of Urgel, December 6, 1906; as bishop of Urgel he was co-prince of Andorra and wrote the text of its national anthem. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Burgos, January 7, 1919.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 7, 1921; received the red biretta from King Alfonso XIII, in the chapel of the Royal Palace, Madrid, together with neo-Cardinals Francisco de Asís Vidal y Barraquer, archbishop of Tarragona, and Francesco Ragonesi, nuncio in Spain; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Aracoeli, June 16, 1921. He was member of the SS. CC. of Sacraments, Propaganda Fide, Ceremonial, and Seminaries and Universities of Study. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Special envoy of Spanish government to the Latin American republics, September 1923 to January 1924.

Death. February 14, 1926, from diabetes, after a long illness, in Madrid. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Burgos. Later, his body was transferred by train to Valencia and on May 3, 1931, buried in the basilica of Virgen de los Desamparados, at the foot of the miraculous statue, according to his personal wishes.

Bibliography. Benlloch y Vivó, Juan. El arte y el culto : carta pastoral que el Cardenal Arzobispo de Burgos, dirige a sus diocesanos con motivo del VII centenario de la Catedral. Burgos : [s.n.], 1921; Benlloch y Vivó, Juan. El gran pedagogo San José de Calasanz. 2a. ed. Madrid : "Revta. Calasancia" ; Hijos de J. Minuesa de los Rios, 1919. Responsibility: por el... Dr. D. Juan Benlloch y Vivó, Obispo de Urgel y Príncipe Soberano de Andorra; Benlloch y Vivó, Juan. Las misiones extranjeras, invitacisn Pontificia a Burgos : carta pastoral que el Juan Benlloch y Vivó ; dirige al clero y fieles de su archidiócesis.. Burgos : Tipografma de Polo, 1920; Benlloch y Vivó, Juan. La paz del mundo y la paz de Cristo : carta pastoral que el Dr. D. Juan Benlloch y Vivó. Obispo de Urgel y Príncipe Soberano de Andorra, dirige al clero y fieles de su diócesis.Seo de Urgel : [s.n.], 1916. Note: "Burgos, 3 de Diciembre de 1920, Fiesta de San Francisco Javier, Patrsn de las Misiones."; Benlloch y Vivó, Juan. Su pontificado en Burgos. Burgos : Tip. de "El Monte Carmelo", 1923. Responsibility: Emmo. y Rvdmo. Sr. Dr. D. Juan Cardenal Benlloch y Vivó; Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 65; Linares Málaga, Fausto. El Cardenal Benlloch en el Perú; reseña completa de las recepciones, discursos, ceremonias religiosas, homenajes y fiestas sociales. Lima : T. Scheuch, 1924. Responsibility: recopilación del dr. Fausto E. Linares Málaga; profusamente ilustrada con 186 grabados; Rojas, Diego Alberto. La basílica de la Merced : su historia y las festividades de su inauguración presididas por el eminentísimo cardenal arzobispo de Burgos Sr. Dr. Don Juan Benlloch y Vivó. Santiago de Chile : Impr. Cervantes, 1923; Seo de Urgel y Valencia : Crónica de las Fiestas celebradas en estas dos ciudades con motivo del XXV aniversario de la ordenación sacerdotal y solemne primera misa del Excmo. Sr. Dn. Juan Benlloch y Vivó, Obispo de Urgel y Príncipe Soberano de Andorra. Valencia : Hijos de F. Vives Mora, 1913; Villanueva Gutiérrez, Aduolfo. El cardenal Benlloch y los héroes del Callao. Burgos : Tip. de El Monte Carmelo, 1924; Villanueva Gutiérrez, Aduolfo. Crónica oficial de la embajada del cardenal eminentísimo señor doctor don Juan Benlloch y Vivó, arzobispo de Burgos, a la América española, 2 v. Valencia : Talleres tip. La Gutenberg, 1928.

Links. Biographical data, in English, Enciclopèdia Catalana; his statute and biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia.


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BERAN, Josef
(1888-1969)

Birth. December 29, 1888, Plzen, archdiocese of Prague, Bohemia, Austria-Hungary. His father was a school teacher. He was the eldest son of the family.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Plzen; and at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 10, 1911, Rome. Pastoral ministry in Plzen, 1912-1932: assigned to a a village parish; then, to a worker's district parish (1914-1917); for the following eight years, he continued his studies and was chaplain to the Sisters of Notre Dame in Pragu; later, director of the Institute of Saint Anne, where he developed the Teacher's College, which became one of the best in that country. Assistant professor of pastoral theology at the University Charles IV, Prague; and spiritual director of the Seminary of Prague, 1932-1942; later, in 1939, he became full professor. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, June 11, 1936; reappointed, October 19, 1939. By the end of 1939, the Nazis had take full control of Czechoslovakia. He made sure that Pope Pius XI's encyclical Mit brennender Sorge, condemning Nazism, was published in Prague. Refusing to cooperate with the regime, he was arrested by the Gestapo, June 6, 1942, and successively imprisoned, without trial, in Pankrac, Prague, for thirty days; Terzin, Bohemia, for two months, together with future Cardinal Stepan Trochta; and sent to Dachau, Germany, in the fall of 1942; he was prisoner no. 25844; in 1943, a typhoid epidemic almost killed him; he remained in that camp until May 1945, when the United States troops liberated all the prisoners. He returned to Prague immediately. President Edvard Beneš of Czechoslovakia decorated him with the Iron Cross and the medal of Hero of the Resistance, two of the highest honors of the nation.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Prague, Czechoslovakia, November 4, 1946. Consecrated, December 8, 1946, metropolitan cathedral of St. Vitus, Prague, by Saverio Ritter, titular archbishop of Egina, nuncio in Czechoslovakia, assisted by Maurice Picha, bishop of Hradec Králové, and by Anton Eltschkner, titular bishop of Zephirio, auxiliary of Prague. His episcopal motto was Eucharistia et labor. Imprisoned by the Communist regime of Czechoslovakia, 1949-1963; from June 19, 1949 to March 7, 1951, he was practically locked up at the former archiepiscopal residence; then, on March 10, he was taken away from Prague; for many years nobody in the world, including the Vatican, knew where the archbishop was being kept. It was widely believed that Archbishop Beran was one of the three prelates created cardinal and reserved in pectore by Pope John XXIII in the consistory of March 28, 1960, but the pope died in 1963, without ever publishing their names. After having been transferred to government installations, first at a villa near Liberec, then to Msitevec, near Horice, and from there to Padebenice, he was taken to Mukarov, near Prague, on October 4, 1963. Freed but impeded from exercising the episcopal ministry, 1963-1965. In late 1964, negotiations were conducted between the Vatican and the Czech government, which resulted in the appointment of new bishops, the appointment of an apostolic administrator for the metropolitan see of Prague, and the exile to Rome of Archbishop Beran; the latter occurred in February 1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of S. Croce in via Flaminia, February 25, 1965. Took up residence in Rome. Attended the last session of the Second Vatican Council, 1965. He offered his resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese several times but the pope did not accept it. When Pope Paul VI learned of the cardinal's precarious health condition, he hurried to his deathbed from the Vatican, but the cardinal had died only a few minutes before the pontiff reached his bedside.

Death. May 17, 1969, of lung cancer, Rome. Buried in the grotto of the patriarchal Vatican basilica because the Czech government did not allow the transportation of his body to that country. He is buried near where the tomb of Pope John XXIII was then. He is the only citizen of what is now the Czech Republic to receive this honor.

Beatification. The diocesan process for his beatification was initiated in the hall of the archiepiscopal palace in Prague on April 2, 1998. The ceremony was presided over by Cardinal Miloslav Vlk, archbishop of Prague, in the presence of Archbishop Giovanni Coppa, apostolic nuncio in the Czech Republic.

Bibliography. Petek, John. Archbishop Joseph Beran. Notre Dame, Indiana : University of Notre Dame Press, 1964. (The men who make the council, 7).

Links. His photograph and biography, in Czech, archdiocese of Prague; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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BERAS ROJAS, Octavio Antonio
(1906-1990)

Birth. November 16, 1906, Seibo, archdiocese of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Eldest of the three children of Octavio Beras Zorrilla and Teresa Rojas Santana. Received the first communion in the convent of the Dominican friars from Adolfo Alejando Nouel, archbishop of Santo Domingo.

Education. Seminary Santo Tomás de Aquino, Santo Domingo, 1923-1926; sent to Rome, he resided in the Pontifical Collegio Pio Latino Americano; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1926; for health reasons, had to return to Santo Domingo and to its seminary.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 13, 1933, metropolitan cathedral of Santo Domingo. Pastoral ministry in Santiago de los Caballeros, 1933-1935. Successively, 1935-1945, in the archdiocese of Santo Domingo, secretary general of archdiocese, director of ecclesiastical bulletin and of weekly newspaper Verdad Católica, of the Catholic radio station, founder of Federation of Catholic Youth, president of ecclesiastical tribunal, organizer of the archdiocesan synod, honorary canon of the metropolitan chapter, pro-vicar general, and pastor of the metropolitan cathedral.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Eucaita and appointed coadjutor of Santo Domingo, with right of succession, May 2, 1945. Consecrated, August 12, 1945, metropolitan cathedral of Santo Domingo, by Manuel Arteaga y Betancourt, archbishop of San Cristóbal de La Habana, assisted by Enrique Pérez Serantes, archbishop of Santiago de Cuba, and by Aloysius Joseph Willinger, C.Ss.R., bishop of Ponce. Apostolic administrator sede plena of Santo Domingo. Secretary general of the General Conference of the Latin American Episcopal Counsel, July 25 to August 2, 1955, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Succeeded to the primatial and metropolitan see of Santo Domingo, December 10, 1961. Military vicar for the Dominican Republic, December 8, 1962. Member of the Central Committee of the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. President of the Episcopal Conference of Dominican Republic, 1965-. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 24, 1976; received the red biretta and the title of S. Sisto, May 24, 1976. Attended the IV Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, November 15, 1981. Resigned the military vicariate, November 15, 1982. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, November 16, 1986. He was the first cardinal from the Dominican Republic.

Death. December 1, 1990, Santo Domingo. Buried in the primatial and metropolitan cathedral of Santo Domingo.

Links. His photograph and biography by Rafael Bello Peguero, in Spanish, Sistema de Bibliotecas PUCMM; biography, in German, Wikipedia; biography, in Polish, Wikipedia; Letter from Pope John Paul II to Card. Octavio Antonio Beras Rojas on the 50th anniversary of his priestly ordination (July 22, 1983), in Latin, Libreria Editrice Vaticana.


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BERGOGLIO, S.J., Jorge Mario
(1936-

Birth. December 17, 1936, in the Flores neighborhood, Great Buenos Aires, Argentina. The family emigrated from Piedmont, Italy, because of Fascism. Eldest child of Mario Bergoglio, from Portacomaro, a railway worker, and Regina Sivori, an Argentinian, a housewife who took care of the initial education of the five children. The other siblings were Alberto Horacio, Óscar Adrián, Marta Regina and María Elena, who is the only one alive of the four. He was baptized on December 25, 1936, in the Salesian parish of San Carlos Borromeo and basilica of María Auxiliadora, by Father Enrique Pozzoli, S.D.B., who later was his spiritual director. His godparents were Francisco Sívori and Rosa Vassallo de Bergoglio. He received sacrament of confirmation on Sunday October 8, 1944, in Flores, Buenos Aires. At the age of 21, he had a pulmonary illness and the upper part of his right lung was removed. He liked to play soccer in the neighborhood and when he grew up, he developed a passion for the tango. His second cousin, Sister Ana Rosa Sivori, religious of the Daughters of Mary Help of Christians, has worked as a missionary in Thailand for 46 years.

Education. Initial studies at the Salesian Don Bosco School, Ramos Mejía, Buenos Aires. He later obtained the diploma of technician in chemistry at Escuela Secundaria Industrial. He had a job and a girlfriend Amalia Damonte. Entered Seminary of Villa Devoto, Buenos Aires, and studied there for three years. Joined the Society of Jesus on March 11, 1958. Novitiate in Córdoba (humanities); took his first vows on March 12, 1960; then, studied at Colegio Máximo San José, San Miguel, Buenos Aires (licentiate in philosophy); professor of literature and psychology in Colegio de la Inmaculada, Santa Fe, and in Colegio del Salvador, Buenos Aires; Colegio Máximo de San Miguel, (theology); Philosophisch-Theologische Hochschule Sankt Georgen, Frankfurt am Main, where he spent a few months in 1986 to seek advice from professors for a project of a doctorate which was never concluded. Received the subdiaconate on Wednesday July 30, 1969, in Buenos Aires. Besides his native Spanish, he also speaks Italian and Portuguese, and understands English, French, German.

Priesthood. Ordained, Saturday December 13, 1969, at the chapel of Colegio Máximo de San Miguel, by Ramón José Castellano, titular archbishop of Giomnio. Further studies, 1969-1971; third probation, Alcalá de Henares, Spain, 1971-1972; took the final vows, April 22, 1973. Master of novices, Villa Barilari, San Miguel, 1972-1973; professor in the Theological Faculty; consultor of the Jesuit province and rector of the Colegio Máximo. Elected provincial of Argentina, July 31, 1973. During the Argentinian military dictatorship, he helped hide people being sought for arrest or disappearance by the military because of their political views, helped others leave Argentina and lobbied the country's military rulers directly for the release and protection of others. When the dictatorship was raging and some of his confrères were ready to embrace the rifle and apply the lessons of Marx, he energetically opposed the tendency as provincial of the Society of Jesus in Argentina. Spent some time in Germany. On his return, assigned to Colegio del Salvador, Córdoba and then, spiritual director and confessor, Jesuit Church, Córdoba. Rector of Colegio Máximo de San Miguel and of its Philosophical and Theological Faculties, 1980-1986. He published Meditaciones para religiosos, 1982; Reflexiones sobre la vida apostólica, 1986; and Reflexiones de esperanza, 1992.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Auca and appointed auxiliary of Buenos Aires, May 20, 1992. Consecrated, June 27, 1992, metropolitan and primatial cathedral of the Holy Trinity, Buenos Aires, by Cardinal Antonio Quarracino, archbishop of Buenos Aires, assisted by Ubaldo Calabresi, titular archbishop of Fondi, nuncio in Argentina, and by Emilio Ogñénovich, bishop of Mercedes-Luján. In the same ceremony was also consecrated Raúl Omar Rossi, titular bishop of Enera, auxiliary of Buenos Aires. His episcopal motto was Miserando atque eligendo, which he kept as pope. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Promoted to archbishop coadjutor of Buenos Aires, June 3, 1997. He moved from the episcopal palace to a small apartment, took public transportation, rode a bicycle and cooked his own meals. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Buenos Aires, February 28, 1998. Ordinary for the faithful of the Oriental rite in Argentina without an ordinary for their own rite, November 30, 1998. Grand chancellor of the Catholic University of Argentina. Second vice-president of the Episcopal Conference of Argentina.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of S. Roberto Bellarmino, February 21, 2001. Member of the Congregations for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, for the Clergy, for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life; and of the Pontifical Council for the Family. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001; relator general adjunct. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. On November 9, 2005, he was elected president of the Episcopal Conference of Argentina for the triennium of 2005-2008; reelected for the triennium 2008-2011 on November 11, 2008. Participated in the Fifth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. Named member of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America on February 23, 2013. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on March 13, 2013. Took the name Francis. On March 19, 2013, took place the inauguration of his Petrine ministry as bishop of Rome. On March 26, 2013, the Argentinian city of La Plata became the first to name a street after him. He took possession of the papal Lateran basilica, cathedral of the see of Rome, on Sunday April 7, 2013, at 5:30 p.m. He created nineteen new cardinals in a consistory that was celebrated on February 22, 2014.

Bibliography. Beltramo Álvarez, Andrés. Quiero lío. Francisco: un año de papado. Secretos del mito. Prologue by de Luis Novaresio. Buenos Aires : Hyspamerica ; R.P.Centro Editor de Cultura, 2014; Fernández Víctor, Manuel: Rodari, Paolo. Il progetto di Francesco. Dove vuole portare la Chiesa. Bologna : Editrice Missionaria Italiana, 2014. (Emibook); Francesco (Jorge Mario Bergoglio); Spadaro, Antonio. Papa Francesco. La mia porta è sempre aperta. Una conversazione con Antonio Spadaro. Milano : Rizzoli Editore, 2013. (Saggi); Pigozzi, Caroline ; Madelin, Henri. Ainsi fait-il. Paris : Plon, 2013; Piqué, Elisabetta. Francisco, vida y revolución. Buenos Aires : El Ateneo, 2013; Rubín, Sergio ; Ambrogetti, Francesca. El jesuíta : conversaciones con el cardenal Jorge Bergoglio, sj. Barcelona : Vergara, Grupo Zeta, 2010. (Biografía e historia); Scavo, Nello. La lista di Bergoglio. I salvati da papa Francesco durante la dittatura. La storia mai raccontata. Prefazione di Adolfo Pérez Esquivel. Bologna : Editrice Missionaria Italiana EMI, 2013. ( Lampi di Storia); Tornielli, Andrea. I fioretti di papa Francesco. Milano : Piemme, 2013; Velásquez O., César Mauricio ; Beltramo Álvarez, Andrés. De Benedicto a Francisco; Los 30 días que cambiaron la Iglesia. Bogotá : Grupo Editorial Planeta, 2013; Vidal, José Manuel ; Bastante, Jesús. Francisco, el nuevo Juan XXIII. Jorge Mario Bergoglio. El primer pontífice americano para una nueva primavera de la Iglesia. Buenos Aires : Desclée de Brouwer ; Religión Digital Libros, 2013. (Benedicto XVI en 50 ideas).

Links. Photograph and biography, in Spanish, Agencia Informativa Católica Argentina (AICA); photograph and biography, in Spanish, Jesuítas Argentina, Provincia Argentino-Uruguaya; photograph and biography, in English, Press Office of the Holy See; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photographs, arms and biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; and his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; 'Poor man!' says new pope's sister, Inquirer News; La hermana del papa a RT: Francisco tendrá fuerzas para enfrentar la crisis de la Iglesia, in Spanish, RT; his papal coat of arms, Cantuale Antonianum; La Genealogía Episcopal del Santo Padre Francisco, in Spanish, by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; El papa Francisco nació a la fe en la iglesia de Gardel by Natalia Kidd, EFE, El Nuevo Herald, Séptimo Día, domingo 24 de marzo de 2012; Video: Componen un tango para el Papa Francisco, "el Jorge de Flores", ACI/EWTN Noticias, 27 Mar. 13 / 07:15 am; Revelan lo que el Cardenal Bergoglio esperaba del nuevo Papa y pidió a los electores, ACI/EWTN Noticias, 26 Mar. 13 / 06:05 pm.; Ora la «Lista di Bergoglio» diventa film by Roberto I. Zanini and Angela Calvini, Avvenire, 19 ottobre 2013; Guardini, un "maestro" che Bergoglio non ha mai avuto by Sandro Magister, Gruppo Editoriale LEspresso Spa, 21 ottubre 2013; Bergoglio & Borges, realtà e imprecisioni di un "amicizia" by Jorge Milia, in Iyalian, Vatican Insider, 6/12/2013; Bergoglio di Fierro: l'epopea è per la vita by Stefania Falasca, Avvenire, 6 giugno 2014.


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BERNARDIN, Joseph Louis
(1928-1996)

Birth. April 2, 1928, Columbia, diocese of Charleston, United States. Oldest of the two children of Italian immigrants Joseph Bernardin, a stonecutter, and Maria Magdalen Simion; he had a sister, Elaine; the father died of cancer when Joseph was six years old. He was baptized and received confirmation in St. Peter's church, Columbia.

Education. Enrolled in the pre-medical program at the University of South Carolina, Columbia; St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore; Columbia University, New York; Catholic University, Washington (doctorate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, April 26, 1952, church of St. Joseph, Columbia, by John Joseph Russell, bishop of Charleston. Successively, 1952-1966, in Charleston, pastoral ministry; faculty member, Catholic Lyceum; vicar general. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, December 18, 1959. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, 1962.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Lugura and appointed auxiliary of Atlanta, March 4, 1966. Consecrated, April 26, 1966, cathedral of St. John the Baptist, Charleston, by Paul Hallinan, archbishop of Atlanta, assisted by Ernest Leo Unterkoefler, bishop of Charleston, and by Francis Frederick Reh, titular bishop of Macriana in Mauritania, rector of the Pontifical North American College. His episcopal motto was As those who serve. At the time, he was the youngest bishop in America. Secretary general of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops and of the United States Catholic Conference, 1968-1972. Apostolic administrator, sede vacante, of Atlanta, 1968. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Cincinnati, November 21, 1972. Attended the III Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 28, 1974; elected member of the council of the general secretariat, October 19, 1974. President of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops/U.S. Catholic Conference, 1974-1977. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; member of the general secretariat, 1980-1983. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Chicago, July 8, 1982.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the title of Gesù Divin Lavoratore, February 2, 1983. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; member of the general secretariat, 1983-1986; membership extended until 1987 in the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; member of the general secretariat, 1987-1990. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; member of the general secretariat, 1994-1996. In June 1995, the cardinal underwent surgery for pancreatic cancer; after the operation, he began his cancer ministry; on August 30, 1996, he told his flock that the cancer had returned, was in his liver, and was inoperable. Decorated with the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Bill Clinton, September 9, 1996.

Death. November 14, 1996, at 1.33 a.m., from inoperable liver and pancreatic cancer, at his Near North Side home, Chicago. Buried in the bishops' chapel, Mount Carmel Cemetery, Hillside, archdiocese of Chicago (1). His predecessors Cardinals Samuel Alphonse Stritch and John Patrick Cody are also buried in that chapel.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 148; Code, Bernard. American Bishops 1964-1970. St. Louis : Wexford Press, 1970, p. 6; Kennedy, Eugene C. Cardinal Bernardin: Easing conflict -and battling for the soul of American Catholicism. Chicago : Bonus Books, 1989; Wall, A. E. P. "Bernardin, Joseph Louis." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyła years. Detroit, MI : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, p. 258-259.

Links. Biography, in English; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; and Joseph Cardinal Bernardin Photograph Library; Cardinal Bernardin: In Memoriam, November 14, 1996, Transcript.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

HERE, AWAITING THE RESURRECTION, LIE THE REMAINS OF
HIS EMINENCE, JOSEPH LOUIS CARDINAL BERNARDIN
SEVENTH ARCHBISHOP OF CHICAGO
BORN, COLUMBIA, SC, APRIL 2, 1928     ARCHBISHOP OF CINCINNATI, 1972 - 1982
ORDAINED, CHARLESTON, SC, APRIL 26, 1952       PRESIDENT, CONFERENCE OF BISHOPS, 1974 - 1977
AUXILIARY BISHOP OF ATLANTA, 1966 - 1968     ARCHBISHOP OF CHICAGO, 1982 - 1996
GENERAL SECRETARY, CONFERENCE OF BISHOPS 1968 - 1972     DIED, CHICAGO, IL, NOVEMBER 14, 1996
PEACE I LEAVE WITH YOU, CHRIST'S PEACE I GIVE TO YOU


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BERTOLI, Paolo
(1908-2001)

Birth. February 1, 1908, Poggio Garfagnana, diocese of Apuania (now archdiocese of Lucca), Italy. Son of Carlo Bertoli and Aride Poli.

Education. Seminary of Lucca, Lucca; Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome (doctorates in philosophy and theology); Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Priesthood. Ordained, August 15, 1930, Lucca, by Giuseppe Bertazzoni, bishop of Massa Carrara. Further studies, 1930-1933. Attaché and auditor of the nunciature in Yugoslavia, 1933-1938. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, January 16, 1934; reappointed, March 3, 1939. Auditor of the nunciature in France, 1938-1942. Chargé d'affaires of apostolic delegation in the Antilles, 1942-1946. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, January 26, 1946. Papal representative to the International Conference to solve the problems caused by the Second World War, Berne, Switzerland, 1946; papal representative to the Red Cross Congresses in Copenhagen and Genève. Chargé d'affaires of the nunciature in Czechoslovakia, 1949; unable to hold the post for political reasons.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nicomedia, March 24, 1952. Appointed apostolic delegate in Turkey, March 26, 1952. Consecrated, May 11, 1952, church of S. Maria in Campitelli, Rome, by Cardinal Eugène Tisserant, bishop of Ostia and Porto e Santa Rufina, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by Valerio Valeri, titular archbishop of Efeso, assessor of the S.C. of the Oriental Church, and by Filippo Bernardini, titular archbishop of Antiochia di Pisidia, nuncio in Switzerland. His episcopal motto was Fide tutior. Named nuncio in Colombia, May 7, 1953. Nuncio in Lebanon, April 15, 1959. Nuncio in France, April 16, 1960. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Girolamo della Carità, April 30, 1969. Prefect of the S.C. for the Causes of the Saints, May 7, 1969. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Resigned the prefecture, March 1, 1973. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, March 5, 1973. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979. Named camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, May 5, 1979. Bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, June 30, 1979. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Special papal envoy to the National Marian Congress, Mendoza, Argentina, October 8 to 12, 1980. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Papal legate to the opening of the Holy Door at S. Paolo fuori le mura basilica, December 24, 1983. Resigned the post of camerlengo, March 25, 1985. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, February 1, 1988.

Death. November 8, 2001, Rome. Buried in the family chapel in the cemetery of Garfagnana, archdiocese of Lucca.

Bibliography. Restrepo Posada, José. "Galería de representantes de la Santa Sede en Colombia." Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Historia Eclesiástica, V (January-June, 1970), 242-243.

Links. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; his portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; and Cappella Papale, funeral mass for Cardinal Paolo Bertoli, November 9, 2001, L'Osservatore Romano.


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BERTONE, S.D.B., Tarcisio
(1934-

Birth. December 2, 1934, parish of Ss. Pietro e Solutore, Romano Canavese, diocese of Ivrea, Italy. The fifth of the eight children of Pietro Bertone and Pierina Borio. His father was a farmer. He was baptized in that parish on December 9, 1934. His baptismal name is Tarcisio Pietro Evasio.

Education. Entered the Society of St. Francis de Sales of St. John Bosco (Salesians); Oratorio di Valdocco, Turin (middle studies); Salesian novitiate of Monte Oliveto, Pinerolo; religious profession, December 3, 1950. Salesian Theological Faculty, Turin (licentiate in theology with a dissertation on tolerance and religious freedom); Pontifical Salesian Athenaeum, Rome (licentiate in theology; doctorate in canon law; dissertation: Il governo della Chiesa nel pensiero di Benedetto XIV - Papa Lambertini, 1740-1758); the relator of his dissertation was Canonist Alfons Maria Stickler, S.D.B, future cardinal. Besides his native Italian, he also speaks French, German, Portuguese and Spanish.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 1, 1960, Ivrea, by Albino Mensa, bishop of Ivrea. Further studies in Turin and Rome. Professor of Special Moral Theology, Pontifical Salesian Athenaeum (became Pontifical Salesian University in 1973), Rome, 1967; professor of canon law, 1976-1991. In the community of Pontifical Salesian University of Rome, director of theologians, 1974-1976; dean of the Faculty of Canon Law, 1976-1985; vice-rector, 1987-1989. Guest professor of Public Ecclesiastical Law at the Institute Utriusque Iuris of the Pontifical Lateran University, 1978. Pastoral ministry in several Roman parishes and in the promotion of the laity in the Centers of Theological and Apostolic Formation, especially with intervention on subjects of social morality and the relation between faith and politics. Collaborated in the final phase of the revision of the Code of Canon Law and promoted its reception in the local churches. Directed the work group that translated the Code into Italian for the Italian Episcopal Conference and visited a hundred of Italian and foreign dioceses to present the "grand discipline of the Church". Since the 1980s, consultor in several dicasteries of the Roman Curia, especially in the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in matters theologico-juridical. In 1988, he was appointed to a group of experts that assisted Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, future Pope Benedict XVI, in the negotiations with schismatic Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre. Rettore Magnifico of the Pontifical Salesian University, Rome, June 1, 1989 until his promotion to the episcopate.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Vercelli, June 4, 1991. Consecrated, August 1, 1991, metropolitan cathedral of Vercelli, by Albino Mensa, archbishop emeritus of Vercelli, assisted by Luigi Bettazzi, bishop of Ivrea, and by Carlo Cavalla, bishop of Casale Monferrato. His episcopal motto is Fides custodiare Concordiam servare. Received the pallium from Pope John Paul II in the patriarchal Vatican basilica on June 29, 1992. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, June 13, 1995. Secretary of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, June 13, 1995. Charged by Pope John Paul II with the care of the publication of the third part of the "secret" of Fatima. Also, commissioned by Pope John Paul II to assist Emmanuel Milingo, archbishop emeritus of Lusaka, Zambia, in August 2001, when he decided to return to the Roman Catholic Church after his civil marriage within the Moon sect. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Genoa, December 10, 2002. United to the see of Genoa are the posts of abbot perpetuo of S. Siro, of S. Maria Immacolata, and of S. Gerolamo di Quarto, and the title of "Legato Transmarino della Sede Apostolica."

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Ausiliatrice in via Tuscolana, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, October 21, 2003. Special papal envoy to the funeral of Suor Lucia de Jesus dos Santos, the last survivor of the three shepherds to whom the Blessed Virgin of Fatima appeared for the first time on May 13, 1917. The funeral mass was celebrated on Tuesday, February 15, 2005, at 4:00 p.m., in the cathedral of Coimbra, Portugal. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Awarded an honorary degree by the Catholic University of Salta, Argentina, July 19, 2005. Ceased as metropolitan archbishop of Genoa, August 29, 2006. Became secretary of State on September 15, 2006. Named member of the Cardinalitial Commission for the Vigilance of the Institute for Works of Religion (I.O.R.), October 14, 2006. Named camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church on April 4, 2007; took the oath of office on July 7, 2007, in the Chapel of Urban VIII in the Apostolic Palace. Given the award "Gaudium et Spes" by the Order of the Knights of Columbus on August 6, 2007, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America during the celebration of the 125th anniversary of the order (1). Papal legate to the solemn closing celebrations of the 90th anniversary of the apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Fatima, Portugal, which took place on October 12 and 13, 2007. Promoted to the order of cardinal bishops and the title of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, May 10, 2008. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". Pontifical legate to the celebrations of the 5th World Encounter of Families, which took place in Ciudad Méjico, Méjico, between January 13 and 18, 2009. On April 15, 2009, he was named knight of collar of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem (2). Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World". Confirmed as secretary of State, January 15, 2010. Pontifical legate to the celebration of the Eucharistic Congress of Slovenia, which took place in Celje on June 13, 2010. Received a doctorate honoris causa in jurisprudence from the University "Magna Grecia" of Catanzaro on April 21, 2012. Awarded the International Award Conde de Barcelona, established by the foundation Conde de Barcelona of the Spanish newspaper "La Vanguardia", on September 25, 2012. On February 28, 2013, upon the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI from the pontificate, he ceased as secretary of State according to the Code of Canon Law. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On March 16, 2013, the new pope confirmed him as secretary of State donec aliter provideatur. On August 11, 2013, the commune of Introd, in Valle d'Aosta, Italy, granted him the honorary citizenship. On August 31, 2013, Pope Francis, in accordance to canon 354 of the Code of Canon Law, accepted his resignation from the office of secretary of State, asking him to remain in office until October 15, 2013, with all the faculties proper to the office. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for Bishops on December 16, 2013. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, until the expiration of his term, on February 19, 2014.

Bibliography. Bertone, Tarcisio. La diplomazia pontificia in un mondo globalizzato. Prefazione di Papa Francesco. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013.

Links. Arms, photograph, biography and bibliography, in Italian, archdiocese of Genoa; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; and another image of his arms, archdiocese of Genoa; Mgr. Bettazzi: "Bertone is trustworthy" by Giacomo Galeazzo, Vatican Insider, 05/29/2012; Esclusivo: parla il cardinale Bertone, Famiglia Cristiana, 18/06/2012; Bertone: si cerca di destabilizzare la Chiesa. Ma è una roccia che resiste alle burrasche. Avvenire, Chiesa, 18 giugno 2012; Vatileaks: The Popes action irritated some; they are trying to destabilise the Church by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 06/18/2012; Vatileaks: Too many questions have been left unanswered dear Bertone by Marco Tossati, Vatican Insider, 06/21/2012; Cardinal Bertone calls for free and universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS, Vatican City, 22 June 2012 (VIS), news.va. Full text of the address in Italian, Press Office of the Holy See; L'ipotesi: Bertone lascia a ottobre Pronto un diplomatico straniero by Gian Guido Vecchi, in Italian, Corriere della Sera, 24 giugno 2012 | 14:49; Pope renews confidence in Cardinal Bertone by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 07/ 4/2012; Benoît XVI renouvelle sa confiance au cardinal Bertone by Isabelle de Gaulmyn, La Croix, 4/7/12 - 14 H 03; Papa rinnova fiducia a Bertone: «Ingiuste critiche verso di Lei», Chiesa, Avvenire, 4 luglio 2012; Pope voices confidence in embattled Bertone , The Tablet, 4 July 2012; He who eats Secretary of State dies by Marco Tosatti, Vatican Insider, 07/ 4/2012; Pope (re)confirms trust in Bertone by Giacomo Galeazzi, Vatican Insider, 04-07-2012; Benedict XVI renews his trust in Cardinal Bertone, L'Osservatore Romano, 2012-07-04, news.va; El papa expresa públicamente su aprecio al cardenal Bertone, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 04-07-2012; Emotional Cardinal Bertone to Pope: you brought God to man and man to God, Rome Reports, 2013-02-13 19:23:29; I sette anni del cardinale Bertone by Mimmo Muolo, Avvenire, 31 agosto 2013; Vaticano, la fine dellera Bertone by Giacomo Galeazzi, Vatican Insider, 15/01/2014; When did Benedict XVI first think of resigning? Card. Bertone has the answer, Rome Reports, 2014-02-11; Benedicto XVI le anticipó al cardenal Bertone su intención de renunciar by Rocío Lancho García, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 11 de febrero de 2014; Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone: Keeping the secret of Benedict XVI's resignation was a tremendous burden, Rome Reports, 2014-02-11; L'ira di Francesco per il mega-attico del cardinal Bertone, La Repubblica, 2014-0420; Unease over Cardinal Bertone's luxury apartment, ucanews, April 21, 2014; El cardenal Bertone: 'no me dentengo a recoger las piedras que me lanzan', Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 27 de abril de 2014; Bertone: «Non ho un maxi-appartamento» by Domenico Agasso jr., Vatican Insider, 28/04/2014; Bertone replica alle accuse: gogna mediatica, Avvenire, 28 aprile 2014; Ex-No. 2 at Vatican defends spacious apartment, Miami Herald, Wednesday, 04.30.14; Bertone e i 15 milioni alla casa cinematografica Lux Vide by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 21/05/2014; Embattled Cardinal Bertone faces new scandal, ucanews, May 21, 2014; While Pope Francis rages over inequality, a cardinal builds a Vatican penthouse by Terrence McCoy, The Washington Post, June 17, 2014.

(1) Named after the constitution "Gaudium et Spes", issued by the Second Vatican Council, the award is the highest honor bestowed by the Knights of Columbus, the world's largest Catholic Fraternal Organization with nearly 1.7 million members. The Gaudium et Spes Award is awarded only in special circumstances and only to individuals of exceptional merit.The award was first given in 1992, when the late Mother Theresa of Calcutta was named as the first recipient. Since then, four more individuals have been honored with this award: the late Cardinal John O'Connor, former archbishop of New York; the late Cardinal James Hickey, former archbishop of Washington; Cardinal William Baum, former archbishop of Washington and major penitentiary emeritus; and Latin Patriarch Michael Sabbah of Jerusalem. The award recognizes individuals for their exemplary contributions to the realization of the message of faith and service in the spirit of Christ as articulated in the document for which it is named. The award comes with an honorarium of $100,000.
(2) This is the highest rank of honor of the order; currently, only fourteen of the 24,000 members of the order have received that distinction.


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BERTRAM, Adolf
(1859-1945)

Birth. March 14, 1859, Hildesheim, Lower Saxony, Germany. Son of Franz Bertram, a merchant, and Karoline Müller. His baptismal name was Adolf Johannes. Received the sacrament of confirmation, May 20, 1872.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Hildesheim; at the University of Münich, from 1879 to 1880; at the University of Innsbruck in 1881-1881; at the University of Würzburg,where he earned a doctorate in theology on June 23, 1883; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in canon law on June 30, 1884. Received the insignias of the clerical character on November 14, 1880; the minor orders on February 27, 1881; the subdiaconate on April 24, 1881; and the diaconate on April 26, 1881. Pope Leo XIII's Harmoniemodell, a model of harmony, served as the basis for Bertrams own approach to church-state relations. This model proposed compromise instead of confrontation to preserve social order and peace. He adapted himself to the changes from monarchy to parliamentary democracy to dictatorial regime, even if he held strong reservations. He was hostile to democracy like many other Church leaders of the time but recognized the inevitability of its coming, and he rejected much of the Nazi ideology despite his endorsement of Hitler as the legitimate head of state.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 31, 1881, Würzburg. Further studies, 1881-1884. Chaplain of the Teutonic College of S. Maria dell'Anima, Rome, 1881-1884. Pastoral ministry in Hildesheim, 1884-1905. Collaborator in the affairs of the episcopal curia and the vicariate general, 1884-1889; librarian of the cathedral, 1886; assessor of the vicariate general, 1889; vicar of the cathedral, 1893; canon of its cathedral chapter, 1894; counselor of the episcopal curia, 1898. Vicar general of Hildesheim, February 15, 1905; vicar capitular, December 19, 1905.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Hildesheim by its chapter, April 26, 1906 (1); received papal confirmation, June 12, 1906. Consecrated, August 15, 1906, Hildesheim, by Cardinal Georg Kopp, prince-bishop of Breslau, assisted by Hubert Voss, bishop of Osnabrück, and by Wilhelm Schneider, bishop of Paderborn. His episcopal motto was Veritati et caritati. Elected bishop of Breslau by its cathedral chapter, May 27, 1914 (2); confirmed by the pope, September 8, 1914. Member of Prussian Chamber of Lords, 1916.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest and reserved in pectore, December 4, 1916; published, December 5, 1919; received the red hat and the title of S. Agnese fuori le mura, December 18, 1919. Chairman of the Fulda Conference of Catholic Bishops, 1920-1945. In 1920, during the Upper Silesian vote struggle, he forbade the clergy from participating in any political agitation, which caused the hostility of the Polish nationalists. During the rule of National Socialism, he had a tough time because he defended the right of Polish-speaking Catholics on teaching and preaching in the native language. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Promoted to archbishop when Breslau was elevated to metropolitan see, August 13, 1930. Together with Bishop Clemens von Galen of Münster, Bishop Konrad von Preysing of Berlin, Cardinal Karl Joseph Schulte of Cologne, and Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber of Munich, he challenged the Nazism for its racist and anti-Christian policies. On January 16, 1937, the secretary of State of the Holy See, Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli, future Pope Pius XII, held a secret meeting in Rome. Present were Cardinals Schulte, Bertram, and Faulhaber, as well as Bishops von Preysing and von Galen. In the presence of the pope the prelates discussed the fifty-five communications, written in German, that were sent by the secretary of State to the German government between the years 1933 and 1936. They asked the pope to formally condemn Nazism, and the pope decided to publish an encyclical, Mit brennender Sorge, that did so in strong and no uncertain terms. Inexplicably, Cardinal Bertram maintained a steadfast enthusiasm for Adolf Hitler after the signing of the 1933 Concordat and sent him personal birthday greetings every year. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. In spite of rumors, Cardinal Bertram never organized a requiem mass because of the death of Adolf Hitler. He was criticized as vigorously as he was defended.

Death. July 6, 1945, Johannesberg Castle in Jauernig (summer residence), then Czechoslovakia, now Czech Republic. Buried in the cemetery of Jauernig, in a double grave alongside Prince Bishop Franz Joseph Christian of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Bartenstein (+ 1817). His remains were transferred to the metropolitan cathedral of Wrocław on November 9, 1991 (3).

Bibliography. Bertram, Adolf. Cardinal Bertram und die Alkoholfrage. Heidhausen-Ruhr : Hoheneckverlag, 1927. (Beiträge zur Alkoholfrage, 1); Bertram, Adolf ; Kaps, Johannes. Erinnerungen an Adolf Kardinal Bertram, Fürsterzbischof von Breslau. München : Selbstverl. d. Hrsg., 1948; Bertram, Adolf. Kardinal Erzbischof Bertram 75 Jahre : [Festschrift].Gleiwitz : Oberschles. Volksstimme, 1934. Note : Bildet Beil. zu: Oberschles. Volksstimme. 1934, 14. März; Brzoska, Emil : Bertram, Adolf. Ein Tedeum für Kardinal Bertram : Adolf Kardinal Bertram, Vorsitzender der Deutschen Bischofskonferenz, im Bündnis mit dem Heiligen Stuhl während des Kirchenkampfes 1933-1945. Köln : Wienand, 1981. Contents : Gegenbild zu Klaus Scholders "Ein Requiem für Hitler" -- Antwort auf Oskar Simmels Frage "Widerliche Kriecherei?" -- Bemerkungen zu "Katholische Kirche und NS Staat, aus der Vergangenheit lernen?"; Engelbert, Kurt. Adolf Kardinal Bertram, Fürsterzbischof von Breslau (1914-1945). Hildesheim : A. Lax, 1949. (Unsere Diözese in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart; Mitteilungen des Vereins für Heimatkunde im Bistum Hildesheim ; 1. Hft. des Jahrgs. 1949); Hinkel, Sascha. Adolf Kardinal Bertram. Kirchenpolitik im Kaiserreich und in der Weimarer Republik. Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh, 2010. (Veröffentlichungen der Kommission f|r Zeitgeschichte ; 117; Vervffentlichungen der Kommission f|r Zeitgeschichte / B ; 117); Hoffmann, Hermann. Adolf Kardinal Bertram, Erzbischof v. Breslau : Ein Lebensbild. Hindenburg : Smaczny, 1937; Kardynal Bertram a polskosc Slaska Opolskiego. Redaktor, Waclaw Sobanski. 2 vols. Poznan : Wydawn. Zachodnie, 1959. (Swiadectwa niemieckie ; zesz. 5). Note : V. 2 - Aneks: Oryginalne teksty niemieckie; Kardinal Bertram, Erzbischof von Breslau. Ansprachen Sr. Eminenz und Beiträge. Edited by Paul Hadrossek. Augsburg : Overschlesischer Heimatverlag, 1959. (Veröffentlichung der Oberschlesischen Studienhilfe e.V., Augsburg, 5; Variation: Oberschlesische Studienhilfe ; Veröffentlichungen, 5); Kozlowski, Nina ; Stasiewski, Bernhard. Es geschah vor 40 jahren : zum Gedenken an den Aufstand im Warschauer Ghetto (1943) und den Tod Kardinal Bertrams (1945). Eichstätt : Universitätsbibliothek, 1985. (Schriften der Universitätsbibliothek Eichstätt, v.6); Rolfs, Richard William. The role of Adolf Cardinal Bertram, chairman of the Fulda Bishops' Conference, in the church's struggle in the Third Reich, 1933-1938. Dissertation: Thesis--University of California, Santa Barbara, 1976; Rösgen, Hans Jürgen ; Bertram, Adolf. Ecclesia et res publica : Aufsätze und Dokumente zum 50. Todestag von Adolf Kardinal Bertram. Köln : D. Nix, 1995. (Zeitgeiststudien ; Bd. 8); Sauer, Albert. Zum Gedenken an Adolf Kardinal Bertram mit einem Geleitwort. Limburg a.d. Lahn : Königsteiner Rufe, 1950; Stasiewski, Bernhard. Adolf Kardinal Bertram : sein Leben und Wirken auf dem Hintergrund der Geschichte seiner Zeit. Köln : Bohlau Verlag, 1992-1994. (Forschungen und Quellen zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte Ostdeutschlands, Bd. 24) Contents : T. 1. Beiträge -- T. 2. Schrifttum; Stasiewski, Berbhard. Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1785/1803 bis 1945 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1983, pp. 43-47; Targ, Alojzy. Cardinal Bertram and the polishness of opole Silesia. Poznan : Wydawnictwo Zachodnie, 1960. (German testimonies ; pamphlet 5).

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography by Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; photographs, arms and biography, in German, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in French; his photograph, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Kardinal Bertram  die Seele Schlesiens, by Damian Spielvogel, in German, Landsmannschaft Schlesien; Review of Sascha Hinkel, Adolf Kardinal Bertram. Kirchenpolitik im Kaiserreich und in der Weimarer Republik by Lauren N. Faulkner, in Reviews, Contemporary Church History Quarterly, Volume 18 Number 3 (September 2012).

(1) Received six of the seven votes of the chapter.
(2) Received fifteen of the eighteen votes of the chapter.
(3) Under the terms of the Postdam Conference celebrated from July 16 to August 2, 1945, Breslau became part of Poland under the name of Wrocław.


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BETTINGER, Franz von
(1850-1917)

Birth. September 17, 1850, Landstuhl, diocese of Speyer, Bavaria, Germany. The oldest of the six children, five sons and a daughter, of Franz Michael Bettinger, blacksmith, and Maria Josephine Weber. Received the sacrament of confirmation, June 5, 1865.

Education. Studied philosophy, theology and canon law at Lyceum of Speyer; University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck; University Würtzburg, Würtzburg; Seminary of Speyer, Speyer.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 17, 1873, Speyer. Pastoral ministry in diocese of Speyer, 1873-1895: chaplain in Zweibrücken, 1873-1877; and in Kaiserlautern, 1877-1878; cooperator Reichenbach, 1878-1879; administrator, and later pastor and school inspector in Lambaheim, 1879; pastor in Roxheim, 1888; pastor of the cathedral, 1895. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Speyer, 1895-1909; dean, 1909.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Münich and Freising, Germany, June 6, 1909. Consecrated, August 15, 1909, metropolitan cathedral of Münich, by Andreas Früwirth, titular archbishop of Eraclea, nuncio in Bavaria, assisted by Max von Lingg, bishop of Augsburg, and by Sigismond Felix von Ow-Felldorf, bishop of Passau. His episcopal motto was Pax in virtute.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 24, 1914; received the red hat and the title of S. Marcello, May 28, 1914. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Member of the German Parliament, in the leading House of the Bavarian kingdom. Chaplain general of the Bavarian Army during the First World War.

Death. April 12, 1917, suddenly, of a heart attack, in the archiepiscopal palace of Münich. Buried, Liebfrauen metropolitan cathedral, Münich.

Bibliography. Gatz, Erwin. "Bettinger, Franz von." Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1785/1803 bis 1945 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1983, pp. 49-50.

Links. Biography, in German; photograph and biographical information, in German, second on page; and his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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BEVILACQUA, Anthony Joseph
(1923-2012)

Birth. June 17, 1923, Brooklyn, United States of America; of Italian parents who had migrated around 1913. He was the ninth of the eleven children of Luigi Bevilacqua, a stone cutter and cobbler who owned a hair dying shop and a shoe shine shop in Woodhaven, Queens, New York, and Maria Codella. He worked as a bricklayer in Italy prior to his immigration to the United States. They could barely read or speak English, and inadvertently joined an Episcopal parish upon arriving, thinking that it was Catholic.

Education. Elementary and secondary education at Public School No. 60; St. Thomas the Apostle School; and Richmond Hill High School; he entered Cathedral College, Brooklyn; and later studied at the Immaculate Conception Seminary, Huntington; the Pontifical Gregorian University, where he obtained a doctorate in canon law; and Columbia University, New York, where he earned a master's in political science; and finally, St. John's University, Queens, where he obtained a doctorate in law.

Priesthood. Ordained on June 11, 1949, St. James cathedral, Brooklyn. Successively, pastoral ministry in the diocese of Brooklyn and faculty member of the Cathedral College, 1949-1954; further studies, Rome, 1954-1956. In the diocese of Brooklyn, 1956-1980, chaplain of religious women; diocesan vice-chancellor; faculty member of its seminary; official in the diocesan tribunal; founder of the Catholic Office for Migrants and Refugees, 1971; diocesan chancellor, 1976-1980; faculty member, St. John's University, 1977-1980. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, January 23, 1976.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Acque Albe di Bizacena and appointed auxiliary of Brooklyn, October 4, 1980. Consecrated, November 24, 1980, basilica of Our Lady of Perpetual Help, Brooklyn, by Francis J. Mugavero, bishop of Brooklyn, assisted by John Joseph Snyder, bishop of Saint Augustine, and by Charles Richard Mulrooney, titular bishop of Valentiniana, auxiliary of Brooklyn. In the same ceremony were consecrated Joseph Michael Sullivan, titular bishop of Suliana, auxiliary of Brooklyn; and Rene Arnold Valero, titular bishop of Vico della Torre, auxiliary of Brooklyn. His episcopal motto was Ecclesia mater nostra. Transferred to the see of Pittsburgh on October 10, 1983. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Philadelphia on February 11, 1988.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1991; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Redentore e S. Alfonso in Via Merulana on June 28, 1991. From 1995 to 2000, he hosted a live weekly radio call-in program, "Live with Cardinal Bevilacqua", which aired on WZZD-AM in Philadelphia. Special papal envoy to the 5th National Eucharistic Congress, Manila, Philippines, from January 24 to 26, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, from November 16 to December 12, 1997. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old on June 17, 2003. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, July 15, 2003. Apostolic administrator of Philadelphia from July 15 to October 7, 2003. Upon his retirement, he lived in his residence on the grounds of St. Charles Borromeo Seminary in Wynnewood, and was rarely seen in public. On February 2011, it was reported that the cardinal was suffering from cancer and dementia. His death came just days after lawyers battled in court over his competency as a witness in an upcoming church-abuse case involving his longtime aide. He was sharply criticized but never charged by two Philadelphia grand juries investigating child sex abuse complaints lodged against several priests in the archdiocese.

Death. January 31, 2012, at about 9:15 p.m., of heart disease, with a contributing factor of prostate cancer and advanced stages of dementia a day after he was ruled competent to testify at the child endangerment trial of a longtime aide, in his sleep, in his residence on the grounds of St. Charles Borromeo Seminary in Wynnewood, archdiocese of Philadelphia. Following a private viewing at Saint Charles Borromeo Seminary, Archbishop Charles Chaput, O.F.M.Cap., of Philadelphia received the body at the Cathedral Basilica of Saints Peter and Paul on Monday, February 6, 2012 at approximately 5:30 p.m. A public viewing took place at the cathedral basilica from 5:30 p.m. until 9:00 p.m. There was also a public viewing on Tuesday, February 7, 2012 from 8:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. The Solemn Funeral Mass for Cardinal Bevilacqua began at 2:00 p.m. followed by the Rite of Committal in the cathedral crypt, located beneath the main altar. The main celebrant of the funeral mass was Archbishop Chaput and the homilist was Monsignor Louis D'Addezio. Among the concelebrants of the mass were Cardinal Justin Francis Rigali, archbishop emeritus of Philadelphia, successor to the late cardinal; Antonio Maria Viganò, titular archbishop of Ulpiana, nuncio to the United States; and dozens of bishops and hundreds of priests. Present were Cardinals Edward Michael Egan, archbishop emeritus of New York; Theodore Edgar McCarrick, archbishop emeritus of Washington; and Donald William Wuerl, archbishop of Washington. Also present were the surviving brother and sister of the late cardinal with other members of the family.

Bibliography. Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 1977. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1977, p. 1656; Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 183; McNally, Michael J. "Bevilacqua, Anthony Joseph." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyła years. Detroit, MI : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, p. 260.

Links. His arms, Araldica Vaticana; Cardinal Anthony Bevilacqua: Prince of the People, part 1, in English, You Tube; Cardinal Anthony Bevilacqua: Prince of the People, part 2, in English, You Tube; Cardinal Anthony Bevilacqua: Prince of the People, part 3, in English, You Tube; Cardinal Anthony Bevilacqua dies at the age of 88, in English, Catholic Philly, February 1st, 2012; County coroner: Cardinal Bevilacqua died of natural causes by Matthew Gambino, Catholic News Service, Mar. 8, 2012.


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BEVILACQUA, Orat., Giulio
(1881-1965)

Birth. September 15, 1881, at noon, Isola della Scala, diocese of Verona, Italy. Of a family of merchants. Son of Mattia Bevilacqua and Carla Olivari. He was baptized on the following September 22 by Pietro Gazzotti, abbot archpriest of the local parish; he received the name Giulio Pietro. In 1889, the family moved to Verona.

Education. Ginnasio-liceo "Scipione Maffei", Verona, 1893-1896; Alunnato Filippini, Brescia, 1896-1902; University of Louvain, Louvain, Belgium, 1902-1905; he studied under Desiré Mercier, future cardinal; doctoral thesis on Italian labor laws, April 25, 1905; Seminary of Brescia, Brescia, 1905; joined the Oratory of St. Philip Neri of La Pace in 1905.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 13, 1908, Brescia. Pastoral ministry in diocese of Brescia, 1908-1914; 1918-1926; 1933-1939; 1945-1965. Chaplain in Italian Army during the First World War; captured and imprisoned, 1916-1918. Staff member of the Secretariat of State, Rome, for protection against Fascist threats, 1926-1933; pastoral ministry in Rome, 1926-1933. Chaplain in the Italian Navy during the Second World War, 1939-1945. Spiritual director and personal friend of Giovanni Battista Montini, future Pope Paul VI, while he was a student in Brescia.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Gaudiana, February 15, 1965. Consecrated, February 18, 1965, basilica of Ss Faustus e Jovita, Brescia, by Luigi Morstabilini, bishop of Brescia, assisted by Giuseppe Carraro, bishop of Verona, and by Carlo Manziana, Orat., bishop of Crema. His episcopal motto was Virtus in infirmitate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received red biretta and deaconry of S. Girolamo della Carità, February 25, 1965. By special papal permission continued to be the pastor of S. Antonio della Pace parish, Brescia, February-May, 1965.

Death. May 6, 1965, Brescia. Buried in the parish church of S. Antonio della Pace, Brescia (1).

Bibliography. Barra, Giovanni. Padre Bevilacqua, parroco cardinale. Torino: Gribaudi, 1966; Bevilacqua, Giulio. La parola di padre Giulio Bevilacqua. Brescia : Morcelliana, 1967; Bevilacqua, Giulio. Saggio su la legislazione operaia in Italia. Brescia : Sintesi, 1973, 1906. Note: At head of title: Scuole di scienze politiche e sociali, Università di Lovanio; Bevilacqua, Giulio. Scritti e testimonianze in memoria di Padre Giulio Bevilacqua Cardinale : 1881-1965. Brescia : La scuola, 1965. Note: Cover title: Padre Giulio Bevilacqua Cardinale; Bevilacqua, Giulio. Scritti tra le due guerre. A cura di Enzo Giammancheri. Brescia : La Scuola, 1968.Il Cardinale Giulio Bevilacqua. Brescia : Centro di Documentazione, 1990; Fappani, Antonio. P. Giulio Bevilacqua, prete e cardinale sugli avamposti. Verona : Banca Mutua Popolare, 1975; Fappani, Antonio. Padre Giulio Bevilacqua, il cardinale-parroco. Brescia : Queriniana, 1979; L'Impegno religioso e civile di P. Giulio Bevilacqua : atti del colloquio di studio tenuto a Brescia il 9 giugno 1982. Brescia : Centro di documentazione, 1983. Note: Conference organized by: Centro di documentazione. "Brevissimi schemi delle lezioni di religione tenute alla 'Pace'"; Mondini, Giovanni. Attualità del cardinale Giulio Bevilacqua. Roma : Pontificia Università Lateranense, 1980. Material type: Thesis/dissertation (deg).

Link. Portrait, plaque and biography, in Italian; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

P. GIULIO BEVILACQUA d. o.
Cardinale di S.R.C.
del Titolo di San Girolamo
della Carità
Isola della Scala      Brescia
14 settembre 1881 6 maggio 1965


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BIAYENDA, Émile
(1927-1977)

Birth. 1927, in the small village of Mfinkabitoungou (which does not exist any longer), Maléla-Bombé, (Mpangala), near Vindza, district of Kindamba, in the region of Pool, apostolic vicariate of Brazzaville, Republic of Congo (also called Congo-Brazzaville). He was of the tradition kòongó. He was the third of the six children of Semo dia Mbomba, a samll farmer, and Biyela bia Milongo; they were Milongo Martyr, Ngoma Jean-Baptiste, Biayenda Émile, Moubindou Joachim, Miékoumoutima Antoine, and Lozi Marie Françoise.

Education. Received his elementary education at the Catholic school in Mpangala, 1935-1937; (alphabet, writing, French, counting, reading and catechism); then, at Kindamba's Catholic Mission, from 1937 to 1942; he was baptized on May 7, 1938, by Father Morvan and received the name Émile, Guy Mayila was his godfather; he received his first communion on the following day, May 8; in 1943, he moved for further studies to Boundji's Catholic Mission, north Congo, where he stayed until 1944, when he entered the Minor Seminary of Saint Paul, Mbamou; from 1950 to 1958, he studied philosophy and theology in the Grand Seminary Libermann of Brazzaville. In October 1965, he was sent to the Catholic University of Lyon, France, where he obtained a doctorate in sociology; and a licentiate in theology in 1969.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 26, 1958, at the cathedral of Sacré Cœur, Brazzaville, by Michel-Jules-Joseph-Marie Bernard, C.S.Sp., archbishop of Brazzaville. He was named vicar of the parish of Sainte Marie of Ouenzé in August 1959; stayed there until 1962. He also took care of the construction of the Saint Jean de Vianney parish church in Mouléké between March 1962 and July 1965; subsequently he was named its curate. National chaplain of the Legion of Mary, 1962-1965; this Marian movement seemed dangerous to some politicians; he was placed under house arrest for a few months in 1965, together with Father Louis Badila and Father Robyr of the Holy Spirit Congregation; they were later acquitted and freed. Further studies in Lyon, 1965-1969. Returned to Brazzaville in May 1965 and was assigned as vicar at Saint-Esprit parish of Moungali. Named episcopal vicar for the coordination between the apostolic works and the archdiocesan commissions of Brazzaville, February 18, 1970.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Garba and appointed coadjutor of Brazzaville, with right of succession, March 7, 1970. Consecrated, May 17, 1970, Rome, by Sergio Pignedoli, titular archbishop of Iconio, secretary of the S.C. for the Evangelization of Peoples, assisted by Mario Tagliaferri, titular archbishop of Formia, apostolic delegate to the Republic of Congo, and by Guy-Marie-Joseph Riobé, bishop of Orléans. His episcopal motto was In verbo tuo laxabo rete. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Brazzaville, June 14, 1971. President of the Episcopal Conference of Congo, 1971. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the title of S. Marco "in Agro Lauretino," March 5, 1973. He was the first cardinal from Congo. He returned to Brazzaville on the following May 9. The country's political situation was still under the influence of Marxism-Leninism. The Congolese government of the time, strongly influenced by this ideology, was experiencing some instability due to infighting in the party. This led, on March 18, 1977, to the assassination of the President of the Republic, Marien Ngouabi. On that day in the afternoon, Cardinal Biayenda had had talks with the President Ngouabi on issues relating to the Church of Congo. After the meeting, the cardinal returned home. A few hours later, the president was assassinated. On the evening of March 22, 1977, at 5 p.m., a Land Rover stopped in front of the residence of the cardinal. Two men got out and communicated to the cardinal that the Military Committee of the Party wanted to see him. Cardinal Biayenda boarded their vehicle, which would take him to the headquarters of the General Staff of the Army. While en route to the headquarters, a black car, a "504", at full speed, chased the Land Rover where the cardinal was and it flip-flopped. The men in the car spoke with the soldiers, their accomplices, and told them to take the direction of Mpila. Later that night, the authorities of the Military Committee of the Party announced to Father Louis Badila, vicar general of Brazzaville, the assassination of Cardinal Biayenda by those who had kidnapped him.

Death. Wednesday March 23, 1977, assassinated in Brazzaville, victim of tribal rivalries. The body was taken to the morgue and dressed with the appropriate ecclesiastical vestments. On Saturday March 26, the body of the cardinal was taken from the general hospital, where it had been kept, to the Sacré-Coeur metropolitan cathedral and dressed with the pontifical insignias.The late cardinal was exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Brazzaville, where an immense multitude expressed their sorrow for the assassinated pastor. At 4 p.m. on that day, the Military Committee of the Party went to the cathedral to present its condolences. On Sunday March 27, the solemn requiem mass was presided by Cardinal Joseph Mlula, archbishop of Kinshasa, and concelebrated by Georges Singha, bishop of Fort Rousset; Godefrod Mpwati, bishop of Pointe-Noire; Moke Motsüri, titular bishop of Lestrona, auxiliary bishop of Kinshasa; Georges Benoit Gassongo, titular bishop of Cubda, former auxiliary bishop of Fort Rousset; Father Louis Badila, capitular vicar of Brazzaville, who pronounced the funeral oration, and more than one hundred priests. At the end of the mass, before the final absolution, several allocutions were delivered. Then the body of the cardinal was carried through the immense number of faithful that filled the cathedral and that intoned the chant Dila sambila. The late cardinal was buried in that metropolitan cathedral, next to his predecessor Archbishop Théphile Mbemba.

Bibliography. Bado, François de Sales. Pèleringe au Congo Brazzaville : sur les traces du cardinal Émile Biayenda, un bon pasteur : témoignage. Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso : Découvertes du Burkina, 2009. Responsibility: Antoine Miekoumoutima; Mbemba-dya-bô-Benazo-Mbanzulu, Rudy. Le cardinal Emile Biayenda et sa vision du diveloppement intigral du Congo-Brazzaville : roman. Paris : Société des écrivains, 2008; Méditer et prier avec le cardinal Émile Biayenda. Edited by Adolphe Tsiakaka. Strasbourg : Éd. du Signe, Impr. Girold, 2006; M'Fouilou, Dominique. Ci-gît le cardinal achevé. Paris : MAKITEC/Éditions Paari, 2008; Miekoumoutima, Antoine. Cardinal Émile Biayenda, un bon pasteur. Limete, Kinshasa : Éditions l'Épiphanie, 1994. (Chemins de vie apostolique ; 10) ; Tsiakaka, Adolphe. Émile Biayenda, grandeur d'un humble. Strasbourg : Éditions du Signe, 1999; Zebrowski, Hervé. Les assassins du cardinal : terreur sur Brazzaville. Paris : Chercheur d'hommes, 2009.

Links. Photographs and biography, in French, archidiocèse de Brazzaville; biography by Christian Bouetoumoussa, in French, Congopage; photographs and biography by Eman Bonnici, in English, Find a Grave; his photograph, Araldica Vaticana; La vérité sur les assassins du Cardinal Congolais BIAYENDA EMILE, in French, congo-liberty; Hommage au Cardinal Emile Bayenda by Bernard Nkounkou, in French, Debout Congolais.


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BIFFI, Giacomo
(1928-

Birth. June 13, 1928, at 6 p.m., at the Istituto di Maternità "Asilo Regina Elena per le madre legittime", located at via Manfredo Fanti 6, Milan, archdiocese of Milan, Italy. At the time, the family resided at via Paolo Frisi 8. Son of Filippo Biffi, legalibri, and Isolina Bossi, a housewife.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Milan, where he obtained a licentiate in theology; in 1955, he obtained a doctorate in theology with the thesis La colpa e la libertà nell'odierna condizione umana in the Archiepiscopal Seminary of Venegono, Mila..

Priesthood. Ordained, December 23, 1950, Milan, by Cardinal Alfredo Ildefonso Schuster, O.S.B., archbishop of Milan. Faculty member, Seminary of Milan, 1951-1960. Pastor of the populous parish of Ss. Martiri Anauniani, Legnano, May 1960 until 1969; pastor of the parish of S. Andrea, Milan, April 27, 1969. In 1974, he was named episcopal vicar for culture in 1974. Named canon theologian of the metropolitan chapter of Milan on February 1, 1975, leaving the parochial ministry. Also in 1975, he became director of the Lombardian Pastoral Institute, which he reorganized making it a useful instrument for the permanent and specialized formation of the pastoral cooperators. He was also in charge of the Congregation for the Ambrosian Rite.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Fidene and appointed auxiliary of Milan, December 7, 1975. Consecrated, January 11, 1976, in the parish church of S. Andrea, Milan, by Cardinal Giovanni Colombo, archbishop of Milan, assisted by Bernardo Citterio, titular bishop of Floriana, auxiliary of Milan, and by Libero Tresoldi, titular bishop of Altino, auxiliary of Milan. His episcopal motto is Ubi fides ibi libertas. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Bologna, April 19, 1984.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Giovanni Evangelista e Petronio, May 25, 1985. Preached the Lent spiritual exercises for the pope and Roman Curia in 1989. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Special papal envoy to the Thirty Second Italian National Eucharistic Congress, Siena, May 29-June 5, 1994. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese for having reached the age limit according to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law, December 16, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Preached the Lent spiritual exercises for the pope and Roman Curia from February 24 to March 3, 2007. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on June 12, 2008. Special papal representative to the celebrations of the Ninth centennial of the death of Saint Anselm, which took place in Aosta, Italy, from April 19 to 26, 2009. He has published numerous books on diverse subjects (1).

Bibliography. Biffi, Giacomo. Memorie e digressioni di un italiano cardinale. Siena : Cantagalli editore, 2007; Biffi, Giacomo. La multiforme sapienza di Dio. Esercizi spirituali con Giovanni Paolo II. Firenze : Cantagalli, 2014; Meluzzi, Luciano. I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna. Appendice. Bologna : La Grafica Emiliano, MCMLXXXVI, p. 24-35.

Links. Photograph, arms and biography, in Italian, archdiocese of Bologna; biographical entry, in Italian, Enciclopedia on line, Treccani; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Le Memorie controcorrente del cardinale Biffi by Giovanni Santambrogio, Il Sole 24 ore, 26 ottobre 2007.

(1) These are some of his works: Alla destra del Padre. Nuova sintesi di teologia sistematica (1973); Contro maestro Ciliegia. Commento teologico a "Le avventure di Pinocchio" (1977); La meraviglia dell'evento cristiano (1995); Ripartire dalla verità (1997); Gesù di Nazaret centro del cosmo e della storia (2000); Pinocchio, Peppone, l'anticristo e altre divagazioni (2005).


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BILLÉ, Louis-Marie
(1938-2002)

Birth. February 18, 1938, Fleury-lès-Aubrais, diocese of Orléans, France. Son of Gabriel Léandre François Victor Billé and Madeleine Louise David.

Education. Major Seminary of Luçon, Luçon (philosophy and theology); Catholic University of Angers, Angers (licentiate in theology); Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome (licentiate in Sacred Scriptures); Biblical Institute, Jerusalem.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 25, 1962, Luçon. Further studies, Rome, 1963-1965; Jerusalem, 1965-1966. Faculty member, Major Seminary of Luçon, 1966-1972; faculty member, Seminary of La Roche-sur-Yon, 1972-1977. In charge of permanent formation of the laity and animator of the National Office for permanent formation of the clergy, 1977-1980. Episcopal vicar and archdeacon of Haut Bocage, 1980-1984.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Laval, March 10, 1984. Consecrated, May 19, 1984, Salle des Fêtes, Laval, by Charles Paty, bishop of Luçon, assisted by Paul-Louis Carrière, bishop emeritus of Laval, and by Jacques-Louis-Antoine-Marie David, titular bishop of Girba, auxiliary of Bordeaux. His episcopal motto was Scio qui credidi. Promoted to metropolitan see of Aix, Arles and Embrun, May 5, 1995. President of Conference of Bishops of France, November 5, 1996; reelected, November 9, 1999. Transferred to metropolitan and primatial see of Lyon, July 10, 1998. Chancellor of the Catholic University of Lyon, 1998-2002. Attended II Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, February 21, 2001. Transferred to the title of Ss. Trinità al Monte Pincio, July 22, 2001. Resigned the presidency of the Episcopal Conference of France because of illness, November 6, 2001. He resided at 1, Place de Fourvière, Lyon 5ème (Rhône).

Death. March 12, 2002, at 11:30 a.m., from advanced stages of colon cancer, at his sister's house at 89 rue Camille Pelletan, in Talence, a bordering commune of Bordeaux. His funeral mass, presided by Cardinal Camillo Ruini, representing Pope John Paul II, was celebrated at the Saint-Jean metropolitan and primatial cathedral of Lyon. Cardinals Roger Etchegaray and Jean-Marie Lustiger, together with some sixty other prelates and a great number of clergy from the archdiocese of Lyon, concelebrated. The late cardinal was buried in that cathedral.

Bibliography. Jore, Alexander. Épiscopologe Français de 1592 à 1973. Mis à jour et continué jusqu'en 2004. Complément de l'article "France" du Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie Ecclésiastiques t. XVIII, colonnes 161 à 532. Pro-Manuscripto, 25 - III- 2004, no. 3271.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; his portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


billot

BILLOT, S.J., Louis
(1846-1931)

Birth. January 12, 1846, Sierck-les-Bains, diocese of Metz, France.

Education. Seminary of Metz, Metz; Seminary of Bordeaux, Bordeaux; Seminary of Blois, Blois.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 22, 1869, Blois. Joined the Society of Jesus, November 25, 1869, Angers; final vows, February 2, 1883, Laval. Pastoral ministry, Paris, 1875-1878; Laval, 1878-1879. Faculty member of the Catholic University of Angers, 1879-1882; of the Jesuit Scholasticate of Ile de Jersey, 1882-1885; of the Pontifical Gregorian University, dogmatic theology, Rome, 1885-1910. Consultor of the Holy Office, June 19, 1909.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 27, 1911; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in via Lata, November 30, 1911. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. One of the three cardinal presidents of the Pontifical Academy "S. Tommaso", Rome, together with Cardinals Benedetto Lorenzelli and Michele Lega, February 24, 1915. Member of the Pontifical Biblical Commission, February 6, 1923. Due to his sympathy for the movement Action Française, which was condemned by Pius XI, he resigned the cardinalate on September 13, 1927. The resignation was accepted by the pope in a letter of September 21, 1927 and announced to the cardinals in the consistory of December 19, 1927. He was the only cardinal to resign that rank in the 20th century.

Death. December 18, 1931, succumbed to pneumonia, Jesuit Novitiate of Galloro, near Ariccia, province of Rome. Buried, Jesuit Chapel, Campo Verano Cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. Bitremieux, Joseph. "Le R.P. Louis Billot." Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses, IX (1932), 292-295. Lebreton, J. "Son Eminence le cardinal Billot." Etudes, IV (1911), 514-525; Le Floch, Henri. Le Cardinal Billot, lumière de la théologie. Paris: Beauchesne, 1947; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 12, 14 and 26.

Links. Bibliography and biographical data , in German; biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and biography by Eman Bonnici, in English, Find a Grave; biography, in French, Wikipedia; biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; and his photograph, Araldica Vaticana.


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BINET, Charles-Henri-Joseph
(1869-1936)

Birth. April 8, 1869, Juvigny, diocese of Soissons, France.

Education. Seminary of Saint-Sulpice, Paris; Seminary of Notre Dame des Champs, Paris.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 22, 1893, Soissons. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Soissons, 1893-1895. Faculty member of the Seminary of Soissons, 1895-1914. Diocesan archivist, 1900; honorary canon, 1901. Director of Semaine Religieuse, 1909-1914. In the French Army during W.W. I, 1914-1919. Vicar general and archdeacon of the diocese of Laon, February 13, 1919.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Soissons, June 16, 1920. Consecrated, August 24, 1920, cathedral of Soissons, by Cardinal Louis-Henri-Joseph Luçon, archbishop of Reims, assisted by Joseph-Marie Tissier, bishop of Châlons-sur-Marne, and by Ernest Neveux, titular bishop of Arsinoe, auxiliary of Reims. His episcopal motto was Ut nobis n laboris laetitia Da robur fer auxilium. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Besançon, October 31, 1927.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1927; received the red hat and the title of S. Prisca, December 22, 1927. Apostolic administrator of Soissons, October 31, 1927 - May 1, 1928. Papal legate to the celebration for 75th Anniversary of apparition of Our Lady of Lourdes, January 28, 1933; to the Centennial celebrations of Our Lady of Liesse, Soissons, July 12, 1934.

Death. July 15, 1936, of uremia, Besançon. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Besançon.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 195-196.

Link. His portrait, photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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BISLETI, Gaetano
(1856-1937)

Birth. March 20, 1856, Veroli, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Tivoli, Tivoli; Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, 1879. Obtained a doctorate in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 20, 1878 (1). Canon and archdeacon of the cathedral chapter of Veroli, 1878-1884. Privy chamberlain de numero participantium, December 20 (2), 1884. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, September 28 (3), 1889. Domestic prelate and master of papal chamber, May 29, 1901; reappointed, August 6, 1903. Protonotary apostolic ad instar participantium, June 13, 1901. Prefect of the pontifical domus, December 14, 1905. Commander of the Order of the Crown of Prussia; of the Order of Ferdinando IV of Tuscany; and of the Order of the Crown of Siam. Decorated with the medal Pro Ecclesia et Pontifici.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 27, 1911; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Agata in Suburra, November 30, 1911. Grand prior of the Sovereign Order of Malta, January 2, 1914. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Prefect of the new S.C. for Seminaries and Universities, December 1, 1915. Protector of the Pontifical North American College, Rome, 1918-1937. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. As cardinal protodiacono, crowned Pius XI on February 12, 1922. Papal legate to the Eucharistic Congress of Friouli, Udine, August 16, 1923; to the Italian Congress of Sacred Music, Vincenza, August 23, 1923; to the National Eucharistic Congress, Fano, 1924; to the foundation of the Seminary of Sassari, August 5, 1925; to the Marian Congress, Cagliari, March 25, 1926; to the Eucharistic Congress, Molfetta, 1926; to the inauguration of the new Seminary of Caglieri, Bosa, September 16, 1927. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, December 17, 1928. President of the Pontifical Commission of Biblical Studies, October 27, 1932. Grand Chancellor of the Pontifical Gregorian University and of its Pontifical Biblical Institute and its Oriental Institute, June 21, 1932. President of the Pontifical Biblical Commission, October 27, 1932. Grand chancellor of the Pontifical Institute of Sacred Music, October 31, 1932.

Death. August 30, 1937, of pneumonia, Grottaferrata; the funeral took place in the church of S. Ignazio, Rome. Buried in the National Marian Shrine of l'Olivella, Veroli (4).

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1938, p. 84; Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 678; "Liste des cardinaux par ordre alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1936, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1936, p. 92; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 11 and 25.

Link. Photographs and medal, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to "Liste des cardinaux par ordre alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1936, p. 92; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 678, says that he was ordained in November 1878.
(2) This is according to Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 11; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 678, says that he was named on December 1, 1884.
(3) This is according to Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 11; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 678, says that he was named on October 4, 1889.
(4) This is the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

ANO DNI. MCMXLI
CAIETANO BISLETI
PIENTISSIMO AC MVNIFICENTISSIMO
S.R.E. CARD.TIT.S.AGATAE.GOTH.
S.ROM.CONGR.SEMIN.ET VNIV.STVD.PRAEF.
S.MIL.ORD. MELITENSIS M. PRIORI
PONT. VNIV.GREG.ET INST. MVSICAE SACRAE.M.CANCELL.
ACADEMICO PONT. HONORARIO
CANONICORVM CONLEGIVM VERVLANA CIVITAS
QVAM SINGVLARI STVDIO EST PROSEQVVTVS
CVIVS HVMO CORPVS TEGI SIBI MALVIT
VBI PRIVS QVAN IN ORBE FVLSIT
GRATI ANIMI ERGO PP.
.


boetto

BOETTO, S.J., Pietro
(1871-1946)

Birth. May 19, 1871, Vigone, archdiocese of Turin, Italy. Of a relatively modest family. Son Antonio Boetto and Caterina Anghilano. He was baptized in the parish church of Vigone. In 1883, he received the sacrament of confirmation from Bishop Filippo Chiesa of Pinerolo. He had two brothers and three sisters.

Education. Studied at the Diocesan Seminary of Giaveno from 1884 to1888. Joined the Society of Jesus, February 1, 1888; Novitiate of Chieri, 1888-1891; took the first vows, September 8, 1890; the final vows, February 2, 1906; philosophate, Chieri, October 1, 1891-1894; magisterium, "Collegio Convitto della Visitazione", Como, 1894-1898; theologate, Chieri, 1898-1902. Received the subdiaconate on July 28, 1901; and the diaconate on July 29, 1901.

Priest. Ordained, July 30, 1901, by Emiliano Manacorda, bishop of Fossano. Further studies, 1901-1902; third probation, Avigliana, 1904-1905. Professor and rector, "Istituto Arecco", Genoa, 1902-1904. Rector of "Collegio San Tommaso", Cuneo, 1905-1907. Procurator of the Jesuit residence in Turin, 1907-1916. Provincial of the Jesuit Province of Turin, 1916-1920. Visitor to the Jesuit Province of Aragón, Spain, 1919-1920. Visitor to the Jesuit Province of Castilla, 1920-1921. Procurator general of the Society of Jesus, 1921-1928. Provincial of the Roman Province, 1928-1930. Assistant of Italy, March 25, 1930 to 1935.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 16, 1935; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria, December 16, 1935.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Genoa, March 17, 1938. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, March 18, 1938. On April 20, 1938, he took the oath of loyalty to the king of Italy, according to Concordat of 1929. Consecrated, April 24, 1938, church of S. Ignazio, Rome, by Cardinal Gennaro Granito Pignatelli di Belmonte, bishop of Ostia and Albano, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by Giuseppe Migone, titular archbishop of Nicomedia, privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Giovanni Battista Federico Vallega, titular archbishop of Nicopoli di Epiro. His episcopal motto was Immoletur coram Domino. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. He distinguished himself defending Genoa and its citizens during the Second World War. On December 8, 1945, the city of Genoa granted him the citizenship.

Death. Thursday January 31, 1946, at 1:30 a.m., of a heart attack, archiepiscopal Negrone Palace, Genoa. The funeral took place on February 4, 1946, in the metropolitan cathedral of S. Lorenzo, Genoa; the mass was celebrated by Pasquale Righetti, bishop of Savona; the funeral oration was delivered by Giuseppe Siri, titular bishop of Liviade, auxiliary of Genoa. Buried at 3 p.m. in the crypt near the main altar of the metropolitan cathedral of Genoa, next to the tomb of Cardinal Carlo Dalmazio Minoretti, his predecessor (1).

Bibliography. Il Cardinale Pietro Boetto, arcivescovo di Genova (1938-1946). Ricordo a 50 anni dalla morte. A cura dell'Arcidiocesi di Genova. Genova, Grafiche Fassicomo, 1996; "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1958, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1958, p. 81; Lanz, Arnaldo Maria. Il Cardinale Pietro Boetto, S.I. : arcivescovo di Genova (1871-1946). Isola del Liri : Casa Editrice Pisani, 1949.

Links. His photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) His monument is in the south aisle of the cathedral against the south wall. This is its inscription, kindly provided by Mr. Mark West, from London, England:

PETRUS CARD. BOETTO, S.J.
ARCHIEP. GENUEN.
CIVITATIS DEFENSOR
1871

       His tomb is in the floor underneath the monument and the inscription on it reads:
+
PETRUS · CARD · BOETTO · S · J · ARCHIEPISCOPUS
IN PACE


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BOGGIANI, O.P., Tommaso Pio
(1863-1942)

Birth. January 19, 1863, Boscomarengo, diocese of Alessandria, Italy.

Education, Entered the Order of Preachers, September 15, 1879, ath the Dominican convent in Chieri; changed his baptismal name Pio to Tommaso; later, he studied at the Theological Faculty of Graz, Austria.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 22, 1885, Graz. Missionary work in Constantinople. Prior of the Dominican convent, Ragusa, 1891. Regent of the Philosophical College of Graz, 1898. Pastor of the parish of S. Maria di Castello, Genoa, 1900. Faculty member of the Seminary of Genoa. Apostolic visitor to twenty-three dioceses of Northern Italy. Apostolic administrator of Adria, 1908.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Adria e Rovigo, Italy, October 31, 1908. Consecrated, November 22, 1908, church of the house of recovery of the English Sisters in Monte Celio, Rome, by Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val, secretary of State, assisted by Domenico Marengo, O.P., archbishop of Smirna, and by Giuseppe Capecci, O.S.A., bishop of Alessandria della Paglia. His episcopal motto was Pax fratribus et charitas cum fide. Promoted to titular archbishop of Edessa di Osröene, January 9, 1912. Named apostolic delegate in México, January 10, 1912. Apostolic administrator of archdiocese of Genoa, March 7, 1914. Assessor of the S.C. Consistorial and secretary of the Sacred College of Cardinals, July 7, 1914. Secretary of conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 4, 1916; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Quirico e Giulitta, December 7, 1916. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Genoa, March 10, 1919. Resigned pastoral government of the archdiocese, 1921. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, June 20, 1927 until December 17, 1928. Papal legate to the Ninth National Eucharistic Congress, Bologna, August 15, 1927. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, July 15, 1929. Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, March 13, 1933 until his death; on that same day received in commendam the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, a title assigned to the post of chancellor since 1532. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII.

Death. February 26, 1942, Rome. Buried in the parish church of Boscomarengo.

Links. His photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his photograph and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his photograph and biography, in Polish, Wikipedia; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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BONZANO, P.I.M.E., Giovanni
(1867-1927)

Birth. September 27, 1867, Castelleto Scazzoso, diocese of Alessandria, Italy. Son of Giuseppe Bonzano and Agostina Vescovo. His baptismal name was Giovanni Vincenzo.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Vigevano; then, at Mastai College for Chinese Missions, Rome; and finally, at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 21, 1890, Rome, by Cardinal Lucido Maria Parocchi, bishop of Albano, vicar general of Rome. He was ordained for the Pontifical Institute for Foreign Missions (P.I.M.E.). Missionary work in China, 1891-1897. Vicar general of the diocese of Vigevano, August 26, 1899; chancellor, February 10, 1900. Faculty member of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, 1901-1904; rector, May 16, 1904.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Melitene and appointed Apostolic delegate to the United States of America, February 2, 1912. Consecrated, March 3, 1912, Rome, by Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val, secretary of State, assisted by Pietro Barruti, bishop of Vigevano, and by Thomas Francis Kennedy, titular bishop of Adrianopoli, rector of the North American College. Temporarily in charge of the apostolic delegation in Mexico, June 22, 1915.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 11, 1922; received the red hat and the title of S. Pancrazio, December 14, 1922. Opted for title of S. Susanna, December 18, 1924. Presided over the initial renovation of Our Lady of Angels basilica, Assisi, April 19, 1925. Papal legate to the 28th International Eucharistic Congress, Chicago, May 18, 1926.

Death. November 26, 1927, of complications following an operation, Rome. Buried, church of Franciscan Missionaries of Mary, Grottaferrata.

Bibliography. Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 21; Finn, Brendan A. Twenty-four American Cardinals. Biographical sketches of those Princes of the Catholic Church who either were born in America or served there at some time. With a foreword by Francis Cardinal Spellman. Boston : Bruce Humphries, INc. Publishers, 1947, p. 309-324.

Links. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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BORGONGINI DUCA, Francesco
(1884-1954)

Birth. February 26, 1884, Rome, Italy. Son of Giovanni Borgongini Duca and Rosa Scalzi.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Roman Seminary, where he earned doctorates in theology and canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 22, 1906, Rome. Named official in the S. Apostolic Penitentiary in 1907; became its secretary on February 24, 1917. In 1908, he was named minutant in the S.C. of Propaganda Fide while at the same time he taught Sacred Scriptures, fundamental theology, propedeutic to theology and dogmatic theology at the Athenaeum of Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, March 2, 1917. In 1917, in Rome, he published the opuscle Il profilo di s. Agostino e la genesi della dottrina agostiniana intorno al peccato originale, to respond to a controversy about Saint Augustine. Pro-secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, June 28, 1921; at the same time, he was spiritual director of the Pontifical Minor Seminary at the Vatican. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, July 7, 1921. Secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, October 14, 1922. Apostolic protonotary, January 11, 1927. Member of the commission to negotiate the Lateran pact.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Eraclea di Europa, June 7, 1929. Consecrated, June 29, 1929, hall of Benedictions, at the Vatican, by Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, secretary of State, assisted by Carlo Cremonesi, titular archbishop of Nicomedia, privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Agostino Zampini, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, sacristan of His Holiness. His episcopal motto was Cana fides. Appointed nuncio in Italy, June 30, 1929. Pontifical administrator of the basilica of S. Paolo fuori le mura, Rome, April 1, 1933; and of the basilica of Our Lady of Loreto, March 25, 1934. His activity as nuncio was constantly inspired by the policy of safeguarding the reconstituted harmonious relations between Church and State. During the Second World War, he secretly provided help to Jews and Allied prisoners of war. Another of his published works was Le LXX Settimane di Daniele e le date messianiche (Padua, 1951).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Vallicella, January 15, 1953.

Death. October 4, 1954, at 9:50 a.m., of heart ailment, shortly after having celebrated mass and after receiving the holy sacraments, in his apartment in the Palace of the Holy Office, Rome. The funeral took place in the church of S.Maria in Vallicela, Rome, his cardinalitial title, on the following October 10, at 10:30 a.m; the mass was celebrated by Diego Venini, titular archbishop of Adana, almoner of His Holiness; at the end of the ceremony, Cardinal Eugène Tisserant, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, imparted the final absolution nomine Summi Pontificis. Buried in the chapel of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome; later, his remains were transferred to the church of S. Salvatore in Ossibus, Vatican City.

Links. Biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; biography by Giuseppe Caputo, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 12 (1971), Treccani; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; his photograph, tomb and biography by Eman Bonnici, in English, Find a Grave.


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BOURNE, Francis
(1861-1935)

Birth. March 23, 1861, Claphan, diocese of Southwark, England. Son of Henry Bourne, a convert, who worked as a clerk for the Post Office, and Ellen Byrne, from Ireland, who was the daughter of a Dublin merchant. His baptismal name was Francis Alphonsus.

Education. St. Cuthbert College, Ushaw, Durham, 1867; St. Edmund's Seminary, Ware, 1877; joined the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) but left in 1880; St. Thomas' Seminary, Hammersmith, 1880-1881; Saint-Sulpice Seminary, Paris, 1881; University of Louvain, Louvain, 1883.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 11, 1884, Clapham. Pastoral ministry in the parishes of Blackheath, Mortlake and West Grinstead, diocese of Southwark, 1884-1889. Rector of the House of Studies, Henfield Place, 1889-1891. Faculty member of St. John's Seminary, Wonersh, 1891-1896; rector, March 14, 1896. Domestic prelate, 1895.

Bishop. Elected titular bishop of Epifania and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Southwark, March 27, 1896. Consecrated, May 1, 1896, cathedral of Saint George, Southwark, by Cardinal Herbert Vaughan, archbishop of Westminster, assisted by John Baptist Butt, bishop of Southwark, and by Thomas Whiteside, bishop of Liverpool. Succeeded to the see of Southwark, April 9, 1897. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Westminster, September 11, 1903.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 27, 1911; received the red hat and the title of S. Pudenziana, November 30, 1911. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Papal legate to the centennial celebrations honoring St. Joan of Arc, Rouen, France, May 1931; to the dedication of St. Mary's Abbey, Buckford, England, August 7, 1932.

Death. January 1, 1935, at 12:05 a.m., in his residence in Westminster, London, after a cardiac related illness which lasted a year. Buried, St. Edmund's College, Ware, Hertford, in the chapel built by him in memory of the members of the College who died during the First World War. His heart was deposited in the chapel of St. John's Seminary, Wonersh, in June 1935.

Bibliography. Dingle, Reginald James. Cardinal Bourne at Westminster. London : Burns, Oates & Washbourne, 1934; Oldmeadow, Ernest J. Francis, Cardinal Bourne. 2 vols. London : Burns and Oates, 1940-1944; Walsh, Michael J. The Westminster cardinals : the past and the future. London ; New York : Burns & Oates, 2008, p. 85-109.

Links. Biography, in English (Britannica); portrait and biography, in English, archdiocese of Westminster; biography, also in English; photographs, Araldica Vaticana; and his portrait, by George Charles Beresford, National Portrait Gallery, London, England.


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BOVONE, Alberto
(1922-1998)

Birth. June 11, 1922, Frugarolo, diocese of Alessandria, Italy. He was the youngest of five boys born to Davide Bovone, a blacksmith, and Nevilia Rolando.

Education. Seminary of Alessandria; Turin State University; Pontifical University of S. Tommaso d'Aquino, Rome (doctorate in canon law); Sacred Roman Rota (lawyer). He was a keen poet, however, he never published any of his works.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 26, 1945, Casale Monferrato by Bishop Giuseppe Angrisani of Casale Monferrato. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Alessandria, 1945-1946. Further studies, 1946-1951. Entered service of the Holy See, officer in the S.C. of the Council, October 1951; cappo d'ufficio in the pastoral section. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; special secretary. Undersecretary of the S.C. for the Doctrine of the Faith, May 21, 1973.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cesarea di Numidia, April 5, 1984. Named secretary of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, April 8, 1984. Consecrated, May 12, 1984, Alessandria, by Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, prefect of Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, assisted by Ferdinando Maggioni, bishop of Alessandria della Paglia, and by Luigi Dadaglio, titular archbishop of Lero, pro-penitentiary major. His episcopal motto was Fidelis et prudens. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopal Council (CELAM), Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Pro-prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints, June 13, 1995. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 1998; he was assigned the deaconry of Ognissanti in Via Appia Nuova on February 21, 1998. He had been sick for a long time and was already ailing on the day of his cardinalitial promotion. Following the consistorial ceremony, Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, personally delivered the red biretta and the cardinalitial ring to Cardinal Bovone at the "Agostino Gemelli University Polyclinic". Named prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints, February 23, 1998. He received the last rites from Cardinal Giovanni Canestri, a lifelong friend who spent days by his deathbed. When he received his last rites, Cardinal Bovone removed his oxygen mask and expressed : "È il regalo più bello che poteva farmi ... non posso non pensare al Santo Padre ... sono felice di essere un sacerdote".

Death. Friday April 17, 1998, at 8 p.m., at "Agostino Gemelli University Polyclinic", Rome. His funeral, celebrated on April 20, at the patriarchal Vatican basilica, was presided by Pope John Paul II, who delivered the homily; and attended by forty cardinals and sixty bishops. Buried in his family's tomb in the cemetery of Frugarolo, Frugarolo. On Sunday, October 7, 2007, his remains were transferred to the parish church of S. Felice, in Alessandria, in the presence of Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., secretary of State, and reburied in a marble sarcophagus (1).

Lnk. His portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

ALBERTUS S.R.E. CARDINALIS BOVONE
PRAEFECTUS CONGREGATONIS DE CAUSIS SANCTORUM
FRUGAROLO 11-6-1922 - ROMA 17-4-1998


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BOZANIĆ, Josip
(1949-

Birth. March 20, 1949, Rijeka, Yugoslavia (now Croatia). Of a family of farmers. Son of Ivan Bozanić and Dinka Valković. His brother Antun is a priest. A member of his family, Bartul Bozanić, was bishop of Krk from 1839 to 1854. His name in Croat is Josipom Bozanićem.

Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Pazin (with classical grammar school); at the Theological Faculties of Rijeka and Zagreb (master's degree in theology); at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1979-1985 (dogmatic theology); and at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome (master's degree in canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1975, Krk, by Karmelo Zazinović, bishop of Krk. Secretary to the bishop of Krk, 1975-1976. Parish vicar, 1976-1978. Further studies in Rome, 1979-1985. Chancellor of the diocesan curia in Krk, 1986-1987. Vicar general, 1987-1989. Professor of canon law and dogmatic theology in the Seminary of Rijeka, 1988-1997.

Episcopate. Elected coadjutor bishop of Krk, Veglia, May 10, 1989. Consecrated, June 25, 1989, cathedral of the Assumption, Krk, by Cardinal Franjo Kuharić, archbishop of Zagreb, assisted by Josip Pavlisić, archbishop of Rijeka-Senj, and by Karmelo Zazinović, bishop of Krk. His episcopal motto is Da život imaju. Succeeded to the see of Krk, November 14, 1989. Administrator of the archdiocese of Rijeka-Senj, June 5 to November 22, 1996. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Zagreb, July 5, 1997. President of the Croatian Conference of Bishops. Vice President of the Council of European Bishops' Conferences. Attended the II Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Girolamo dei Croati, October 21, 2003. Special papal envoy to the solemn celebrations that took place in Zadar, Croatia, on January 15, 2005, for the 17th centennial of the martyrdom of Saint Anastasia, patroness of the archdiocese of Zadar. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Elected one of the two vice-presidents of the Council of Episcopal Conferences of Europe, for a quienquennium, October 6, 2006. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church"; by papal appointment. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 17th centennial of the martyrdom of Bishop Svesti Kivrin (Saint Quirin), which took place in Krk, Croatia, on June 4, 2009. Named member of the Pontifical Council for Social Communications on December 29, 2011. On September 18, 2012, the pope appointed him synodal father of the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 7 to 28, 2012, on the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of the Christian faith". Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On May 10, 2013, he was named special papal envoy to the celebration of the 1150th anniversary of the arrival of Saints Cyril and Methodius to Czech territory, which took place in Velehrad, Czech Republic, on July 5, 2013. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013. He was named member of the Supervisory Commission of Cardinals on the Institute for the Works of Religion (IOR) on July 9, 2014.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Croatian, Croatian Conference of Bishops; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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BRACCI, Francesco
(1879-1967)

Birth. November 5, 1879, Vignanello, diocese of Civita Castellana, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Civita Castellana from 1896, studying philosophy and theology; in 1899, he joined the Italian army as artilleryman in the First Regiment of Foligno as part of his military service for almost two years; returned to the seminary to finish his theological formation; then studied at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome; and at the Faculty of Law of Naples, where he earned a doctorate; in 1914, he obtained the diploma of lawyer of the Sacred Roman Rota.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 6, 1903, Civita Castellana. Further studies, 1903-1906. Successively, in the diocese of Civita Castellan, 1906-1914, faculty member and rector of the seminary; canon of the cathedral chapter in 1907; pro-synodal examiner and, later, judge; for several years, diocesan chancellor and collaborator of the bishop in the government of the diocese; pastoral ministry in the Confraternities, in the Andosilla Hospital and in the Orphanage "Stefani". From 1915 to 1918, he was military chaplain of the Italian Army during the First World War. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, November 15, 1919; reappointed, February 14, 1922. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, September 18, 1922. He went to Rome as aiutante di studio of Auditor of the Rota Monsignor Rosseti; in 1925, he was named promoter of Justice of the Tribunal of the Sacred Roman Rota; occupied the post for almost ten years. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, December 29, 1934 to December 30, 1935. Referendary prelate of the Supreme Tribunal of Apostolic Signature, January 23, 1926. Secretary of the S.C. for the Discipline of Sacraments, December 30, 1935.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Cesareo in Palatio, December 18, 1958. He was recognized as an expert Latinist as well as distinguished jurist.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Idassa, April 5, 1962. Consecrated, April 19, 1962, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Cardinal Giuseppe Pizzardo and by Cardinal Benedetto Aloisi Masella. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinals Joaquín Anselmo María Albareda, O.S.B., Antonio Bacci, Augustin Bea, S.J., Michael Browne, O.P., William Theodore Heard, Alberto di Jorio, André Jullien, P.S.S., Arcadio María Larraona, C.M.F., Francesco Morano, Alfredo Ottaviani and Francesco Roberti. His episcopal motto was Bracchio virtutis tuae. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI.

Death. March 24, 1967, after a long illness, in Rome. Notified of the death of the cardinal while participating in Good Friday ceremonies, Pope Paul VI visited the late cardinal's residence to pay his respects, on his way to the Vatican. Buried in the collegiate church of Vignanello.

Bibliography. Mariani, Goffredo, "Card. Francesco Bracci" in La Pontificia Università lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, p. 453.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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BRENNAN, Francis John
(1894-1968)

Birth. May 7, 1894, Shenandoah, archdiocese of Philadelphia, United States of America. Son of James Brennan and Margaret Connors. His second baptismal name is also listed as Joseph.

Education. Studied at Saint Charles Borromeo Seminary, Overbrook, Philadelphia; at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome; and at the Pontifical Roman Seminary.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 3, 1920, Rome, by Cardinal Basilio Pompilj, bishop of Velletri, vicar general of Rome. Further studies, 1920-1924. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Philadelphia, 1924-1928. Faculty member of St. Charles Borromeo Seminary, Overbrook, 1928-1940. Official of the archdiocesan curia of Philadelphia, 1937-1940. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, August 1, 1940; its dean, December 14, 1959.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tubune di Mauritania, June 10, 1967. Consecrated, June 25, 1967, church of S. Anselmo all'Aventino, Rome, by Cardinal Eugène Tisserant, bishop of title of suburbicarian sees of Ostia and Porto e Santa Rufina, dean of Sacred College of Cardinals, librarian and archivist of Holy Roman Church, assisted by Joseph Carroll McCormick, bishop of Scranton, and by Luigi Faveri, bishop of Tivoli.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 26, 1967; received red biretta and deaconry of S. Eustachio, June 29, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Prefect of the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments, January 15, 1968.

Death. July 2, 1968, at 9 a.m., from a heart attack, at Misericordia Hospital of Philadelphia, where he had been admitted on June 17, after flying back home from Rome. The funeral mass at the metropolitan cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul, Philadelphia, was celebrated by Cardinal John Joseph Krol on Friday, July 5, 1968. Buried in the crypt of that cathedral (1).

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 204; Code, Bernard. American Bishops 1964-1970. St. Louis : Wexford Press, 1970, p. 6.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

Franciscus Brennan S.R.E. Cardinalis
Natus 1894    Ordinatus 1920
Sacrae Romanae Rotae Auditor 1940
Decanus 1959    Consecratus 1967
S.R.E. Cardinalis 1967
Praefectus S.Congr. De Disciplina
Sacramentorum 1968
Deo Placide Reddidit 1968


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BROWNE, O.P., Michael
(1887-1971)

Birth. May 6, 1887, Grangemokler, diocese of Waterford, Ireland. His.brother, Monsignor Pádraig de Brún, was a renowned mathematician and classical scholar, who served as Ppesident of the University College of Galway; his sister, Margaret Browne, married the Irish revolutionary and statesman Seán MacEntee.

Education. Joined the Order of Preachers in Taillight, Dublin, in 1903; studied at Rockwell College; at the Convent of S. Clemente, Rome; and at the Theological Faculty of Fribourg, Switzerland.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 21, 1910, Rome. Faculty member and master of novices in the convent of Taillight, 1910-1919. Faculty member of the Pontifical International Institute "Angelicum," Rome, 1919-1932; 1941-1951. Prior of the convent of S. Clemente, Rome, 1925-1930. Rector magnifico of the Pontifical International Institute "Angelicum," Rome, 1932-1941. Master of the Sacred Palace, 1951-1955. Elected master general of the Order of Preachers, April 11, 1955.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 19, 1962; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Paolo alla Regola, March 22, 1962.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Idebesso, April 5, 1962. Consecrated, April 19, 1962, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Cardinal Giuseppe Pizzardo and by Cardinal Benedetto Aloisi Masella. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinals Joaquín Anselmo María Albareda, O.S.B., Antonio Bacci, Augustin Bea, S.J., Francesco Bracci, William Theodore Heard, Alberto di Jorio, André Jullien, P.S.S., Arcadio María Larraona, C.M.F., Francesco Morano, Alfredo Ottaviani and Francesco Roberti. His episcopal motto was Viae tuae veritas. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971.

Death. Wednesday March 31, 1971, in Santo Stefano Rotondo hospital in Rome's Caelian Hill, where he had been confined for several months with an incurable illness. Pope Paul VI had visited him there on Ash Wednesday, while returning from a procession, after the cardinal's condition had become serious. Buried in the Dominican convent of Tallaght, Dublin (1).

Link. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

MICHAEL DAVID BROWNE
DOMINICAN · CARDINAL · ARCHBISHOP
BORN 6TH MAY 1887    DIED 31ST MARCH 1971


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BRUNO, Giuseppe
(1875-1954)

Birth. June 30, 1875, Sezzadio, diocese of Acqui, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Acqui; later, at the Pontifical Athenaeum "S. Tommaso d'Aquino", Rome, where he earned a doctorate in philosophy; then, at the Pontifical Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome, obtaining doctorates in theology and utroque iure, both canon and civil law); finally, attended the Studium of the Sacred Roman Rota, becoming a curial lawyer; and Accademia di S. Cecilia, Rome, where he studied music.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 10, 1898, Acqui. Pastoral ministry in Acqui. Further studies in Rome. Secretary of the Roman Theological Academy, Rome. Director of Acta Sanctae Sedis, and of Acta Apostolicae Sedis, Rome. Professor of law at the Pontifical Athenaeum "S. Apollinare" for many years. Vice-auditor of the S.C. of the Council, 1905. Aiutante di studiio of the S.C. of the Council, 1908. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, March 4, 1922. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, January 3, 1923. Secretary of the Pontifical Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law, February 14, 1924. Under-secretary of the S.C. of the Council, December 8, 1926; secretary, July 1930-1946. Secretary of the Pontifical Commission for the Academy of Theology, and commissary of the Pontifical Institute of Christian Archeology, Rome, December 15, 1928. Secretary of the S.C. of Council, July 3, 1930. Protonotary apostolic, July 25, 1932.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Eustachio, February 22, 1946. His cardinalitial motto was Iustitia et pax. Prefect of the S.C. of Council, November 16, 1949 to March 20, 1954. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinal, January 12, 1953 until May 20, 1954. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of Apostolic Signature, and of the Pontifical Commission for Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law, March 20, 1954.

Death. Wednesday November 10, 1954 (1), at 5:30 p.m., of complications from liver cancer, in his residence at Lungotevere Vallanti, no. 10, Rome, after having received the holy sacraments and the papal blessing. The funeral took place on Saturday November 13, 1954 at the basilica of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome; Giuseppe dell'Olmo, bishop of Acqui, celebrated the mass; fourteen cardinals were present; at the end of the ceremony, Cardinal Clemente Micara, vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, imparted the absolution nomine Summi Pontificis. His body was buried in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. Molari, Carlo. La Pontificia Università lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, p. 219; L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, XCIV, n. 263 (November 12, 1954), p. 2; XCIV, n. 264 (November 13, 1954), p. 2; and XCIV, n. 265 (November 14, 1954), p. 2: Del Re, Niccolò. "I cardinali prefetti della Sacra Congregazione del Concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), pp. 146-147.

(1) This is according to "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1955 (Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1955), p. 82; Del Re, "I cardinali prefetti della Sacra Congregazione del Concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 147; and L'Osservatore Romano, XCIV, n. 263, p. 2. Molari, Carlo. La Pontificia Università lateranense, p. 219, says that he died on November 11, 1954.

Links. Biographical entry, in Italian, Enciclopedia on line, Treccani; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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BUENO Y MONREAL, José María
(1904-1987)

Birth. September 11, 1904, Zaragoza, Spain. Son of Abel Bueno, a drawing teacher, and Paquita Monreal, from Navarra. His maternal uncle, Monsignor Santiago Monreal, was dean of the Spanish Rota. His last name is also listed as Bueno Monreal.

Education. Entered the Seminary of Madrid in 1914; at the same time studied bachillerato at Instituto San Isidro; in 1920, he was sent to study at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, with a scholarship; he also attended the Roman Academy of S. Tommaso d'Aquino; he obtained doctorates in theology and canon law in 1925; later, he studied for two years at the University of Madrid, earning a licentiate in law.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 19, 1927, Rome, by Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val. Professor of Ecclesiastical Public Law at the Instituto Central de Cultura Superior Religiosa from 1923-1945. Professor of theology, canon law and moral theology at the Seminary of Madrid from 1927 until 1945. Professor of Journalistic Ethics at the School of Journalism "El Debate", Madrid, 1935. Fiscal general of the diocese of Madrid, 1935-1945. Doctoral canon of the cathedral chapter of Madrid, 1945.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Jaca, December 1, 1945. Consecrated, March 19, 1946, cathedral of Madrid, by Leopoldo Eijo Garay, bishop of Madrid and patriarch of the West Indies, assisted by Casimiro Morcillo González, titular bishop of Agatopoli, auxiliary of Madrid, and by Luis Alonso Muñoyerro, bishop of Sigüenza. His episcopal motto was Opus justitia pax. Attended the National Eucharistic Congresses of Perú (Cuzco); and Ecuador (Quito), representing the Spanish episcopate. Transferred to the see of Vitoria, May 13, 1950. Promoted to titular archbishop of Antiochia di Pisidia and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Sevilla October 27, 1954. Named apostolic administrator, sede plena, of Sevilla, October 20, 1955. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Sevilla, April 8, 1957, at the death of Cardinal Pedro Segura y Sáenz.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Vito, Modesto e Crescenzia, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, March 12, 1959. He was the precursor of the Seminario Menor de Pilas, inaugurated and blessed on May 3, 1961. He received the Medalla de Oro de la Hiniesta in 1962 the Medalla de Oro de Sevilla in 1963; the Medalla de Oro del Gran Poder in 1965; the Medalla de Oro del Consejo General de Hermandades y Cofradías de Sevilla; and was named Cofrade Ejemplar in 1980. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Celebrated a diocesan synod to implement the decisions of the Second Vatican Council that held three sessions, June 1970, November 1971, and May-June 1973. In 1972, he was elected vice-president of the Spanish Episcopal Conference; occupied the post until 1978. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Papal legate to the 15th International Marian Congress, Zaragoza, Spain, October 9 to 12, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, May 22, 1982. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, September 11, 1984. Among the works he published were Las relaciones entre la Iglesia y el Estado en los modernos concordatos, Madrid, 1936; and Principios fundamentales de Derecho Público Eclesiástico, Madrid, 1943.

Death. August 20, 1987, of heart failure, after a long history of frail health, at Clínica Universitaria de Navarra, in Pamplona. His funeral was celebrated in the metropolitan cathedral of Sevilla on August 24, presided by Archbishop Carlos Amigo Vallejo of Sevilla. Buried in Capilla de San José, metropolitan cathedral of Sevilla. His sepulchre was made by José Antonio Márquez in 1995. A bust in his memory was erected near the cathedral of Jerez de la Frontera, Cádiz, Andalucía.

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 106; Hombre magnánimo y libre : homenaje al cardenal José Ma. Bueno Monreal, con motivo de sus 78 años de vida, 56 de sacerdocio, 37 de episcopado, 23 de cardenalato y 28 años de gobierno de la Archidiócesis de Sevilla. Dirigido por Miguel Oliver Román. Sevilla : Centro de Estudios Teológicos, 1983; Jiménez Blasco, Julio. José María Bueno Monreal. Cardenal Arzobispo de Sevilla. Doctoral thesis, Universidad de Sevilla, 2012; Martín de Santa Olalla Saludes, Pablo. "Pedro Segura y José María Bueno Monreal. Historia de una difícil convivencia" in Miscelánea Comillas: Revista de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, vol. 67, n. 131, 2009, pp. 481-499; Ros Carballar, Carlos. José María Bueno Monreal, semblanza de un cardenal bueno. Madrid : Editorial San Pablo, 2012. (Retratos de bolsillo).

Links. Biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography, in Spanish, Conocer Sevilla; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; El Cardenal José María Bueno Monreal y su vinculación a algunas Hermandades by Marta Marí Triana "La Jartible", in Spanish, marzo 1, 2011, Cofrades, La Comunidad de Pasión en Sevilla; his sepulchre, Monumentos a Cardenales en Sevilla (II), Julio Domínguez Arjona, 15 de octubre de 2003, La Sevilla que no vemos; Testigos Hoy (CSTV) 'Retrato de un Humanista', You Tube; Del cardenal Bueno al cardenal Amigo: Sevilla entre dos siglos by Alfredo Sánchez Monteseirín, 23.01.2012 - 14:12, diariodesevilla.es; El nacimiento del Seminario Menor de Pila, in Spanish. Los Niños de Juan Manuel, 2009.

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