The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
(1903-2011)
B

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BAČKIS, Audrys Juozas
(1937-

Birth. February 1, 1937, Kaunas, Lithuania. Second son of Dr. Stasys Antanas Bačkis and Ona Galvydaité-Bačkiené, a teacher. He has an older brother, Ričardas, who was a diplomat and prolific publicists. In 1938, he went with his parents to Paris, where his father was a diplomat at the Lithuanian Embassy. Because of the Soviet occupation of Lithuania, the family could not go back and he had to wait fifty years to be able to visit his country in 1988.

Education. He finished his secondary education at the Institute Saint-Marie-de-Monceau in Paris in 1954. Entered the Theological Seminary of Saint-Sulpice of the archdiocese of Paris in Issy-les-Moulineaux, where he studied philosophy. In 1957, he went to Rome and studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, where he obtained a licentiate in theology; while in Rome, he lived in the Lithuanian College of St. Casimir. From 1964, he attended the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, studying diplomacy; then, he attended the Pontifical Lateran University, where he earned a doctorate in canon law. Besides his native Lithuanian, he speaks Italian, English, French, Spanish and Portuguese. He understands German and Dutch.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 18, 1961, Rome, by Cardinal Luigi Traglia, vicar general for Rome and its district. Incardinated in the archdiocese of Kaunas. Pastoral care of Lithuanian communities in the United States. Further studies, Rome, 1964. Entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See, 1964. Secretary of the nunciature in the Philippines (1964-1965); in Costa Rica (1965-1967); in Turkey (1967-1970); in Nigeria (1970-1973). Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, June 26, 1965 (title changed to chaplain of His Holiness, 1968). Called to the Council of Public Affairs of the Church at the Secretariat of State, 1973. Delegate of the Holy See at the United Nations Conference in Vienna, 1975. Vice-secretary of the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church, 1979. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, June 18, 1979. From 1974 pastoral ministry in different parishes in Rome, especially working with young people and families, giving retreats and running many debating groups. From 1979, he taught diplomatic law at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Meta, with personal title of archbishop, and appointed nuncio in the Netherlands, August 5, 1988. Consecrated, October 4, 1988, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Cardinal Achille Silvestrini and by Juozas Praikšas, titular bishop of Egnazia, apostolic administrator of Kaunas. His episcopal motto is Sub tuum praesidium. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Vilnius, December 24, 1991. Took possession of the see on March 3, 1992. Received the pallium from Pope John Paul II on June 29, 1992, at the patriarchal Vatican basilica. From September 4 to 8, 1993, he hosted Pope John Paul II in Lithuania. President of the Lithuanian Bishops' Conference, 1993-1999 and 2002-2005; vice-president, 1999-2002; and 2005-2013. In 1997 he was decorated with the cross of merit, second class, of the Order of Merit of the Kingdom of Norway (Den Kongelege Norske Fortenstordenen). Received an honorary doctorate from the Pedagogical University of Vilnius on April 30, 1997. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. On February 16, 2000, he was decorated with the cross of merit, first class, of the Order of Merit of "Gediminas" of the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos didžiojo kunigaikščio Gedimino ordino Komandoro kryžius).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of Natività di Nostro Signore Gesù Cristo a Via Gallia, February 21, 2001. Member of the Congregation for Catholic Education; of the Pontifical Council for Social Communications; of the Pontifical Commission for Cutural Patrimony; and of the Special Council for Europe of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops. On February 3, 2003, he was decorated with the cross of merit, first class, of the Order of Merit of "Vytautas Magnus" of the Republic of Lithuania (Vytauto Didžiojo ordino Didysis kryžius). Received an honorary doctorate from the Pontifical Theological Faculty of Kraków on May 13, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Vilnius was accepted by Pope Francis on April 5, 2013. He was apostolic administrator of the archdiocese until the installation of his successor, Gintaras Linas Grušas, until then military ordinary of Lithuania, on April 23, 2013. On June 15, 2013, he was named special papal envoy to the celebrations for the 1025th anniversary of the "baptism" of the Rus', programmed in Kyiv, Ukraine, on August 17 and 18, 2013. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Lithuanian Bishops' Conference; photograph and biography, in Lithuanian, Lithuanian Bishops' Conference; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; photograph and biography, in Spanish, ACI Prensa; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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BAFILE, Corrado
(1903-2005)

Birth. July 4, 1903, L'Aquila, archdiocese of L'Aquila, Italy. The youngest of the twelve children of Vincenzo Bafile, a physician, and Maddalena Tedeschini D'Annibale. He was baptized in the church of Santa Maria Paganica, L'Aquila.

Education. Initial studies in the public elementary school, L'Aquila; Lyceum "Domenico Cotugno," L'Aquila; Faculty of Chemistry, University of Münich, Münich, Germany; after the death of his father, entered the Faculty of Law, University of Rome, Rome, (doctorate in law, 1926); Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (philosophy for one year); Major Roman Seminary, Rome; Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome (doctorate in canon law); Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome (1936-1939).

Early life. Once he passed the exam for the practice of the profession of legal procurator, he was inscribed in the register of the Court of Appeals of L'Aquila, June 1927. Entered the seminary in 1932 after the death of a brother.

Priesthood. Ordained, Holy Saturday, April 11, 1936, Rome. Further studies, 1936-1939. Attached to the Vatican Secretariat of State and pastoral ministry in Rome, 1939-1960. At the same time, he did pastoral ministry as chaplain to the Abruzzi community in Rome and as national chaplain to the Legion of Mary in Italy. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 24, 1954.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Antiochia di Pisidia and appointed nuncio in Germany, February 13, 1960. Consecrated, March 19, 1960, at the Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Diego Venini, titular archbishop of Adana, privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Peter Canisus van Lierde, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, papal sacristan. His episcopal motto was Obedientia et pax. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Appointed pro-prefect of the S.C. for the Causes of the Saints, July 18, 1975.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 24, 1976; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Maria in Portico Campitelli, May 24, 1976. Prefect of S.C. for the Causes of the Saints, May 25, 1976. Attended the IV Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Resigned the prefecture, June 27, 1980. Attended the Second Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 23 to 26, 1982, Vatican City. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, July 4, 1983. Attended the Third Plenary Assembly of the College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 21 to 23, 1985. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated, pro illa vice, to title, June 22, 1987. He was well enough to be received by Pope John Paul II on the occasion of his one hundredth birthday.

Death. February 3, 2005, of influenza related complications, at Clinica Pio XI, in Rome. His funeral mass was presided by Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, dean of the College of Cardinals. Buried, temporarily, in his family's tomb in L'Aquila. In July 2006, his remains were transferred to the parish church of S. Maria Paganica, L'Aquila, where he was baptized, and placed in a specially constructed sarcophagus at the right of the church entrance, following a ceremony presided by Archbishop Giuseppe Molinari of L'Aquila. At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Link. His photograph and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.


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BALLAND, Jean
(1934-1998)

Birth. July 26, 1934, Bué, archdiocese of Bourges, France. From a family of winemakers.

Education. Seminary of Bourges, Bourges; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (licentiateship in philosophy, 1956, and in theology, 1962); La Sorbonne University, Paris (doctorates in philosophy and theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, September 3, 1961, Bourges. Further studies in Rome, 1961-1962; and in Paris, 1963-1965. Successively, faculty member of the Seminary of Bourges, Bourges, 1962-1968; faculty member of the Major Regional Seminary of Tours, Tours, 1967-1973; faculty member of the Major Seminary of Poitiers, Poitiers, 1971-1972. Pastoral ministry in rural areas, Cher, 1973; episcopal vicar of Cher, 1974; diocesan assistant of the Christians in the Rural World Movement, Bourges; and vicar general of the archdiocese of Bourges, 1980-1982.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Dijon, November 6, 1982. Consecrated, December 12, 1982, cathedral of Dijon, by Paul Vignacour, archbishop of Bourges, assisted by Albert Decourtray, archbishop of Lyon, and by Lucien Charles Gilbert Daloz, archbishop of Besançon. His episcopal motto was Veritatem facientes in caritate. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Reims, August 8, 1988. Apostolic visitor to the French seminaries, 1992-1994. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Lyon, May 27, 1995.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, February 21, 1998.

Death. March 1, 1998, of lung cancer, Hôpital de la Croix-Rousse, Lyon. Buried in Saint-Jean metropolitan and primatial cathedral, Lyon.

Bibliography. Jore, Alexander. Épiscopologe Français de 1592 à 1973. Mis à jour et continué jusqu'en 2004. Complément de l'article "France" du Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie Ecclésiastiques t. XVIII, colonnes 161 à 532. Pro-Manuscripto, 25 - III- 2004, no. 3261.

Link. Photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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BALLESTRERO, O.C.D., Anastasio Alberto
(1913-1998)

Birth. October 3, 1913, Genoa, Italy. Oldest of the five children of Giacomo Ballestrero and Antonietta Daffunchio. He was baptized on November 2, 1913 in the parish of S. Zita; received the name Alberto. He was confirmed on May 3, 1923 in the church of S. Martino di Albaro, Genoa; and received the first communion on June 21, 1923.

Education. Attended elementary school in Genoa, 1919-1922; then, Collegio Belimbau, Genoa, 1922-1923. Entered the Novitiate of the Discalced Carmelites of Deserto di Varazze, October 2, 1924; joined the Order of Carmelites Discalced, province of Liguria, in Loana, Savona; took the habit, October 12, 1928 and the name of Anastasio del Santissimo Rosario; emitted the first vows, October 17, 1929; transferred to the convent of S. Anna, Genoa. September 1932 (philosophy and theology); recovered in a local hospital from a life-threatening infection, October-December 1932; solemn profession, October 5, 1934, convent of S. Anna, Genoa; received the subdiaconate, March 1935; and the diaconate, December 1935.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 6, 1936, metropolitan cathedral of S. Lorenzo, Genoa, by Cardinal Dalmazio Minoretti, archbishop of Genoa. Named professor of philosophy in the studentato of Genoa-S. Anna, August 13, 1936. Initiated his preaching apostolate in the clinic "Bertani", Genoa, January 1, 1937. Elected prior of the convent of S. Anna, April 22, 1945; occupied the post until 1948. Elected provincial of Liguria, April 3, 1948; occupied the post until May 7, 1954. Elected prior of the convent of S. Anna, again, May 7, 1954. Elected preposito general of the order, April 9, 1955; reelected, April 21, 1961; occupied the post until May 20, 1967; visited all 350 Carmelite convents and 850 Carmelite monasteries in the world except Hungary, which did not allow him to enter the country. Participated in the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. President of the Union of Superior Generals.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Bari, Italy, December 21, 1973. Consecrated February 2, 1974, Rome, by Cardinal Sebastiano Baggio, prefect of S.C. for Bishops, assisted by Michele Mincuzzi, titular bishop of Sinnipsa, auxiliary of Bari, and by Enrico Romolo Compagnone, O.C.D., bishop of Terracina-Latina, Priverno e Sezze. His episcopal motto was In omnia bonitate et caritate. Transferred to metropolitan see of Turin, Italy, August 1, 1977. Attended Fourth Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Elected vice-president of Italian Episcopal Conference, May 25, 1978; named by Pope John Paul II its president, May 18, 1979; occupied the post until July 3, 1985.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979, Vatican City. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Special papal envoy to the inaugural ceremonies of the Theresian Year commemorating the 4th centennial of the death of St. Theresa of Avila, October 14 to 15, 1981, Alba de Tormes and Avila, Spain. Attended the Second Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 23 to 26, 1982, Vatican City; the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the Third Plenary Assembly of the College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 21 to 23, 1985; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, January 31, 1989. He retired to the monastery of S. Croce in Bocca di Magra, La Spezia. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 3, 1993.

Death. June 21, 1998, in his residence of Fortino Santa Maria, Bocca di Magra, La Spezia. After a solemn funeral celebrated in the metropolitan cathedral of Turin, he was buried in the crypt of the church of S. Giuseppe del Deserto (Eremo del Deserto), Carmelite monastery, Varazze, Savona, Italy.

Beatification. The Council of Bishops of Piedmont announced on February 4, 2014 the opening of the process for his beatification.

Bibliography. "Date principali di 'Una vita donata'." Ite ad Joseph, LXXXVI, No. 4 (Luglio-Agosto 1998), 4-6.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Ballestrero, 100 anni by Renzo Savarino, archdiocese of Turin, 29 settembre 2013; Padre, vescovo e maestro by Giuseppe Ghiberti, archdiocese of Turin, 29 settembre 2013; Ballestrero «Carmelo, la mia patria» by Filippo Rizzi, in Italian, Avvenire, 19 dicembre 2013; Al via la causa beatificazione di Ballestrero, Vino Nuovo, 07 febbraio 2014.


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BALTHASAR, Hans Urs von
(1905-1988)

Birth. August 12, 1905, Lucerne, Switzerland. Of an old patrician family. Son of Oscar Ludwig Carl von Balthasar, the Lucerne canton builder, and Gabrielle Pietzcker, co-foundress and first general secretary of the Swiss League of Catholic Women. He had a sister, Renée, who was superior general of the Franciscan Sisters of Saint-Marie des Anges from 1971 to 1983; and a younger brother, Dieter, who served as an officer in the Swiss Guard. He was baptized and received first communion in the Franciscan church of Lucerne. He had an extraordinary talent for music and for a long time he wavered between musical and literary studies.

Education. Benedictine high school, Engelber, Switzerland; Jesuit high school, Feldkirch, Switzerland; left a year before graduating; the program in German studies, leading to a doctorate, consisted of nine study semesters alternating between three universities: University of Zürich, Switzerland; University of Vienna, Austria; and University of Berlin, Germany (dissertation: Geschichte des eschatologischen Problems in der moderners deutschen Literatur, 1930). In the summer of 1927, he attended a thirty-day retreat directed by Fr. Friedrich Krtonseder, S.J.; this was a decisive turning point in his life. Joined the Society of Jesus, October 31, 1929; novitiate at Feldkirch of the Jesuit Province of Southern Germany, November 18, 1929-1931; one of his classmates was Alois Grillmeier, future cardinal; philosophy at Berchmanskolleg, Pullach, Münich, 1931-1933; theology at Fourviere, Lyons, 1933-1937; he studied under Henri de Lubac, future cardinal (obtained licentiates in philosophy and theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 26, 1936, Münich, by Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber, archbishop of München und Freising. Associate editor of the journal Stimmen der Zeit, München, Germany, 1937-1939. Jesuit tertianship, Pullach, Münich, Germany, 1939; under the direction of Fr. Albert Steger; he did another thirty-day retreat. University chaplain, Basel, Switzerland, 1940-1948 (1). Founder and director of "Johannes Verlag", Einsiedeln, publishing firm, 1947. With Adrienne von Speyr, a Swiss physician and visionary and the wife of Werner Kaegi, later professor of history at Basel, he founded and worked in the Community of Saint John, Basel, Switzerland. His Jesuit superiors thought that this work was not compatible with membership in the Society. Left the Society of Jesus on February 11, 1950; it was not until February 2, 1956, that the bishop of Chur, Switzerland, granted him incardination in his diocese. Publisher and theological writer, Basel, Switzerland, 1950-1988. For several years, he fell out of favor and was not invited to be present at the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Doctor honoris causa, theological faculty of Münster, Germany, and Edinburgh, Scotland, 1965. Doctorate in theology honoris causa, University of Fribourg, 1967. Pope Paul VI appointed him member of the International Theological commission, 1969; remained a member until his death. Co-founder, with Joseph Ratzinger, future cardinal and Pope Benedict XVI, of Communio: International Catholic Review. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; assistant to the special secretary. Received a doctorate honoris causa in human letters, The Catholic University of America, Washington, United States of America, 1980. Received the "Pope Paul VI International Prize", June 23, 1984. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; special guest. Awarded the "Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Prize" in Innsbruck, Austria, May 22, 1987. The announcement of his creation as a cardinal was made on May 29, 1988; he had declined the promotion in the past.

Episcopate. Asked the pope to be excused from receiving episcopal consecration because of advanced age.

Cardinalate. Was to be created cardinal deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere in the consistory of June 28, 1988 but died two days earlier. He is considered one of the greatest Catholic theologians of the 20th century. He was called "the pope's favorite theologian" in the pontificate of Pope John Paul II and greatly influenced Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger's theological thought. Feeling the end was near, he wrote to a friend: "Those above, seem to have a different plan", shortly before his elevation to the Sacred College of Cardinals and his unexpected demise.

Death. June 26, 1988, Basel, suddenly, as he was preparing to celebrate morning mass. Buried in his family's vault at the cemetery of Sankt Leodegar im Hof church, Lucerne.

Bibliography. Balthasar, Hans Urs von. My work : in retrospect. San Francisco : Ignatius Press, 1993. (Communio books). Note: Translation of: Mein Werk--Durchblicke; The Cambridge companion to Hans Urs von Balthasar. Edited by Edward T. Oakes and David Moss. Cambridge, U.K. ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2004. (Cambridge companions to religion); Dickens, William Thomas. Hans Urs von Balthasar's theological aesthetics : a model for post-critical biblical interpretation. Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press, 2003. Contents: Theological Aesthetics: A Methodological and Historical Orientation --; Theological Hermeneutics --; The Unity of Scripture --; The Authority of Scripture --; Theological Exegesis; Hans Urs Von Balthasar. Edited by Martin Redfern. Sheed and Ward : London, 1972; O'Donnell, John. Hans Urs von Balthasar. Michael Glazier : Collegeville, 1992. (Outstanding Christian Thinkers); Schindler, David. L. Hans Urs von Balthasar: His life and work. San Francisco : Communio Books, Ignatius Press, 1991; Scola, Angelo. Hans Urs Von Balthasar. A Theological Style. Eerdmans : Grand Rapids, 1995.

Links. Biography and bibliography, in English, Ignatius Insight; biography, in English, Wikipedia; bibliography and biography, in German, Academic dictionaries and encyclopedias his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Von Balthasar a Patmos by Cardinal Angelo Scola, Avvenire, 13 settembre 2013 .

(1) At the beginning of the Second World War, his superiors gave him the choice of going to Rome as a professor of the Pontifical Gregorian University or to Basel as a student chaplain; in Rome, he and other Jesuits were to set up an institute for ecumenical studies, a project that never materialized; he chose Basel because he preferred pastoral ministry.


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BARBARIN, Philippe
(1950-

Birth. October 17, 1950, Rabat, Morocco. Son of M. Barbarin and Yvonne Maria Roques. His baptismal name is Philippe Xavier Christian Ignace Marie. He has six sisters (two religious) and four brothers.

Education. Studied at the secondary lyceum "Marcellin Berthelot", Saint-Maur, at Val-de-Marne; "Francs-Bourgeois" College, Paris, (bachelor); at the Major Seminary, Paris (philosophy); military service; at "Institut de Philosophies Comparées" (philosophy); at La Sorbonne University, Paris (doctorate in philosophy); at "Institut Catholique de Paris", in the Seminary "des Carmes", Paris (licentiate in theology). Received the diaconte on the Feast of Pentecost 1976. Besides his native French, he speaks correctly Italian, English, Spanish, German and Malagasy.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 17, 1977, by Robert-Marie-Joseph François de Provenchères, bishop of Créteil, for the diocese of Créteil, France. From 1977 to 1985, vicar in two parishes: Notre-Dame d'Alfortville and Notre-Dame de Vincennes; 1985 to 1990, member of the pastoral group of the parish of Saint François de Sales d'Adambille en Saint-Maur and chaplain of the lyceum and school of Saint-Maur; diocesan delegate for ecumenism; and in addition, vicar in Saint-Hilaire de la Varenne; 1991 to 1994 pastor of Saint Léger Parish, Boissy Saint Léger; 1994 to 1998, in Madagascar as priest "Fidei donum" was a professor of theology at the Major Seminary of Vohitsoa, archdiocese of Fianarantsoa; pastor, Bry-sur-Marne, Créteil.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Moulins, France, October 1, 1998. Consecrated, November 22, 1998, cathedral basilica of Notre-Dame, Moulins, by Philibert Randriambololona, archbishop of Fianarantsoa, Madagascar, assisted by André Bernard Michel Quélen, bishop emeritus of Moulins, and by Daniel Camille Victor Marie Labille, bishop of Créteil. His episcopal motto is Qu'ils soient un. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lyon, July 16, 2002; as such, he is chancellor of the Catholic University of Lyon. On December 31, 2002, he was named knight of the Légion d'Honneur.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, October 21, 2003. Member of the Congregations for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, and for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. On May 8, 2007, he was named officer of the Ordre National du Mérite. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". On April 15, 2012, he was named officer Légion d'Honneur. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life on March 29, 2014.

Bibliography. Jore, Alexander. Épiscopologe Français de 1592 à 1973. Mis à jour et continué jusqu'en 2004. Complément de l'article "France" du Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie Ecclésiastiques t. XVIII, colonnes 161 à 532. Pro-Manuscripto, 25 - III- 2004, no. 3358.

Links. Photograph and biography, in French, archdiocese of Lyon; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Le luci di Lione. Intervista con il cardinale Philippe Barbarin, by Gianni Valente. in Italian, 30Giorni, 01/02 - 2009; Cardinal Philippe Barbarin - Witness, in French with English subtitles, You Tube, uploaded on Jan 27, 2012; France : Mgr Barbarin hausse le ton, InfoCatho.be, JJD (avec news.va), mardi, 14 août 2012; Matrimoni gay, il cardinale Barbarin: choc di civiltà, si apra un dibattito pubblico, Chiesa, Avvenire, 14 agosto 2012; Francia: Prohibido rezar. El cardenal Barbarin responde a las críticas a una oración por la familia. By Anne Kurian, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 19-08-2012; Cardinal Philippe Barbarin: From Marocco and Madagascar, to Lyon France, video, Rome Repotrs, 2013-03-09 17:00:00.


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BAUM, William Wakefield
(1926-

Birth. November 21, 1926, Dallas, United States of America. Son of Harold E. White and Mary Leona Hayes. He was a young child when his father died and the family moved to Kansas City, Missouri; subsequently, his mother married Jerome C. Baum, who adopted William.

Education. Primary education at St. Peter's parochial school, Kansas City; St. Johns Minor Seminary, Kansas City, 1939; Kenrick Seminary, St. Louis (philosophy and theology); Pontifical Angelicum Athenaeum, Rome, 1956-1958 (doctorate in theology, 1958).

Priesthood. Ordained, May 12, 1951, church of St. Peter, Kansas City, by Edwin Vincent O'Hara, bishop of Kansas City. Pastoral ministry, Kansas City, and faculty member of St. Theresa College, 1951-1956. Further studies, 1956-1958. Successively, 1958-1962, in the diocese of Kansas City-Saint Joseph, pastoral ministry, notary of the ecclesiastical tribunal, secretary of the liturgical diocesan commission, examiner of the clergy. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, January 27, 1961. Vice chancellor of the diocese of Kansas City-Saint Joseph, 1962-1965. Expert at the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Executive secretary of the episcopal committee for Ecumenical Affairs, U.S. National Conference of Catholic Bishops, 1964-1967. Chancellor of the diocese of Kansas City-Saint Joseph, 1967-1970. Papal prelate, July 13, 1968.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Springfield-Cape Girardeau, February 18, 1970. Consecrated, April 6, 1970, cathedral of St. Agnes, Springfield, by Cardinal John Joseph Carberry, archbishop of St. Louis, assisted by Charles Herman Helmsing, bishop of Kansas City-Saint Joseph, and by Joseph Vincent Sullivan, titular bishop of Tagamuta, auxiliary of Kansas City-Saint Joseph. His episcopal motto is Ministerium reconciliationis. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Promoted to the archdiocesan see of Washington, March 5, 1973.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 24, 1976; received the red biretta and the title of S. Croce in Via Flaminia, May 24, 1976. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5-9, 1979. Prefect of the S.C. for Catholic Education and grand chancellor of the Pontifical Gregorian University, January 15, 1980. Resigned pastoral government of the archdiocese of Washington, March 18, 1980. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Grand chancellor of the Pontifical Institute of Christian Archeology, November 26, 1980. Attended the Second Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 23-26, 1982; the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the Third Plenary Assembly of the College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 21-23, 1985; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Penitentiary Major, April 6, 1990. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the First Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Resigned post of penitentiary major, November 22, 2001. Represented the pope at the funeral of Cardinal James Aloysius Hickey, archbishop emeritus of Washington, celebrated at the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception in Washington, in October 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old on November 21, 2006. In later years, he has suffered from deteriorating eyesight. He retired to Washington, D.C. He was the last cardinal elector created by Pope Paul VI. He resides at the Jeanne Jugan Home in Washington.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1790-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 159; Burton, Richard. "Baum, William Wakefield." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyła years. Detroit, MI : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, p. 253.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, College of Cardinals, Vatican Press Office; photograph and biography, in Italian, Collegio Cardinalizio, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of Washington; and photographs, arms and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.


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BENELLI, Giovanni
(1921-1982)

Birth. May 12, 1921, Poggiole di Vernio, diocese of Pistoia, Italy. Youngest of the five surviving children of Luigi Benelli and Maria Simoni; his uncle Guido Benelli entered the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans) and died with fame of holiness. He was baptized the day after his birth in the church of S. Leonardo in S. Quirico di Vernio.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Pistoia (entered on October 18, 1931); while in Rome, he resided at the Pontifical French Seminary, studying at the Pontifical Gregorian University from 1943 until 1947; amd later, at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy). Received the ecclesiastical tonsure, December 23, 1939, from Giuseppe Debernardi, bishop of Pistoia; the subdiaconate, June 29, 1942, at the cathedral of Pistoia, from the same bishop; and the diaconate, June 12, 1943, at the cathedral of Pistoia, also from the same bishop.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 31, 1943, parish church of Poggiole di Vernio, by Giuseppe Debernardi, bishop of Pistoia; with dispensation for not having reached yet the canonical age. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, 1943-1950. Further studies, Rome, 1943-1947. Attached to the Secretariat of State; private secretary to Giovanni Battista Montini, substitute of the Secretariat of State, August 1, 1947. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, July 16, 1950. Secretary of the nunciature in Ireland, 1950-1953. Secretary of the nunciature in France, 1953-1960. Auditor of the nunciature in Brazil, 1960-1962. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, August 1, 1961. Counselor of the nunciature in Spain, 1962-1965. Permanent observer of the Holy See before UNESCO, Paris, May 11, 1965 to June 11, 1966.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tusuro and appointed pro-nuncio in Senegal and apostolic delegate in Western Africa, June 11, 1966. Consecrated, September 11, 1966, Rome, by Cardinal Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, secretary of State, assisted by Pietro Sigismondi. titular archbishop of Neapoli di Pisidia, secretary of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, and by Mario Longo Dorni, bishop of Pistoia. His episcopal motto was Virtus ex alto. Substitute of the Secretariat of State and secretary of the cipher, June 29, 1967. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Florence, June 3, 1977.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 27, 1977; received the red biretta and the title of S. Prisca, June 27, 1977. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980.

Death. October 26, 1982, suddenly, of a heart attack, in his office at the archiepiscopal palace of Florence. The funeral, presided by Cardinal Agostino Casaroli, secretary of State, took place on October 29, 1982, at the metropolitan cathedral basilica of S. Maria del Fiore, Florence. His remains were buried in the crypt underneath the chapel of the Most Blessed Sacrament of that cathedral; a simple marble stone marks his final resting place (1).

Bibliography. Il Cardinale Giovanni Benelli. Giovanni Battista Re, et al. Roma : Edizioni Studium, 1992. (Coscienza studi, 22); In memoriam di S.Em. Il Cardinale Giovanni Benelli, arcivescovo di Firenze. Florence: Curia Arcivescovile, 1982; Lovascio, Antonio. Giovanni Benelli. Un pastore coraggioso e innovatore. Prefazione di Giuseppe Betori. Firenze : Società Editrice Fiorentina, 2012.

Links. Biography by Bruna Bocchini Camaiani, Andrea Riccardi, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 34 (1988), Treccani; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the inscription in his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

JOHANNES CARD. BENELLI
MCMXXI      MCMLXXXII


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BERAS ROJAS, Octavio Antonio
(1906-1990)

Birth. November 16, 1906, Seibo, archdiocese of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Eldest of the three children of Octavio Beras Zorrilla and Teresa Rojas Santana. Received the first communion in the convent of the Dominican friars from Adolfo Alejando Nouel, archbishop of Santo Domingo.

Education. Seminary Santo Tomás de Aquino, Santo Domingo, 1923-1926; sent to Rome, he resided in the Pontifical Collegio Pio Latino Americano; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1926; for health reasons, had to return to Santo Domingo and to its seminary.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 13, 1933, metropolitan cathedral of Santo Domingo. Pastoral ministry in Santiago de los Caballeros, 1933-1935. Successively, 1935-1945, in the archdiocese of Santo Domingo, secretary general of archdiocese, director of ecclesiastical bulletin and of weekly newspaper Verdad Católica, of the Catholic radio station, founder of Federation of Catholic Youth, president of ecclesiastical tribunal, organizer of the archdiocesan synod, honorary canon of the metropolitan chapter, pro-vicar general, and pastor of the metropolitan cathedral.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Eucaita and appointed coadjutor of Santo Domingo, with right of succession, May 2, 1945. Consecrated, August 12, 1945, metropolitan cathedral of Santo Domingo, by Manuel Arteaga y Betancourt, archbishop of San Cristóbal de La Habana, assisted by Enrique Pérez Serantes, archbishop of Santiago de Cuba, and by Aloysius Joseph Willinger, C.Ss.R., bishop of Ponce. Apostolic administrator sede plena of Santo Domingo. Secretary general of the General Conference of the Latin American Episcopal Counsel, July 25 to August 2, 1955, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Succeeded to the primatial and metropolitan see of Santo Domingo, December 10, 1961. Military vicar for the Dominican Republic, December 8, 1962. Member of the Central Committee of the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. President of the Episcopal Conference of Dominican Republic, 1965-. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 24, 1976; received the red biretta and the title of S. Sisto, May 24, 1976. Attended the IV Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, November 15, 1981. Resigned the military vicariate, November 15, 1982. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, November 16, 1986. He was the first cardinal from the Dominican Republic.

Death. December 1, 1990, Santo Domingo. Buried in the primatial and metropolitan cathedral of Santo Domingo.

Links. His photograph and biography by Rafael Bello Peguero, in Spanish, Sistema de Bibliotecas PUCMM; biography, in German, Wikipedia; biography, in Polish, Wikipedia; Letter from Pope John Paul II to Card. Octavio Antonio Beras Rojas on the 50th anniversary of his priestly ordination (July 22, 1983), in Latin, Libreria Editrice Vaticana.


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BERGOGLIO, S.J., Jorge Mario
(1936-

Birth. December 17, 1936, in the Flores neighborhood, Great Buenos Aires, Argentina. The family emigrated from Piedmont, Italy, because of Fascism. Eldest child of Mario Bergoglio, from Portacomaro, a railway worker, and Regina Sivori, an Argentinian, a housewife who took care of the initial education of the five children. The other siblings were Alberto Horacio, Óscar Adrián, Marta Regina and María Elena, who is the only one alive of the four. He was baptized on December 25, 1936, in the Salesian parish of San Carlos Borromeo and basilica of María Auxiliadora, by Father Enrique Pozzoli, S.D.B., who later was his spiritual director. His godparents were Francisco Sívori and Rosa Vassallo de Bergoglio. He received sacrament of confirmation on Sunday October 8, 1944, in Flores, Buenos Aires. At the age of 21, he had a pulmonary illness and the upper part of his right lung was removed. He liked to play soccer in the neighborhood and when he grew up, he developed a passion for the tango. His second cousin, Sister Ana Rosa Sivori, religious of the Daughters of Mary Help of Christians, has worked as a missionary in Thailand for 46 years.

Education. Initial studies at the Salesian Don Bosco School, Ramos Mejía, Buenos Aires. He later obtained the diploma of technician in chemistry at Escuela Secundaria Industrial. He had a job and a girlfriend Amalia Damonte. Entered Seminary of Villa Devoto, Buenos Aires, and studied there for three years. Joined the Society of Jesus on March 11, 1958. Novitiate in Córdoba (humanities); took his first vows on March 12, 1960; then, studied at Colegio Máximo San José, San Miguel, Buenos Aires (licentiate in philosophy); professor of literature and psychology in Colegio de la Inmaculada, Santa Fe, and in Colegio del Salvador, Buenos Aires; Colegio Máximo de San Miguel, (theology); Philosophisch-Theologische Hochschule Sankt Georgen, Frankfurt am Main, where he spent a few months in 1986 to seek advice from professors for a project of a doctorate which was never concluded. Received the subdiaconate on Wednesday July 30, 1969, in Buenos Aires. Besides his native Spanish, he also speaks Italian and Portuguese, and understands English, French, German.

Priesthood. Ordained, Saturday December 13, 1969, at the chapel of Colegio Máximo de San Miguel, by Ramón José Castellano, titular archbishop of Giomnio. Further studies, 1969-1971; third probation, Alcalá de Henares, Spain, 1971-1972; took the final vows, April 22, 1973. Master of novices, Villa Barilari, San Miguel, 1972-1973; professor in the Theological Faculty; consultor of the Jesuit province and rector of the Colegio Máximo. Elected provincial of Argentina, July 31, 1973. During the Argentinian military dictatorship, he helped hide people being sought for arrest or disappearance by the military because of their political views, helped others leave Argentina and lobbied the country's military rulers directly for the release and protection of others. When the dictatorship was raging and some of his confrères were ready to embrace the rifle and apply the lessons of Marx, he energetically opposed the tendency as provincial of the Society of Jesus in Argentina. Spent some time in Germany. On his return, assigned to Colegio del Salvador, Córdoba and then, spiritual director and confessor, Jesuit Church, Córdoba. Rector of Colegio Máximo de San Miguel and of its Philosophical and Theological Faculties, 1980-1986. He published Meditaciones para religiosos, 1982; Reflexiones sobre la vida apostólica, 1986; and Reflexiones de esperanza, 1992.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Auca and appointed auxiliary of Buenos Aires, May 20, 1992. Consecrated, June 27, 1992, metropolitan and primatial cathedral of the Holy Trinity, Buenos Aires, by Cardinal Antonio Quarracino, archbishop of Buenos Aires, assisted by Ubaldo Calabresi, titular archbishop of Fondi, nuncio in Argentina, and by Emilio Ogñénovich, bishop of Mercedes-Luján. In the same ceremony was also consecrated Raúl Omar Rossi, titular bishop of Enera, auxiliary of Buenos Aires. His episcopal motto was Miserando atque eligendo, which he kept as pope. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Promoted to archbishop coadjutor of Buenos Aires, June 3, 1997. He moved from the episcopal palace to a small apartment, took public transportation, rode a bicycle and cooked his own meals. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Buenos Aires, February 28, 1998. Ordinary for the faithful of the Oriental rite in Argentina without an ordinary for their own rite, November 30, 1998. Grand chancellor of the Catholic University of Argentina. Second vice-president of the Episcopal Conference of Argentina.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of S. Roberto Bellarmino, February 21, 2001. Member of the Congregations for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, for the Clergy, for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life; and of the Pontifical Council for the Family. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001; relator general adjunct. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. On November 9, 2005, he was elected president of the Episcopal Conference of Argentina for the triennium of 2005-2008; reelected for the triennium 2008-2011 on November 11, 2008. Participated in the Fifth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. Named member of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America on February 23, 2013. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on March 13, 2013. Took the name Francis. On March 19, 2013, took place the inauguration of his Petrine ministry as bishop of Rome. On March 26, 2013, the Argentinian city of La Plata became the first to name a street after him. He took possession of the papal Lateran basilica, cathedral of the see of Rome, on Sunday April 7, 2013, at 5:30 p.m. He created nineteen new cardinals in a consistory that was celebrated on February 22, 2014.

Bibliography. Beltramo Álvarez, Andrés. Quiero lío. Francisco: un año de papado. Secretos del mito. Prologue by de Luis Novaresio. Buenos Aires : Hyspamerica ; R.P.Centro Editor de Cultura, 2014; Fernández Víctor, Manuel: Rodari, Paolo. Il progetto di Francesco. Dove vuole portare la Chiesa. Bologna : Editrice Missionaria Italiana, 2014. (Emibook); Francesco (Jorge Mario Bergoglio); Spadaro, Antonio. Papa Francesco. La mia porta è sempre aperta. Una conversazione con Antonio Spadaro. Milano : Rizzoli Editore, 2013. (Saggi); Pigozzi, Caroline ; Madelin, Henri. Ainsi fait-il. Paris : Plon, 2013; Piqué, Elisabetta. Francisco, vida y revolución. Buenos Aires : El Ateneo, 2013; Rubín, Sergio ; Ambrogetti, Francesca. El jesuíta : conversaciones con el cardenal Jorge Bergoglio, sj. Barcelona : Vergara, Grupo Zeta, 2010. (Biografía e historia); Scavo, Nello. La lista di Bergoglio. I salvati da papa Francesco durante la dittatura. La storia mai raccontata. Prefazione di Adolfo Pérez Esquivel. Bologna : Editrice Missionaria Italiana EMI, 2013. ( Lampi di Storia); Tornielli, Andrea. I fioretti di papa Francesco. Milano : Piemme, 2013; Velásquez O., César Mauricio ; Beltramo Álvarez, Andrés. De Benedicto a Francisco; Los 30 días que cambiaron la Iglesia. Bogotá : Grupo Editorial Planeta, 2013; Vidal, José Manuel ; Bastante, Jesús. Francisco, el nuevo Juan XXIII. Jorge Mario Bergoglio. El primer pontífice americano para una nueva primavera de la Iglesia. Buenos Aires : Desclée de Brouwer ; Religión Digital Libros, 2013. (Benedicto XVI en 50 ideas).

Links. Photograph and biography, in Spanish, Agencia Informativa Católica Argentina (AICA); photograph and biography, in Spanish, Jesuítas Argentina, Provincia Argentino-Uruguaya; photograph and biography, in English, Press Office of the Holy See; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photographs, arms and biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; and his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; 'Poor man!' says new pope's sister, Inquirer News; La hermana del papa a RT: Francisco tendrá fuerzas para enfrentar la crisis de la Iglesia, in Spanish, RT; his papal coat of arms, Cantuale Antonianum; La Genealogía Episcopal del Santo Padre Francisco, in Spanish, by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; El papa Francisco nació a la fe en la iglesia de Gardel by Natalia Kidd, EFE, El Nuevo Herald, Séptimo Día, domingo 24 de marzo de 2012; Video: Componen un tango para el Papa Francisco, "el Jorge de Flores", ACI/EWTN Noticias, 27 Mar. 13 / 07:15 am; Revelan lo que el Cardenal Bergoglio esperaba del nuevo Papa y pidió a los electores, ACI/EWTN Noticias, 26 Mar. 13 / 06:05 pm.; Ora la «Lista di Bergoglio» diventa film by Roberto I. Zanini and Angela Calvini, Avvenire, 19 ottobre 2013; Guardini, un "maestro" che Bergoglio non ha mai avuto by Sandro Magister, Gruppo Editoriale LEspresso Spa, 21 ottubre 2013; Bergoglio & Borges, realtà e imprecisioni di un "amicizia" by Jorge Milia, in Iyalian, Vatican Insider, 6/12/2013; Bergoglio di Fierro: l'epopea è per la vita by Stefania Falasca, Avvenire, 6 giugno 2014.


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BERNARDIN, Joseph Louis
(1928-1996)

Birth. April 2, 1928, Columbia, diocese of Charleston, United States. Oldest of the two children of Italian immigrants Joseph Bernardin, a stonecutter, and Maria Magdalen Simion; he had a sister, Elaine; the father died of cancer when Joseph was six years old. He was baptized and received confirmation in St. Peter's church, Columbia.

Education. Enrolled in the pre-medical program at the University of South Carolina, Columbia; St. Mary's Seminary, Baltimore; Columbia University, New York; Catholic University, Washington (doctorate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, April 26, 1952, church of St. Joseph, Columbia, by John Joseph Russell, bishop of Charleston. Successively, 1952-1966, in Charleston, pastoral ministry; faculty member, Catholic Lyceum; vicar general. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, December 18, 1959. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, 1962.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Lugura and appointed auxiliary of Atlanta, March 4, 1966. Consecrated, April 26, 1966, cathedral of St. John the Baptist, Charleston, by Paul Hallinan, archbishop of Atlanta, assisted by Ernest Leo Unterkoefler, bishop of Charleston, and by Francis Frederick Reh, titular bishop of Macriana in Mauritania, rector of the Pontifical North American College. His episcopal motto was As those who serve. At the time, he was the youngest bishop in America. Secretary general of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops and of the United States Catholic Conference, 1968-1972. Apostolic administrator, sede vacante, of Atlanta, 1968. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Cincinnati, November 21, 1972. Attended the III Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 28, 1974; elected member of the council of the general secretariat, October 19, 1974. President of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops/U.S. Catholic Conference, 1974-1977. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; member of the general secretariat, 1980-1983. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Chicago, July 8, 1982.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the title of Gesù Divin Lavoratore, February 2, 1983. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; member of the general secretariat, 1983-1986; membership extended until 1987 in the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; member of the general secretariat, 1987-1990. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; member of the general secretariat, 1994-1996. In June 1995, the cardinal underwent surgery for pancreatic cancer; after the operation, he began his cancer ministry; on August 30, 1996, he told his flock that the cancer had returned, was in his liver, and was inoperable. Decorated with the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Bill Clinton, September 9, 1996.

Death. November 14, 1996, at 1.33 a.m., from inoperable liver and pancreatic cancer, at his Near North Side home, Chicago. Buried in the bishops' chapel, Mount Carmel Cemetery, Hillside, archdiocese of Chicago (1). His predecessors Cardinals Samuel Alphonse Stritch and John Patrick Cody are also buried in that chapel.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 148; Code, Bernard. American Bishops 1964-1970. St. Louis : Wexford Press, 1970, p. 6; Kennedy, Eugene C. Cardinal Bernardin: Easing conflict -and battling for the soul of American Catholicism. Chicago : Bonus Books, 1989; Wall, A. E. P. "Bernardin, Joseph Louis." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyła years. Detroit, MI : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, p. 258-259.

Links. Biography, in English; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; and Joseph Cardinal Bernardin Photograph Library; Cardinal Bernardin: In Memoriam, November 14, 1996, Transcript.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

HERE, AWAITING THE RESURRECTION, LIE THE REMAINS OF
HIS EMINENCE, JOSEPH LOUIS CARDINAL BERNARDIN
SEVENTH ARCHBISHOP OF CHICAGO
BORN, COLUMBIA, SC, APRIL 2, 1928     ARCHBISHOP OF CINCINNATI, 1972 - 1982
ORDAINED, CHARLESTON, SC, APRIL 26, 1952       PRESIDENT, CONFERENCE OF BISHOPS, 1974 - 1977
AUXILIARY BISHOP OF ATLANTA, 1966 - 1968     ARCHBISHOP OF CHICAGO, 1982 - 1996
GENERAL SECRETARY, CONFERENCE OF BISHOPS 1968 - 1972     DIED, CHICAGO, IL, NOVEMBER 14, 1996
PEACE I LEAVE WITH YOU, CHRIST'S PEACE I GIVE TO YOU


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BERTONE, S.D.B., Tarcisio
(1934-

Birth. December 2, 1934, parish of Ss. Pietro e Solutore, Romano Canavese, diocese of Ivrea, Italy. The fifth of the eight children of Pietro Bertone and Pierina Borio. His father was a farmer. He was baptized in that parish on December 9, 1934. His baptismal name is Tarcisio Pietro Evasio.

Education. Entered the Society of St. Francis de Sales of St. John Bosco (Salesians); Oratorio di Valdocco, Turin (middle studies); Salesian novitiate of Monte Oliveto, Pinerolo; religious profession, December 3, 1950. Salesian Theological Faculty, Turin (licentiate in theology with a dissertation on tolerance and religious freedom); Pontifical Salesian Athenaeum, Rome (licentiate in theology; doctorate in canon law; dissertation: Il governo della Chiesa nel pensiero di Benedetto XIV - Papa Lambertini, 1740-1758); the relator of his dissertation was Canonist Alfons Maria Stickler, S.D.B, future cardinal. Besides his native Italian, he also speaks French, German, Portuguese and Spanish.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 1, 1960, Ivrea, by Albino Mensa, bishop of Ivrea. Further studies in Turin and Rome. Professor of Special Moral Theology, Pontifical Salesian Athenaeum (became Pontifical Salesian University in 1973), Rome, 1967; professor of canon law, 1976-1991. In the community of Pontifical Salesian University of Rome, director of theologians, 1974-1976; dean of the Faculty of Canon Law, 1976-1985; vice-rector, 1987-1989. Guest professor of Public Ecclesiastical Law at the Institute Utriusque Iuris of the Pontifical Lateran University, 1978. Pastoral ministry in several Roman parishes and in the promotion of the laity in the Centers of Theological and Apostolic Formation, especially with intervention on subjects of social morality and the relation between faith and politics. Collaborated in the final phase of the revision of the Code of Canon Law and promoted its reception in the local churches. Directed the work group that translated the Code into Italian for the Italian Episcopal Conference and visited a hundred of Italian and foreign dioceses to present the "grand discipline of the Church". Since the 1980s, consultor in several dicasteries of the Roman Curia, especially in the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in matters theologico-juridical. In 1988, he was appointed to a group of experts that assisted Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, future Pope Benedict XVI, in the negotiations with schismatic Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre. Rettore Magnifico of the Pontifical Salesian University, Rome, June 1, 1989 until his promotion to the episcopate.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Vercelli, June 4, 1991. Consecrated, August 1, 1991, metropolitan cathedral of Vercelli, by Albino Mensa, archbishop emeritus of Vercelli, assisted by Luigi Bettazzi, bishop of Ivrea, and by Carlo Cavalla, bishop of Casale Monferrato. His episcopal motto is Fides custodiare Concordiam servare. Received the pallium from Pope John Paul II in the patriarchal Vatican basilica on June 29, 1992. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, June 13, 1995. Secretary of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, June 13, 1995. Charged by Pope John Paul II with the care of the publication of the third part of the "secret" of Fatima. Also, commissioned by Pope John Paul II to assist Emmanuel Milingo, archbishop emeritus of Lusaka, Zambia, in August 2001, when he decided to return to the Roman Catholic Church after his civil marriage within the Moon sect. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Genoa, December 10, 2002. United to the see of Genoa are the posts of abbot perpetuo of S. Siro, of S. Maria Immacolata, and of S. Gerolamo di Quarto, and the title of "Legato Transmarino della Sede Apostolica."

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Ausiliatrice in via Tuscolana, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, October 21, 2003. Special papal envoy to the funeral of Suor Lucia de Jesus dos Santos, the last survivor of the three shepherds to whom the Blessed Virgin of Fatima appeared for the first time on May 13, 1917. The funeral mass was celebrated on Tuesday, February 15, 2005, at 4:00 p.m., in the cathedral of Coimbra, Portugal. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Awarded an honorary degree by the Catholic University of Salta, Argentina, July 19, 2005. Ceased as metropolitan archbishop of Genoa, August 29, 2006. Became secretary of State on September 15, 2006. Named member of the Cardinalitial Commission for the Vigilance of the Institute for Works of Religion (I.O.R.), October 14, 2006. Named camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church on April 4, 2007; took the oath of office on July 7, 2007, in the Chapel of Urban VIII in the Apostolic Palace. Given the award "Gaudium et Spes" by the Order of the Knights of Columbus on August 6, 2007, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America during the celebration of the 125th anniversary of the order (1). Papal legate to the solemn closing celebrations of the 90th anniversary of the apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Fatima, Portugal, which took place on October 12 and 13, 2007. Promoted to the order of cardinal bishops and the title of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, May 10, 2008. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". Pontifical legate to the celebrations of the 5th World Encounter of Families, which took place in Ciudad Méjico, Méjico, between January 13 and 18, 2009. On April 15, 2009, he was named knight of collar of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem (2). Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World". Confirmed as secretary of State, January 15, 2010. Pontifical legate to the celebration of the Eucharistic Congress of Slovenia, which took place in Celje on June 13, 2010. Received a doctorate honoris causa in jurisprudence from the University "Magna Grecia" of Catanzaro on April 21, 2012. Awarded the International Award Conde de Barcelona, established by the foundation Conde de Barcelona of the Spanish newspaper "La Vanguardia", on September 25, 2012. On February 28, 2013, upon the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI from the pontificate, he ceased as secretary of State according to the Code of Canon Law. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On March 16, 2013, the new pope confirmed him as secretary of State donec aliter provideatur. On August 11, 2013, the commune of Introd, in Valle d'Aosta, Italy, granted him the honorary citizenship. On August 31, 2013, Pope Francis, in accordance to canon 354 of the Code of Canon Law, accepted his resignation from the office of secretary of State, asking him to remain in office until October 15, 2013, with all the faculties proper to the office. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for Bishops on December 16, 2013. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, until the expiration of his term, on February 19, 2014.

Bibliography. Bertone, Tarcisio. La diplomazia pontificia in un mondo globalizzato. Prefazione di Papa Francesco. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013.

Links. Arms, photograph, biography and bibliography, in Italian, archdiocese of Genoa; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; and another image of his arms, archdiocese of Genoa; Mgr. Bettazzi: "Bertone is trustworthy" by Giacomo Galeazzo, Vatican Insider, 05/29/2012; Esclusivo: parla il cardinale Bertone, Famiglia Cristiana, 18/06/2012; Bertone: si cerca di destabilizzare la Chiesa. Ma è una roccia che resiste alle burrasche. Avvenire, Chiesa, 18 giugno 2012; Vatileaks: The Popes action irritated some; they are trying to destabilise the Church by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 06/18/2012; Vatileaks: Too many questions have been left unanswered dear Bertone by Marco Tossati, Vatican Insider, 06/21/2012; Cardinal Bertone calls for free and universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS, Vatican City, 22 June 2012 (VIS), news.va. Full text of the address in Italian, Press Office of the Holy See; L'ipotesi: Bertone lascia a ottobre Pronto un diplomatico straniero by Gian Guido Vecchi, in Italian, Corriere della Sera, 24 giugno 2012 | 14:49; Pope renews confidence in Cardinal Bertone by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 07/ 4/2012; Benoît XVI renouvelle sa confiance au cardinal Bertone by Isabelle de Gaulmyn, La Croix, 4/7/12 - 14 H 03; Papa rinnova fiducia a Bertone: «Ingiuste critiche verso di Lei», Chiesa, Avvenire, 4 luglio 2012; Pope voices confidence in embattled Bertone , The Tablet, 4 July 2012; He who eats Secretary of State dies by Marco Tosatti, Vatican Insider, 07/ 4/2012; Pope (re)confirms trust in Bertone by Giacomo Galeazzi, Vatican Insider, 04-07-2012; Benedict XVI renews his trust in Cardinal Bertone, L'Osservatore Romano, 2012-07-04, news.va; El papa expresa públicamente su aprecio al cardenal Bertone, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 04-07-2012; Emotional Cardinal Bertone to Pope: you brought God to man and man to God, Rome Reports, 2013-02-13 19:23:29; I sette anni del cardinale Bertone by Mimmo Muolo, Avvenire, 31 agosto 2013; Vaticano, la fine dellera Bertone by Giacomo Galeazzi, Vatican Insider, 15/01/2014; When did Benedict XVI first think of resigning? Card. Bertone has the answer, Rome Reports, 2014-02-11; Benedicto XVI le anticipó al cardenal Bertone su intención de renunciar by Rocío Lancho García, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 11 de febrero de 2014; Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone: Keeping the secret of Benedict XVI's resignation was a tremendous burden, Rome Reports, 2014-02-11; L'ira di Francesco per il mega-attico del cardinal Bertone, La Repubblica, 2014-0420; Unease over Cardinal Bertone's luxury apartment, ucanews, April 21, 2014; El cardenal Bertone: 'no me dentengo a recoger las piedras que me lanzan', Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 27 de abril de 2014; Bertone: «Non ho un maxi-appartamento» by Domenico Agasso jr., Vatican Insider, 28/04/2014; Bertone replica alle accuse: gogna mediatica, Avvenire, 28 aprile 2014; Ex-No. 2 at Vatican defends spacious apartment, Miami Herald, Wednesday, 04.30.14; Bertone e i 15 milioni alla casa cinematografica Lux Vide by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 21/05/2014; Embattled Cardinal Bertone faces new scandal, ucanews, May 21, 2014; While Pope Francis rages over inequality, a cardinal builds a Vatican penthouse by Terrence McCoy, The Washington Post, June 17, 2014.

(1) Named after the constitution "Gaudium et Spes", issued by the Second Vatican Council, the award is the highest honor bestowed by the Knights of Columbus, the world's largest Catholic Fraternal Organization with nearly 1.7 million members. The Gaudium et Spes Award is awarded only in special circumstances and only to individuals of exceptional merit.The award was first given in 1992, when the late Mother Theresa of Calcutta was named as the first recipient. Since then, four more individuals have been honored with this award: the late Cardinal John O'Connor, former archbishop of New York; the late Cardinal James Hickey, former archbishop of Washington; Cardinal William Baum, former archbishop of Washington and major penitentiary emeritus; and Latin Patriarch Michael Sabbah of Jerusalem. The award recognizes individuals for their exemplary contributions to the realization of the message of faith and service in the spirit of Christ as articulated in the document for which it is named. The award comes with an honorarium of $100,000.
(2) This is the highest rank of honor of the order; currently, only fourteen of the 24,000 members of the order have received that distinction.


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BEVILACQUA, Anthony Joseph
(1923-2012)

Birth. June 17, 1923, Brooklyn, United States of America; of Italian parents who had migrated around 1913. He was the ninth of the eleven children of Luigi Bevilacqua, a stone cutter and cobbler who owned a hair dying shop and a shoe shine shop in Woodhaven, Queens, New York, and Maria Codella. He worked as a bricklayer in Italy prior to his immigration to the United States. They could barely read or speak English, and inadvertently joined an Episcopal parish upon arriving, thinking that it was Catholic.

Education. Elementary and secondary education at Public School No. 60; St. Thomas the Apostle School; and Richmond Hill High School; he entered Cathedral College, Brooklyn; and later studied at the Immaculate Conception Seminary, Huntington; the Pontifical Gregorian University, where he obtained a doctorate in canon law; and Columbia University, New York, where he earned a master's in political science; and finally, St. John's University, Queens, where he obtained a doctorate in law.

Priesthood. Ordained on June 11, 1949, St. James cathedral, Brooklyn. Successively, pastoral ministry in the diocese of Brooklyn and faculty member of the Cathedral College, 1949-1954; further studies, Rome, 1954-1956. In the diocese of Brooklyn, 1956-1980, chaplain of religious women; diocesan vice-chancellor; faculty member of its seminary; official in the diocesan tribunal; founder of the Catholic Office for Migrants and Refugees, 1971; diocesan chancellor, 1976-1980; faculty member, St. John's University, 1977-1980. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, January 23, 1976.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Acque Albe di Bizacena and appointed auxiliary of Brooklyn, October 4, 1980. Consecrated, November 24, 1980, basilica of Our Lady of Perpetual Help, Brooklyn, by Francis J. Mugavero, bishop of Brooklyn, assisted by John Joseph Snyder, bishop of Saint Augustine, and by Charles Richard Mulrooney, titular bishop of Valentiniana, auxiliary of Brooklyn. In the same ceremony were consecrated Joseph Michael Sullivan, titular bishop of Suliana, auxiliary of Brooklyn; and Rene Arnold Valero, titular bishop of Vico della Torre, auxiliary of Brooklyn. His episcopal motto was Ecclesia mater nostra. Transferred to the see of Pittsburgh on October 10, 1983. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Philadelphia on February 11, 1988.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1991; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Redentore e S. Alfonso in Via Merulana on June 28, 1991. From 1995 to 2000, he hosted a live weekly radio call-in program, "Live with Cardinal Bevilacqua", which aired on WZZD-AM in Philadelphia. Special papal envoy to the 5th National Eucharistic Congress, Manila, Philippines, from January 24 to 26, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, from November 16 to December 12, 1997. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old on June 17, 2003. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, July 15, 2003. Apostolic administrator of Philadelphia from July 15 to October 7, 2003. Upon his retirement, he lived in his residence on the grounds of St. Charles Borromeo Seminary in Wynnewood, and was rarely seen in public. On February 2011, it was reported that the cardinal was suffering from cancer and dementia. His death came just days after lawyers battled in court over his competency as a witness in an upcoming church-abuse case involving his longtime aide. He was sharply criticized but never charged by two Philadelphia grand juries investigating child sex abuse complaints lodged against several priests in the archdiocese.

Death. January 31, 2012, at about 9:15 p.m., of heart disease, with a contributing factor of prostate cancer and advanced stages of dementia a day after he was ruled competent to testify at the child endangerment trial of a longtime aide, in his sleep, in his residence on the grounds of St. Charles Borromeo Seminary in Wynnewood, archdiocese of Philadelphia. Following a private viewing at Saint Charles Borromeo Seminary, Archbishop Charles Chaput, O.F.M.Cap., of Philadelphia received the body at the Cathedral Basilica of Saints Peter and Paul on Monday, February 6, 2012 at approximately 5:30 p.m. A public viewing took place at the cathedral basilica from 5:30 p.m. until 9:00 p.m. There was also a public viewing on Tuesday, February 7, 2012 from 8:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. The Solemn Funeral Mass for Cardinal Bevilacqua began at 2:00 p.m. followed by the Rite of Committal in the cathedral crypt, located beneath the main altar. The main celebrant of the funeral mass was Archbishop Chaput and the homilist was Monsignor Louis D'Addezio. Among the concelebrants of the mass were Cardinal Justin Francis Rigali, archbishop emeritus of Philadelphia, successor to the late cardinal; Antonio Maria Viganò, titular archbishop of Ulpiana, nuncio to the United States; and dozens of bishops and hundreds of priests. Present were Cardinals Edward Michael Egan, archbishop emeritus of New York; Theodore Edgar McCarrick, archbishop emeritus of Washington; and Donald William Wuerl, archbishop of Washington. Also present were the surviving brother and sister of the late cardinal with other members of the family.

Bibliography. Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 1977. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1977, p. 1656; Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 183; McNally, Michael J. "Bevilacqua, Anthony Joseph." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyła years. Detroit, MI : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, p. 260.

Links. His arms, Araldica Vaticana; Cardinal Anthony Bevilacqua: Prince of the People, part 1, in English, You Tube; Cardinal Anthony Bevilacqua: Prince of the People, part 2, in English, You Tube; Cardinal Anthony Bevilacqua: Prince of the People, part 3, in English, You Tube; Cardinal Anthony Bevilacqua dies at the age of 88, in English, Catholic Philly, February 1st, 2012; County coroner: Cardinal Bevilacqua died of natural causes by Matthew Gambino, Catholic News Service, Mar. 8, 2012.


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BIFFI, Giacomo
(1928-

Birth. June 13, 1928, at 6 p.m., at the Istituto di Maternità "Asilo Regina Elena per le madre legittime", located at via Manfredo Fanti 6, Milan, archdiocese of Milan, Italy. At the time, the family resided at via Paolo Frisi 8. Son of Filippo Biffi, legalibri, and Isolina Bossi, a housewife.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Milan, where he obtained a licentiate in theology; in 1955, he obtained a doctorate in theology with the thesis La colpa e la libertà nell'odierna condizione umana in the Archiepiscopal Seminary of Venegono, Mila..

Priesthood. Ordained, December 23, 1950, Milan, by Cardinal Alfredo Ildefonso Schuster, O.S.B., archbishop of Milan. Faculty member, Seminary of Milan, 1951-1960. Pastor of the populous parish of Ss. Martiri Anauniani, Legnano, May 1960 until 1969; pastor of the parish of S. Andrea, Milan, April 27, 1969. In 1974, he was named episcopal vicar for culture in 1974. Named canon theologian of the metropolitan chapter of Milan on February 1, 1975, leaving the parochial ministry. Also in 1975, he became director of the Lombardian Pastoral Institute, which he reorganized making it a useful instrument for the permanent and specialized formation of the pastoral cooperators. He was also in charge of the Congregation for the Ambrosian Rite.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Fidene and appointed auxiliary of Milan, December 7, 1975. Consecrated, January 11, 1976, in the parish church of S. Andrea, Milan, by Cardinal Giovanni Colombo, archbishop of Milan, assisted by Bernardo Citterio, titular bishop of Floriana, auxiliary of Milan, and by Libero Tresoldi, titular bishop of Altino, auxiliary of Milan. His episcopal motto is Ubi fides ibi libertas. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Bologna, April 19, 1984.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Giovanni Evangelista e Petronio, May 25, 1985. Preached the Lent spiritual exercises for the pope and Roman Curia in 1989. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Special papal envoy to the Thirty Second Italian National Eucharistic Congress, Siena, May 29-June 5, 1994. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese for having reached the age limit according to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law, December 16, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Preached the Lent spiritual exercises for the pope and Roman Curia from February 24 to March 3, 2007. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on June 12, 2008. Special papal representative to the celebrations of the Ninth centennial of the death of Saint Anselm, which took place in Aosta, Italy, from April 19 to 26, 2009. He has published numerous books on diverse subjects (1).

Bibliography. Biffi, Giacomo. Memorie e digressioni di un italiano cardinale. Siena : Cantagalli editore, 2007; Biffi, Giacomo. La multiforme sapienza di Dio. Esercizi spirituali con Giovanni Paolo II. Firenze : Cantagalli, 2014; Meluzzi, Luciano. I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna. Appendice. Bologna : La Grafica Emiliano, MCMLXXXVI, p. 24-35.

Links. Photograph, arms and biography, in Italian, archdiocese of Bologna; biographical entry, in Italian, Enciclopedia on line, Treccani; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Le Memorie controcorrente del cardinale Biffi by Giovanni Santambrogio, Il Sole 24 ore, 26 ottobre 2007.

(1) These are some of his works: Alla destra del Padre. Nuova sintesi di teologia sistematica (1973); Contro maestro Ciliegia. Commento teologico a "Le avventure di Pinocchio" (1977); La meraviglia dell'evento cristiano (1995); Ripartire dalla verità (1997); Gesù di Nazaret centro del cosmo e della storia (2000); Pinocchio, Peppone, l'anticristo e altre divagazioni (2005).


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BILLÉ, Louis-Marie
(1938-2002)

Birth. February 18, 1938, Fleury-lès-Aubrais, diocese of Orléans, France. Son of Gabriel Léandre François Victor Billé and Madeleine Louise David.

Education. Major Seminary of Luçon, Luçon (philosophy and theology); Catholic University of Angers, Angers (licentiate in theology); Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome (licentiate in Sacred Scriptures); Biblical Institute, Jerusalem.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 25, 1962, Luçon. Further studies, Rome, 1963-1965; Jerusalem, 1965-1966. Faculty member, Major Seminary of Luçon, 1966-1972; faculty member, Seminary of La Roche-sur-Yon, 1972-1977. In charge of permanent formation of the laity and animator of the National Office for permanent formation of the clergy, 1977-1980. Episcopal vicar and archdeacon of Haut Bocage, 1980-1984.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Laval, March 10, 1984. Consecrated, May 19, 1984, Salle des Fêtes, Laval, by Charles Paty, bishop of Luçon, assisted by Paul-Louis Carrière, bishop emeritus of Laval, and by Jacques-Louis-Antoine-Marie David, titular bishop of Girba, auxiliary of Bordeaux. His episcopal motto was Scio qui credidi. Promoted to metropolitan see of Aix, Arles and Embrun, May 5, 1995. President of Conference of Bishops of France, November 5, 1996; reelected, November 9, 1999. Transferred to metropolitan and primatial see of Lyon, July 10, 1998. Chancellor of the Catholic University of Lyon, 1998-2002. Attended II Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, February 21, 2001. Transferred to the title of Ss. Trinità al Monte Pincio, July 22, 2001. Resigned the presidency of the Episcopal Conference of France because of illness, November 6, 2001. He resided at 1, Place de Fourvière, Lyon 5ème (Rhône).

Death. March 12, 2002, at 11:30 a.m., from advanced stages of colon cancer, at his sister's house at 89 rue Camille Pelletan, in Talence, a bordering commune of Bordeaux. His funeral mass, presided by Cardinal Camillo Ruini, representing Pope John Paul II, was celebrated at the Saint-Jean metropolitan and primatial cathedral of Lyon. Cardinals Roger Etchegaray and Jean-Marie Lustiger, together with some sixty other prelates and a great number of clergy from the archdiocese of Lyon, concelebrated. The late cardinal was buried in that cathedral.

Bibliography. Jore, Alexander. Épiscopologe Français de 1592 à 1973. Mis à jour et continué jusqu'en 2004. Complément de l'article "France" du Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie Ecclésiastiques t. XVIII, colonnes 161 à 532. Pro-Manuscripto, 25 - III- 2004, no. 3271.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; his portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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BOVONE, Alberto
(1922-1998)

Birth. June 11, 1922, Frugarolo, diocese of Alessandria, Italy. He was the youngest of five boys born to Davide Bovone, a blacksmith, and Nevilia Rolando.

Education. Seminary of Alessandria; Turin State University; Pontifical University of S. Tommaso d'Aquino, Rome (doctorate in canon law); Sacred Roman Rota (lawyer). He was a keen poet, however, he never published any of his works.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 26, 1945, Casale Monferrato by Bishop Giuseppe Angrisani of Casale Monferrato. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Alessandria, 1945-1946. Further studies, 1946-1951. Entered service of the Holy See, officer in the S.C. of the Council, October 1951; cappo d'ufficio in the pastoral section. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; special secretary. Undersecretary of the S.C. for the Doctrine of the Faith, May 21, 1973.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cesarea di Numidia, April 5, 1984. Named secretary of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, April 8, 1984. Consecrated, May 12, 1984, Alessandria, by Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, prefect of Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, assisted by Ferdinando Maggioni, bishop of Alessandria della Paglia, and by Luigi Dadaglio, titular archbishop of Lero, pro-penitentiary major. His episcopal motto was Fidelis et prudens. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopal Council (CELAM), Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Pro-prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints, June 13, 1995. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 1998; he was assigned the deaconry of Ognissanti in Via Appia Nuova on February 21, 1998. He had been sick for a long time and was already ailing on the day of his cardinalitial promotion. Following the consistorial ceremony, Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, personally delivered the red biretta and the cardinalitial ring to Cardinal Bovone at the "Agostino Gemelli University Polyclinic". Named prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints, February 23, 1998. He received the last rites from Cardinal Giovanni Canestri, a lifelong friend who spent days by his deathbed. When he received his last rites, Cardinal Bovone removed his oxygen mask and expressed : "È il regalo più bello che poteva farmi ... non posso non pensare al Santo Padre ... sono felice di essere un sacerdote".

Death. Friday April 17, 1998, at 8 p.m., at "Agostino Gemelli University Polyclinic", Rome. His funeral, celebrated on April 20, at the patriarchal Vatican basilica, was presided by Pope John Paul II, who delivered the homily; and attended by forty cardinals and sixty bishops. Buried in his family's tomb in the cemetery of Frugarolo, Frugarolo. On Sunday, October 7, 2007, his remains were transferred to the parish church of S. Felice, in Alessandria, in the presence of Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., secretary of State, and reburied in a marble sarcophagus (1).

Lnk. His portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

ALBERTUS S.R.E. CARDINALIS BOVONE
PRAEFECTUS CONGREGATONIS DE CAUSIS SANCTORUM
FRUGAROLO 11-6-1922 - ROMA 17-4-1998


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BOZANIĆ, Josip
(1949-

Birth. March 20, 1949, Rijeka, Yugoslavia (now Croatia). Of a family of farmers. Son of Ivan Bozanić and Dinka Valković. His brother Antun is a priest. A member of his family, Bartul Bozanić, was bishop of Krk from 1839 to 1854. His name in Croat is Josipom Bozanićem.

Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Pazin (with classical grammar school); at the Theological Faculties of Rijeka and Zagreb (master's degree in theology); at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1979-1985 (dogmatic theology); and at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome (master's degree in canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1975, Krk, by Karmelo Zazinović, bishop of Krk. Secretary to the bishop of Krk, 1975-1976. Parish vicar, 1976-1978. Further studies in Rome, 1979-1985. Chancellor of the diocesan curia in Krk, 1986-1987. Vicar general, 1987-1989. Professor of canon law and dogmatic theology in the Seminary of Rijeka, 1988-1997.

Episcopate. Elected coadjutor bishop of Krk, Veglia, May 10, 1989. Consecrated, June 25, 1989, cathedral of the Assumption, Krk, by Cardinal Franjo Kuharić, archbishop of Zagreb, assisted by Josip Pavlisić, archbishop of Rijeka-Senj, and by Karmelo Zazinović, bishop of Krk. His episcopal motto is Da život imaju. Succeeded to the see of Krk, November 14, 1989. Administrator of the archdiocese of Rijeka-Senj, June 5 to November 22, 1996. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Zagreb, July 5, 1997. President of the Croatian Conference of Bishops. Vice President of the Council of European Bishops' Conferences. Attended the II Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Girolamo dei Croati, October 21, 2003. Special papal envoy to the solemn celebrations that took place in Zadar, Croatia, on January 15, 2005, for the 17th centennial of the martyrdom of Saint Anastasia, patroness of the archdiocese of Zadar. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Elected one of the two vice-presidents of the Council of Episcopal Conferences of Europe, for a quienquennium, October 6, 2006. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church"; by papal appointment. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 17th centennial of the martyrdom of Bishop Svesti Kivrin (Saint Quirin), which took place in Krk, Croatia, on June 4, 2009. Named member of the Pontifical Council for Social Communications on December 29, 2011. On September 18, 2012, the pope appointed him synodal father of the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 7 to 28, 2012, on the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of the Christian faith". Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On May 10, 2013, he was named special papal envoy to the celebration of the 1150th anniversary of the arrival of Saints Cyril and Methodius to Czech territory, which took place in Velehrad, Czech Republic, on July 5, 2013. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013. He was named member of the Supervisory Commission of Cardinals on the Institute for the Works of Religion (IOR) on July 9, 2014.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Croatian, Croatian Conference of Bishops; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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