The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
(1903-2013)

C

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CACCIA DOMINIONI, Camillo
(1877-1946)

Birth. February 7, 1877, Milan, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Major Seminary of Milan; then, at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in canon law; and later, at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 23, 1899, Milan, by Cardinal Andrea Ferrari, archbishop of Milan. Further studies, 1899-1902. Pastoral ministry in Rome, 1899-1921. Coadjutor-canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1903. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, September 24, 1914. Master of the Papal Chamber, June 16, 1921; reappointed, February 7, 1922. Protonotary apostolic, June 27, 1921. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, February 14, 1924.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 16, 1935; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, December 19, 1935. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Crowned Pope Pius XII, March 12, 1939.

Death. November 12, 1946, of heart ailment, Rome. Buried in the crypt of the basilica of Ss. Ambrogio e Carlo (S. Carlo al Corso), Rome (1).

Bibliography. Martinelli, Raffaello. Le Lapidi di San Carlo al Corso : catechesi in immagini. Roma : Arciconfraternità dei SS. Ambrogio e Carlo, 2007. (Arciconfraternità dei SS. Ambrogio e Carlo; Variation: Arciconfraternita dei SS. Ambrogio e Carlo), p. 178.

Links. His arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana; Coronation of Pope Pius XII in 1939 by Cardinal Camillo Caccia Dominioni, video, You Tube.

(1) This is the text in his sarcophagus in the crypt of that church, taken from Martinelli, Le Lapidi di San Carlo al Corso : catechesi in immagini, p. 178;

OSSA
CAMILLO CACCIA DOMINIONI
S. R. E. CARDINALIS
PROTODIACONI S. M. IN DOMNICA
OBIIT
XII NOV. MCMXXXXVI


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CACCIAVILLAN, Agostino
(1926-

Birth. August 14, 1926, Novale di Valdagno, diocese of Vicenza, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Vicenza, Vicenza; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (licentiate in social sciences); State University, Rome (doctorate in jurisprudence); Pontifical Lateran University, Rome (doctorate in canon law); Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 26, 1949. Vicar cooperator, Santa Maria in Colle, Bassano del Grapa. Further studies and pastoral ministry, Rome 1957-1959.Worked for a few months at the Secretariat of State. Secretary of the nunciature in the Philippines, 1960-1964; of the nunciature in Spain, 1964-1968; of the nunciature in Lisbon, 1968. From 1969 to 1974, worked in the Secretariat of State, where he also was head of the Office of Information and Documentation. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, August 26, 1973.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Amiterno and appointed pro-nuncio in Kenya and apostolic delegate in the Seychelles, January 17, 1976. Consecrated, February 28, 1976, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Jean Villot, secretary of State, assisted by Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy, archbishop emeritus of Bangalore, secretary of the S.C. for the Evangelization of Peoples, and by Carlo Fanton, titular bishop of Bennefa, auxiliary of Vicenza. His episcopal motto is In virtute Dei. In Kenya was also permanent observer before the organs of the United Nations Organization for the Environment and the Habitat, 1976-1981. Pro-nuncio in India, May 9, 1981. First pro-nuncio in Nepal, April 30, 1985. Pro-nuncio in the United States of America, permanent observer before the Organization of American States (O.A.S.), and representative of the Holy See before the World Association of Jurists, June 13, 1990. President of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, November 5, 1998. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ss. Angeli Custodi a Città Giardino, February 21, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Resigned the presidency, October 1, 2002. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, August 14, 2006. Confirmed by Pope Benedict XVI in the office of cardinal protodeacon in the consistory of March 1, 2008. Opted for the order of cardinal priests in the consistory of February 21, 2011 and at his request his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CAGGIANO, Antonio
(1889-1979)

Birth. January 30, 1889, Coronda, diocese of Santa Fe, Argentina.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Santa Fe.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 23, 1912, Santa Fe. Pastoral ministry in Santa Fe, 1912-1913. Faculty member of the Seminary of Santa Fe, 1913-1931. Pastoral ministry in the Argentinian Catholic Action, 1913-1931; national chaplain, 1931-1933. Vicar general of the Military Ordinary, 1933-1934.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Rosario, September 13, 1934. Consecrated, March 17, 1935, Rosario, by Filippo Cortesi, titular archbishop of Sirace, nuncio in Argentina, assisted by Nicolás Fasolino, archbishop of Santa Fe, and by Fortunado Devoto, titular bishop of Attea, auxiliary of Buenos Aires. His episcopal motto was Impendam et super impendar.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, February 22, 1946. Papal legate to the National Marian Congress, Catamarca, Argentina, April 24, 1954. Papal legate to the Congress of Catholic Education, La Paz, Bolivia, September 8, 1948. Attended the First General Conference of Latin American Episcopate, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 25 to August 4, 1955. Persecuted by the Peronist regime, 1955. Papal legate to the Bolivarian Eucharistic Congress, Caracas, Venezuela, November 10, 1956. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Promoted to the primatial metropolitan see of Buenos Aires, August 15, 1959. Ordinary of the Armed Forces, December 14, 1959. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965; member of the Board of Presidency, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Lost his right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, April 22, 1975. Cardinal protopriest, December 17, 1978.

Death. October 23, 1979, in Buenos Aires. Buried in the Chapel of Sagrado Corazón y Santa Margarita María de Alcoque in the metropolitan cathedral of Buenos Aires (1). At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Link. His photograph and his arms. Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

CARDENAL ANTONIO CAGGIANO
PRIMER OBISPO DE ROSARIO    1935-1959
ARZOBISPO DE BUENOS AIRES  1959-1975
30-I-1889    -   23.X.1979
RECORDADME ANTE EL SEÑOR JESUS


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CAGIANO DE AZEVEDO, Ottavio
(1845-1927)

Birth. November 7, 1845, Frosinone, diocese of Veroli, Papal State (1). Second of the three children of Vincenzo Cagiano de Azevedo and Anna Cerroni. The other siblings were Michele and Antonio, privy chamberlain participant of His Holiness. He had the title of count. Nephew of Cardinal Antonio Maria Cagiano de Azevedo (1844).

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Grottaferrata.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 1868. Pastoral ministry in Rome, 1868-1874. Canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, April 1, 1874. Abreviattore de parco maggiore, January 1, 1876. Protonotary apostolic ad instar participantium, April 9 (2), 1880. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, December 3 (3), 1886. Master of the Papal Chamber, December 31, 1891 (4). Papal Majordomo, May 29, 1901.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 11, 1905; received the red hat and the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, December 14, 1905. Apostolic visitor of the Hospice of Catechumens, January 17, 1911. Pro-prefect of the S.C. for Religious, June 12, 1913; prefect, October 31, 1913. Protector of the Order of the Servants of Mary, March 10, 1914. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, December 6, 1915 until his death. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, proper of the chancellor, December 6, 1915. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Decorated with the grand cross of the Order of Franz Joseph of Austria; the grand cross of the Order of Isabel of Spain; the grand cross of the Civil Order of Tuscany. Officer of Légion d'honor of France. Commander with plaque of the Order of the Red Eagle of Prussia. Grand officer of the Order of the Crown of Siam.

Death. July 11, 1927, Anzio, near Rome. Buried in the tomb of the Order of the Servants of Mary, in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1938, p. 77; Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 678; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 9, 23 and 25; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), V, 133.

Limk. Photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939, p. 77; and Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 9; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 678, says that he was born on November 1, 1845.
(2) This is according to Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 9; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 678, says that he was named on April 16, 1880.
(3) This is according to Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 9; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 678, says that he was named on December 1, 1886.
(4) This is according to Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 9; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 678, says that he was named on January 1, 1892.


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CAGLIERO, S.D.B., Giovanni
(1838-1926)

Birth. January 11, 1838, Castelnuovo d'Asti, archdiocese of Turin, Piedmont (later Italy). Son of Pietro Cagliero and Teresa Musso. His father died when he was very young. He was accepted by Giovanni Bosco, future saint, in the nascent Salesian oratory in Turin. His cousin, Father Cesare Cagliero, S.D.B., was procurator general of the Salesians.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Castelnuovo d'Asti; and at the University of Turin. Joined the Pious Society of St. Francis de Sales (Salesians of Don Bosco), Turin, 1851. Received clerical habit from Don Bosco and was his favorite pupil. Classmate of Domenico Savio and Michele Rua, future Salesian saints.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 14, 1862, Turin. Faculty member of Salesian House of Studies, Turin, 1862-1875. Led first ten Salesians to South America and established five houses in Uruguay and Argentina, 1875-1877. Spiritual director of his society and first General Director of Daughters of Mary Auxiliary, Turin, 1877-1884. Pro-apostolic vicar of the new vicariate of Northern Patagonia, Argentina, November 20, 1883; the vicariate had been erected on the previous November 16.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Magido, October 30, 1884. Consecrated, December 7, 1884, Turin, by Cardinal Gaetano Alimonda, archbishop of Turin, assisted by Emiliano Manacorda, bishop of Fossano, and by Giovanni Battista Bertagna, titular bishop of Cafarnao, auxiliary of Turin. Promoted to titular archbishop of Sebaste in Armenia Prima, March 24, 1904. Apostolic visitor to Italian dioceses of Bobbio, Piacenza, Savona, and Tortona, 1904. Apostolic delegate and legate extraordinary to Costa Rica, June 10, 1908. Apostolic delegate and legate extraordinary to Nicaragua, October 26, 1908.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 6, 1915; received the red hat and the title of S. Bernardo alle Terme, December 9, 1915. On December 9, 1915, he was named member of the SS. CC. of Religious, Propaganda Fide, and Rites; and of the S. C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs on April 10, 1919. Opted for order of cardinal bishops and suburbicarian see of Frascati, December 16, 1920; he took possession of the see on January 16, 1921. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Papal legate to the Eucharistic Congress of Frascati, August 5, 1923. He was protector of the Sisters Adoratrices of the Most Holy Sacrament of Buenos Aires (November 16, 1916); and of the Venerable Confraternity of Devotees of Jesus of the Calvary (May 9, 1917). He composed several musical works. He was the first Salesian cardinal.

Death. February 28, 1926, at 3:30 a.m., Rome. The funeral took place on the following March 3 in the basilica of Sacro Cuore, in via Marsala, Rome; the requiem mass was celebrated by Felice Ambrogio Guerra, S.D.B., titular archbishop of Verissa, assisted by the clerics of the Pontifical Chapel. At the end of the ceremony, Cardinal Vincenzo Vannutelli, bishop of Ostia and Palestrina, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, imparted the absolution. Buried in the sepulchre of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, Campo Verano Cemetery, Rome. In 1964 his remains were transferred to Argentina; and on May 14, they were buried in front of the main alater of the cathedral Mater Misericordiæ of Viedma (1). By presidential decree of April 7, 1965, a commemorative postal stamp honoring the cardinal was issued by the Republic of Argentina.

Bibliography. Bodas de plata episcopales del Exmo. y Reverendísimo monseñor doctor don Juan Cagliero, arzobispo titular de Sebaste y delegado apostólico en Centro América. San José de Costa Rica : Tip. Nacional, 1910; Cagliero, Giovanni. Proyecto de nueva circunscripción eclesiática de Honduras. Incidente suscitado por el Excmo, Sr. Delegado Apostólico, Monseñor Juan Cagliero. Corporate author: Honduras. Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores ; Honduras.; Presidente, 1912-1913 (Manuel Bonilla). Tegucigalpa : Tipografía nacional, 1913. Responsibility: Publicación de la Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores de la República de Honduras, 1913; Cagliero, Giovanni ; Silva, António Ferreira da. Unità nella diversità: le visite di Mons. Cagliero in Brasile, 1890, 1896. Roma : LAS, 1990. (Piccola biblioteca dell'Istituto storico salesiano ; 12). Note: Chiefly in Italian, with some letters in Portuguese and Spanish. Responsibility: António Ferreira da Silva; Cassano, Giovanni. Il cardinale Giovanni Cagliero : 1838-1926. Torino : Soc. ed. internazionale, 1935; Castano, Luigi. I salesiani in Argentina : il cardinal Cagliero e la redenzione della Patagonia. Roma : Casa editrice Carlo Colombo, 1942. Corporate author: Centro italiano di studi americani.; Comitato storico-politico. Conference author: Conferenze della Istituzione "Massimo Piccinini" ; (29th :; 1942:; Palazzo Antici-Mattei, Rome, Italy). At head of title:; Centro Italiano di Studi Americani, Comitato storico-politico, Conferenze della Istituzione "Massimo Piccinini"; "Em. Cagliero (Jean) in "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1924. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1923, p. 109; Entraigas, Raul A. El Apóstol de la Patagonia. Rosario, Argentina: Apis, 1956; "Giovanni Cagliero" in Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1926. Roma : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1926, p. 36; Imperatori, Ugo E. Giovanni Cagliero, 1838-1926. Bologna : L. Cappelli, 1931. (I grandi cardinali italiani nella vita e nella storia, 10); L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, LX, n. 50 (19,987) (March 1-2, 1926), p. 3; LX, no. 51 (19,988) (March 3, 1926); and LX no. 51 (19,989) (March 4, 1926), p. 3; Pablo de Salvo, Francisco. Cagliero civilizador. Buenos Aires : Editorial Difusión, 1939; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 16, 21, 22 and 334; Retornó Monseñor Cagliero; repatriación de sus restos: Roma, 1926-Viedma, 1964. Buenos Aires : Impr. del Congreso de la Nación, 1966; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, p. 360.

Links. Biography by Pietro Stella, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 16 (1973), Treccani; biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; biography by Don Fiorenzo Carbonari, in Italian, La Nostra Valle on line; and brief biographical data, in Italian, sixth paragraph on page, Castelnuovo Don Bosco - Notizie Storiche di A. Baungartner; photographs and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the epitaph inscribed on the marble slab placed on his tomb, taken from Retornó Monseñor Cagliero; repatriación de sus restos, p. 33:

HEIC MORTALES EXUVIAS
QUAS ROMÆ PRIDIE KAL. MART, A. D. MCMXXVI RELIQUIT
LXXXVIII ÆTATIS ANNUM AGENS
JOANNES CAGLIERO
SANCTI JOANNIS BOSCO DISCIPULUS
SANCTÆ ROMANÆ ECCLESIÆ CARDINALIS
PRÆCLARUS PATAGONIÆ APOSTOLICUS VICARIUS
CUIUS IN CHRISTI REGNI DILATANDO FERVOREM
ULTIMÆ AUSTRALIS AMERICÆ REGIONES
EXIMIIS OPERIS PLURIMISQUE LABORIBUS SUNT EXPERTÆ
BENIGNO SUMMI PONTIFICIS PAULI VI IUSSU TRANSLATAS
UNIVERSUS POPULUS VIEDMENSIS
EIUSQUE ECC. EP. JOSEPHUS BORGATTI
CUNCTO CLERO OMNIBUSQUE AUCTORITATIBUS ADSTANTIBUS
MAGNO EXCEPERUNT CONCURSU
INQUE HOC TEMPLO SOLLEMNI RITU CONDIDERUNT
DIE XIV MENSIS MAI ANNO REP. SAL. MCMLXIV.
HINC IPSE ARGENTINO POPULO
RELIGIONIS SIT PERPETUUS CUSTOS
SEMPERQUE IUSTITIÆ RECTUM PATEFACIAT CALLEN

(Scripsit R. D. Robertus Jacoangeli)


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CALLEGARI, Giuseppe
(1841-1906)

Birth. November 4, 1841, Venice, Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia (Austria). From a well off family belonging to the small Venetian aristocracy. Son of Pietro Callegari and Angela Cescutt, who was a deeply devout woman and influenced greatly the young Giuseppe. Received the sacrament of confirmation, November 23, 1851.

Education. Studied at the Patriarchal Seminary of Venice. Received the insignias of the clerical character on December 18, 1858; the minor orders on March 3, 1860 and March 16, 1861; the subdiaconate on December 20, 1862; and the diaconate on December 19, 1863.

Priesthood. Ordainedon March 26, 1864, in Venice. At the Patriarchal Seminary of Venice, he was professor of its gymnasii; and professor of moral theology, 1865-1873. Pastoral ministry in Venice, 1865-1880. Counselor of the ecclesiastical tribunal, 1878; prosynodal examiner. Contributing writer to Il Veneto Cattolico. He was a very close friend of Giuseppe Sarto, future Pope Pius X.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Treviso, with dispensation for not having the degree, February 28, 1880. Granted permission to receive the episcopal consecration in Venice from its patriarch, March 11, 1880. Consecrated, March, 1880, cathedral basilica of S. Marco, Venice, by Domenico Agostini, patriarch of Venice, assisted by Giovanni Berengo, bishop of Mantua, and by Giuseppe Apollonio, bishop of Adria. Assistant to Pontifical Throne, August 24, 1882. Transferred to see of Padua, retaining the administration of Treviso until the appointment of a successor, September 25, 1882. In 1892 declined the patriarchal see of Venice and recommended Giuseppe Sarto, bishop of Mantua, for that see. President of Società Scientifica dei Cattolici Italiani.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 9, 1903; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Cosmedin, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, November 12, 1903.

Death. April 14, 1906, after a long illness, Padua. Exposed in the cathedral of Padua and buried in the Shrine d'Arcella, Padua, where S. Antonio di Padua died (1).

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1914. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1913, p. 59; "Ém. card. Callegari (Giuseppe), év. de Padoue." in "Nécrologie", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1907. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1907, p. 645-646; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 8 and 26; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 444 and 538; Toniolo, Giuseppe. "Il Cardinal Giuseppe Callegari e gli studi in Italia." Rivista Internazionale di Scienze Sociali, XLl (1906), 3-12.

Link. Photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) An electronic message from a priest of the diocese of Padua indicated that he is buried in the crypt of the cathedral of Padua.


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CALLORI DI VIGNALE, Federico
(1890-1971)

Birth. December 15, 1890, Vignale Monferrato, diocese of Casale Monferrato, Italy, from a noble family. He was the seventh of ten children to Count Ranieri Massimiliano Callori di Vignale and Countess Emanuela Beccaria Incisa. His grandparents, Federico and Carlotta, were great benefactors to Don Bosco. His godfather on the occasion of his confirmation was Don Michele Rua, co-founder of the Salesians of Don Bosco, future blessed.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; and at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 16, 1917, Rome. Pastoral ministry in Rome, 1917-1958. Privy chamberlain participant, July 6, 1919; reappointed, February 7, 1922, and March 3, 1939. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, June 3, 1935. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 28, 1935. Protonotary apostolic, June 6, 1935. Pro-master of the Papal Chamber, December 20, 1950. Knight grand cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic, January 12, 1953. Majordomo of the Sacred Apostolic Palace, October 29, 1958.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Maiuca, February 15, 1965. Consecrated, February 21, 1965, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Eugène Tisserant, bishop of Ostia and Porto e Santa Rufina, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by Diego Venini, titular archbishop of Adana, privy almoner of His Holiness, and and Pericle Felici, titular archbishop of Samosata, secretary General of the Second Vatican Council. His episcopal motto was In tenebris amen absque tenebris.

Cardinal. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of S. Giovanni Bosco, February 25, 1965. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971.

Death. August 10, 1971, following a lengthy illness, Vatican City. Buried in the chapel-tomb of his family in Vignale Monferrato (1).

Links. Photographs and biography by Eman Bonnici, in English, Find a Grave; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the simple inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

Stanislao Federico - cardinale-vescovo


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CÂMARA, Jaime de Barros
(1894-1971)

Birth. July 3, 1894, São José, archdiocese of Florianópolis, Brazil. Son of Joaquim Xavier de Oliveira Câmara, registrar of orphans, and his second wife, Anna de Carvalho Barros.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul.

Priesthood. Ordained, January 1, 1920, Florianópolis, by Joaquim Domingues de Oliveira, archbishop of Florianópolis. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Florianópolis, 1920-1935, first as substitute of the pastor of the cathedral of Florianópolis; later, as coadjutor of the parish of Tijucas and chaplain of the Sisters of the Divine Providence; and finally, as pastor of the metropolitan cathedral. Rector of the Seminary Azambuja-Brusque, Florianópolis, 1935-1936. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, April 18, 1935.

Episcopate. Elected first bishop of Mossoró, December 19, 1936; Consecrated, February 2, 1936, Florianópolis, by Joaquim Domingues de Oliveira, archbishop of Florianópolis, assisted by Pio de Freitas Silveira, C.M., bishop of Joinville, and by Daniel Henrique Hostin, O.F.M., bishop of Lages. His episcopal motto was Ignem veni mittere. Took possession of the see the following April 26. During his episcopate, he founded the Seminary of Mossoró and a home for the elderly; celebrated a Eucharistic Congress in Areia Branca; and paid special attention to the instruction of the workers and to the factories where anti-Christian and demagogic ideas were proliferating. Promoted to metropolitan see of Belém do Pará, September 15, 1941. Took possession of the archdiocese on January 1, 1942. In his new see, he dedicated special attention to the plight of the workers. Transferred to the metropolitan see of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, July 3, 1943. He took possession of the see the following September 12.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Bonifacio ed Alessio, February 22, 1946. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Porto Alegre, October 3, 1948; and also, to the Interamerican Congress of the Confederation of Catholic Education, Rio de Janeiro, July 4, 1951. Convoked and presided over the first archdiocesan synod in 1949, which decisions were published on January 1, 1950. Named by the Holy See, took possession as military vicar of Brazil on January 22, 1951, in the presence of the president of the Republic and the entire cabinet. .Attended the First General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Rio de Janeiro, July 25 to August 4, 1955. President of the Conference of Catholic Bishops of Brazil, 1958-1963. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Curitiba, March 5, 1960. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. During his episcopate, he founded the Ação Social Arquidiocesana for the spiritual and social needs of the population of Rio de Janeiro; rebuilt the Seminary of São José in Rio Comprido; founded numerous parishes; established the Comissão Arquidiocesana de Música Sacra and the Sociedad Brasileira de Arte Cristã; as well as the publication A Província Eclesiástica do Rio de Janeiro; and promoted the circulation of the daily Correio da Noite.

Death. February 18, 1971, Aparecida. The funeral mass, presided by Cardinal Eugênio de Araújo Sales, was celebrated on the following day, February 19, at the then metropolitan cathedral do Rio de Janeiro (nowadays parish church of Nossa Senhora do Carmo da Antiga Sé) followed by burial in the crypt of the new metropolitan cathedral of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro. A bust commemorating him was erected in the Praça da Igreja Matriz de São José, Santa Catarina.

Bibliography. Calliari, Ivo. D. Jaime Câmara: diário do Cardeal Arcebispo do Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro: Léo Christiano Editorial, 1996; "Jaime de Barros Câmara" in "Terceira parte, Bispos do Brasil-Republica, Os cinco primeiros cardeais" in "Diocesis e bispos do Brasil" by Apolônio Nóbrega, Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro, volume 222, Janeiro-Março 1954, 197-199.

Links. His arms, photograph and biography, in Portuguese, Wikipedia; his arms and photographs, Araldica Vaticana.


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CAMASSEI, Filippo
(1848-1921)

Birth. September 14, 1848, Rome, Papal State.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Roman Seminary, where he obtained doctorates in theology and in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 12, 1872. Pastoral ministry in Rome. Secretary to Cardinal Raffaele Monaco la Valetta, vicar general of Rome, 1876. Rector of the Pontifical Pius Seminary, 1874. Rector of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, December 10, 1889. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, April 13 (1), 1897.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Naxos, Greece, March 18, 1904. Consecrated, April 10, 1904, chapel of he Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, by Cardinal Girolamo Gotti, O.C.D., prefect of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, assisted by Pietro Gasparri, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Edmund Stonor, titular archbishop of Trebizonda. Promoted to the Latin patriarchate of Jerusalem, December 6, 1906. Expelled to Nazareth by the Turks, November 19 (2), 1917; there he was hosted by the Franciscan friars; continued to supervise the parishes in north Palestine from Nazareth and appointed Monsignor François Vilinger as his vicar in order to supervise the rest of the parishes in Palestine and Jordan. After the Anglo-French victory, on November 3, 1918, returned to Jerusalem. Shortly after, in May 1919, he went to Rome to rest and visit the Vatican.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1919; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Aracoeli, December 18, 1919.

Death. January 18, 1921, suddenly while he was at the table, Rome. Buried, in the sepulchre of "Collegio de S.C. Propaganda Fide", Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 688; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 18, 23, 197 and 267.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English and Arabic; photograph and biographical data, in French.

(1) This is according to Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 267; and Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 688; his biographical data in French, linked above, indicates that he was named on December 13, 1897.
(2) This is according to his biographical data in French, linked above; his biographical data in English and Arabic, also linked above, indicates that he was expelled on November 10, 1917.


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CANALI, Nicola
(1874-1961)

Birth. June 6, 1874, Rieti, Italy. Second child of Marquis Filippo Canali and Countess Leonetta (Caterina) Vincentini. The other children were Marinella, who married Engineer Guido Biasi; and Lodovico, canon of the cathedral chapter of Terni.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; and at the Pontifical Roman Academy of St. Thomas Aquinas, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 31, 1900, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome. Member of the staff of secretariat of State, and secretary to Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val, secretary of State, September 1, 1903. Privy chamberlain, November S. 1903. Substitute at the secretariat of State and secretary of Ciphering, March 21, 1908. Domestic prelate, March 23, 1908. Secretary of the S.C. Ceremonial, September 24, 1914. Assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, June 27, 1926. Protonotary apostolic, September 15, 1926.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 16, 1935; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere, December 19, 1935. His cardinalitial motto was Semper fidelis. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. President of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City, March 20, 1939. Cardinal protector of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, July 16, 1940 (by apostolic brief Cum ordine equester); on December 25, 1949, Pope Pius XII named him grand master of the order; occupied the post until his death. Grand penitentiary, October 15, 1941. Cardinal protodeacon in November 1946. Grand prior commendatario in Rome of the Sacred and Sovereign Military Order of Malta. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 16, 1950 until May 28, 1951. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. As cardinal protodeacon, he crowned Pope John XXIII on November 4, 1958.

Death. Thursday August 3, 1961, at 10:45 a.m., of pneumonia; Vatican City. The funeral mass was celebrated at the patriarchal Vatican basilica on Monday August 7, 1961, by Ilario Alcini, titular archbishop of Nicea, visitor of the seminaries of Italy, in the presence of Pope John XXIII and nineteen cardinals. Buried in the chapel of S. Pio X in the church of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, S. Onofrio al Gianicolo, Rome. He was the last cardinal who was never a bishop, before Pope John XXIII issued the motu proprio Cum gravissima on April 15, 1962 providing that all cardinals should receive the episcopal consecration. During the pontificates of Pope John Paul II and Benedict XVI some prelates elevated to the cardinalate when they were older than eighty years old have requested to be exempted from receiving the episcopal consecration.

Bibliography. Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), IV, p. 168.

Link. Photographs, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CANESTRI, Giovanni
(1918-

Birth. September 30, 1918, Castelspina, diocese of Alessandria, Italy. His brother, Carlo, was the vicar general of the diocese of Alessandria.

Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Alessandria from 1929 (secondary studies); at the Pontifical Major Roman Seminary, Rome; at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome, where he obtained a licenciate in theology; and a doctorate in canon law; and at the Rome State University, where he earned a doctorate in law.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 12, 1941, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome; in the same ceremony was ordained Salvatore Pappalardo, future cardinal. Pastoral ministry in the parishes of S. Ottavio and Casal Bertone, and further studies, Rome, 1941-1959. Professor of religion in several Roman superior institutes. Spiritual director of the Pontifical Roman Major Seminary, 1959-1961; apostolic examiner of clergy.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tenedo and appointed auxiliary of the cardinal vicar of Rome, July 8, 1961. Consecrated, July 30, 1961, Rome, by Cardinal Luigi Traglia, pro-vicar general of His Holiness for the diocese of Rome, assisted by Ettore Cunial, titular archbishop of Soteropoli, vice-gerent of Rome, and by Peter Canisius van Lierde, O.S.A. titular bishop of Porfireone, papal sacristan and vicar general of His Holiness for Vatican City. Transferred to the see of Tortona, January 7, 1971. Transferred to the titular see of Monterano, with personal title of archbishop, and appointed vicegerent of Rome, February 8, 1975. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Cagliari, March 22, 1984. Transferred to metropolitan see of Genoa, July 6, 1987.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Andrea della Valle, June 28, 1988. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, April 20, 1995. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, September 30, 1998.

Bibliography. Alberti, O. "Mons. Giovanni Canestri" in La Pontificia Università Lateranense; profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri e dei suis discepoli, Rome : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, p. 510; Del Re, Niccolò. Il vicegerente del vicariato di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1976, p. 79.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CAPOTOSTI, Luigi
(1863-1938)

Birth. February 23, 1863, Montegiberto, archdiocese of Fermo, Papal State. He spent his youth in the neighboring comune of Moresco, where the family had moved.

Education. Studied at the Archiepiscoal Seminary of Fermo, where he obtained a doctorate in sacred theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 19, 1885, Fermo, by Cardinal Amilcare Malagola, archbishop of Fermo. Secretary of Cardinal Malagola, 1885-1895; and of Archbishop Roberto Papiri of Fermo from 1895. Professor of moral philosophy, luoghi teologici and moral theology at the Seminary of Fermo; collegiate doctor of the theological faculty; member of the diocesan philosophical Academy S. Tommaso d'Aquino; official of the archdiocesan curia; canon primicerius of the metropolitan cathedral chapter. Exercised his pastoral ministry with the Catholic Action. President of the Pious Society of Diocesan Missionaries. Director of two schools of religion, for men and women.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Modigliana, April 8, 1908. Consecrated, May 31, 1908, in the cathedral of Fermo, by Carlo Castelli, O.S.C., archbishop of Fermo, assisted by Raimundo Daffei, bishop of Forli, and by Luigi Boschi, bishop of Ripatransone; solemnly entered the diocese on the following November 15. Named secretary of the S.C. for the Discipline of Sacraments, June 8, 1914; took possession of the office the following June 12. Promoted to titular archbishop of Terme, January 22, 1915.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 21, 1926; received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, June 24, 1926. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Loreto, Italy, August 30, 1930. Pro-datary, July 29, 1931; datary, September 23, 1933 until his death. Papal legate to the Regional Eucharistic Congress, Piacenza, Italy, July 30, 1933. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, April 1, 1935 until June 15, 1936. He was member of the SS.CC. Consistorial, Oriental Church, Sacraments, Council, Religious, Propaganda Fide and Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs; and of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature.

Death. February 16, 1938, during the night, after having undergone several operations, Rome. Buried in the crypt of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. Later, his remains were transferred to the parish church of Moresco, Ascoli Piceno (1).

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1939, p. 84; "Luigi Capotosti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1936. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1936, p. 40; "Nécrologe. Em. Capotosti (Louis), dataire." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1939. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1939, p. 780; L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, LX, n. 141 (June 21-22, 1926), p. 1-2.

Link. Photographs, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his sarcophagus, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

A       Ω
ALOYSIVS CAPOSTOSTI
S.R.E. CARDINALIS DATARIVS
HIC QVIESCIT


Another inscription placed beside his resting place, written by Cardinal Eugenio Maria Pacelli, says: "La Porpora che nel Cardinale Luigi Capotosti premiò il sapere, la saggezza, la virtù, i servigi resi alla Chiesa, diede nuovo splendore alla sua pietà profonda, alla sua commovente mansuetudine e umiltà." ;


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CAPRIO, Giuseppe
(1914-2005)

Birth. November 15, 1914, Lapio, archdiocese of Benevento, Italy. Baptized in the parish church of S. Catarina d'Alessandria, Lapio. He had an uncle, also named Giuseppe Caprio, who was a priest and for several years pro-secretary of the economy of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide.

Education. tudied at the Archiepiscopal Seminary of Benevento; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in theology and a doctorate in canon law; and at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 17, 1938, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome. Further studies, 1939-1940, Rome. Assigned to the Secretariat of State, 1940-1947. Secretary of the nunciature in China, 1947-1951; expelled from China by the Communist regime after three months of house arrest in Nanchang. Auditor of the nunciature in Belgium, 1951-1954. Visitor and regent of the apostolic delegation in South Vietnam, 1954-1959. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, November 21, 1955. Internuncio in China (Formosa), May 20, 1959.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Apollonia, October 14, 1961. Consecrated, December 14, 1961, basilica of Madonna delle Grazie, Benevento, by Cardinal Gregoire-Pierre Agagianian, prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, assisted by Pietro Parente, titular archbishop of Tolemaide di Tebaide, assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, and by Raffaele Calabria, titular archbishop of Elipoli di Fenicia, coadjutor of Benevento. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Pro-nuncio in India, August 22, 1967. Head of the Vatican delegation to the Second U.N.O. Conference for Commerce and Development, New Delhi, India, 1968. Secretary of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, April 19, 1969. Substitute of the Secretariat of State, June 14, 1977. Pro-president of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, April 28, 1979.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Maria Ausiliatrice in Via Tuscolana, June 30, 1979. President of the Administration of Patrimony of Apostolic See, July 1, 1979. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. President of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See, January 30, 1981. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 28 to October 29, 1983; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Cardinal protodeacon, June 22, 1987. Attended the VII Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Grand Master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, November 15, 1988. Special papal envoy to the funeral of Prince Franz Josef II of Liechtenstein, November 1989. Resigned the presidency, January 22, 1990. Special papal envoy to the accession to the throne of Emperor Akihito, Tokyo, Japan, November 12, 1990. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Maria della Vittoria, November 26, 1990. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, November 15, 1994. Resigned the grand mastership, December 1995.

Death. October 15, 2005, in the afternoon, Rome. The funeral, presided by the pope, who delivered the homily, took place on Tuesday, October 18, 2005, at 11 a.m., in the altar of the chair of Saint Peter the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Fifty cardinals and many bishops, present in Rome for the assembly of the Synod of Bishops, participated in the ceremony, which was also attended by members of the diplomatic corps accredited before the Holy See, and family members of the late cardinal. Another funeral for Cardinal Caprio took place on October 19, 2005, in the parish church of S. Catarina d'Alessandria, Lapio, where he had been baptized; it was presided by Cardinal Crescenzio Sepe, prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples and concelebrated by Serafino Sprovieri, archbishop of Benevento, and all the bishops of the Irpina region. The remains of the cardinal were buried, according to his will, in that parish church.


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CARBERRY, John Joseph
(1904-1998)

Birth. July 31, 1904, Brooklyn, New York, United States of America. Son of James Joseph Carberry and Mary Elizabeth O'Keefe.

Education. Studied at Cathedral College, Brooklyn; at the Pontifical Academy of the Immaculate Conception, Rome; and at The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C., where he earned a doctorate in canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 28, 1929, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Marchetti Selvaggiani, vicar general of Rome. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Brooklyn, 1930-1931; 1935; 1940-1941; 1945-1956. Further studies, 1931-1934. Faculty member of the Immaculate Conception Seminary, Huntington, N.Y., 1935; 1941-1945. Secretary to the bishop of Trenton, N.J., and assistant chancellor of that diocese, 1935-1940. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, February 3, 1948. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 7, 1954.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Elide and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Lafayette in Indiana, May 3, 1956. Consecrated, July 25, 1956, Our Lady of Perpetual Help church, Brooklyn, by Raymond Augustine Kearny, titular bishop of Lisinia, auxiliary of Brooklyn, assisted by George William Ahr, bishop of Trenton, and by John Benjamin Grellinger, titular bishop of Siene, auxiliary of Green Bay. Succeeded to the see of Lafayette in Indiana, November 20, 1957. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Transferred to the see of Columbus, Ohio, January 16, 1965. President of the Canon Law Society of America, May 1965. Promoted to the metropolitan see of St. Louis, February 17, 1968.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Giovanni Battista de Rossi, April 30, 1969. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Resigned the pastoral government of archdiocese, July 31, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, July 31, 1984.

Death. June 17, 1998, at St. Agnes Home in Kirkwood, Missouri, where he retired after suffering from a stroke. Buried in the crypt of the metropolitan cathedral basilica of St. Louis, beside Cardinal Joseph Elmer Ritter (1). His remains were later transferred to the All Souls chapel in the same cathedral (2).

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 127; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 35.

Link. Photograph and brief biographical data, in English, fourth from the bottom of the page.

(1) This is the inscription in his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

CARDINAL
JOHN J.
CARBERRY
1904 - 1998


(2) This is the inscription on his vault, also provided by Mr. Bonnici:
CARDINAL
JOHN JOSEPH CARBERRY
BORN JULY 31, 1904
ORDINATION TO THE PRIESTHOOD
JULY 28, 1929
EPISCOPAL ORDINATION
JULY 25, 1956
COADJUTOR BISHOP OF LAFAYETTE IN INDIANA
AUGUST 22, 1956
BISHOP OF LAFAYETTE IN INDIANA
NOVEMBER 20, 1957
BISHOP OF COLUMBUS
MARCH 25, 1965
ARCHBISHOP OF ST. LOUIS
MARCH 25, 1968
CARDINAL
APRIL 28, 1969
DIED JUNE 17, 1998
MARIA REGINA MATER


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CARDIJN, Joseph-Léon
(1882-1967)

Birth. November 18, 1882, Schaerbeek-Brussels, Belgium. Eldest son of Henri Cardijn and Louise van Daelen.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Mechelen; and at the University of Louvain.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 22, 1906, Mechelen. Faculty member of the Seminary of Basse-Wabre, 1906-1912. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Mechelen, 1912-1915. Imprisoned during the First World War, 1915-1917. Pastoral ministry with the workers in Mechelen, 1917-1925. Founder of the Young Christian Workers, 1925; General chaplain, 1927-1965. Imprisoned during the Second World War, 1941. He was awarded an honorary doctorate in law by the University of Ottawa in 1947. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, April 30, 1950. Protonotary apostolic, September 25, 1962.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tusuro, February 15, 1965. Consecrated, February 21, 1965, chapel of the Urbanian College de Propaganda Fide, Rome, by Cardinal Leo-Joseph Suenens, archbishop of Mechelen-Brussels, assisted by Charles-Marie Himmer, bishop of Tournai, and by Emiel-Jozef De Smedt, bishop of Brugge. His episcopal motto was Evangelizare pauperibus.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Michele Arcangelo a Pietralata, February 25, 1965.

Death. July 25, 1967, of kidney ailment, Louvain. Buried in the parish church of Notre-Dame of Laeken, Brussels.

Bibliography. De la Bedoyere, Michael. The Cardijn story. Milwaukee : Bruce Publishing Co., 1958; Verhoeven, Joseph. Joseph Cardijn, prophète de notre temps. Préface de Léon-Joseph Cardinal Suenens. Bruxelles : Éditions "Labor", 1971. (Ceux dhier et daujourdhui, 8).

Link. The Cardijn Project, in English; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CARINCI, Alfonso
(1862-1963)

Birth. November 9, 1862, Rome. As an altar boy, young Alfonso attended the First Vatican Council (1869-1870), when he was 8. At nearly hundred years of age, he participated as a council father in the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 19, 1885. Director general of the society Adoratio Quotidiana et Perpetua Sanctissimi Eucharistiae Sacramenti inter Sacerdotes Cleri Saecularis (Daily Perpetual Eucharistic Adoration for Diocesan Priests). Rector of Almo Collegio Capranica, Rome, from 1911 to 1930; during those years, Eugenio Pacelli, future Pope Pius XII, was a student at that collegio. Dean of the College of Protonotaries; as such, he was handed a brilliantly illuminated parchment manuscript, the papal bull of Pope Pius XII which proclaimed 1950 a Holy Year of pilgrimage to Rome.

Cardinalate. According to The York Times, December 7, 1963, Pope Pius XII offered to promote Archbishop Carinci to the cardinalate in 1945, but the archbishop is reported to have declined on the grounds that he was too old. He declared that "at my age" the expense for the cardinal's robes would be "superfluous".

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Seleucia in Isauria and appointed secretary of the S.C. of Rites, December 15, 1945. Consecrated, January 6, 1946, by Cardinal Carlo Salotti, assisted by Emilio Baroncelli, bishop of Veroli, and by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. In July 1959, he was diagnosed with recidive bronco, a pulmonary infection; he sought recovery at the Fatebenefratelli Hospital of Rome, were he made a speedy recovery; on September 24, 1959, Pope John XXIII paid him a personal, unexpected visit at the hospital. He resigned his post on January 5, 1960. He attended the first and second sessions of the Second Vatican Council (1962-1963). On November 8, 1962, the day before his one hundredth birthday, during the council, he rose and thanked the participants for their good wishes; he said he hoped each one of them would live as long as he had. The next day, his birthday, he said his 27,800th mass, then went home to mark the day with a quiet celebration. He had a whipped cream birthday cake with two candles, a big one for his first century, a little one for the first year of his second.

Death. December 5, 1963, of heart ailment, at the Fatebenefratelli Hospital, where he had celebrated his 101st birthday a month before; on the previous November 17, he had undergone surgery.

Link. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia.


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CARLES GORDÓ, Ricardo María
(1926-2013)

Birth. September 24, 1926, Valencia, archdiocese of Valencia, Spain. Of a family from the bourgeoisie. Son of Fermín Carles, a lawyer, and Josefina Gordó. He had an older brother. His first name is also listed as Ricard.

Education. Initial studies at the Teresian school in Valencia; then, he completed his secondary education at the Jesuit Colegio de San José, also in Valencia; after a period of discernment, he entered the Major Seminary of Valencia, where he was a pupil at Colegio "Corpus Christi" (also called of the Patriarch); and finally, he studied at the Pontifical University of Salamanca, where he obtained a licenciate in canon law in 1953.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1951, Valencia. Further studies in Rome from 1951 to 1953. Successively, 1953-1969, pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Valencia, including parish priest and archpriest of Sant Pere, Tavernes de la Valldigna, between 1953 and 1967; and rector of the parish of San Fernando in Valencia (1967); counselor of the Juventud Obrera Católica, JOC (Catholic Youth Workers); director of the boarding-school for deacons; episcopal delegate for the clergy; and diocesan counselor for the pastoral for the family. He founded the church of Sant Josep and promoted what later became the Centre Excursionista de Tavernes de la Valldigna. In 1969, he was proclaimed "Hijo Adoptivo" (Adoptive Son) of Tavernes de la Valldigna.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tortosa, June 6, 1969. Consecrated, August 3, 1969, cathedral of Tortosa, by Luigi Dadaglio, titular archbishop of Lero, nuncio in Spain, assisted by Manuel Moll y Salord, titular bishop of Urbs Salvia, former bishop of Tortosa, and by Rafael González Moralejo, titular bishop of Dardano, auxiliary of Valencia. His episcopal motto was Ut omnes unum sint. He made the solemn entrance in his see on the same day of his episcopal consecration. He convoked and promoted a the first post-conciliar diocesan synod. President of the commission for seminaries and universities of the Spanish Episcopal Conference. Promoted to the archiepiscopal see of Barcelona, March 23, 1990. He took possession of the see the following May 27. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. In Barcelona, he established presbyterial and pastoral diocesan councils. He reorganized the vast archdiocese into four episcopal zones entrusted to five auxiliary bishops, who were appointed after his arrival in the archdiocese of Barcelona.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Consolatrice al Tiburtino, November 26, 1994. Named member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See on November 6, 1995. Vice-president of the Spanish Episcopal Conference from 1999 until 2002. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese on June 15, 2004. On that same day, the archiepiscopal see of Barcelona was elevated to the rank of metropolitan see. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old on September 24, 2006.

Death. December 17, 2013, in the morning, from complications following a stroke he had suffered on the previous November 25 while in hospital, after being treated for an epileptic crisis three days earlierearly, in the Hospital Santa Cruz, Tortosa (Tarragona). Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Francis prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent Cardinal Lluis Martinez Sistach, archbishop of Barcelona, a telegram of condolence (1).The funeral mass, presided by Cardinal Lluís Martínez Sistach, archbishop of Barcelona, took place in the metropolitan cathedral of that city on Thursday December 19 at 11 a.m. Later, the body of the late cardinal was taken to the metropolitan cathedral of Valencia, where another funeral mass was concelebrated by Cardinal Martínez Sistach; Carlos Osoro Sierra, archbishop of Valencia; Cardinal Carlos Amigo Vallejo, O.F.M., archbishop emeritus of Sevilla; and eight other bishops. Afther the, body of the late cardinal was taken to the Basilica de la Virgen de los Desamparados of Valencia, where he was buried according to his wish (2).

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 131.

Links. His photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his photograph, arms and biography, in French, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; photograph and biography, in Catalonian, archdiocese of Barcelona; Fallece el Cardenal Ricardo María Carles, arzobispo eméeito de Barcelona, Revista Ecclesia, 17 diciembre, 2013; Fallece a los 87 años el cardenal valenciano Ricard María Carles, que fue arcipreste de Tavernes de la Valldigna, Media Servicio Safor, 17 diciembre 2013; Las banderas del Ayuntamiento de Tavernes de la Valldigna ondean a media asta por el fallecimiento del cardenal Carles, Media Servicio Safor, 17 diciembre 2013; El cardenal Ricard Maria Carles ya descansa en la Basílica de la Mare de Déu, Media Servicio Safor, 0/12/2013.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Bulletin of the Press Office of the Holy See:

SEÑOR CARDENAL LLUÍS MARTÍNEZ SISTACH
ARZOBISPO DE BARCELONA
AL HABER SIDO INFORMADO DE LA TRISTE NOTICIA DEL FALLECIMIENTO DEL AMADÍSIMO CARDENAL RICARDO MARÍA CARLES GORDÓ, ARZOBISPO EMÉRITO DE BARCELONA, OFREZCO FERVIENTES SUFRAGIOS POR EL ETERNO DESCANSO DE QUIEN EJERCIÓ CON DILIGENTE SOLICITUD APOSTÓLICA EL MINISTERIO EPISCOPAL, PRIMERO COMO OBISPO DE TORTOSA Y DESPUÉS AL FRENTE DE ESA QUERIDA ARCHIDIÓCESIS DE BARCELONA, ENTREGÁNDOSE CONSTANTEMENTE AL QUEHACER EVANGELIZADOR CON SABIDURÍA Y GENEROSIDAD E IMPULSANDO INFATIGABLEMENTE NUMEROSAS INICIATIVAS PASTORALES, CON GRAN CERCANÍA A LOS SACERDOTES, A LA VIDA CONSAGRADA Y A LOS SEMINARISTAS, A QUIENES DEDICÓ UNA ESPECIAL ATENCIÓN.
AL EVOCAR LOS GRANDES SERVICIOS PRESTADOS POR ÉL A LA IGLESIA, DESEO MANIFESTAR MI MÁS SENTIDO PÉSAME A VUESTRA EMINENCIA, A SU OBISPO AUXILIAR, AL PRESBITERIO, COMUNIDADES RELIGIOSAS Y FIELES DE ESA IGLESIA PARTICULAR, ASÍ COMO A QUIENES GOZARON DE LA AMISTAD Y CERCANÍA DEL DIFUNTO PURPURADO Y, ROGÁNDOLE QUE TENGA LA BONDAD DE TRANSMITIR TAMBIÉN ESTOS MISMOS SENTIMIENTOS A LOS FAMILIARES DEL RECORDADO CARDENAL, OTORGO DE CORAZÓN A TODOS LA CONFORTADORA BENDICIÓN APOSTÓLICA, COMO SIGNO DE ESPERANZA EN CRISTO RESUCITADO.

FRANCISCUS PP.

Analogous telegram was sent by Pietro Parolin, titular archbishop of Acquapendente, secretary of State.

(2) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, taken from the site of the archdiocese of Valencia, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

EXCMO. Y REVMO.
RICARDO MARMA CARLES Y GORDÓ
CARDENAL PRESBÍTERO DE LA S. IGLESIA ROMANA
DEL TMTULO DE SANTA MARÍA DE LA CONSOLACIÓN
ARZOBISPO EMÉRITO DE BARCELONA.
NACIÓ EL 24 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1926
EN VALENCIA.
DESCANSÓ EN EL SEÑOR EL 17 DE DICIEMBRE DE 2013
EN TORTOSA.
"VIVO LO QUE HE CREÍDO".
IN PACE


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CARO RODRÍGUEZ, José María
(1866-1958)

Birth. June 23, 1866, Cahuil, diocese of Roncagua, Chile. Fourth of the nine children of José María Caro Martínez and Rita Rodríguez Cornejo.

Education. Initial studies in the local school; Seminary of Santiago, Santiago de Chile, 1881-1886 (humanities); Pontifical Collegio Pio-Latinoamericano, Rome; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1887-1891 (theology; among his professors was Fr. Louis Billot, S.J., future cardinal).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 20, 1890, Rome. Returned to Chile on October 2, 1891. From 1892 to 1899, professor of preparatory studies and philosophy at the Seminary of Santiago; pastoral ministry in several chaplaincies, hospitals and parishes; pastor of Mamiña, March to December 1899; professor of theology at the Seminary of Santiago, 1900-1911; always had a very delicate health. Named apostolic vicar of Tarapac on May 6, 1911.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Milasa, January 5, 1912, Consecrated, April 28, 1912, metropolitan cathedral of Santiago, by Enrico Sibilia, titular archbishop of Side, internuncio in Chile, assisted by Luis Izquierdo Vargas, bishop of Concepción, and by Miguel Claro Vázquez, titular bishop of Legia. His episcopal motto was Virtus nostrum et Deo refugium. Transferred to the see of La Serena, December 14, 1925. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, November 6, 1937. Promoted to archbishop when La Serena was elevated to the rank of metropolitan see, May 20, 1939. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Santiago, August 28, 1939. Grand chancellor of the Catholic Universoty of Chile from 1939 until 1958.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria della Scala, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, May 18, 1946. Papal legate to the Chilean Plenary Council, Santiago, September 8, 1946; to the 10th National Eucharistic Congress, Valparaíso, Chile, September 26, 1951. Attended the First General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 25 to August 4, 1955. Papal legate to the Sixth Interamerican Congress of Catholic Education, Santiago de Chile, Chile, August 30, 1956. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. He was the first Chilean cardinal.

Death. December 4, 1958, from an attack of toxic gastroenteritis followed by symptoms of uremia and pneumonia which ultimately led to his death, Santiago de Chile. Buried in the crypt of the archbishops in the metropolitan cathedral of Santiago de Chile. At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals. His remains were transferred to a funeral chapel at the back of the cathedral's central nave on March 19, 1968.

Bibliography. Caro Rodríguez, José María. Autobiografía del eminentísimo y reverendísimo señor cardenal D. José María Caro Rodríguez, primer cardenal chileno. Apuntes y recuerdos por Joaquín Fuenzalida Morandé. Documentos importantes. Santiago: Arzobispado de Santiago, 1968; Vanherk Moris, Juan. Monseñor José María Caro, apóstol de Tarapac. Santiago de Chile : Editorial del Pacífico, 1963 . Salinas Fuenzalida, Augusto. Un pastor santo, el emintentísimo señor cardenal don José María Caro Rodríguez, 1866-1958. Santiago de Chile: Editorial Andrés Bello, 1981.

Link. His photograph, statue, tomb, arms and biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; his photograph and biography, in Spanish, archdiocese of Santiago de Chile; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CARPINO, Francesco
(1905-1993)

Birth. May 18, 1905, Palazzolo Acreide, Monti Iblei, archdiocese of Siracusa, Sicily, Italy. Third of the five children of Salvatore Carpino, owner of a small rural estate, and Maria Odigitria (Itria) Cascino. He was baptized on May 24, 1905 by Canon Giuseppe Gallo in the mother church of Palazzolo.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Noto, Sicily, from September 14, 1914 to June 1919, obtaining the license ginnazaiale); at the Pontifical Roman Seminary, from September 1919 to 1926, obtaining doctorates philosophy and theology; and licentiate in canon law in 1926); returned to his diocese in 1926 and became professor in the seminary until reaching the canonical age for the priestly ordination; received the diaconate on June 29, 1927; also studied at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 14, 1927, mother church of Palazzolo Acreide, by Giuseppe Vizzini, bishop of Noto. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Noto and faculty member of its seminary, 1927-1929. Professor of sacramental theology at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome, 1929-1951; resided in the Pontifical Roman Seminary. Pastoral ministry in Rome and collaboration with several congregations of the Roman Curia as well as with the Roman vicariate, 1929-1951. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, April 27, 1939. He helped persecuted Italian Jews during the Second World War and refugees immediately afterwards.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nicomedia and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Monreale, February 11, 1951. Consecrated, April 8, 1951, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Adeodato Giovanni Piazza, O.C.D., bishop of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, secretary of S.C. Consistorial, assisted by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome, and by Angelo Calabretta, bishop of Noto. His episcopal motto was Fructum affert in patientia. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Monreale, August 23, 1951. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, November 15, 1960. He erected nineteen new parishes during his episcopate in Monreale. Named titular archbishop of Sardica and appointed assessor of the S.C. Consistorial, January 19, 1961. Secretary of the Sacred College of Cardinals, October 25, 1961. President of the Supreme Council of Immigration, 1961-1967. President of the General Secretariat International of Apostolatus Maris, 1961-1967. Secretary of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America, 1961-1967. Counselor of the Pontifical Preparatory Commission of the Second Vatican Council, 1961-1964. Secretary of the Cardinalitial Commission for the Shrine of Pompeii, 1961-1965; for the Shrines of Pompeii and Loreto, 1966-1967. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Secretary of the conclave of 1963. Pro-prefect of the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments, April 7, 1967.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 26, 1967; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Ausiliatrice in via Tuscolana, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, June 29, 1967. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Palermo, June 26, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Resigned the government of the archdiocese, October 17, 1970; he explained that an archdiocese with many and difficult pastoral problems needed a young archbishop with fresh energies to prepare a vast program for a long term. Appointed referendary for relations in the S.C. for Bishops, October 19, 1970. Named cardinal bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Albano, January 27, 1978. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, May 18, 1985.

Death. Tuesday October 5, 1993, at dawn, in Rome; received the last rites from Alois Wagner, titular bishop of Siccenna, vice-president of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum and was assisted by his sister Concettina Carpino. The funeral mass was presided by Pope John Paul II, who also delivered the homily, was concelebrated by thirty cardinals and numerous archbishops and bishops, and took place in the patriarchal Vatican basilica at 5:30 p.m. on October 7, 1993. The body of the late cardinal was flown to Monreale on October 8th and transferred to Palermo, where another funeral took place in that cathedral concelebrated by Salvatore Cassisa, archbishop of Monreale; Cardinal Salvatore Pappalardo, archbishop of Palermo; and almost all the bishops of Sicily. After the funeral in Palermo, the body was taken to Palazzolo Acreide and a requiem mass was celebrated in the church of S. Paolo by Giuseppe Costanzo, archbishop of Siracusa, before the burial in the tomb of his family; later, it was transferred to the cemetery chapel of Palazzolo Acreide. On September 14, 1998, the remains were transferred to the metropolitan cathedral of Palermo, and reinterred in the chapel of S. Cristina, in front of the altar steps (1).

Bibliography. Amata, Biagio. Card. Francesco Carpino : testimonianze e studi. Roma : Libreria editrice vaticana, 1994; Calleri Russo, Anna. Il Cardinale Francesco Carpino: un figlio di Palazzolo al servizio della chiesa cattolica. Catania: Greco, 1997.

Links. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and biography by Eman Bonnici, in English, Find a Grave; his photograph and biography, in Italian, diocese of Noto, Italy; his photograph and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription in his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

HIC IN PACE CHRISTI QUIESCIT
FRANCISCUS CARPINO
S.R.E. CARD. ET ARCHIEP. PAN.
PALAZZOLO A. ROMA
Α  MCMV     Ω  MCMXCIII

A funeral monument commemorating Cardinal Carpino was erected inside the same chapel, facing the vault of his successor, Cardinal Salvatore Pappalardo. It has the following inscription:
CARDINALIS FRANCISCVS CARPINO
PANORMITANAE ECCLESIAE ARCHIEPISCOPUS
MCMLXVII MCMLXX

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CARTER, Gerald Emmett
(1912-2003)

Birth. March 11, 1912, Montréal, Canada. He was the youngest of eight children of an Irish Catholic family of modest means. His father, a strong union man, was a typesetter for the newspaper Montreal Star. His brother Alexander was bishop of Sault-Sainte-Marie, and two sisters became nuns.

Education. Primary studies at St. Patrick's Boy School, Montréal; then attended the Collège de Montréal, (classics); the Grand Seminary, Montréal (theology); and the University of Montréal, (licentiate in theology, 1936; master's of arts, 1940; doctorate, 1947).

Priesthood. Ordained, May 22, 1937, Montréal, by Alphonse-Emmanuel Deschamps, titular bishop of Tenneso, auxiliary of of Montréal. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Montréal; ecclesiastical inspector of the English Catholic schools of Montréal and responsible of the Catholic School Committee 1937-1939. First director of the English section of École Normale Jacques-Cartier, 1939. Chaplain of the Catholic students at McGill University,1942-1956. Adjunct director of the English section of Catholic Action, 1943; director, 1944. President of the Thomas More Institute for Adult Education, 1946-1961. Member of the Commission of the Catholic Schools of Montréal, 1948-1961. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Montréal, January 30, 1953. President of the St. Joseph's Teachers College, from June 5, 1955. Member of the Board of Catholic Schools. Founder of St. Thomas More and Newman Clubs throughout Canada. Director of St. Lawrence College, Sainte-Foy, 1961.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Altiburo and appointed auxiliary of London, Canada, December 1, 1961. Consecrated, February 2, 1962, Montréal, by Cardinal Paul-Émile Léger, P.S.S., archbishop of Montréal, assisted by John Christopher Cody, bishop of London, and by Alexander Carter, bishop of Sault-Sainte-Marie, his brother. His episcopal motto was Pax et Lux. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Transferred to the see of London, Canada, February 17, 1964. Vice-president of the Episcopal Conference of the Region of Ontario, 1971-1973. Vice-president of the Episcopal Conference of Canada, 1973-1975. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. President of the Episcopal Conference of Canada, 1975-1977. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; elected member of its council. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Toronto, April 27, 1978.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria in Traspontina, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinal, November 5 to 9, 1979. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; member of its general secretariat, 1980-1983. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, May 31, 1981. He suffered a cardiac crisis in 1981. Companion of the Order of Canada, 1983. He broke a hip in 1988. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 17, 1990. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, March 11, 1992.

Death. April 6, 2003, after a series of strokes, Toronto. Buried in the Bishops' Mausoleum, Holy Cross Cemetery, Thornhill, Ontario, where his successor, Cardinal Aloysius Matthew Ambrozic, was also buried.

Bibliography. Higgins, Michael W. and Douglas R. Letson. My Father's Business: A biography of His Eminence G. Emmett Cardinal Carter.Toronto : Macmillan of Canada, 1990; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latines et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson and Lafleur, 2002, pp. 354-355.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Archives of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toronto; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CASANOVA Y MARZOL, Vicente
(1854-1930)

Birth. April 16, 1854, Borja, diocese of Tarazona, Spain.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Zaragoza; and at the Seminary of Madrid; later, he obtained a licentiate in theology in Valencia in 1882.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1881. Pastor in Maluenda and Alfaro, diocese of Tarazona. For many years, pastor of the parish of Nuestra Señora del Buen Consejo, Madrid.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Almería, December 19, 1907. Consecrated, March 25, 1908, cathedral of San Isidro, Madrid, by Antonio Vico, titular archbishop of Filippi, nuncio in Spain, assisted by José María Salvador y Barrera, bishop of Madrid, and by Julián de Diego y Alcolea, bishop of Astorga. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Granada, March 7, 1925.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 30, 1925; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Vitale, Valeria, Gervasio e Protasio, December 17, 1925.

Death. October 23, 1930, Zaragoza, while he was attending the Second National Catechetical Congress. Buried, metropolitan cathedral, Granada.

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 70.

Links. Vicente Casanova el Obispo-Senador por Almería by José Manuel Bretones, in Spanish, elalmeria.es, 25.06.2008 - 01:00his photograph, Araldica Vaticana.


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CASARIEGO Y ACEVEDO, C.R.S., Mario
(1909-1983)

Birth. February 13, 1909, Figueras de Castropol, diocese of Oviedo, Spain. Son of Mario Casariego and Ágata Acevedo. He became an orphan when he was a little child and was sent to Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, where an uncle had a bakery. He went to Ciudad Guatemala, where he earned a living shining shoes. The boy was taken in by Doña Amelia de Estupiñián, who was impressed by his qualities, and in agreement with Fr. Mariano Rosell Arellanmo, future archbishop of Guatemala, sent him to the Somascan Fathers in El Salvador.

Education. Joined the Clerics Regular of Somasca, 1924, El Salvador; professed, October 3, 1930, Somasca, Italy. Somascan houses of studies, Bergamo and Genoa; Somascan theological seminary, San Salvador.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 19, 1936, San Salvador. Pastoral ministry in La Ceiba Institute, San Salvador, 1936-1948; its rector, 1948-1954. Counselor of his order, 1954-1957; provincial of Central America, 1957-1958.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Pudenziana and appointed auxiliary of Guatemala, November 15, 1958. Consecrated, December 27, 1958, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Girolamo Bartolomeo Bortignon, O.F.M. Cap., bishop of Padua, and by Gioacchino Muccin, bishop of Feltre e Belluno. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinal Domenico Tardini, secretary of State; and future Cardinals Albino Luciani, bishop of Vittorio Veneto, future Pope John Paul I; Carlo Grano, titular archbishop of Tessalonica, nuncio in Italy; Giuseppe Ferretto, titular archbishop of Sardica, assessor of the S.C. Consistorial; and Angelo Dell'Acqua, titular archbishop of Chalcedonia, substitute of the Secretariat of State. Promoted to the titular see of Perge and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Guatemala, September 22, 1963. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Guatemala, December 12, 1964. Kidnapped for several days by a terrorist group, March 1968. Assistant at Pontifical Throne, June 4, 1968.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria in Aquiro, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, April 30, 1969. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. He was the first cardinal from Guatemala.

Death. June 15, 1983, of a heart attack after a long history of cardiac complications, in Guatemala. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Guatemala.

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 120.


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CASAROLI, Agostino
(1914-1998)

Birth. November 24, 1914, Castel San Giovanni, diocese of Piacenza, Italy. Of a family of modest economic means. His father was a tailor.

Education. Studied at Collegio Alberoni, Piacenza; at the Episcopal Seminary of Bedonia, Piacenza; at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in canon law; at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome (diplomacy); and at the Italian Society for International Organizations, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 27, 1937, Piacenza. Further studies, 1937-1939, Rome. Adjunct to the archives and minutante at the Secretariat of State, 1940. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome from 1943. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, January 4, 1945. Chaplain of Villa Agnese, 1950-1998. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, December 22, 1954. Assistant to Cardinal Adeodato Giovanni Piazza, O.C.D., secretary of the S.C. Consistorial at the First General Conference of the Latin American Episcopal Council, July 25 to August 4, 1955, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Ecclesiastical counselor to the Roman Group of Christian Union of Enterpreneurs, 1957-. Papal envoy to deliver the red biretta to Cardinal José María Bueno Monreal, archbishop of Sevilla, Spain, December 1958. Faculty member of the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, 1958-1961. Undersecretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, February 24, 1961. Chief of the Vatican delegation to the United Nations Organization Conference on diplomatic relations, Vienna, Austria, March 1961. Chief of the Vatican delegation to the United Nations Organization Conference on consular relations, Vienna, Austria, March 1963. Vatican representative at the exchange of instruments in ratification of the modus vivendi with Tunisia, concerning the situation of the Catholic Church, 1964. Signatory of the partial agreement between the Holy See and Hungary, Budapest, September 15, 1964. Negotiated with the Czech government the appointment of Frantisek Tomásek, titular bishop of Buto and auxiliary of Prague, as apostolic administrator sede plena of the archdiocese, February 1965. Signatory of the protocol between the Holy See and Yugoslavia, Belgrade, June 25, 1966. Secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, June 29, 1967.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cartagine, July 4, 1967. Consecrated, July 16, 1967, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope Paul VI, assisted by Augusto Gianfranceschi, bishop of Cesena, and by Jacques-Paul Martin, titular bishop of Neapoli di Palaestina, prefect of the Papal Household. In the same ceremony were consecrated Ernesto Civardi, titular archbishop of Sardi, secretary of the S.C. Consistorial and secretary of the Sacred College of Cardinals, future cardinal; and three other prelates. His episcopal motto was Pro fide et justitia. President of the Pontifical Commission for Russia. Delivered the official document of adhesion of the Vatican to the Treaty of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, Moscow, U.S.S.R., February 25, 1971. Vatican representative to the meeting of European foreign ministers, Helsinki, Finland, July 3 to 7, 1973. Special delegate of the Holy See to the Conference on European Security and Cooperation, Helsinki, Finland, July 30 to August 1, 1975. Delivered the papal message to the United Nations Organization Special Assembly on Disarmament, June 1978. Confirmed in his posts by Pope John Paul I, August 28, 1978; and by Pope John Paul II, October 1978. Pro-secretary of State and pro-prefect of the Council for Public Affairs of the Church, April 28 to July 1, 1979.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, June 30, 1979. Secretary of State, prefect of the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church and president of Pontifical Commission for State of Vatican City, July 1, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979, Vatican City; the V Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. President of the Administration of Patrimony of Apostolic See, January 30, 1981. Papal legate to the opening celebrations of 7th centennial of St. Francis' birth, Assisi, Italy, October 3 to 4, 1981; to the celebrations of 450th anniversary of the apparition of Our Lady of Guadalupe, México City, México, December 12, 1981. Special papal envoy to the centennial celebration of the establishment of the Knights of Columbus, Hartford, United States, August 3 to 6, 1982. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Resigned the presidency of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City, April 8, 1984; charged with representing the pope before the civil government of the State of Vatican City. Papal legate to National Eucharistic Congress, Buenos Aires, Argentina, October 11 to 14, 1984. Named cardinal bishop of the title of suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, retaining in commendam his title, May 25, 1985; the name of the suburbicarian see was changed to Porto-Santa Rufina on September 30, 1986. Papal legate to the celebrations in honor of the 11th centennial of St. Metodius' death, Djakovo, Bosnia, Yugoslavia, July 4 to 5, 1985; and Velehrad, Czechoslovakia, July 7, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Papal legate to the coronation of the image of Our Lady of the Most Holy Rosary, Pompeii, Italy, May 8, 1987. Attended the VII Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; the VIII Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Resigned the secretariat of State and the prefecture of the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church, December 1, 1990. Vice-dean of College of Cardinals, June 5, 1993. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, November 24, 1994. After his retirement, he exercised his priestly ministry among young detainees in the jail of Casal del Marmo for minors, in Rome.

Death. Tuesday June 9, 1998, of cardio-respiratory complications, at "Colombus Clinic" in Rome, where he had been admitted the previous Thursday. Buried beneath the pavement at the entrance of the chapel of S. Antonio di Padua in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome (1). The "Associazione Centro Studi Cardinale Agostino Casaroli", located at the Seminary of Bedonia, was founded following the cardinal's death; his niece, Orietta Casaroli Zanoni, gave a vast collection of photographs, audio-visual recordings, books, documents, and several others belongings of the late cardinal to the newly established Association.

Bibliography. Casaroli, Agostino. Il martirio della pazienza. Torino : Einaudi, 2000; Casaroli, Agostino. Nella Chiesa per il mondo : omelie e discorsi. Milano : Rusconi, 1987; Lavopa, Marco. La diplomazia dei "Piccoli Passi". L'Ostpolitik vaticana di Mons. Agostino Casaroli. Rome : GBE / Ginevra Bentivoglio EditoriA, 2013 (Extravagantes, 24); Melloni, Alberto. Il filo sottile : l'Ostpolitik vaticana di Agostino Casaroli. Bologna : Il mulino, 2006. (Santa Sede e politica nel Novecento, 4); Santini, Alceste. Agostino Casaroli, hombre de diálogo. Translated by Rafael Pérez. Madrid : PPC, 1993; Silvestrini, Achille. L'Ostpolitik di Agostino Casaroli, 1963-1989. Convegno "L'Ostpolitik di Agostino Casaroli, 1963-1989" (2008 : Vatican City). Bologna : EDB, 2009. (I libri de Il regno, 5). Materials specified: Table of contents. Link to external web site http://catdir.loc.gov/catdir/toc/casalini08/09180214.pdf.

Links. Site of the "Associazione Centro Studi Cardinale Agostino Casaroli", in Italian; and his photograph, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Secretaries of State Compared. Low Marks for Casaroli, Too by Sandro Magister, Chiesa, July 16, 2012; Casaroli and Wyszynski: Facts and falsehoods revealed by Gianni Valente, Vatican Insider, 10/12/2013.

(1)This is the text of the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

HEIC RESURRECTIONEM EXSPECTAT
CORPUS
CARDINALIS AUGUSTINI CASAROLI
PLACENTINI
MCMXIV MCMXCVIII
ROGATE PRO EO.

This is the text on a memorial cross, with a splendid mosaic portraying him, erected in the basilica, also provided by Mr. Bonnici:
AUGUSTINUS S.R.E. EP. CARD. CASAROLI
Tit. Eccl. Sub. Portus - Sanctae Rufinae
Commed. Bas. XII Apostolorum
olim a publicis eccl. negotiis
multorum etiam egentium iuvenum
amicus et pater
MCMXIV - MCMXCVIII


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CASORIA, Giuseppe
(1908-2001)

Birth. October 1, 1908, Acerra, Italy. Of a family of modest means. Son of Clemente Casoria and Maria Russo. He was baptized in the cathedral of Acerra by Fr. Vincenzo Montesarchio; his godfather was Vincenzo del Giudice, a friend of the family.

Education. Elementary studies (five years) in Acerra; Seminary of Acerra, Acerra; Pontifical Theological Faculty of Southern Italy, Naples (doctorate in theology, 1930); Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome (doctorate in philosophy, 1932); obtained the diploma of the triennial study of the S.C. of the Council, 1934; Pontifical Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome (doctorate in utroque iuris, 1936); obtained the diploma of advocate of the Sacred Roman Rota and of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, 1938; obtained a doctorate in political science, 1952.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1930, in the bishop's chapel, by Francesco Di Pietro, bishop of Acerra. Professor at the Seminary of Acerra, 1930-1931. Pastoral ministry and further studies, 1930-1937. Professor at the Seminary of Potenza e Molfetta, 1934-1937. Work in different organs of the Roman Curia, 1937-1972: defender of the matrimonial bond, Sacred Roman Rota, 1939-1952; defender of the matrimonial bond, ecclesiastical tribunal of the conciliar region of Campania, 1941; advocate in the S.C. of Rites, for causes of the saints, 1949; deputy to the monasteries of the vicariate of Rome, 1951; commissary for the matrimonial causes, Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, 1954; prelate referendary of the Supreme Tribunal of Apostolic Signature, March 8, 1956; voting prelate, 1962; judge of the appellate tribunal of the Vicariate of Rome, 1956; defender of the matrimonial bond and commissary for matrimonial causes in the S.C. for Oriental Church, 1956; consultor of the S.C. for Oriental Church, 1958; undersecretary adjunct of the S.C. for Discipline of Sacraments, 1959; undersecretary, 1960. Expert in the preparatory commission for the Discipline of Sacraments of the Second Vatican Council, 1960-1962. Qualifier in the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, 1964; expert judge and commissary for matrimonial causes, 1966. Secretary of the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments, 1969.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Vescovio, January 6, 1972. Consecrated, February 13, 1972, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope Paul VI, assisted by Cardinal Bernardus Johannes Alfrink, archbishop of Utrecht, and by Cardinal William Conway, archbishop of Armagh. In the same ceremony was consecrated Paul Augustin Mayer, O.S.B., titular archbishop of Satriano, pro-prefect of the SS. CC. for the Sacraments and for Divine Worship, future cardinal. Named secretary of the S.C. for the Causes of the Saints, February 2, 1973. Named pro-prefect of the S.C. for the Sacraments and Divine Worship, August 24, 1981.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Giuseppe in Via Trionfale, February 2, 1983. Prefect of the S.C. for the Sacraments and Divine Worship, February 3, 1983. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Resigned prefecture, April 8, 1984. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 1, 1988. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, April 5, 1993.

Death. February 8, 2001, in Clinica Pio XI, Rome. When the pope learned the news of the death, he sent a telegram to the niece of the cardinal. The funeral, celebrated in the altar of the chair of the patriarchal Vatican basilica on Saturday February 10, at 11 a.m., was presided over by Pope John Paul II, who also delivered the homily; nineteen cardinals concelebrated with the pope and three others were present at the ceremony; also present were numerous archbishops and bishops as well as priests from Acerra and Campania and the family of the late cardinal; the niece and her husband had the two first readings of the exquial liturgy. Later, the body of the late cardinal was transferred to Acerra; in the cemetery of the city, Bishop Salvatore Giovanni Rinaldi presided over a mass of suffrage, after which the body was buried in the family's tomb in that cemetery.

Bibliography. Sacramenti, liturgia, cause dei santi : studi in onore del cardinale Giuseppe Casoria. A cura di Antonio Moroni, Carlo Pinto e Marcello Bartolucci. Napoli : Campania Notizie, 1992; Scelzo, Angelo. Anche la Curia ha un' anima (napoletana). Vita del Cardinale Giuseppe Casoria. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2009.


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CASSIDY, Edward Idris
(1924-

Birth. July 5, 1924, Sydney, Australia. Son of Harold George Cassidy and Dorothy May Phillips. Neither parent was a Catholic. He had a younger brother, Douglas. The mother left the father in 1926, shortly after the birth of Douglas, and entered into a de facto union with Thomas Henry Lenson; she took Douglas with her. They had four children and married on December 24, 1942. Edward was placed in the care of his paternal grandparents, Edward and Mary Jane Cassidy ("Nana"). He was baptized in the Church of England; his grandmother had him received into the Roman Catholic Church, and, as it was the custom then, he was baptized again in St. John Baptist Church in Gulgong, when he was three or four years old.

Education. Initial studies at St. Patrick's Convent School, Bondi, until 1931; the family moved to Punchbowl, where there was no Catholic school, and he attended Punchbowl Public School; he made his first communion prepared by the sisters from Bankstown; in 1935, they moved to West Bankstown and he completed his primary education at Bankstown Central Public School in 1936; from a very young age he began to think of the priesthood with no one's influence; then, he was admitted to Parramatta High School; at that time a priest from St. Felix's parish discouraged him from becoming a priest because he had not finished his secondary education, had not studied in Catholic schools and his family background was definitively "unsuitable"; because of financial difficulties after his grandfather died in 1939, he worked at the New South Wales Department of Road Transport as a junior clerk, having to stop his schooling; in 1942, he went directly to Archbishop Norman Thomas Gilroy of Sydney to present his case for entering the priesthood; the archbishop agreed and he entered St. Columba's College (seminary), Springwood, in February 1943 (philosophy); then, after a year, he went to St. Patrick's College, Manly; he received the subdiaconate in 1949. Later, he studied at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in canon law, in July 1955 (dissertation on the history and juridical nature of the apostolic delegations); and at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, also in Rome, from October 1953, where he obtained a diploma in diplomatic studies.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 23, 1949, at the metropolitan cathedral of St. Mary, Sydney, by Cardinal Norman Thomas Gilroy, archbishop of Sydney. Father Edward Bede Clancy, future cardinal, was ordained at the same time. They became and remained good friends through the years. He celebrated his first mass in St. Brigid's Church, in Cogee, where his grandmother had been buried. He volunteered to transfer to the diocese of Wagga Wagga after the priestly ordination. In January 1950, he wa assigned to the small parish of Yenda. In 1952, Bishop Francis Henschke of Wagga Wagga, asked him if he would like to go to Rome to study canon law; he agreed and left for Rome on September 1, 1952; while studying in Rome, he resided at Collegio Sant'Apollinare, next to Piazza Navona. After finishing his studies, he joined the Vatican diplomatic service in July 1955. Attaché of the internunciature in India from August 1955-October 1962. Privy chamberlain supernumerary of His Holiness, July 3, 1956; confirmed by the new Pope Paul VI, June 21, 1963. Auditor of the nunciature in Ireland, October 1962 to June 1967. Counselor of apostolic delegation in the United States of America, June 1967; at the same time, the nuncio in Ireland, Archbishop Giuseppe Sensi, was transferred to the nunciature in Portugal; Monsignor Cassidy had to stay in Dublin until the following November and instead, he was named counselor of the nunciature in El Salvador, where he remained until the end of 1969. Counselor of the nunciature in Argentina from Christmas 1969 until his promotion to the episcopate in 1970.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Amanzia and appointed pro-nuncio in the Republic of China (Taiwan), October 27, 1970. Consecrated, November 15, 1970, chapel of the Pontifical Urban Athenaeum of Propaganda Fide, Rome, by Cardinal Jean Villot, secretary of State, assisted by Giovanni Benelli, titular archbishop of Tusuro, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Matthew Beovich, archbishop of Adelaide, representing Sergio Pignedoli, titular archbishop of Iconio, secretary of S.C. for the Evangelization of Peoples. Pro-nuncio in Bangladesh, January 31, 1973. His episcopal motto is Fortitudo mea Dominus. Apostolic delegate in South Africa and pro-nuncio in Lesotho, March 25, 1979. Pro-nuncio in Holland, November 6, 1984. Substitute of the secretariat of State for General Affairs, March 23, 1988. President of the Pontifical Council for Promotion of Christian Unity, December 12, 1989. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 28, 1991; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, June 28, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; Special Assembly for Lebanon of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 26 to December 14, 1995. Special papal envoy to the celebrations at the Marian Shrine of Zarvanycia, Ukraine, for the 4th centenary of Union of Brest and the 350th anniversary of the Union of Uzhorod, May 19, 1996. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998; Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998; one of its three presidents delegate. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Special papal envoy to the celebrations marking the millennium of Christianity in Iceland, Reykjavík, June 1 to 2, 2000. Resigned the presidency of the council, March 3, 2001. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, February 26, 2002. Special papal envoy to the ceremony for the reopening of the cathedral of St. Patrick, Parramatta, Australia, on November 29, 2003. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, July 5, 2004. Retired to Warabrook, NSW, Australia.

Bibliography. Cassidy, Edward Idris. My years in Vatican service. New York : Paulist Press, 2009.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CASTALDO, Alfonso
(1890-1966)

Birth. November 6, 1890, Casoria, archdiocese of Naples, Italy. Third of the five children of Aniello Casoria, a merchant, and Marianna Crispino; his father died when he was seven years old. The siblings were Pasquale, who became a lawyer and a physician in Casoria; Maria, Alfonso, Michele e Giuseppina (the last two children died in childhood). He was baptized four days after his birth at home, by special permission of the Neapolitan curia, on November 10, 1890, at noon, by Canon Alfonso Castaldo, his paternal uncle.

Education. Initial studies at the elementary of school of Casoria; Seminary of Cerreto Sannita (licenza ginnasiale); Seminary of Pozzuoli, Pozzuoli; Seminary of Naples, Naples; University of Naples, Naples (letters and philosophy). Msgr. Francesco Morano and Fr. Luigi Maglione, future cardinals, were influential in his decision to enter the seminary.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 8, 1913, Naples, by Angelo Michele Jannacchino, bishop of Cerreto. Military chaplain in the Italian Army in World War I, 1915-1918. Provost of the church of S. Mauro Abbate, Casoria, 1918-1934.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Pozzuoli, March 27, 1934. Consecrated June 30, 1934, parish church of S. Marco, Casoria, by Cardinal Alessio Acalesi, archbishop of Naples, assisted by Salvatore del Bene, bishop of Cerreto Sannita (Telese), and by Salvatore Meo, titular bishop of Metone. His episcopal motto was Non dormitabit neque dormiet. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, July 16, 1949. Promoted to titular archbishop of Tessalonica and appointed coadjutor of Naples and administrator per vitam of Pozzuoli, January 14, 1950. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Naples, February 7, 1958. Named bishop ad personam of Pozzuoli, August 5, 1958.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Callisto, December 18, 1958. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. He gave his inheritance to charity and founded a Boy's Town, professional school for boys and girls, and artisan training centers. He was a great promoter of the Italian Catholic Action.

Death. Thursday March 3, 1966, at 10:50 a.m., of kidney trouble, diabetes and coronary sclerosis, at Filomarino palace, archiepiscopal residence, Naples. The funeral, celebrated in the metropolitan cathedral of Naples, was attended by Cardinal Francesco Morano and thirty archbishops and bishops. Buried in the chapel of Succopro near the remains of S. Gennaro, martyr and patron saint of Naples, in the metropolitan cathedral of Naples (1).

Bibliography. Di Petta, Pasquale. Alfonso Castaldo : preposito, vescovo, cardinale. Con appendice di Gaetano Capasso. Naples ; Rome : LER, 1997; Germier, Giuseppe. Il cardinale Alfonso Castaldo, arcivescovo di Napoli. Presentazione di S.E. Mons. Antonio Cece. Napoli: Santuario Basilica Immacolata del Ven. Placido Baccher, 1977; Imbò, Ignazio Salvatore. Il cardinale Alfonso Castaldo : un padre un pastore (1890-1966) : ricordi. Napoli : Edizioni Gaeta, 2005.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb taken from an unnumbered color plate in Di Petta, Alfonso Castaldo : preposito, vescovo, cardinale:

ALFONSO CARD. CASTALDO
ARCHIEPISCOPVS NEAPOLITANVS
OVI ET PVTEOLANVS EPISCOPVS
SVRRECTVRVS
HEIC IN PACE REQVIESCIT
VI NOVEMBRES MDCCCXC
V NONAS MARTIAS MCMLXV


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CASTILLO LARA, S.D.B., Rosalio José
(1922-2007)

Birth. September 4, 1922, San Casimiro, diocese of Maracay, Venezuela. Son of Rosalio Castillo Hernández and Guillermina Lara Peña. He was the third of seven children, five boys and two girls. Nephew of Lucas Guillermo Castillo, archbishop of Caracas.

Education. Received his initial primary instruction from his mother at home; sent to Colegio Don Bosco, Valencia, 1934-1935 (from fourth grade); Salesian Lyceum "San José", Los Teques, 1935-1940. Joined the Pious Society of St. Francis de Sales (Salesians of Don Bosco), novitiate of Bogotá, Colombia, 1940; Salesian houses of study, Colombia, 1940-1949; Salesian Athenaeum, Turin, 1950-(doctorate in canon law, October 1953, summa cum laude; his thesis director was Father Alfons Maria Stickler, S.D.B., future cardinal); University of Bonn, Germany.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 4, 1949, church of "María Auxiliadora, Sarría, Caracas, by his uncle. Celebrated his first mass in the chapel of the archbishopric, assisted by his uncle and in the presence of his mother, siblings and relatives (his father had died shortly before his ordination). Director of studies, St. Joseph Institute, Los Teques, 1949-1950. Further studies, 1950-1953, Turin. President of the Venezuelan Association of Catholic Educators, 1953. Professor of canon law at the Salesian Athenaeum, Turin, 1954-1957; 1957-1965, Rome, when the faculty of canon law was transferred to that city. Further research, 1962, Bonn. Numerary member of the Institute of Research and Study in Medieval Law, Toronto. Provincial of the Salesian Society in Venezuela, January 1966-August 1967; regional assistant of congregation for Latin America, Southern Cone, 1967-1971; general counselor for pastoral care for youth, 1971-1973.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Precausa and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Trujillo, Venezuela, March 26, 1973. Consecrated, May 24, 1973, Caracas, by Cardinal José Humberto Quintero Parra, archbishop of Caracas, assisted by Francisco José Iturriza Guillén, S.D.B., bishop of Coro, and by José León Rojas Chaparro, bishop of Trujillo. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Secretary of the Pontifical Commission for the Revision of the Code of Canon Law, February 12, 1975. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopal Council, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979. President of the Disciplinary Commission of the Roman Curia, October 5, 1981. Pro-president of the Pontifical Commission for the Revision of the Code of Canon Law, May 22, 1982. Promoted to the rank of archbishop, May 26, 1982. Pro-president of the Pontifical Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law, January 18, 1984.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Nostra Signora di Coromoto in S. Giovanni di Dio, May 25, 1985. President of the Pontifical Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law, May 27, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. President of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, December 6, 1989. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. President of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City, October 31, 1990. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. Special papal envoy to the 4th National Marian Congress, Guanare, Venezuela, May 29 to 31, 1992. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Resigned the presidency of Administration, June 24, 1995. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, January 29, 1996. Special papal envoy to the closing ceremonies of the Fifth Centennial of St. John of God's Birth, Granada, Spain, March 7 to 8, 1996. Resigned the presidency, October 14, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Returned to Venezuela in 1997 and lived in Güiripa, in San Casimiro, Aragua. Special papal envoy to the Third Colombian National Eucharistic Congress, Cali, October 16 to 18 1999. Special papal envoy to the Second Regional Eucharistic Congress of the Antilles, May 18-21, 2000, Castries, St. Lucie. Special papal envoy to the National Eucharistic Congress of Argentina, Córdoba, September 8 to 10, 2000. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, September 4, 2002.

Death. October 16, 2007, at 7:40 a.m., in "Centro Médico de Caracas", Venezuela, where he had been hospitalized since September 19, 2007, due to an acute respiratory deficiency. The body of the cardinal was exposed in capilla ardiente in Templo Nacional de San Juan Bosco de Altamira, Caracas. The exequial mass was held on Thursday October 18, 2007, at noon, in Templo San Juan Bosco de Altamira, presided by the papal representative, Cardinal Nicolás de Jesús López Rodríguez, archbishop of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Later, the body of the late cardinal was taken to San Casimiro, State of Aragua, where a eucharistic was be celebrated at 4 p.m. After the mass, the body was taken to the city of Güiripa, State of Aragua, where, at 7 p.m., a mass was celebrated, and then, the capilla ardiente continued. On Friday October 19, 2007, at 11 a.m., in the chapel of María Auxiliadora, Güiripa, an exequial mass was concelebrated by the Venezuelan episcopate as a final farewell; the inhumation took place in that chapel.

Bibliography. Castillo Lara, Rosalio José ; Roberto Giusti. Memorias inconclusas del Cardenal Rosalio Castillo Lara. Caracas : Editorial Libros Marcados, 2007.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CASTRILLÓN HOYOS, Darío
(1929-

Birth. July 4, 1929, Medellín, Colombia.

Education. He studied at the Seminary of Antioquia, Medellín; then, at the Seminary of Santa Rosa de Osos, Santa Rosa de Osos; later, at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in canon law and specialization in religious sociology, political economics and ethical economics; and finally, at the Sociological Faculty, University of Louvain, Louvain, Belgium. He speaks eight languages.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 26, 1952, basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, by Alfonso Carinci, titular archbishop of Seleucia di Isauria, secretary fo the S.C. of Rites. Further studies, Rome. Successively, in Colombia, 1954-1971, pastoral ministry in Segovia de Yarumal; director of Cursillos; director of the national pastoral program and of the Legion of Mary; official, diocesan curia of Santa Rosa de Osos; director of radiophonic schools; diocesan delegate of the Catholic Action (1959); ecclesiastical assistant of the Catholic Workers Youth; diocesan director of catechetics; inspector of the diocesan office of Popular Cultural Action (1962); secretary general of the Colombian episcopate.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Villa del re and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Pereira, June 2, 1971. Consecrated, July 18, 1971, by Angelo Palmas, titular archbishop of Vibiana, nuncio in Colombia, assisted by Aníbal Muñoz Duque, titular archbishop of Cariana, coadjutor of Bogotá, and by Baltasar Alvarez Restrepo, bishop of Pereira. His episcopal motto is Christus in vobis spes gloriae. Succeeded to the see of Pereira, July 1, 1976. Secretary general of the Latin American Episcopal Council, 1983-1987; its president, 1987-1991. He survived an assassination attempt in 1984, when Colombian President Belisario Betancur asked him to lead a peace commission to obtain an agreement with guerrilla groups. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the IV General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Bucaramanga, December 16, 1992. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Pro-prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy, June 15, 1996. Resigned the pastoral government of archdiocese, June 15, 1996. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; one of the three presidents-delegate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ss. Nome di Maria al Foro Traiano, February 21, 1998. Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy, February 23, 1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Asia of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29-May 14, 1998. Papal envoy to the signing of the Global and Definitive Agreement between Perú and Ecuador to settle their border dispute, Brasília, October 26, 1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Asia of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998; the Special Assembly for Oceania of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998; the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the twelfth centennial of the construction of the duomo of Aachen, Germany, January 29 to 30, 2000. President of the Pontifical Commission "Ecclesia Dei", April 13, 2000. Special papal envoy to the closing celebrations of the Chilean National Eucharistic Congress and to the dedication of the new cathedral of the diocese of San Bernardo, Chile, November 25 and 26, 2000, respectively. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reappointed prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy and president of the Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei, April 21, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Resigned the prefecture of the Congregation for the Clergy, October 31, 2006. Confirmed by Pope Benedict XVI as cardinal protodeacon on January 2, 2007; and again in the consistory of February 23, 2007; occupied the post until March 1, 2008. Participated in the Fifth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, March 1, 2008. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when he turned eighty years old on July 4, 2009. Ended his service as president of the Pontifical Commission "Ecclesia Dei" on July 8, 2009.

Bibliography. Miranda, Salvador. "Castrillón Hoyos, Darío." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyla years. Detroit : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, pp. 242-243.

Links. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Cardinal Castrillon: "I have great hopes for a full reconciliation with the Lefebvrists", video, Rome Reports, 2012-05-24 16:41:43.


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CATTANI AMADORI, Federico
(1856-1943)

Birth. April 17, 1856, Maradi, diocese of Modigliana, Papal State.

Education. Seminary of Modigliana, Modigliana; Pontifical Roman Academy of St. Thomas Aquinas, Rome; Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 5, 1879, Modigliana. Faculty member of the Seminary of Modigliana and pastoral ministry in that diocese, 1879-1888; vicar general, 1888-1906. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 14, 1904. Further studies, 1906-1909. Apostolic visitor to Marsica, 1909. Auditor of His Holiness, February 9, 1909. Secretary of the cardinalitial commission deciding competence questions between Roman congregations, 1921. Secretary of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, February 14, 1924. Apostolic protonotary, 1926.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 16, 1935; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Aquiro, December 19, 1935. His cardinalitial motto was Respice stelam. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII.

Death. April 11, 1943, of a heart disease, Rome. Buried in front of the main altar of the archpresbyteral church of S. Lorenzo in Maradi, his native town.

Links. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CAVALCANTI, Joaquim Arcoverde de Albuquerque
(1850-1930)

Birth. January 17, 1850, Cimbres, Pernambuco, diocese of Olinda, Brazil. Son of António Francisco de Albuquerque Cavalcanti and his wife, Marcolina Dorotéa de Albuquerque Cavalcanti. He was also called Cardinal Arcoverde.

Education. When he was thirteen years old, he entered the Minor Seminary of Cajazeiras, in Paraíba, and studied humanities; at sixteen, he was sent to Rome to study at Collegio Romano, residing at the Pontifical Collegio Pio-Latinomericano; he also studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, where he earned doctorates in philosophy and theology; at Saint-Sulpice Seminary, Paris; and at La Sorbonne University, Paris, where he studied natural sciences.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 4, 1874, Rome, patriarchal Lateran basilica. Further studies, Paris, 1874-1876. Returned to Brazil and from 1876 to 1878, he was profesor of philosophy and rector of the Seminary of Olinda. Parish priest of Boa Vista and of São Frei Pedro Gonçalves, Recife, 1878; of Cimbres, 1879. Professor and rector of the Ginásio Pernambucano. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Olinda, position obtained by competition. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 27, 1884. Nominated coadjutor bishop of São Salvador da Bahia, Brazil, March 7, 1888 by the imperial regent princess; the nomination was withdrawn when he declined, April 18, 1888.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Goias, Brazil, June 26, 1890; consecrated, October 26, 1890, Rome, by Cardinal Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro, secretary of State, assisted by António de Macedo Costa, archbishop of São Salvador da Bahia, and by Domenico Ferrata, titular archbishop of Tessalonica, secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. His episcopal motto was Domini fortitudo nostra. Resigned the government of diocese, October 27, 1891. Returned to Brazil and resided in Colégio de São Luiz, in Itu. Transferred to the titular see of Argos and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of São Paulo, August 26, 1892; took possession of the post on the February 11, 1893. In this role, he was asked to go to Europe personally to contact the religious congregations who should come to Brazil for missionary activities and education, which were the Redemptorists, Vincentians and Premonstratensian. Succeeded to the diocese of São Paulo, August 19, 1894. Took possession of the see on the following September 30. Assistant to the Pontifical Throne, November 12, 1896. Promoted to the metropolitan see of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, August 31, 1897. Took possession of the see by procurator the following October 24. Made his solemn entrance in the metropolitan cathedral of Rio de Janeiro and received the pallium from Jerônimo Tomé da Silva, archbishop of São Salvador da Bahia, primate of Brazil, on December 16 of that same year. Attended the First Latin American Plenary Council, Vatican City, May 29 to July 9, 1899.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 11, 1905; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Bonifacio ed Alessio, December 14, 1905. Named member of the SS. CC. Consistorial, of Seminaries and Universities of Studies, of Bishops and Religious and of Loreto (the latter two were later suppressed) on December 11, 1905. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Did not participate in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. He founded Federação das Associações Católicas. The cardinal reformed the cathedral and the metropolitan curia and rebuilt the Palace of São Joachim, the old residence of the bishops of Rio de Janeiro. He maintained good relations with the government in spite of the sometimes anticlerical stance of the latter. He was the first Brazilian cardinal and the first cardinal from Latin America.

Death. April 18, 1930, of bronchial pneumonia, Rio de Janeiro. The obsequies were celebrated, according to a decree, dated April 19, from President Washington Luís of Brazil, with the honors of vice president of the republic; the president received in special audience the five archbishops and fourteen bishops who attended the funeral, as well as the apostolic nuncio, Benedetto Aloisi Masella, titular archbishop of Cesarean di Mauritania. On the following April 24, his body was buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Rio de Janeiro (1).

Bibliography. Almeida, Alceste Pinheiro de. O cardeal Arcoverde e a reorganização eclesiástica. Augustin Wernet, orientador. São Paulo, 2004. Dissertation: Tese (Doutorado); "Em. Arcoverde de Albuquerque Cavalcanti (Joachim), archev. de Rio de Janeiro" in "Liste des cardinaux par ordre alphabétique", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 85; "Em. Arcoverde de Albuquerque Cavalcanti (Joachim), archev. de Rio de Janeiro" in "Nécrologe", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 920; Gardel, Luis Delgado. Les armoiries ecclésiastiques au Brésil, 1551-1962; armes des éminentissimes cardinaux, des archêveques et évêques résidentiels, titulaires, et in partibus infidelium, et des prélats et abbés nullius dioeceseos. Rio de Janeiro: Companhia Gráfica Lux, 1963; "Gioacchino Arcoverde de Albuquerque Cavalcanti" in "Emi. e Rmi. Signori Cardinali compnenti il Sacro Collegio" Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1929. Roma : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1929, pp. 38, 64, 69 and 224; "Gioacchino Arcoverde de Albuquerque Cavalcanti" in "Cardinali defunti nel Pontificato di Nostro Signore Pio Papa XI Gloriosamente Regnante" Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1931. Roma : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1931, p. 61-62; Nóbrega, Apolonio. "Dioceses e bispos do Brasil". Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro, CCXXII (January-March 1954), 200-202; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 8, 22 and 335; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 120, 288, 444 and 507.

Links. His portrait, arms and biography, in Portuguese, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

D. JOAQUIM ARCOVERDE
DE
ALBUQUERQUE CAVALCANTI
CARDEAL PRESBITERO
DE SANTA IGREJA ROMANA
DO TITULO
DOS S.S. BONIFACIO E ALEIXO
ARCEBISPO DE S. SEBASTIAO DO RIO DE JANEIRO
FALLECIDO EM XVIII-IV-MDCCCCXXX
SEXTA-FEIRA DA PAIXAO
PARCE
DOMINE
SERVO TUO


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CAVALLARI, Aristide
(1849-1914)

Birth. February 8, 1849, Chioggia, Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia .

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Chioggia (first three years of theology); his family moved to Venice; and he attended the Patriarchal Seminary of that cit.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 27, 1872, Venice, by Cardinal Giuseppe Luigi Trevisanato, patriarch of Venice. Pastoral ministry in Venice: S. Elisabetta di Lido, 1872-1880; cooperator in the parish of S. Caciano, 1880-1886; economous and later pastor in Treporti, 1886-188; archpriest of S. Pietro di Castello, 1888-1903. Honorary canon of the cathedral chapter of Venice; synodal examiner; official of patriarchal curia.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Filadelfia, with dispensation of degree and retaining the archpriesthood of S. Pietro di Castello, and appointed auxiliary of Venice, August 22, 1903. Consecrated, August 23, 1903, church of the Franciscan Missionaries, in via Giusti, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Satolli, bishop of Frascati, prefect of S.C. of Studies, assisted by Jeremy James Harty, archbishop of Manila, and by Paolo Maria Barone, titular archbishop of Melitene. Named vicar general of Venice, January 1904. Promoted to the patriarchal see of Venice, April 15, 1904.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 15, 1907; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Cosmedin, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, April 18, 1907. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV.

Death. November 24, 1914, Venice. Buried, S. Cristoforo chapel, cemetery of S. Michele, Venice. Transferred to the patriarchal cathedral of Venice, November 1957.

Bibliography. Niero, Antonio. I patriarchi di Venezia. Da Lorenzo Giustiniani ai nostri giorni. Venice : Studium Cattolico Veneziano, 1961. (Collana Storica, 3), pp. 205-207.


Link. His photograph, Araldica Vaticana.


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CÉ, Marco
(1925-2014)

Birth. July 8, 1925, Izano, diocese of Crema, Italy. Of a modest family of small farmers. His last name is also listed as Cè.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Crema, (classic studies); then at Lyceum "A. Verri", Lodi (maturità); sent to Rome, he resided at Seminary Lombardo and studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in dogmatic theology; and at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, where he earned a licentiate in Sacred Scriptures.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 27, 1948, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. Returned to Crema after his ordination. He was vice-rector of the diocesan seminary and professor of Sacred Scriptures, from 1948 to 1957; he was named its rector in 1957; and continued teaching; occupied both posts until 1970. He was president of the Diocesan Liturgical Commission. He also dedicated himself particularly to preaching spiritual retreats to the youth of the Catholic Action; and to giving spiritual exercises to the clergy.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Vulturia and appointed auxiliary of Bologna, April 22, 1970. Consecrated, May 17, 1970, feast of Pentecost, at the cathedral of Crema, by Carlo Manziana, bishop of Crema, assisted by Franco Costa, titular archbishop of Emmaus, General Ecclesiastical Assistant of the Italian Catholic Action, and by Placido Cambiaghi, C.R.S.P., bishop of Novara. His episcopal motto was Christus ipse pax. He was received in Bologna on June 29 with a solemn concelebration in the cathedral basilica of S. Petronio. Named general ecclesiastical assistant of the Italian Catholic Action, May 21, 1976. Promoted to the patriarchal see of Venice, December 7, 1978. He took canonical possession of the see on January 1, 1979; and made his solemn entrance the following January 7.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the title of S. Marco, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979, Vatican City. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the sixteenth centennial of the death of Saint Vigil, bishop, patron of the archdiocese of Trent, Italy, that took place in that city on June 26, 2001. Resigned the pastoral government of patriarchate, January 5, 2002. Apostolic administrator of Venice, January 5 to March 3, 2002. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI; he was the oldest cardinal participating in the conclave. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, July 8, 2005. Preached the spiritual exercises for Pope Benedict XVI and the Roman Curia, March 5 to 11, 2006, chapel Redemptoris Mater, Vatican City on the theme "Camminando con Gesù verso la Pasqua guidati dall'Evangelista Marco". After his retirement, he continued, until a few months before his death, to exercise his ministry dealing especially with the spiritual care of people and, in particular, the diocesan retreats. He was the first patriarch emeritus of Venice.

Death. Monday May 12, 2014, at 8:15, p.m., at the Hospital Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, Venice. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Francis prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent Patriarch Francesco Moraglia of Venice a telegram of condolence (1). The funeral for the late cardinal took place on Saturday May 17, 2014, at 10 a.m., in the cathedral basilica of S. Marco, presided by Patriarch Moraglia. The funeral chamber, in the cathedral basilica, started on Wednesday May 14. The body of the late cardinal was entombed in the crypt of the cathedral following the funeral (2).

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Press Office of the Holy See; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in Italian, patriarchate of Venice; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Il racconto della "vecchiaia bella" del Patriarca emerito Marco. L'ultimo scritto del card. Cé, a marzo 2014, su Gente Veneta, Patriarcato di Venezia, Lunedì 12 Maggio 2014; Muore il cardinale Cè, successore di Luciani a Venezia by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 13/05/2014.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the site of the Press Office of the Holy See:

A Sua Eccelenza Mons. Franceco Moraglia
Patriarca de Venezia
S. Marco 320/A
30124 Venezia

Appresa con tristezza la notizia della morte del Cardinale Marco Cè, desidero esprimere a lei ed all'intera comunità diocesana, come pure ai familiari del compianto porporato e a quanti lo hanno conosciuto e stimato, la mia profonda partecipazione al loro dolore, pensando con affetto a questo caro fratello, che ha servito con gioia il Vangelo e ha amato teneramente la Chiesa. Ricordo con gratitudine la sua instancabile opera profusa dapprima a Crema, sua diocesi di origine, poi a Bologna al fianco del Cardinale Poma, in seguito nell'Azione Cattolica Italiana, infine come mite e saggio pastore di codesta Chiesa veneziana. Penso altresì al generoso servizio da lui reso alla Parola di Dio, mediante la predicazione di giornate di spiritualità al clero e ai giovani, come pure il fervido impegno nell'attuazione di un autentico spirito liturgico. Elevo fervide preghiere al Signore affinché, per intercessione della Beata Vergine Maria, accolga questo suo fedele servitore e insigne Pastore nella celeste Gerusalemme, e di cuore imparto a quanti ne piangono la scomparsa la confortatrice benedizione apostolica.

FRANCISCUS PP.

Analogous telegram was sent by Cardinal Pietro Parolin, secretary of State.

(2) This is the text of the inscription on his sarcophagus, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

CHRISTUS IPSE PAX
MARCUS CARD. CÉ
PATRIARCHA VENETIARUM
MCM XXV - MM XIV


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CENTO, Fernando
(1883-1973)

Birth. August 10, 1883, Pollenza, diocese of Macerata, Italy. His parents were Evaristo Cento and his second wife, Ermelinda Andreani. He had a half-sister, Rosa, and a brother, Vincenzo.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Macerata from 1893 to 1905 (philosophy and theology); at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (canon law); at La Sapienza Royal University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in letters (dissertation: "Il pensiero educativo di Dante"). Received the tonsure and the first two minor orders on March 19, 1904, in the church Corpus Domini, Macerata, from Raniero Sarnari, bishop of Macerata; the other two minor orders on April 8, 1905, in the cathedral of Tolentino, from the same bishop; the subdiaconate on September 23, 1905, in the cathedral of Fermo; the diaconate on December 17, 1905 in the basilica of the Madonna della Misericordia.

Priesthood. Ordained, Saturday December 23, 1905, Macerata; he had to obtain a dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age of 23 years required to be ordained a priest. Further studies in Rome. Professor of literature at the Seminary of Macerata; and of philosophy at the State Institute of Macerata, 1906-1916; demonstrated excellent qualities as a preacher in several Italian dioceses. Called to the military service during the First World War, was attached to the Service of Health at the military hospital of Ancona, 1915-1917. Founder and first director of the weekly Il Cittadino, diocesan paper. Secretary to the papal majordome, Giovanni Tacci, titular archbishop of of Nicea, 1917-1918. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, November 15, 1917. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Macerata and pastor of the cathedral, 1919-1922.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Acireale, July 22, 1922. Consecrated, September 3, 1922, cathedral of Macerata, by Cardinal Giovanni Tacci, secretary of the S.C. for the Oriental Church, assisted by Domenico Pasi, bishop of Macerata-Tolentino, and by Placido Ferniani, bishop of Ruvo e Bitonto. Promoted to titular archbishop of Seleucia Pieria, June 24, 1926. Appointed nuncio in Venezuela, June 28, 1926. Nuncio in Perú, July 26, 1936; he was charged with the affairs of the church in Ecuador, which had not had diplomatic relations with the Holy See for nearly forty years. Named nuncio in Ecuador, July 25, 1937, after having successfully negotiated the modus vivendi with the Ecuadorian government, which established the diplomatic relations between both states (1). Papal legate to the Second National Eucharistic Congress, La Paz, Bolivia, April 16, 1939. Envoy in a special mission to Venezuela, 1939. Extraordinary ambassador to the inauguration of President Manuel Prado y Ugarteche of Perú, December 8, 1939. Papal legate to the Second National Eucharistic Congress, Arequipa, Perú, September 21, 1940. Extraordinary ambassador to the inauguration of Juan Antonio Ríos Morales of Chile, April 2, 1942. Extraordinary ambassador to the inauguration of President José Luis Bustamante y Rivero of Perú, July 28, 1945. Extraordinary ambassador to the inauguration of President Marshal Gaspar Dutra of Brazil, January 31, 1946. Nuncio in Belgium and Luxemburg, March 9, 1946. Extraordinary papal envoy to the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain, June 2, 1953. Nuncio in Portugal, October 26, 1953.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Eustachio, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, March 12, 1959. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Córdoba, Argentina, October 20, 1959. Grand penitentiary, February 12, 1962. Papal legate to the Fourth Centennial Celebration of Theresian Reforms, Avila, Spain, July 16, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Cardinal bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Velletri, April 23, 1965. Papal legate to consign the Golden Rose to the Shrine of Fátima, Portugal, May 13, 1965. Resigned his post of grand penitentiary, April 6, 1967. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971. He founded "Casa di Riposo di Pollenza", 1972.

Death. January 13, 1973, at 4 a.m., Rome. On that same day, Pope Paul VI visited the chapel where the body of the cardinal was exposed. The funeral mass, celebrated by Luigi Punzolo, titular archbishop of Sebastea, apostolic administrator of Velletri, took place in the patriarchal Vatican basilica on January 16, 1973, at 10:30 a.m. Cardinal Luigi Traglia represented the pope in the final commendation. A large number of cardinals, archbishops and bishops of the Roman Curia, as well as from Macerata, Pollenza and Acireale, attended the funeral. A funeral mass in the cathedral of Macerata was presided by Bishop Ersilio Tonini, bishop of Macerata, and concelebrated by 100 priests and numerous bishops. The funeral in Pollenza was a demonstration of the esteem of its population for the late cardinal. His mortal remains were buried in the parish church of S. Antonio, Pollenza, where he had celebrated his first mass.

Bibliography. Bogliolo, Luigi ; Casolini, Fausta. Il Cardinale Cento, 1883-1973. Dal focolare domestico alla porpora. Roma : Città Nuova Editrice, 1983.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) The nuncio was asked to visit Ecuador on his way to enter his nunciature in Perú. The Ecuadoran government had placed as an absolute condition that the vist would have to be of a strictly private character. The nuncio entered the country as a simple tourist. He disembarked in the port of Guayaquil on August 31, 1936, and was received by civil and ecclesiastical authorities. Archbishop Carlos María de la Torre of Quito, future cardinal, went to meet him in the middle of the street in the city of Riobamba. The news of his arrival spread and provoked a festive and enthusiastic response from the population. The archbishop of Quito organized a a triumphant reception for the nuncio in that city, when he arrived at the station on September 3, 1936. The government got alarmed by the enthusiasm of the people and reminded the nuncio that he came as a private visitor and that it could not guarantee his safety. He was hosted by the Álvarez Barba family, who owned a house in the center of the city of Quito. President Federico Páez, who had probably imposed the restrictions on the visit of the nuncio, sent a high level officer of the presidency to greet the visitor the following morning. Archbishop Cento, after having celebrated mass in the Salesian church of "Cristo Rey", went personally to return the visit to the president and in the evening, he visited the foreign minister; he later went to thank the archbishop. From that day, the nuncio initiated a cordial rapport with the Catholic people of Quito and the diplomatic relations with the government, which culminated with a modus vivendi between the church and the state.


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CEREJEIRA, Manuel Gonçalves
(1888-1977)

Birth. November 29, 1888, at 1:30 a.m., Serra, parish of Santa Martinha, Lousado, archdiocese of Braga, Portugal. Son of Avelino Gonçalves Cerejeira, small artisan and farmer, and Joaquina do Sacramento de Jesus Rebelo. He was baptized on December 3, 1888, by Father João Baptista da Costa Pessoa, in the parish church of Lousado. His godparents were Manuel Gonçalves Cerejeira, paternal uncle, after whom he was named; and Carolina Sacramento, maternal aunt. He had four sisters, Carolina, Deolinda, Maria and Augusta and three brothers, and Júlio, a physician; Joaquim, a lawyer; and António, an official at the University of Porto.

Education. He received his primary education at the parish of Santa Marianha, Lousado; from 1899 until 1905, he studied at the Seminary-Lyceum of Guimarães; in 1905, he entered the Lyceum "Alexandre Herculano", in Porto, to complete the courses in letters; from 1906 until 1909, he frequented the Conciliar Seminary of S. Pedro e S. Paulo of Braga; later, he attended the University of Coimbra, where he studied in the Faculty of Theology from 1909 until 1911; in those years, he met António de Oliveira Salazar, future prime minister and president of Portugal, with whom he maintained a lifelong friendship. On October 1, 1910, he received the first tonsure; on the following day, October 2, he received the four minor orders and the subdiaconate; and on December 17 of that same year, he was ordained a deacon. In 1911, when the new Portuguese Republic closed the Faculty of Theology, he matriculated in the Faculty of Law; and in the academic year 1912-1913, he passed to the Faculty of Letters (section of Historical and Geographical Sciences), established to replace the one of Theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 1, 1911, Braga, by Manuel Bátista da Cunha, archbishop of Braga. He celebrated his first mass in the parish church of Santa Marianha, Lousado, where he had been baptized. He started collaborating in the newspaper A Palavra; and in, 1912, he became the first director of O Imparcial. Faculty member of the University of Coimbra, 1911-1928. On November 11, 1916, he was named provisional assistant of the chair of Medieval History at the Faculty of Letters. On January 30, 1918, he obtained a doctorate in history with the thesis "O Renascimento em Portugal - Clenardo". On November 5, 1919, he became ordinary professor of Historical Sciences; he continued his academic career until his promotion to the episcopate occupying several chairs. In 1921, he became socio of the Royal Academy of History of Madrid. Member of the Permanent Committee for International Eucharistic Congresses, December 7, 1925.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Mitilene and appointed suffragan of Lisbon, March 23, 1928. Consecrated, June 17, 1928, at the cathedral of Coimbra, by Luis Coelho da Silva, bishop of Coimbra, assisted by José Alves Correia da Silva, bishop of Leiria, and by António Antunes, titular bishop of Retimo and coadjutor of Coimbra. His episcopal motto was Adveniat regnum tuum. Named vicar capitular of Lisbon, August 5, 1929. Promoted to the patriarchate of Lisbon, November 18, 1929; he was enthroned on February 2, 1930. He was the fourteenth patriarch of Lisbon.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1929; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, December 19, 1929. He was then the youngest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals. He returned to Lisbon on January 30, 1930. Papal legate to the National Congress of Prayer's Apostolate, Braga, July 15, 1930; to the centennial celebrations of St. Anthony, Lisbon, June 13, 1931; to the First National Missionary Congress, Lisbon, September 4, 1931; to the centennial celebrations of St. Elizabeth of Portugal, Coimbra, June 24, 1936. He founded the seminaries of Olivais, 1931; Almada, 1935; and Santarém, 1941. In 1938, he established Rádio Renascença. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. In 1940, he obtained the establishment of a concordat between Portugal and the Holy See. Papal legate to the consecration of new cathedral of Lourenço Marques, Mozambique, May 28, 1944; to the 4th centennial celebration of the death of St. John of God, Portugal and Spain, September 23, 1950; to the 4th centennial celebrations of St. Francis Xavier's death, Goa, India, October 30, 1952; to the National Marian Congress, Braga, May 24, 1954. In September 1946, he presided over the blessing of the Catholic University of São Paulo, Brazil. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Papal legate to the dedication of new Brazilian capital, Brasília, March 2, 1960. On April 23, 1961, he presided over the ceremony for the restoration of the parish church of Lousado, where he had celebrated his first mass fifty years earlier. Cardinal protoprete, August 6, 1961. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Papal legate to the celebrations in honor of Our Lady of Monte Sameiro, May 20, 1964. He founded the Catholic University of Portugal, which was inaugurated in 1967. He also founded the Seminário dos Olivais. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971. He and Cardinals Achille Liénart and Eugène Tisserant were the last cardinal electors created by Pope Pius XI. Resigned the pastoral government of the patriarchate, May 10, 1971. He wrote and published numerous works (1).

Death. August 2, 1977, in Casa do Bom Pastor, Lisbon. The funeral was celebrated in the patriarchal cathedral of Lisbon. He was buried in the tomb of the patriarchs, in the church of São Vicente de Fora. He had written his testament in 1950, in which he expressed his wish to be buried in the Seminary of Olivais, em campa rasa; his wish was not kept by the patriarchate. He was the last surviving cardinal of Pope Pius XI.

Bibliography. Brandão, Pedro Ramos. Salazar-Cerejeira : a "força" da igreja : cartas do cardeal-patriarca ao presidente do conselho. Lisboa : Notícias Editorial, 2002; Cabral, António. Um alto príncipe da Igreja : dom Manuel Cerejeira, Patriarca de Lisboa. Lisboa : Livraria Popular de Francisco Franco, 1941. Note: "Lisboa -- 25 de Julho de 1941". Other title: Dom Manuel Cerejeira, Patriarca de Lisboa; Dutra Faria, Francisco de Paula. Navegação de paz e de glória. Lisboa : Agéncia Geral das Colónias, 1945. Note: At head of title: República Portuguesa. Ministério das Colónias./ "Passos da viagem que fés as Africas de Portugal Sua Eminéncia o Cardeal Patriarca de Lisboa, Senhor Dom Manuel II"; Matos, Luís Salgado de. "D. Manuel Gonçalves Cerejeira (1929-1971)" in Os patriarcas de Lisboa. Coordenação D. Carlos Azevedo, Sandra Costa Saldanha, António Pedro Boto de Oliveira. Palavra de apresentação do Cardeal Patriarca, D. José da Cruz Policarpo. Lisboa : Centro Cultural do Patriarcado de Lisboa; Alêtheia Editores, 2009, p. 143-160; Moreira das Neves, Francisco. Cardeal Cerejeira : o homem e a obra : no centenário do seu nascimento. Lisboa : Rei dos Livros, 1988; Moreira das Neves, Francisco. O cardeal Cerejeira, patriarca de Lisboa. Lisboa : Pro Domo, 1948. Note: Issued in 11 pts., 1945-1948; Pensamento e obra do Cardeal Cerejeira : no centenário do seu nascimento. Lisboa : Universidade católica portuguesa, Centro de estudos de história religiosa, 1990. Note : Numéro de : Lusitania sacra (1990) 2a serie:tomo 2; Pimentel, Irene Flunser. Cardeal Cerejeira : o príncipe da Igreja. Lisboa : A esfera dos livros, 2010; Policarpo, José da Cruz. Cardeal Cerejeira. Lisboa : Editorial Notícias, 2002. Responsibility: D. José da Cruz Policarpo, Cardeal-patriarca de Lisboa; Policarpo, José da Cruz. Cardeal Cerejeira : fotobiografia. Lisboa : Notícias Editorial, 2002; Régo, Raul. Para um diálogo com o Sr. Cardeal Patriarca. Lisboa : O Autor, 1968. Note: Letters from Régo to Gonçalves Cerejeira; Salazar, António de Oliveira ; Cerejeira, Manuel Gonçalves. Correspondéncia (1928-1968). Edited by Rita Almeida de Carvalho. Lisboa : Temas e Debates : Círcuo de Leitores, 2010. Responsibility: António de Oliveira Salazar, Manuel Gonçalves Cerejeira ; Rita Almeida de Carvalho, organização.

Links. Photographs and biography, in Portuguese, Fundação Cardeal Cerejeira; brief biography, in Portuguese, in Os Cardeais Portugueses, under "D. MANUEL GONÇALVES CEREJEIRA - 14º Cardeal Patriarca de Lisboa", patriarcado de Lisboa; photographs, portraits and arms, Araldica Vaticana; O Cardeal e o Estado Novo: um casamento difícil by José Manuel Fernandes, ípsilon, 15.04.2010.

(1) Among them A Igreja e o pensamento contemprâneo (1924) Do valor histórico de Fernão Lopes (1925); A alma de São Francisco (1927); A idade Média (1936); Obras Pastorais (from 1936), in seven volumes; and Cartas aos Novos (1936) and Vinte Anos de Coimbra (1943), both a compilation of the articles he published in the review Estudos da CADC.


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CERRETTI, Bonaventura
(1872-1933)

Birth. June 17, 1872, Comune de Bardono, diocese of Orvieto, Italy. Son of Faustino Cerretti and Maria Custodi. He had a sister, Elvira.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Spoleto; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; and at the Royal University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 31, 1895, Rome, by Tancredo Fausti, titular archbishop of Seleucia Pieria. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Orvieto, 1895-1899. Staff member in the Secretariat of State, 1899-1904. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, January 13, 1904. Secretary to apostolic delegate in México, 1904-1906. Auditor in the apostolic delegation in the United States of America, 1906-1914.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Filippopoli di Tracia, April 15, 1914. Transferred to the titular see of Corinto, May 10, 1914. Consecrated, July 19, 1914, Rome, by Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val, secretary of State, assisted by Giulio Serafini, titular archbishop of Lepanto, and by Salvatore Fratocchi, bishop of Orvieto. His episcopal motto was Robur in fide. Apostolic delegate in Australia and New Zealand, October 5, 1914. Secretary of the S C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, May 6, 1917. In special mission to the peace conference, Paris, May to June, 1919. Nuncio in France, May 20, 1921.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 14, 1925; received the red hat and the title of S. Cecilia, June 24, 1926. Papal legate to the 29th International Eucharistic Congress, Sydney, Australia, June 14, 1928. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, July 16, 1930. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, October 12, 1931. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Velletri, March 13, 1933. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 13, 1933 until his death.

Death. May 8, 1933, of pneumonia, in Rome. Buried in the basilica of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome. The Cardinal Cerretti Memorial Chapel adjacent to St. Patrick's College in Sydney, Australia, was named after him upon its opening in 1935.

Bibliography. Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, pp. 435-436; Cerretti, Elvira. Il Cardinale Bonaventura Cerretti. Rome : Istituto grafico Tiberino, 1939; De Luca, Giuseppe. Il cardinale Bonaventura Cerretti. 2. ed. Roma : Edizioni di storia e letteratura, 1971. Note: "Ristampa invariata de [Il Cardinale Bonaventura Cerretti], quale usci ... nel 1939. Apparso anonimo, a cura della sorella del cardinale, Elvira"; De Marco, Vittorio. Un diplomatico vaticano all'Eliseo : il cardinale Bonaventura Cerretti (1872-1933). Rome : Edizioni di storia e letteratura, 1984. (Edizioni di storia e letteratura, 52; Politica e storia, 52).

Links. Biography by Francesco Margiotta Broglio, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 24 (1980), Treccani; his photograph, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CHAROST, Alexis
(1860-1930)

Birth. November 14, 1860, Le Mans, France. His baptismal name was Alexis-Armand.

Education. Seminary of Le Mans, Le Mans; Pontifical French Seminary, Rome; Catholic University of Angers, Angers.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 19, 1883. Faculty member of the School of Sainte-Croix, 1883-1892. Director of the Internship of Notre Dame de la Couture, Le Mans, 1892-1894. Secretary to the archbishop of Rennes, 1894-1899. Titular canon of the cathedral chapter of Rennes, 1899. Vicar general and director of secondary studies of the archdiocese of Rennes, 1909-1913.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Mliletopoli and appointed auxiliary of Cambrai for the General Vicariate of Lille, February 14, 1913. Consecrated, May 13, 1913, metropolitan cathedral of Rennes, by Auguste-Rene Dubourg, archbishop of Rennes, assisted by François Delamaire, archbishop of Cambrai, and by Olivier de Durfort, bishop of Langres. Transferred to see of Lille, November 21, 1913. Acting chancellor of the Catholic University of Lille, 1915; chancellor, 1919. Promoted to titular archbishop of Chersoneso and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Rennes, June 15, 1920. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Rennes, September 22, 1921.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 11, 1922; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria della Vittoria, December 14, 1922. Papal legate to the centennial celebrations in honor of Cardinal Charles-Martial Allemand-Lavigerie, Algiers, August 25, 1925; to the 50th anniversary of the Catholic University of Lille, March 14, 1927; to the celebrations in honor of St. Thérèse de Lisieux, Lisieux, September 15, 1929. He caught cold in church during inclement weather which hit Brittany. Recovering shortly afterwards, he was able to take his daily afternoon walk, but suffered a relapse. Feeling very ill, the cardinal requested a passing motorist to take him to the archiepiscopal palace, where he collapsed. Dr. De La Salle administered him an injection and the cardinal asked to be left alone in his office. When the doctor returned half an hour later, the cardinal was dead. The doctor diagnosed his death as being caused by heart failure brought on by his fits of coughing.

Death. November 7, 1930, Rennes. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Rennes.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 231-232.

Link. His photograph, Araldica Vaticana.


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CHELI, Giovanni
(1918-2013)

Birth. October 4, 1918, Turin, Italy. Son of Egidio Cheli, a native of Suvereto, Tuscany, and Annunziata Sacco, from San Damiano, Asti.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Asti; then, at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in theology and a doctorate in canon law; and later, at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, where he studied diplomacy.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 21, 1942, at the cathedral of Asti, by Bishop Umberto Rossi of Asti. In the diocese of Asti, from 1942 until 1949, diocesan vice-counselor of the Young Men of Catholic Action; prefect of discipline and professor of French, history and mathematics at the Seminary of Asti. At the same time, he was diocesan assistant of the juvenile section of Catholic Action and vice-pastor festivo in Isola dAsti. During the Second World War, thanks to a short-wave radio, he established a network of correspondence between the captive Italians soldiers and their families. Radio London broadcast periodically a message adding the names of the prisoners. Once the contents of the transmission were picked up, Father Cheli compiled for each of them a text with the message and the name of the soldier. Then, with the help of young seminarians who traveled by bicycle, the texts were delivered to the families. By the end of the conflict, he organized the Pontificia Opera di Assistenza to help the prisoners of war, sick and disbanded, who were returning home. Further studies and pastoral ministry in Rome, 1949-1952; he was assigned as chaplain of the Sisters of Mercy of Verona, in the populous district of Prenestino; and in his leisure hours from the university courses, he had an intense pastoral work in the chapel of the Sacred Heart Institute, which served as a branch church of the parish of Sant'Eelena. In addition to the long hours spent in the confessional and preaching to the people, he devoted himself especially to the youth, forming a large group of altar boys and the Department XX ASCI Scout. Returned to Asti and very soon, in that same year, went back to Rome to enter the Vatican diplomatic service. Attaché of the nunciature in Guatemala, 1952-1955; where, with the coming to power of the Communist Party, the relations of the government with the Church and the Holy See were difficult. In that context, in addition to working in the papal representation, he devoted himself to the religious formation of young people, giving life to Catholic scouting and teaching at the Catholic University of Santa María, Guatemala City, founded by the Jesuits in those years. Named privy chamberlain supernumerary of His Holiness on March 2, 1953; confirmed on October 28, 1958. Secretary of the nunciature in Spain and pastoral ministry in Madrid, 1955-1962. Counselor of the nunciature in Italy, 1962-1967. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, March 1, 1965. At the service of Pontifical Council for Public Affairs of the Church, 1967-1973, closely collaborating with the secretary of that section, Archbishop Agostino Casaroli, with the task of conducting negotiations between the Holy See and some Eastern European countries. Among other things, he worked in the negotiations for the release of Cardinal József Mindszenty, archbishop of Esztergom, Hungary. Named permanent observer of the Holy See at the United Nations Organization, July 25, 1973; where he reorganized the office's activities, mainly through an extensive network of external collaborators, and participated in many international conferences, including one on the Law of the Sea, which lasted for ten years; he became the first apostolic nuncio named before that organization.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Santa Giusta and named apostolic nuncio, September 8, 1978 (1). Consecrated, September 16, 1978, Vatican City, by Cardinal Jean Villot, bishop of the title of suburbicarian see of Frascati, secretary of State, prefect of Pontifical Council for Public Affairs of the Church, camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, assisted by Giuseppe Caprio, titular archbishop of Apollonia, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Agostino Casaroli, titular archbishop of Cartago, secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. His episcopal motto was Unitas in charitate. Pro-president of the Pontifical Commission for the Pastoral Care of Migrations and Tourism on September 18, 1986; the name of the commission was changed to Pontifical Council for Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerants on June 28, 1988. Named president of the Pontifical Commission for Migrants and Itinerants on March 1, 1989. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for America, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Within the dicastery, he confirmed and consolidated the practice, already in place, for the differences in the field of human mobility in most areas: migrants, refugees, maritime, tourism, travelers, airport, students, fair workers and circus performers and workers, entrusting the responsibility to a fixed staff, which had favored the specialization. Several global and regional conferences were convened by the Pontifical Council in those years, as well as initiatives to support the apostolate of the sea and assistance to refugees and displaced persons. During his presidency, were discussed in-depth the complex issues of the new migration. In the vast world of human mobility, the care of the spiritual dimension always had a special place, with a particular attention to the experience of the pilgrimage.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, February 21, 1998. Resigned the presidency of the Pontifical Commission for Migrants and Itinerants on June 15, 1998. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when he turned 80 years of age, October 4, 1998. He was an outspoken critic of the United States invasion of Iraq in 2001. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, March 1, 2008. On June 8, 2009, he participated in the celebration of the bicentennial of the birth of Cardinal Guglielmo Massaia, O.F.M.Cap., which took place in Asti. He has been decorated among others with the Order of Isabel la Católica, of Spain, and named commendatore of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic; and of the Verdienstkreuz of the Federal Republic of Germany. He received doctorates honoris causa from several universities in the United States of America: St. John's, Fordham, and Seton Hall.

Death. February 8, 2013, in the early hours of the morning, in his apartment at the Palace of S. Calixto, Rome. Upon learning the news of his death, Pope Benedict XVI prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to Bishop Francesco Ravinale of Asti, the diocese in which the cardinal had been incardinated (2). The exequies took place on Saturday February 9, 2013, at 5 p.m., in the altar of the cathedra of the papal Vatican basilica, celebrated by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, together with the other cardinals, archbishops and bishops. Main concelebrants were Cardinals Francis Arinze and Giovanni Battista Re. Cardinal Sodano also delivered the homily. On February 10, 2013, the body of the late cardinal was transported to Asti and exposed in the cathedral of that city starting at 8:30 p.m. The funeral mass, presided by Cardinal Severino Poletto, archbishop emeritus of Turin, took place at 9:30 a.m. on February 11. Bishop Francesco Ravinale of Asti concelebrated with the cardinal. All the civil and military authorities with the banners were present. At the end of the ceremony, the late cardinal was buried in the crypt of the bishops in that cathedral..

Links. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in English, EWTN; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Il cardinale da 70 anni al servizio della Chiesa. Giovanni Cheli sarà festeggaito stamattina in Duomo, LaStampa.it, 21.06.2012; Addio al cardinale Giovanni Cheli, LaStampa.it, 08.02.2013.

(1) This is according to Acta Apostilcae Sedis, LXX, No. 11 (September 30, 1978), 776; and Annuario Pontifico per l'anno 2011, Città del Vaticano : Libreria Edirice Vaticana, 2011) p. 43*, during the pontificate of Pope John Paul I. Originally, the election was announced by L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, CXVIII, n. 160 (July 14, 1978), p. 1; and L'Osservatore Romano, Spanish edition, X, no. 29 (July 16, 1978), p. 5, during the pontificate of Pope Paul VI.
(2) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Daily Bulletin of the Vatican Press Office:

A Sua Eccelenza Reverendissima
Mons. Francesco Ravinale
Vescovo di Asti

Ho appreso con tristezza la notizia della dipartita del venerato Cardinale Giovanni Cheli e desidero esprimere sentimenti di vivo cordoglio a codesta comunità diocesana, che lo annovera tra i suoi figli più illustri, come pure ai familiari e a quanti lo hanno conosciuto e stimato. Ricordo con animo grato la preziosa e solerte collaborazione da lui prestata per tanti decenni alla Sede Apostolica nelle Rappresentanze Pontificie, in Segreteria di Stato, poi come Osservatore della Santa Sede alle Nazioni Unite, infine quale Presidente del Pontificio Consiglio della Pastorale per i Migranti e gli Itineranti. Egli lascia la testimonianza di una vita spesa nell'adesione coerente e generosa alla propria vocazione, quale sacerdote sollecito per le necessità dei fedeli, specialmente per la formazione cristiana della gioventù. Innalzo fervide preghiere di suffragio perché il Signore accolga nel gaudio e nella pace eterna cosl zelante pastore, fedele al Vangelo e alla Chiesa, e invio a Vostra Eccellenza, all'intero presbiterio e a quanti condividono il dolore per la sua scomparsa la confortatrice Benedizione Apostolica.

Benedictus PP. XVI


Analogous telegram was sent by Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., secretary of State.


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CHIARLO, Carlo
(1881-1964)

Birth. November 4, 1881, Pontremoli, Italy. Son of Giuseppe Chiarlo, an engineer from Acqui, and Maria Tasso, from Genoa.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Lucca; at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome; and at the Pontifical "Angelicum" Athenaeum, Rome. Besides Italian, his native language, he was fluent in English, French and Spanish.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 28, 1904, Lucca. Faculty member of the Seminary of Lucca and pastoral ministry in that archdiocese, 1904-1917. Secretary; and later, chargé d'affaires in the nunciature in Perú, 1917-1922. Auditor in the nunciature in Poland, 1922-1928. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, May 26, 1918; reappointed, July 21, 1922.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Amida, October 12, 1928. Consecrated, November 11, 1928, chapel of Collegio Pio-Latinoamericano, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, secretary of State, assisted by Giovanni Volpi, titular archbishop of Antiochia di Pisidia, and by Theodor Kubina, bishop of Czestochowa. Named nuncio in Bolivia, November 12, 1928. Nuncio in Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Panamá, January 7, 1932. Transferred to the newly established nunciature in Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Panamá, December 19, 1933. Recalled to Rome in 1941 and charged with the special mission of assisting prisoners of the Second World War. Head of the pontifical mission to Germany, 1945. Nuncio in Brazil, March 19, 1946. Nuncio at disposition of the Secretariat of State, September 1954-1958.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Portico Campitelli, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, December 18, 1958. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Attended the first two sessions of the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1963.

Death. January 21, 1964, during the night, of an intestinal tumor, from which he suffered for more than seven months, at his family home in Lucca. Buried in the urban cemetery of Lucca.

Link. His portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CIAPPI, O.P., Mario Luigi
(1909-1996)

Birth. October 6, 1909, Florence, Italy. Son of Luigi Ciappi and Teresa Anichini. He spent his infancy in Borgo San Lorenzo, Mugello.

Education. In November 1919, he entered the Dominican school in Lucca; he could not attend school in Florence because of the earthquake that had affected the region; he distinguished himself in the ginnasiali and liceali studies. Joined Order of Preachers (Dominicans); on October 4, 1925, he received the religious habit and the name Luigi from Father Ludovico Fanfani, O.P., provincial prior; started the novitiate in the convent of Santa Maria della Quercia, Viterbo, see of a national novitiate for Italy; he made his first religious profession on October 8, 1926; sent to the convent of San Domenico, Pistoia, where he studied philosophy and theology from 1927 to 1929; from 1929, he studied theology at the Pontifical Angelicum Athenaeum, Rome (it became the Pontifical University of S. Tommaso d'Aquino in 1963); on October 31, 1930, he made his solemn profession before Father Ludovico Fanfani, O.P., in the convent of S. Maria sopra Minerva; obtained a doctorate in theology; thesis: De divina misericordia ut prima causa operum Dei), 1934; University of Louvain, Louvain, Belgium; University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 26, 1932, Holy Saturday, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Marchetti Selvaggiani, vicar of Rome. Further studies, 1932-1935. Faculty member and dean of the Theological Faculty of the Pontifical Angelicum Athenaeum, Rome, 1935-1955; of the Institute Beato Angelico, Rome. Master of the Sacred Palace, May 5, 1955; title changed to theologian of the Pontifical Household by the motu proprio Pontificalis domus, March 28, 1968. Attended the I Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Miseno, June 10, 1977. Consecrated, June 18, 1977, basilica of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, by Cardinal Dino Staffa, prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of Apostolic Signature, assisted by Jean Jérôme Hamer, O.P., titular archbishop of Lorio, secretary of the S.C. for the Doctrine of the Faith, and by Angelo Raimondo Verardo, O.P., bishop of Ventimiglia-San Remo.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 27, 1977; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Nostra Signora del S. Cuore, June 27, 1977. Pro-theologian of the Pontifical Household, 1977-1989 . Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979. Opted for order of cardinal priests and the title of Sacro Cuore di Gesù aggonizante a Vitinia, June 22, 1987. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age on October 6, 1989.

Death. April 23, 1996, Rome. Buried in the chapel of the Order of Preachers, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. Oliva, Adriano. "Il Cardinale Mario Luigi Ciappi: un teolgo al servizio di cinque papai", in Firenze e suoi cardinali (Firenze : Pagnini Editore, 2005), p. 141-145.

Link. Photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CICOGNANI, Amleto Giovanni
(1883-1973)

Birth. February 24, 1883, Brisighella, diocese of Faenza, Italy. He was the youngest of the two children of Guglielmo Cicognani, a shopkeeper, and Anna Ceroni; she was widowed at an early age; she ran the shop in order to support her children. His older brother became Cardinal Gaetano Cicognani (1953).

Education. He studied at the Seminary of Faenza, Faenza; after his ordination, he continued his formation at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 23, 1905, Faenza, by Gioacchino Cantagalli, bishop of Faenza. Further studies in Rome, 1905-1910. Minutant at the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments, May 10, 1910. In 1914, he passed to the S.C. Consistorial. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, March 28, 1917; reappointed, March 9, 1922. Faculty member of the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", 1921-1932. Substitute adjunct of the S.C. Consistorial, December 16, 1922. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 19, 1923. In 1924, he was named apostolic visitor to the United States of America to examine if the Scalabrini Fathers should be entrusted with a more comprehensive program of spiritual assistance to migrants; he recommended that the Fathers be encouraged to extend their work in North America and made the same recommendation for South America, after visiting the Scalabrini Fathers in Brazil in 1926. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, 1926-1932; chaplain of the Catholic students of the University of Rome; his assistant was Father Giovanni Battista Montini, future Pope Paul VI, with whom he maintained a long lasting friendship. Assessor of the S.C. for the Oriental Church, February 16, 1928. Secretary of the Cardinalitial Commission for the Codification of Oriental Canon Law, December 2, 1929. He visited the United States for the second time in 1931. Named protonotary apostolic on April 7, 1932.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Laodicea di Frigia, March 17, 1933. Consecrated, April 23, 1933, in the church of S. Susanna, Rome, by Cardinal Raffaele Carlo Rossi, O.C.D., secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, assisted by Giuseppe Pizzardo, titular archbishop of Nicea, secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Carlo Salotti, titular archbishop of Filippopoli, secretary of the S.C. for Propagation of Faith and rector of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide". His episcopal motto was Vigilat nec fatiscit, the same as his brother the cardinal. Named apostolic delegate to the United States of America on April 23, 1933. He performed his duties during twenty five years with great tact and discretion; his collected sermons and addresses in the United States filled five volumes; he travelled widely, visiting every state to study the needs of the laity and the clergy; during his tenure as apostolic delegate, the number of Catholics rose from twenty to thirty million and the number of bishops from 118 to 213.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Clemente, December 18, 1958. His creation was an exception made to canon 232 § 3 of the Code of Canon Law, that forbids anyone having a brother in the Sacred College of Cardinals to be a cardinal. Gaetano Cicognani, his brother, had been created a cardinal in the consistory of January 12, 1953, and was still living. Secretary of the S.C. for the Oriental Church, November 14, 1959. Papal legate to the National Catechetical Congress, Dallas, March 20, 1961. Secretary of State, president of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City, and president of the Commission of Cardinals for the Administration of the Wealth of the Holy See, August 12, 1961. President of the Cardinalitial Commission for the Special Administration of the Holy See, October 4, 1961. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Cardinal bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, May 23, 1962. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Confirmed in all his posts by the new Pope Paul VI, June 21, 1963 (1). Papal legate to the 19th centennial celebration of the arrival of St. Paul Apostle to Spain, Tarragona, December 31, 1963. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, September 26, 1964 until June 26, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. President of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Holy See, May 7, 1968. Resigned his posts, April 30, 1969. Secretary of State emeritus, May 8, 1969. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years of age, January 1, 1971. Elected by the cardinal bishops and confirmed by Pope Paul VI as dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals and cardinal bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Ostia, retaining the title of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, March 24, 1972.

Death. December 17, 1973, of cardiac insufficiency, Vatican City. Buried in the church of S. Clemente, Rome (2).

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 207; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, pp. 42-43; Del Re, Niccolò. "Amleto Giovanni Cicognani" in La Sacra Congregazione per le Chiese Orientali. Nel cinquantesimo della fondazione (1917-1967). Grottaferrata, Roma : Tipografia Italo-Orientale "San Nilo", 1969, p. 90-92; O'Grady, Desmond. Amleto Cardinal Cicognani. Notre Dame, IN : University of Notre Dame Press, 1965. (The Men who make the council, 19); Studi su san Pier Damiano in onore del cardinale Amleto Giovanni Cicognani. Faenza : Venerabile Seminario vescovile Pio XII, 1961. (Biblioteca cardinale Gaetano Cicognani ; 5). Contents: Presentazione, di G. Battaglia.--Il cardinale Amleto Giovanni Cicognani.--Bibliografia del card. Amleto Giovanni Cicognani (p. [xi]-xv)--Prefazione, di F. Gualdrini--Bibliografia su San Pier Damiano (1950-1960) (p. [xxi]-xxiv)--La SS. Trinità in S. Pier Damiano, di G. Ferretti--La processione dello Spirito Santo nell'Op, 38 di S. Pier Damiano, primo apostolo dell'unione dei Greci con Roma, di S. Belli.--La comunità cristiana secondo S. Pier Damiani o l'opuscolo "Dominus vobiscum," di W. Ferretti.--Alcune note sull' "Epistola ad quendam aegrotum," di D. Bianchedi.--Prospettive del pensiero morale di S. Pier Damiani, di V. Poletti.--Il celibato e la castità del clero in S. Pier Damiano, di C. Mazzotti.--La fortuna di S. Pier Damiani nel Petrarca e nel Boccaccio, di A. Zini.--La immagini faentine de S. Pier Damiani con cenni ad alcune non faentine, di A. Savioli.--Clavis S. Petri Damiani, di G. Lucchesi.

Link. Biography by Luciano Osbat, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 25 (1981), Treccani; his photograph, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Il cardinale Amieto Cicognani e mons. Pericle Felici by Vincenzo Fagiolo, Publications de l'École française de Rome lien Le deuxième concile du Vatican (1959-1965). Actes du colloque international de Rome (28-30 mai 1986), 1989, pp. 229-242; Lo zio d'America by Eliana Versace, L'Osservatore Romano, Anno CLIII n. 290 (46.534), Città del Vaticano, mercoledì 18 dicembre 2013, p. 4.

(1) After confirming him as secretary of State, Pope Paul VI sent him a photograph dedicated to "the teacher and friend who is now our most trusted Secretary of State, with reverence and benediction".
(2) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

XXIV FEB. MDCCCLXXXIII
HAMLETUS IOANNES S.R.E. CARD. CICOGNANI
XVII. DEC. MCMLXXIII


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CICOGNANI, Gaetano
(1881-1962)

Birth. November 26, 1881, Brisighella, diocese of Faenza, Italy. Eldest of the two children of Guglielmo Cicognani and Anna Ceroni; she became widowed at a young age; she ran a general store in order to support her sons. Brother of Cardinal Amleto Giovanni Cicognani (1958).

Education. Entered the Seminary of Faenza in November 1896, where he studied philosophy and theology; later, after his priestly ordination, he was sent to the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", where he earned doctorates in philosophy, theology and utroque iure, both canon and civil law; and finally, from 1912, studied diplomacy at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 24, 1904, Faenza, by Gioacchino Cantagalli, bishop of Faenza. Further studies in Rome from 1904 to 1910. Scrittoe in the tribunal of the Sacred Roman Rota in 1910; and at the same time teaches canon law at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare. In 1912 he started studying at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles and began practicing at the Secretariat of State. Apprendista at the Secretariat of State in 1915. Named secretary of the nunciature in Spain on February 1, 1916. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, March 9, 1916; reappointed, July 5, 1922. Named auditor of the nunciature in Belgium on February 3, 1920. During the spring and summer of 1921 he was chargé d'affaires in the nunciature in Holland; then, he returned to Brussels.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Ancira, January 11, 1925. Appointed first nuncio in Bolivia, January 10, 1925. Consecrated, February 1, 1925, chapel of the Pontifical Collegio Pio-Latinoamericano, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, secretary of State, assisted by Rafaello Carlo Rossi, O.C.D., titular archbishop of Tessalonica, assessor of the S.C. Consistorial, and by Giovanni Maria Zonghi, titular archbishop of Colosso, president of the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles. His episcopal motto was Vigilat nec fatiscit, the same as his brother the cardinal. He arrived in Bolivia at the beginning of June. Named pro-nuncio in Perú at the end of March 1928; on June 15, he was named nuncio. Papal legate to the First National Eucharistic Congress, Lima, Perú, September, 1935. Nuncio in Austria, June 13, 1936; arrived in Vienna at the beginning of December; he had to leave Austria on April 3, 1938, after the annexation of the country to Nazi Germany. Named nuncio in Spain (National Government) on May 16, 1938.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red biretta in Madrid from Generalissimo Francisco Franco; he remained in Spain as pro-nuncio until the end of summer; received the red hat on October 29, 1953 in Castelgandolfo, together with new Cardinals Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, Pietro Ciriaci, Benjamín de Arriba y Castro and Fernando Quiroga y Palacios, in a special consistory that lasted fifteen minutes, and also the title of S. Cecilia. Named prefect of the S.C of Rites on December 7, 1953; during his prefecture took place twelve beatifications and ten canonizations; he implemented the liturgical reforms initiated by Pope Pius XII. Named pro-prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of Apostolic Signature on November 18, 1954; occupied the post until November 14, 1959. President of International Congress of Pastoral Liturgy celebrated in Assisi from September 18 to 22, 1956. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati on December 14, 1959; took possession of the see on February 14, 1960. On June 6, 1960, he was named president of the preparatory conciliar commission for liturgy.

Death. Monday February 5, 1962, at 1:30 p.m., of a heart attack after suffering from influenza for several days, in his home at via Serristori 10, in Rome, after receiving the sacraments of the Church and the papal blessing. Pope John XXIII sent a personal letter of condolence to Cardinal Amleto Cicognani, the brother of the late cardinal. The funeral took place on the following February 9 in the collegiate church of Brisighella, presided over by Bishop Giuseppe Battaglia of Faenza. On February 10, Cardinal Giacomo Lercaro, archbishop of Bologna, celebrated a pontifical mass and delivered the eulogy. Buried in the collegiate church of S. Michele, Brisighella, Faenza.

Bibliography. Il Cardinale Gaetano Cicognani (1881-1962). Note per una biografia. Roma : Studium, 1983. (Coscienza studi ; 11). Responsibility: Franco Gualdrini; Vicente Cárcel Ortí ; Traian Crisan; Virgilio Noè ; Antonio Savioli ; Marcial Maciel Degollado ; Vincenzo Cappelletti ; presentazione di Mons. Achille Silvestrini; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 258-261.

Links. Biography by Luciano Osbat, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 25 (1981), Treccani; biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; and photographs, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CIPRIANI THORNE, Juan Luis
(1943-

Birth. December 28, 1943, Lima, Perú. He is the fourth of the eleven children of Enrique Cipriani and Isabel Thorne. They were "supernumerarios" of the Opus Dei.

Education. He completed his elementary and inferior secondary studies at Colegio Immaculado Corazón, Lima, from 1949 to 1953); and the superior secondary studies at Colegio Santa María, also in Lima, from 1954 to 1960. Then, from 1961 to 1966, he studied at Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería (UNI), Lima, where he obtained a doctorate in industrial engineering); worked as an engineer for some time with W.R. Grace and was a promoter of the Instituto Rural Valle Grande. Member of the Peruvian basketball team in the Bolivarian competition in Barranquilla, Colombia (first place); second place in South American Tournament, Lima; champion in South American Tournament, Montevideo, Uruguay; also participated in Pan American Games, Winnipeg, Canada. Joined the Sacerdotal Society of the Holy Cross and Opus Dei, Lima, June 10, 1962 (1). Studied at the International Seminary of the Opus Dei, Rome; at the University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain, where he earned a doctorate in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 21, 1977, at Basílica di San Miguel, Madrid, Spain. Faculty member, Pontifical and Civil Faculty of Theology of Lima; spiritual director of the Major Seminary of Lima; chaplain and faculty member of Escuela de Alta Dirección and of Escuela Superior Montemar, Lima; from 1986 to 1988, regional vicar of the Opus Dei in Perú and vice chancellor of the University of Piura.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of and appointed auxiliary of Ayacucho. Consecrated, July 3, 1988, cathedral of Lima, by Cardinal Juan Landázuri Ricketts, O.F.M., archbishop of Lima, assisted by Luigi Dossena, titular archbishop of de Carpi, nuncio in Perú, and by Federico Richter Fernández-Prada, O.F.M., archbishop of Ayacucho. His episcopal motto is Consummati in unum. Apostolic administrator of Ayacucho, May 23, 1991. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Ayacucho, May 13, 1995. Transferred to the metropolitan and primatial see of Lima, January 9, 1999. Grand chancellor of the Pontifical and Civil Theological Faculty of Lima, January 9, 1999. Grand Chancellor of the Pontifical Catholic University of Perú, March 24, 1999.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of S. Camillo de Lellis, February 21, 2001. Assigned to the Congregations for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments; and for the Causes of the Saints; to the Prefecture of Economic Affairs of the Holy See; and to the Pontifical Commission for Latina America. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Named member of of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, February 3, 2007. Participated in the 5th General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. On January 9, 2009, the Peruvian government decorated him with the Order "El Sol del Perú", with the grade of grand cross, on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of his appointment as archbishop of Lima. On January 30, 2009, the mayor of Lima, Dr. Luis Castañeda Lossio, granted him the "Medalla de Lima" in recognition of his pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Lima. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 4th centennial of the archdiocese of Ayacucho, Perú, which took place on July 20, 2009. He was incorporated into the Peruvian Academy of Moral and Political Sciences in a ceremony held in Casona de San Marcos, in Lima, on May 2, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints on December 19, 2013. Confirmed as member of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America on January 15, 2014. He was named member of the Council for the Economy for a quinquennium on March 8, 2014.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Spanish; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Press Office of the Holy See; his arms, Araldica Vaticana Perú: 'Vuelvan por el camino de sus fundadores antes de llegar a los cien años de la universidad' . El cardenal Cipriani a la PUCP luego de retirarle la Santa Sede el uso de 'pontificia' y 'catslica', Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 22-07-2012; Perú: Cardenal Cipriani exhorta a unión del país sin ideologmas clasistas, ACI/EWTN Noticias, 29 Jul. 12 / 12:20 pm; Respaldan denuncia contra pensamiento znico hecha por Cardenal Cipriani, ACI/EWTN Noticias, 06 Ago. 12 / 04:26 am; Cardenal Cipriani al presentar nuevo libro: Hubo mucha fe en medio de crisis de rehenes, ACI/EWTN Noticias, 08 Ago. 12 / 05:46 pm; El cardenal Cipriani presents su libro 'Doy fe'. Testimonio de la crisis de los rehenes en la embajada de Japón en 1996, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 19-08-2012; Actuales autoridades de ex PUCP hacen imposible el diálogo, dice Cardenal Cipriani, aciprensa (ACI), 21 Ago. 12 / 11:43 am; Cardenal Cipriani: Que Santa Rosa ilumine a todos, ACI/EWTN Noticias, 30 Ago. 12 / 04:50 pm; Teologia della liberazione, Cipriani contro M|ller: «Sia più prudente» by Andrea Tornielli, in Italian, Vatican Insider, 17/10/2013.

(1) On August 23, 1982, Pope John Paul II erected the Personal Prelature of the Holy Cross and Opus Dei by the apostolic constitution Ut Sit.


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CIRIACI, Pietro
(1885-1966)

Birth. December 2, 1885, Rome, Italy. Son of Giuseppe Ciriaci and Maria Giuggiolini Magnaterra. The family, of humble origin, has migrated to Rome from Marche soon after the annexation to the Kingdom of Italy. He was baptized in the church of S. Crisogono, rione of Trastevere, Rome; later the family moved to Ponterotto and then to Testaccio. He received first communion in the church of "Madonna di Ponterotto", Rome, on June 27, 1897.

Education. Entered the Pontifical Roman Seminary on October 31, 1902; then, studied at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", where he earned doctorates in philosophy on July 5, 1904; in theology on July 6, 1909; and in canon law on November 8, 1911.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 18, 1909, Rome; celebrated his first mass in the church of S. Maria Liberatrice "a Monte Testaccio" on December 19, 1909. He initiated his pastoral ministry in Rome as chaplain in the church of S. Lorenzo in Damaso; then on July 28, 1910, he was named vice-pastor of S. Rocco parish, where he met Monsignor Camillo Laurenti, secretary of the Congregation of Propaganda Fide, future cardinal, who invited him to become professor of ethical philosophy at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare"; later, he taught fundamental theology and became dean of the faculty from November 14, 1914 until September 1926. Scrittore at of the Sacred Apostolic Penitentiary, January 21, 1911; promoted to registratore, December 15, 1911. Adjunct aiutante di studio at the S.C. of the Council, February 22, 1913. Minutant at the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, first section, June 16, 1917. Privy chamberlain supernumerary of His Holiness, October 26, 1918. Under-secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, May 14, 1921. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, March 27, 1922. On March 27, 1927, he left Rome as special envoy to solve the incident of the feast of Ján Huss (1), for which Archbishop Francesco Marmaggi, nuncio in that country, had to leave the post; and to conclude the modus vivendi between Czechoslovakia and the Holy See; he successfully solved the problem of the celebration and signed a modus vivendi on December 17, 1927.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tarso, February 15, 1928. Consecrated, March 18, 1928, basilica of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, secretary of State, assisted by Carlo Cremonesi, titular archbishop of Nicomedia, secret almoner of His Holiness, and by Agostino Zampini, O.S.A., titular bishop of Profreone, sacristan of His Holiness. His episcopal motto was Dominus regit me. Named nuncio in Czechoslovakia, March 18, 1928; the major difficulties he encountered in that country came from the presence of different faiths and the open hostility of the radicals and Masons as well as from that of the "National Catholics". Named nuncio in Portugal, January 19, 1934; there, the main problem was that of the separation between Church and State, proclaimed in 1910, which caused difficulties to the formation and support of religious institutes and prevented the Church to reap the fruits of the religious revival that the events of Fatima (1917 ) had raised throughout the country. The Catholic orientation of the Prime Minister António de Oliveira Salazar, who in 1933, with the new constitution, gave the Republic a corporate structure, and the profound experience of Nuncio Ciriaci on agreements with national governments, facilitated the signing of a concordat between Portugal and the Holy See on May 7, 1940. The agreement was considered particularly favorable to the Catholic Church; and it was completed by a missionary agreement that regulated the Church's presence in the overseas territories.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat on October 29, 1953, together with new Cardinals Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, Gaetano Cicognani, Benjamín de Arriba y Castro and Fernando Quiroga y Palacios, in a special consistory that lasted fifteen minutes, and also the title of S. Prassede. Prefect of S.C. of Council, March 20, 1954 to December 30, 1966. President of the Pontifical Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law, May 31, 1955. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Presided over the preparatory commission De disciplina cleri et populi christiani of the Second Vatican Council. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965; and presided over the De disciplina cleri commission; fruit of the work of those commission was the decree Presbiterorum ordinis, promulgated by Pope Paul VI on December 7, 1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Opted for the title of S Lorenzo in Lucina, September 26, 1964. He was member of the SS.CC. of the Holy Office, Consistorial, Propaganda Fide, Oriental Church, Religious, Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and Seminaries and Universities of Study; of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature; of the Pontifical Commission for the Redaction of the Code of Oriental Canon Law; and of the Cardinalitial Commissions for the Shrines of Pompei and Loreto; for the Administration of the Patrimony of the Holy See; and for the Special Administration of the Holy See. He was also protector of twelve religious congregations and communties until the suppression of the protectorates by Pope Paul VI after the Council.

Death. December 30, 1966, in his Roman residence in Via Rusticucci; his confessor, Father Salvatore Finelli, C.SS.R., was present. He was exposed in his residence on December 31, 1966. The funeral took place on January 3, 1967, in the basilica of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, presided by Pope Paul VI. His remains were buried in the first chapel on the right of that same basilica (2).

Bibliography. Del Re, Niccolò. "I cardinali prefetti della Sacra Congregazione del Concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), 147-148; Palazzini, Pietro. "Fulgida porpora, prima guida alla revisione del Codice. Il Cardinale Pietro Ciriaci". Apollinaris, XLI (1968), 7-42; "Pietro Ciricaci" in "Em.mi. e Rev.mi. Signore Cardinali componenti il Sacro Collegio", Annuario Pontifico per l'anno 1966. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1966, p. 52*; La Sacra Congregazione del Concilio : quarto centenario dalla fondazione (1564-1964); studi e ricerche. [s.n.] : Città del Vaticano, 1964.

Links. Biography by Luciano Osbat, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 25 (1981), Treccani; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) The Czech government dropped the celebration of the feast of St. Ján Chrysostom and replaced it with the feast of Ján Huss, who is considered a heretic by the church.
(2) This is the text of the inscription that he composed for the stone that covers his tomb, taken from Palazzini, "Fulgida porpora, prima guida alla revisione del Codice. Il Cardinale Pietro Ciriaci", p. 9: Petrus presb. Card. Ciriaci in sua prisca paroecia et in archiepiscopum Tarsenen consecrari et in Domino requiescere voluit.


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CIVARDI, Ernesto
(1906-1989)

Birth. October 21, 1906, Fossarmato, diocese of Pavia, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Pavia; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in canon law; and at the Sacred Roma Rota, legal section, Vatican City becoming a Rotal lawyer.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1930, Pavia. Further studies, 1930-1932, Rome. Vice-rector, Lombardian Seminary, Rome, 1932-1934. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome and staff member of the S.C. Consistorial, 1934-1953. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, July 15, 1950. Substitute of the S.C. Consistorial, 1953-1965; undersecretary, 1965-1967. Commissary of the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments and justice promoter of the Vatican City Tribunal, 1953-1967. Referendary of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, November 18, 1958; voting prelate, October 10, 1962. Expert at the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Counselor of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, 1965-1967. Secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, May 17, 1967.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Sardica, June 26, 1967. Consecrated, July 16, 1967, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope Paul VI, assisted by Augusto Gianfranceschi, bishop of Cesena, and by Jacques-Paul Martin, titular bishop of Neapoli di Palaestina, canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. In the same ceremony were consecrated Agostino Casaroli, titular archbishop of Cartagine, future cardinal; and three other prelates. Present at the ceremony was his brother Luigi, titular bishop of Tespia and canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Secretary of the Sacred College of Cardinals, July 16, 1967. Secretary of the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Secretary of the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Teodoro, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979, Vatican City. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 21, 1986.

Death. November 28, 1989, Rome. The funeral was celebrated by Pope John Paul II at the patriarchal Vatican basilica on Thursday, November 30, 1989. Buried in the chapel of the "Confraternità dei Lombardi", Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.


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CLANCY, Edward Bede
(1923-

Birth. December 13, 1923, Lithgow, diocese of Bathurst, Australia. Son of John Bede Clancy and Ellen Lucy Edwards.

Education. Studied at St. Columba's College, Springwood; at St. Patrick's College, Manly; at the Pontifical Urbanian University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in theology; and at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, where he earned a licentiate in Sacred Scriptures.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 23, 1949. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Sydney, 1949-1952. Further studies, Rome, 1952-1955. Pastoral ministry in Sydney, 1955-1958; faculty member, St. Columban College Seminary 1958-1961. Further studies, 1961-1963. Chaplain of the University of Sydney and faculty member of St. Patrick's College, Manly, 1963-1973.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Ard Carna, and auxiliary of Sydney, October 25, 1973. Consecrated, January 19, 1974, Sydney, by Cardinal James Darcy Freeman, archbishop of Sydney, assisted by Cardinal James Robert Knox, archbishop of Melbourne, and by Thomas Vincent Cahill, archbishop of Canberra. His episcopal motto is Fides mundum vincit. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Canberra, November 24, 1978. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Sydney, February 12, 1983. President of the Australian Episcopal Conference, 1986- . Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; member of its general secretariat, 1987-1990.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria in Vallicella, June 28, 1988. Attended Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; member of its general secretariat, 1990-1994. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, October --, 1988; November 6, 1995. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; president delegate; member of the general secretariat, 1994-1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Oceania of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998. Special papal envoy to the Marian Congress on the Holy Trinity, Manila, Philippines, January 27 to 29, 2000. Special papal envoy to the Ninth World Day of the Sick, Sydney, February 11, 2001. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 26, 2001. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, December 13, 2003.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of Sydney; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CODY, John Patrick
(1907-1982)

Birth, December 24, 1907, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America. Son of Thomas Joseph Cody and Mary Begley.

Education. Studied at St. Louis Preparatory Seminary, St. Louis; at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome; and at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 8, 1931, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Marchetti-Selvaggiani, vicar general of Rome. Staff member of the North American College, Rome, 1932-1938. Attached to the Secretariat of State, 1932. Secretary to the archbishop of St. Louis, 1938-1940. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, May 24, 1939. Chancellor of the archdiocese of St, Louis, May 2, 1940. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of St. Louis, 1945-1954. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, July 14, 1946.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Apollonia and appointed auxiliary of St. Louis, May 14, 1947. Consecrated, July 2, 1947, cathedral of St. Louis, by Joseph Elmer Ritter, archbishop of St. Louis, assisted by John Joseph Donnelly, bishop of Leavenworth, and by Vincent Stanislaus Waters, bishop of Raleigh. His episcopal motto was Magnificat anima mea. Named coadjutor, with right of succession, of the see of St. Joseph, January 21, 1954. Apostolic administrator of the see of St. Joseph, May 9, 1955. Coadjutor, with right of succession, of the see of Kansas City-St. Joseph (1), August 24, 1956. Succeeded to the see of Kansas City-St. Joseph, September 11, 1956. Promoted to titular archbishop of Bostra and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of the metropolitan see of New Orleans, July 20, 1961. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Vicar general of the archdiocese of New Orleans, December 4, 1962. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of New Orleans, November 8, 1964. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Chicago, June 14, 1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 26, 1967; received the red biretta and the title of S. Cecilia, June 29, 1967. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979.

Death. April 25, 1982, of a heart attack, after a history of heart trouble, shortly after being confined to his home after a lengthy hospital stay, in Chicago. Buried in the bishops' chapel, Mount Carmel Cemetery, Hillside, archdiocese of Chicago (2). His predecessor Cardinal Samuel Alphonse Stritch and his immediate successor, Cardinal Joseph Louis Bernardin, are also buried in that chapel.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 209-220; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 44; Dahm, Charles W. ; Ghelardi, Robert. Power and authority in the Catholic Church : Cardinal Cody in Chicago. Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press, 1981. Note: A revision of the author's thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Wisconsin.

Link. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) The two dioceses were united on July 2, 1956.
(2) This is the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

HERE, AWAITING THE RESURRECTION,
LIE THE REMAINS OF
HIS EMINENCE, JOHN PATRICK CARDINAL CODY
SIXTH ARCHBISHOP OF CHICAGO
BORN, ST.LOUIS, MO., DEC. 24, 1907
ORDAINED, ROME, ITALY, DEC. 8,1931
AUX. BISHOP OF ST.LOUIS, 1947-1954
BISHOP OF ST. JOSEPH, 1954-1956
ARCHBISHOP OF KANSAS CITY 1956-61
ARCHBISHOP OF NEW ORLEANS 1961-65
ARCHBISHOP OF CHICAGO, 1965-1982
DIED, CHICAGO, ILL.- APRIL 25, 1982
THE LORD WAS HIS STRENGTH,
IN HIM HIS HEART TRUSTED


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COFFY, Robert
(1920-1995)

Birth. October 24, 1920, Le Biot, diocese of Annecy, France. His father was a carpenter. His baptismal name was Robert-Joseph.

Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Thonon; then, at the Major Seminary of Annecy; and finally, at the Catholic Faculty of Lyon.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 28, 1944, Annecy. Further studies, Lyon, 1944-1946. Pastoral ministry, Annecy, 1946-1947; faculty member, minor seminary of Thonon, 1948; further studies, Lyon, 1949. In the diocese of Annecy, faculty member of its major seminary, 1949-1952; its rector, 1952-1956; honorary canon of the cathedral chapter; member of the episcopal council; diocesan director of religious education; vicar general, 1956-1967.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Gap, February 11, 1967. Consecrated, April 23, 1967, church of the Visitation, Annecy, by Jean Sauvage, bishop of Annecy, assisted by André Charles Collini, bishop of Ajaccio, and by Paul-Marie François Rousset, Ist. del Prado, titular bishop of Utimma, auxiliary of Lyon. His episcopal motto was Sint unum. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Albi, June 15, 1974. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Transferred to the archdiocese of Marseille, April 13, 1985. Attended the VII Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1991; received the red biretta and the title of S. Luigi Maria Grignion de Montfort, June 28, 1991. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, April 22, 1995.

Death. July 15, 1995, of cancer, in Saint-Zacharie, diocese of Fréjus-Toulon. Buried in the archepiscopal (now metropolitan) cathedral of Marseille.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 241-242.

Link. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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COLASUONNO, Francesco
(1925-2003)

Birth. January 2, 1925, Grumo Appula, archdiocese of Bari, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Bari; then, at the Regional Seminary of Molfetta; later, at the University of Bari; also, at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained doctorates in theology and canon law; and finally, at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, where he studied diplomacy.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 28, 1947, parish church of S. Maria Assunta, Grumo Appula, by Marcello Mimmi, archbishop of Bari. Further studies in Rome. Faculty member of the Seminary of Bari, Bari. Joined the Vatican diplomatic service and was attached to the Council for Public Affairs of the Church, 1960-1962. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, December 13, 1961; June 21, 1963. Secretary and later auditor of the apostolic delegation in the United States of America, 1962-1967. Auditor of the nunciature in India (1968-1972). Prelate of honor of His Holiness, October 17, 1971. Counselor of the nunciature and chargé d'affaires ad interim in China (Taiwan), 1972-1974.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tronto and appointed apostolic delegate in Mozambique, December 6, 1974. Consecrated, February 9, 1975, cathedral of Bari, by Cardinal Corrado Ursi, archbishop of Naples, assisted by Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy, archbishop emeritus of Bangalore, secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, and by Anastasio Alberto Ballestrero, O.C.D., archbishop of Bari. Pro-nuncio in Zimbabwe, March 7, 1981. Pro-nuncio in Yugoslavia, January 8, 1985. Nuncio with special charges and chief of the Holy See permanent delegation for working contacts with the government of the Republic of Poland, April 9, 1986. Representative of the Holy See before the Russian Federation, March 15, 1990. Nuncio in Italy, November 12, 1994. Nuncio also in San Marino, April 22, 1995.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Eugenio, February 21, 1998. Special papal envoy to the closing celebrations of 5th Centennial of the Evangelization of Mozambique, Maputo, August 11 to 16, 1998.

Death. May 31, 2003, after a lengthy illness, at his family's residence in Grumo Appula, Bari. His funeral mass, presided by Cardinal Achille Silvestrini, was celebrated at the parish church of S. Maria Assunta, Grumo Appula, on Monday, June 2, 2003, at 4 p.m., with the participation, among others, of Cardinal Luigi Poggi; and Paolo Romeo, titular archbishop of Vulturia, nuncio to Italy; and Francesco Cacucci, archbishop of Bari-Bitonto. His body was placed in a beautifully crafted coffin by the local funeral home. He was buried in a specially constructed marble sarcophagus, in that parish church (1). Beside his sarcophagus stands a cabinet which holds a permanent display which includes his pastoral staff, pectoral cross, red biretta and cardinalitial ring.

(1) This is the inscription on his sarcophagus, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

EMINENZA REVERENDISSIMA
FRANCESCO COLASUONNO
CARDINALE
DI SANTA ROMANA CHIESA
2-1-1925    31-5-2003


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COLOMBO, Giovanni
(1902-1992)

Birth. December 6, 1902, Caronno Pertusella (Varese), archdiocese of Milan, Italy. Sixth of the seven children of Enrico Colombo, office head of a factory, and Luigia Millefanti, shirt maker and embroiderer. He was baptized on December 8, 1902 in the parish church of S. Margherita, Caronno Pertusella; his middle name was Umberto.

Education. Initial studies, scuola comunale of the Sisters of the Immaculate Conception, Ivrea; Seminary Ginnasiale of S. Pietro Martire, Seveso (entered, September 14, 1914); Seminario Liceale of Monza, Monza; Seminary of Milan at Corso Venezia (doctorate in theology, September 30, 1926). Catholic University of Milan, Milan (doctorate in letters, 1932; thesis: "La rinascita cattolica e il suo secolo - Primi saggi"). Received the ecclesiastical tonsure, May 26, 1923; the first minor orders, December 22, 1923; the second minor orders, March 19, 1924; the subdiaconate, June 28, 1925; and the diaconate, November 1, 1925.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 29, 1926, metropolitan cathedral of Milan, by Cardinal Eugenio Tosi, O.SS.C.A., archbishop of Milan. Professor of letters at the Seminary Ginnasiale of San Pietro Martire (Seveso), October 1926. Professor of Italian at the Seminary Liceale of Venegono Inferiore, Milan, October 1931. Professor of sacred eloquence in the courses for the seminarians and at the Theological Faculty of the seminary, 1932-1944. Professor of Italian language and literature at the Faculties of Education and of Letters and Philosophy of the Catholic University of Sacro Cuore of Milan, 1937-1939. On August 2, 1939, Cardinal Alfredo Ildefonso Schuster, O.S.B., archbishop of Milan, named him rector of the Seminary Liceale of Milan at Venegono inferiore; occupied the post until 1953. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, December 7, 1948. Rector major of the Seminaries of Milan, July 23, 1953 until 1960. On August 30, 1954, he administered the last rites to Cardinal Schuster, who died saintly in the Seminary of Venegono.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Filippopoli di Arabia and appointed auxiliary of Milan, October 25, 1960. Consecrated, December 7, 1960, metropolitan cathedral basilica of S. Ambrogio of Milan, by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini, archbishop of Milan, future Pope Paul VI, assisted by Anacleto Cazzaniga, archbishop of Urbino, and by Giuseppe Schiavini, titular bishop of Farsalo, auxiliary and vicar general of Milan. His episcopal motto was Veritas et amor. Member of the preparatory commission for seminaries and universities of the Second Vatican Council. Participated in the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Milan, August 10, 1963.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti, February 25, 1965. Special papal envoy to the 19th National Eucharistic Congress, Pescara, Italy, September 11 to 18, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5-9, 1979. Resigned the pastoral government of archdiocese, December 29, 1979. From January 1980 to May 1992, he resided in the Seminary at Corso Venezia, Milan, which he had restored, carrying out an intense cultural and pastoral activity at the service of the Ambrosian archdiocese and the Italian church. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, December 6, 1982.

Death. May 20, 1992, of a heart attack, at the Seminary of Corso Venezia, Milan. His requiem mass took place on May 22, 1992, at the metropolitan cathedral of Milan, presided by Cardinal Carlo Maria Martini, S.J.,, archbishop of Milan, with the participation of several cardinals, twenty one bishops and hundreds of priests. Present among others were Cardinals Camillo Ruini, vicar of Rome, representing Pope John Paul II; Marco Cè, patriarch of Venice; Giovanni Saldarini, archbishop of Turin; Giacomo Biffi, archbishop of Bologna; and Giovanni Canestri, archbishop of Genoa. Buried under the pavement of the right side nave in front of the altar that contains the remains of Blessed Cardinal Alfredo Ildefonso Schuster, O.S.B., in the metropolitan cathedral of S. Maria Nascente, Milan (1).

Bibliography. Biffi, Inos. Il cardinale Giovanni Colombo. Milano : Jaca Book, 2012; Cazzani, Eugenio. Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano. Nuova ed./ a cura di Angelo Majo, 2. ed. Milano : Massimo : NED, 1996. Note: Originally published 1955, now enlarged and updated, p. 295-299; Colombo, Giovanni ; Majo, Angelo. Cardinale a Milano : l'episcopato di Giovanni Colombo. Milano : NED, 1982; Majo, Angelo ; Colombo, Giovanni ; Russo, Mimma. Il cardinale Giovanni Colombo : profumo di opere buone. Cinisello Balsamo (Milano) : San Paolo, 1998. (Testimoni del nostro tempo. 29); Majo, Angelo. Storia della chiesa ambrosiana. 5 vols. 2nd ed. Milano : NED, 1983-1986, V, 20, 25, 56n, 86, 89, 131, 133-141, 143n, 144n, 149, 150, 152n, 153, 158-163, 166 and 173.

Links. Photograph, documents and biography, in Italian, archdiocese of Milan; and photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Milano (III-XXI secolo), in Italian, archdiocese of Milan.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Majo, Il cardinale Giovanni Colombo : profumo di opere buone, p. 21:

IOANNES
CARD. COLOMBO
ARCHIEPISCOPUS
QUI AB ANNO 1963 AD ANNUM. 1979
PRECLARA DOCTRINA
PRUDENTIQUE CONSILIO
ABROSIANAM REXIT ECCLESIAM
FILIORUM MEMORIAE
PRECIBUSQUE
COMMENDATUS
6 DEC. 1902 - 20 MAI 1992


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CONCHA CÓRDOBA, Luis
(1891-1975)

Birth. November 7, 1891, Bogotá , Colombia. His parents were José Vicente Concha, who was president of Colombia, and his first wife, Leonor Córdoba. He had six sisters from the two marriages of his father: Leonor, Isabel, Julia, Elvira, Josefina, and Maruja. He was baptized by Fr. Rafael Almansa in the parish church of "La Veracruz". His father prepared him for first communion.

Education. Studied Latin at home under Dr. Miguel Abadía Méndez, professor of the same subject the Conciliar Seminary of Bogotá , Bogotá; he entered the seminary to continue the study of Latin in 1908; went to Paris with his father when the latter was named Colombian ambassador in France; studied humanities in Paris under Abbé Lafont; on his return to Bogotá, he continued his priestly studies at the seminary; Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome (Sacred Scriptures); Seminary of Saint-Sulpice, Paris.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 28, 1916, Bogotá. His father was then president of the Republic of Colombia from 1914 to 1918. Chaplain of the apostolic school of the cathedral of Bogotá, professor at the Conciliar Seminary, and at "Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario; pastoral ministry at the parish church of "La Veracruz," 1917-1918. Director of the archdiocesan bi-weekly "El Catolicismo", November 1918 to March 1919. Further studies in Rome and Paris, April 1919 until the end of 1920; he had to return early without obtaining any academic degrees due to bad health. In 1921, he was named chaplain of the monastery of the Visitation, prefect of studies and professor at the Conciliar Seminary of Bogotá, and professor of religion at "Gimnasio Moderno" and at "Colegio Nuestra Señora del Rosario. Privy chamberlain supernumerary of His Holiness, February 21, 1921; reappointed, April 10, 1922. Spiritual director at the Conciliar Seminary in 1923. Director again of "El Catolicismo" from August 16 to October 15, 1924. Postulated by the president of Colombia to the rectorate of "Colegio Mayor Nuestra Señora del Rosario" but he declined. Professor of Sacred Scripture and moral theology at the Conciliar Seminary. Prebendary of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Bogotá. President of the committee for the 1925 Holy Year. Sub-promoter of the faith in the informative process for the beatification of Ezequiel Moreno y Díaz, O.A.R., bishop of Pasto. Ecclesiastical censor. Canon theologian of the chapter of the metropolitan cathedral of Bogotá, and secretary of the archdiocesan curia, 1933-1934. General archiocesan assistant of the Catholic Action. Archdiocesan chancellor. Member of the archdiocesan synod. Vicar general substitute of Bogotá, 1934-1935.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Manizales, July 13, 1935. Consecrated, November 30, 1935, metropolitan and primatial cathedral basilica of Bogotá, by Ismael Perdomo, archbishop of Bogotá, assisted by Francisco Cristóbal Toro, bishop of Antioquia, and Crisanto Luque Sánchez, bishop of Tunja. His episcopal motto was Dominus lux mea. Promoted to archbishop when Manizales was elevated to the metropolitan rank, May 10, 1954. Transferred to the primatial metropolitan see of Bogotá, May 18, 1959. Military vicar of Colombia, May 19, 1959 to July 29, 1972. President of the Episcopal Conference of Colombia.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 16, 1961; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria Nuova, January 19, 1961. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Lost his right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, November 7, 1971. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Bogotá, July 29, 1972.

Death. September 18, 1975, after a long and painful illness, very early in the morning, "Clínica Marly", Bogotá. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Bogotá.

Bibliography. Agudelo Giraldo, Guillermo. Los arzobispos de Bogotá que he conocido : medio siglo en la historia eclesiástica colombiana, 1928-1984. Bogotá : s.n., 1987. Notes: "Ensayo sobre los cuatro arzobispos que han dejado huella profunda en la agitada historia contemporánea de Colombia: monseñor Ismael Perdomo, cardenal Crisanto Luque, cardenal Luis Concha, cardenal Aníbal Muñoz Duque." Originally presented by the author on entering the Academia Colombiana de Historia Eclesiástica on Nov. 15, 1986. Cover title: Cuatro arzobispos que han marcado nuestra historia, 1928-1984. "Ediciones Verdad y Vida", volumen 14, nos. 24-25 y 26, diciembre de 1986".

Link. Photograph, arms and biographical entry, in Spanish, archdiocese of Bogotá; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CONFALONIERI, Carlo
(1893-1986)

Birth. July 25, 1893, Seveso, archdiocese of Milan, Italy. Fourth child of Giuseppe Confalonieri, a cabinet maker, and Maria Rusconi. Baptized the day after his birth by Fr. Ambrogio Sirtori. Received the sacrament of confirmation on February 13, 1901 at the parish church of Seveso; and the first communion on May 5, 1904.

Education. Seminary of Seveso, Seveso (1904-1909; ginnasio); Archiepiscopal Seminary of Monza, Milan (1909-1912; philosophy); Lyceum "Parini", Milan (license liceale); Pontifical Seminary Ss. Ambrogio e Carlo (Collegio Lombardo), Rome; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (1912-1914; bachelor in theology, 1913); military service (1914-1916). From Andrea Carlo Ferrari, archbishop of Milan, received the ecclesiastical tonsure, June 14, 1912; the four minor orders, September 20, 1913; the subdiaconate, January 2, 1916 in the archbishop's private chapel; and the diaconate, January 9, 1916 in the crypt under the main altar of the metropolitan cathedral of Milan.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 18, 1916, shrine of S. Pietro Martire, Seveso, by Cardinal Andrea Carlo Ferrari, archbishop of Milan. In the Italian Army during the First World War, 1916-1919. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Milan, 1919-1921. Secretary to Cardinal Achille Ratti, archbishop of Milan, 1921-1922; was his conclavist in the conclave of 1922; was named his secretary when he became Pope Pius XI (1922-1939). Privy chamberlain participant, February 7, 1922; reappointed, March 3, 1939. Protonotary apostolic, December 24, 1935. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1935. In 1937, Pope Pius XI intended to name Msgr. Confalonieri as substitute of the Secretariat of State but Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli, secretary of State, future Pope Pius XII, asked the pope to name Msgr. Giovanni Battista Montini, future Pope Paul VI, instead. Pope Pius XII designated Msgr. Confalonieri to be metropolitan archbishop of Modena and abbot of Nonantola on December 16, 1939 but he declined.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Aquila, March 27, 1941. Consecrated, May 4, 1941, Sistine chapel at the Vatican, by Pope Pius XII, assisted by Giuseppe Migone, titular archbishop of Nicomedia, secret almoner of His Holiness, and by Alfonso Camillo De Romanis, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, sacristan of His Holiness. His episcopal motto was Regnum tuum Domine. Secretary of the S.C. for Seminaries and Universities, January 25, 1950. Transferred to the titular archbishopric of Nicopoli al Nesto, February 22, 1950.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Agnese fuori le mura, December 18, 1958. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, November 16, 1959. Secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, March 14, 1961, Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Pro-prefect of the S.C. Consistorial, 1966. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Confirmed in his post by Pope Paul VI when he became seventy five years old, July 25, 1968. President delegate of the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, October 11 to 28, 1969. President of the Pontifical Commission for the Pastoral of Emigration and Tourism, April 30, 1970. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Cardinal bishop of the title of suburbicarian see of Palestrina, March 15, 1972. Resigned his posts, February 25, 1973. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, July 25, 1973. Special papal envoy to the restoration of Seminary of Milan, Milan, October 27, 1973. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 7, 1974. Papal legate to the opening of Holy Door at the patriarchal Liberian basilica, December 24, 1974. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals and bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Ostia, proper of the dean, retaining the title of the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, December 12, 1977. Presided over the funerals of Popes Paul VI and John Paul I in 1978. Special papal envoy to the 20th National Eucharistic Congress, Milan, Italy, May 15 to 22, 1983. Papal legate to the opening of Holy Door at patriarchal Liberian basilica, December 24, 1983.

Death. August 1, 1986, Rome. The funeral took place on August 4, 1986 at 10 a.m., in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, presided by Pope John Paul II. Transferred to Seveso, another funeral mass celebrated on August 5, 1986 at 10 a.m. in the parish church, celebrated by Cardinal Giovanni Colombo, archbishop emeritus of Milan; afterward, the late cardinal was buried next to his parents in the family plot in the cemetery of Seveso (1).

Bibliography. Garofalo, Salvatore. Il cardinale Carlo Confalonieri (1893-1986). Presentazione di Francesco Marchisano. Roma : Studium, 1993. (Coscienza. Studi ; 23).

Link. His arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

NELLA SUA TERRA COME EGLI VOLLE
ACCANTO AI GENITORI RIPOSA
CARLO CONFALONIERI
CARDINALE VESCOVO DECANO
25.VII.1893       1.VIII.1986
AETERNA FAC SANCTIS TUIS
IN GLORIA NUMERARI
+ + +


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CONGAR, O.P., Yves
(1904-1995)

Birth. April 8, 1904, Sedan, archdiocese of Rheims, France. Son of Georges Henri Congar and Jeanne Lucie Desoye. His baptismal name was Georges Yves Marie. His first name is also listed as Ivo.

Education. Seminary of Rheims, Rheims, France; Catholic Institute, Paris. Joined the Order of Preachers (Dominicans), Amiens, December 7, 1925; took the name Marie-Joseph; professed, September 8, 1926; Le Saulchoir Dominican Seminary, Tournai, Belgium.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 25, 1930. Faculty member, Le Saulchoir Dominican Seminary, 1931-1939; 1945-1954. Secretary of Revue des sciences philosophiques et théologiques, from 1935. Medical orderly in the French Army during the Second World War; taken prisoner by Germany, 1940-1945 escaped. Chevalier of the Légion d'Honneur. Decoratee with the Croix de Guerre. Forbidden by the Vatican to teach, lecture or publish and banished to obscure posts in Jerusalem, Rome, Cambridge and Strasbourg due to his support to the worker-priest movement, 1954-1956. Consultant to the preparatory theological commission of the ISecond Vatican Council, July 5, 1960; expert at the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Forced to give up most physical activities due to a neurological ailment in 1968; resided in the Centre des Invalides, Paris, since 1986. Member of the International Theological Commission, 1969-1985.

Episcopate. Excused from receiving the episcopal consecration because of age and bad health.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received deaconry of S. Sebastiano al Palatino, November 26, 1994. He was 90 years of age when created a cardinal and, therefore, did not have the right to participate in the conclave.

Death. Thursday June 22, 1995, at 9:10 a.m., in his domicile, 6 boulevard des Invalides, Paris, France. Buried, tomb of the Dominican Order, Cemetery of Montparnasse, Paris.

Bibliography. Berea, Corneliu. Il pensiero teologico di Yves Congar sulla definizione della missione nel periodo preconciliare. Roma : Pontificia Università Gregoriana, 2009. (Documenta missionalia, 34). Note: Originally presented as the author's thesis (doctoral); Bosch, Juan. A la escucha del Cardenal Congar. Madrid : Edibesa, 1994. Bibliografía del Cardenal Congar: pp. 193-291; Congar, Yves ; Audoin-Rouzeau, Stéphane ; Congar, Dominique. Journal de la guerre, 1914-1918. Paris : Cerf, 1997; Congar, Yves ; Etienne Fouilloux ; Dominique Congar ; André Duval; Bernard Montagnes. Journal d'un théologien : 1946-1956. Paris : Cerf, 2001; Cortesi, Alessandro. Yves Congar, Testimonianza e profezia. Firenze: Nerbini, 2005. (Le frontiere dell'anima ; 4); Famerée, Joseph ; Routhier, Gilles. Yves Congar. Paris : Cerf, 2008. (Initiations aux théologies); Flynn, Gabriel. Yves Congar's vision of the church in a world of unbelief. Aldershot, Hants, England ; Burlington, VT : Ashgate, 2003; Fouilloux, É. "Frère Yves, Cardinal Congar, Dominicain. Itinéraire d'un théologien." Revue des Sciences Philosophiques et Théologique, LXXIX (1995); Jossua, Jean Pierre. Le Père Congar, la théologie au service du peuple de Dieu. Paris : Éditions du Cerf, 1967. (Chrétiens de tous les temps, 20); Jossua, Jean Pierre. "Yves Congar. La vie et oeuvre d'un théologien." Cristianesimo nella storia, XVII (1996), 1-12; Koskela, Douglas Michael. Yves Congar' vision of ecclesiality . Dissertation: Thesis (Ph.D. in Religious Studies)--Southern Methodist University, 2003. In: Dissertation Abstracts International 64-09A; Nichols, Aidan. Yves Congar. London : Geoffrey Chapman ; Wilton, CT : Morehouse-Barlow, 1989. (Outstanding Christian thinkers); Puyo, Jean ; Congar, Yves. Jean Puyo interroge le père Congar : une vie pour la vérité. Paris : Le Centurion, 1975. (Les Interviews); Vauchez, André. Cardinal Yves Congar : 1904-1995 : actes du colloque réuni à Rome les 3-4 juin 1996. Paris : Cerf, 1999. (Histoire ; Variation: Histoire (Editions du Cerf)); Yves Congar : 1904-1995. Redaktorzy Stanislaw C. Napiórkowski, Andrzej Czaja, Kazimierz Pek. Lublin : Red. Wydawnictw Katolickiego Uniwersytetu Lubelskiego, 1998. Summary in French. Papers presented at a conference; Yves Congar : theologian of the church. Edited by Gabriel Flynn. Louvain ; Dudley, MA : Peeters ; [Grand Rapids, Mich.] : W.B. Eerdmans, 2005. (Louvain theological & pastoral monographs ; 32).

Links. Biography, in French, Wikipedia; biography, in English Encyclopaedia Britannica; biography, in English, Wikipedia; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CONNELL, Desmond
(1926-

Birth. March 24, 1926, Phibsboro, archdiocese of Dublin, Ireland.

Education. Studied at St. Peter's National School, Phibsboro; at Belvedere College Dublin; at Holy Cross College (Diocesan Seminary), Dublin; at the University College, Dublin (bachelor of arts in 1946; and master of arts in 1947); at the Seminary of Maynooth, Maynooth (doctorate theology in 1950) from 1947 to 1951; and at Louvain University, Louvain, Belgium (doctorate in philosophy) from 1951 to 1953.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 19, 1951, by Archbishop John Charles McQuaid of Dublin. Further studies, Louvain, 1951-1953. Chaplain to three communities of contemplative sisters, the Poor Clares, Donnybrook, 1953-1955; the Carmelites, Drumcondra, 1955-1966 and the Carmelites in Blackrock from 1966. From 1953, also worked in the Department of Metaphysics, University College Dublin; professor of General Metaphysics, 1972; and elected dean of the Faculty of Philosophy and Sociology, 1983; re-elected three years later. For his published work he was awarded the degree of Doctor in Letters by the National University of Ireland in 1981. Member of the Irish Hierarchy's theological commission, and of the Diocesan Committee on Ecumenism. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, August 20, 1984.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Dublin, January 21, 1988. Consecrated, March 6, 1988, pro-cathedral of St. Mary, Dublin, by Gaetano Alibrandi, titular archbishop of Binda, nuncio in Ireland, assisted by Joseph A. Carroll, titular bishop of Questoriana, vicar general of Dublin, and by Brendan Oliver Comiskey, bishop of Ferns. His episcopal motto is Secundum Verbum Tuum. Elected vice-president of the Irish Episcopal Conference. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the First Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, February 21, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30-October 27, 2001. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese for having reached the age limit, in conformity with canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law, April 26, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, March 24, 2006. He has been criticized for lack of action and for making misleading statements in connection with the sex abuse of priests in his archdiocese.

Links. Photograph and brief biographical data, in English, Archdiocese of Dublin, second on page; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; biography, in English, Wikipedia; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Episcopal Ordination of Desmond-Connell, Irish Photo Archive, 1988; his portrait by Conor Walton, Collection of the Irish Pontifical College, Rome; Tributes paid to Cardinal Desmond Connell, RTÉ, Monday 26 April 2004 23.21; Personal Statement of His Eminence, Desmond Cardinal Connell, Archbishop Emeritus of Dublin, archdiocese of Dublin, 26/11/09; Ireland's Cardinal Desmond Connell apologises for church sex abuse, The Telegraph, 27 Nov 2009 8:00AM GMT; Time for Cardinal Connell to do penance for his sins, independent.ie, 28 November 2012 02:33 PM.


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CONWAY, William John
(1913-1977)

Birth. January 22, 1913, Belfast, diocese of Down and Connor, Ireland.Son of Patrick Conway, was a house painter who ran a paint shop near Royal Avenue, and Annie Donnolly.

Education. Queen's University, Belfast; St. Patrick's College, Maynooth; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 20, 1937, at the chapel of Saint Patricks College, Maynooth, by Francis Joseph Wall, titular bishop of Taso, auxiliary of Dublin. Further studies, 1937-1940. Faculty member of St. Malachias' Major Seminary, 1940-1947. Faculty member of St. Patrick's College, Maynooth, 1947-1957; rector, 1957-1958.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Neve and appointed auxiliary of Armagh, May 31, 1958. Consecrated, July 27, 1958, Saint Patrick`s metropolitan cathedral, Armagh, by Cardinal John Francis D'Alton, archbishop of Armagh, assisted by Neil Farren, bishop of Derry, and by William MacNeely, bishop of Raphoe. His episcopal motto was Praedicare Evangelium. Promoted to the primatial and metropolitan see of Armagh, September 9, 1963. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of S. Patrizio a Villa Ludovisi, February 25, 1965. President delegate of the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Special papal envoy to the opening of the restored Holy Cross Abbey, Cashel, Ireland, October 5, 1975.

Death. April 17, 1977, after a brief battle with cancer, following surgery for removal of his gall bladder, Armagh. The requiem mass was celebrated by Bishop William Philbin of Down and Connor, assisted by the late cardinal's two brothers. Buried in the grounds of St. Patrick's metropolitan cathedral, Armagh.

Links. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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COOKE, Terence James
(1921-1983)

Birth. March 1, 1921, New York, New York, United States of America. Son of Michael Cooke, a chauffeur, and Margaret Gannon; she died when Terence was nine years old.

Education. Initial studies at Cathedral College, New York; he then entered St. Joseph's Seminary, Yonkers, New York; The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C. (graduate studies in social work); University of Chicago, Chicago.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 1, 1945, New York, by Francis Joseph Spellman, archbishop of New York. Chaplain at Saint Agatha's Home for Children, Bronx, 1945-1947. Further studies, 1947-1949. Faculty member of Fordham University, New York, 1949-1954. Pastoral ministry in Saint Athanasius parish, New York, 1949-1954. Director of youth activities of the Catholic Charities of New York, and bursar of St. Joseph's Seminary, 1954-1956. Episcopal vicar of the Bronx and Manhattan, and secretary to the cardinal archbishop of New York, 1957-1965. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, August 13, 1957. Vice-chancellor of the archdiocese of New York, 1958-1961; chancellor, 1961-1965. Supervisor of all the programs of building constructions of the archdiocese of New York, 1958-1965.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Summa and appointed auxiliary of New York, September 5, 1965. Organized the visit of Pope Paul VI to the United Nations Organization and New York City, October 4, 1965. Consecrated, December 15, 1965, St. Patrick's cathedral, New York, by Cardinal Francis Joseph Spellman, archbishop of New York, assisted by Joseph Thomas McGucken, archbishop of San Francisco, and by John Joseph Maguire, titular archbishop of Tabalta, coadjutor of New York. In the same ceremony was consecrated William Joseph Moran, titular bishop of Centuria, auxiliary of the military vicar of the United States of America. His episcopal motto was Fiat voluntas tua. Named vicar general of the archdiocese of New York, December 15, 1965. Member of the National Commission to study civil disorders. Promoted to the metropolitan see of New York, March 2, 1968. Named military vicar of U.S. Armed Forces, April 4, 1968.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, April 30, 1969. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, May 31, 1981.

Death. October 6, 1983, in his archiepiscopal residence in New York, after a five year battle with acute myelomonoblastic leukemia, which he spent on almost constant chemotherapy treatment. Buried in the crypt of St. Patrick's metropolitan cathedral, New York; according to his personal wishes, he was buried in the simplest of caskets and clad in a white chasuble, a gift from students at Monsignor Farrell High School on Staten Island (1).

Sainthood. Father Benedict J. Groeschel, C.F.R., was named postulator of the cause of canonization by Cardinal John O'Connor; and in 1992, Cardinal Cooke was officially designated Servant of God by the Congregation of the Causes of Saints. On April 14, 2010, the positio for his beatification was submitted to Pope Benedict XVI by Archbishop Timothy Dolan of New York.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, pp. 146-147; Code, Bernard. American Bishops 1964-1970. St. Louis : Wexford Press, 1970, p. 7; Groeschel, Benedict J. Thy will be done : a spiritual portrait of Terence Cardinal Cooke. Staten Island, N.Y.: Alba House, 1990.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana; Terence Cardinal Cooke Cause for Canonization, Cardinal Cooke Guild.

(1) This is the inscription in his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

SERVANT OF GOD
1992
TERENCE CARDINAL COOKE
1921 - 1983
ARCHBISHOP
MILITARY VICAR
1968 - 1983


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COORAY, O.M.I, Thomas Benjamin
(1901-1988)

Birth. December 28, 1901, Periyamulla Negombo, archdiocese of Colombo, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka).

Education. St. Aloysius Seminary, Borella; St. Joseph's College, Colombo; University College, Colombo; Pontifical "Angelicum" Athenaeum, Rome. Joined Oblates of Mary Immaculate.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 23, 1929, Rome. Further studies, Rome, 1929-1931. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Colombo, 1931-1945.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Preslavo and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Colombo, December 14, 1945. Consecrated, March 7, 1946, cathedral of Saint Lucy, Colombo, by Leon Petrus Kierkels, titular archbishop of Salamina, apostolic delegate in India and Ceylon, assisted by Edmund Peiris, bishop of Chilaw, and by Bernardo Regno, bishop of Kandy. His episcopal motto was Ministrare non ministrari. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Colombo, July 26, 1947. Assistant at Pontifical Throne, May 16, 1954. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, February 25, 1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, September 2, 1976. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, December 28, 1981. He was the first cardinal from Sri Lanka.

Death. Saturday October 29, 1988, at around 6.45 pm., Tewatta Ragama. Buried on the following November 3, in the crypt of the basilica of Our Lady of Lanka, Tewatta (1). On October 29, 2010, Archbishop Malcolm Ranjith of Colombo announced that the canonization process of Cardinal Thomas Cooray was officially opened.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the inscription in his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

THOMAS CARDINAL COORAY O.M.I.
FIRST SRI LANKAN ARCHBISHOP AND CARDINAL
BORN 1901. 12. 28
ORDAINED PRIEST 1929. 6. 23
ORDAINED BISHOP 1946. 3. 7
CREATED CARDINAL 1965. 2. 22
DIED 1988. 10. 29


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COPELLO, Santiago Luis
(1880-1967)

Birth. January 7, 1880, San Isidro, archdiocese of La Plata, Argentina.

Education. Seminary of La Plata, La Plata; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 28, 1902, Rome. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of La Plata, 1903-1918.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Aulona and appointed auxiliary of La Plata, November 8, 1918. Consecrated, March 30, 1919, church of San Isidro Labrador, by Juan Nepomuceno Terrero Escolada, archbishop of La Plata, assisted by Francisco Alberti, titular bishop of Siunia, auxiliary of Buenos Aires, and by José Américo Orzali, bishop of San Juan de Cuyo. His episcopal motto was Veni Domine Jesu. Named auxiliary bishop of Buenos Aires, May 15, 1928. Vicar general of the archdiocese of Buenos Aires, and military vicar of Argentina, June 12, 1928. Vicar capitular of Buenos Aires, August 2, 1932. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Buenos Aires, September 20, 1932.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1935; received the red hat and the title of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, December 19, 1935. Primate of Argentina, January 29, 1936. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Asunción, Paraguay, May 27, 1937; to the National Eucharistic Congress, Montevideo, Uruguay, October 12, 1938. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Santa Fe, Argentina, September 14, 1940; to the National Eucharistic Congress, Santiago, Chile, September 30, 1941; to the National Eucharistic Congress, Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 15, 1944; to the National Eucharistic Congress, Lujan, Argentina, September 27, 1947. Attended the First General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 25 to August 4, 1955. Resided in the Roman Curia after 1955 due to the conflict between the Peronist regime and the Catholic Church. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Resigned the government of the archdiocese and was appointed chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, March 25, 1959 until his death. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, assigned to the chancellorship, December 14, 1959. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. He was the first Argentinian cardinal and the first cardinal from Spanish America.

Death. February 9, 1967, Rome. Buried in a simple marble tomb, with a bas-relief of Jesus praying in the Garden of Gethsemane, while three of his disciples sleep; in the crypt of the basilica of Santísimo Sacramento of Buenos Aires (1).

Link. Photographs, his arms and his tomb, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided in a photograph by Dr. Santiago Castillo-Illingworth, from Buenos Aires:

Santiago Luis Copello
Cardenal de la Santa Romana Iglesia
II - 9 - 1967


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CORDEIRO, Joseph
(1918-1994)

Birth. January 19, 1918, Bombay, India. Son of Dr. Peter Cordeiro and Elvina Cordeiro, who came from Salvador do Mundo. His baptismal name was Joseph Marie Anthony. He had a brother who was also a priest, Monsignor Anthony.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Seminary of Kandy, Ceylon; at the University of Bombay; and at the University of Oxford, England.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 24, 1946, Kandy. Pastoral ministry in Hyderabad and Karachi, 1946-1948. Further studies, 1948-1950. President of St. Francis Xavier High School, Quetta, India, 1951-1953. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Karachi, rector of the Minor Seminar of Karachi, and archdiocesan consultor, 1953-1958.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Karachi, Pakistan, May 7, 1958. Consecrated, August 24, 1958, Karachi, by James Cornelius van Miltenburg, archbishop-bishop of Hyderabad, assisted by Francesco Benedetto Cialeo, O.P., bishop of Multan, and by Leonard Joseph Raymond, bishop of Allahabad. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Elected member of the Council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, November 6, 1971.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the title of S. Andrea delle Fratte, March 5, 1973. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; its relator; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; member of its general secretariat, 1977-1980. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; member of its general secretariat, 1980-1983. Named member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, May 31, 1981. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; one of its three presidents delegate; member of its general secretariat, 1983-1986. Papal legate to the 43rd International Eucharistic Congress, Nairobi, Kenya, August 11 to 18, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; member of its general secretariat until 1987. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. He was the first cardinal from Pakistan.

Death. February 11, 1994, after a battle with cancer, Karachi. The funeral, presided by Cardinal Simon Pimenta of Bombay, was concelebrated by ten prelates and seventy five priests. Buried in the grotto, beside St. Patrick's metropolitan cathedral, Karachi; the graveside prayers at the grotto were led by the cardinal's brother. In 2008, the Cardinal Cordeiro Cricket tournament to promote religious vocations was initiated by the Christ the King Seminary of Karachi. The Cardinal Cordeiro High School in Korangi Town, Karachi, India, was named after him in 2012.

Link. His photograph, Araldica Vaticana.


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CORRIPIO AHUMADA, Ernesto
(1919-2008)

Birth. June 29, 1919, Tampico, México. Son of Ernesto Corripio Estrada and Herminia Ahumada; he was the eldest of four brothers; the other children were Valentín, Francisco and Narciso. During his infancy there began a religious persecution which became more acute in the government of Plutarco Elías Calles, who assumed the presidency in 1924, when the future cardinal was five years old; the "Cristero" conflict in its critical phase lasted until 1929, when the government and the Church arrived at an unfulfilled peace agreement; by that time, he had already felt God's call and was the altar server of Fr. Francisco Cortés, who had to seek refuge in the house of the now Servant Of God Francisco Balmori. Inspired in his vocation by his maternal grandmother and promoted by the bishop of Tampico, Serafín María Armora, he entered the seminary.

Education. Seminario Palafoxiano, Puebla, December 30, 1930-1935 (literary studies and philosophy); Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in philosophy, 1937-January 1945; licentiates in theology, 1942; in canon law, 1944; and in church history, 1945); resided at Collegio Pio Latino Americano.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 15, 1942, Gesù church, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. Further studies, Rome, 1942-1945. Successively, 1945-1950, pastoral ministry in the diocese of Tampico; faculty member, administrator and vice-rector, Seminary of Tampico. Secretary of the Tampico diocesan curia, 1950-1952.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Zapara and appointed auxiliary of Tampico, December 27, 1952; at the time, he was the youngest bishop of the world. Consecrated, March 19, 1953, cathedral of Tampico, by Octaviano Márquez Toriz, archbishop of Puebla, assisted by Serafín María Armora y González, bishop of Tamaulipas, and by Luis Guizar Barragán, bishop of Saltillo. His episcopal motto was Nuestro vivir es Cristo. Transferred to the see of Tampico, February 25, 1956. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Antequera, July 25, 1967. President of the Mexican Episcopal Conference, from 1967 to 1973. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Puebla de los Angeles, March 8, 1976. Transferred to the metropolitan see of México, July 19, 1977. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; one of its three presidents delegate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the title of Immacolata al Tiburtino, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Special papal representative to the funeral of Oscar Arnulfo Romero Galdamez, assassinated archbishop of San Salvador, El Salvador, March 30, 1980. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, May 31, 1981. Special papal envoy to the National Marian Congress, La Paz, Bolivia, January 29 to February 5, 1984. Attended the IV General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, September 29, 1994. Apostolic administrator, sede vacante, of México, September 29, 1994 to June 13, 1995. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, June 29, 1999. He was instrumental in the renewing of diplomatic relations between the Holy See and México.

Death. April 10, 2008, at 5:30 a.m., from complications of heart problems, thrombosis and diabetes, in his residence in La Noria, Xochimilco, México City. His body was exposed in the Minor Seminary of the archdiocese of México on April 10, from 4 p.m. until the following day at noon; then, the casket with the body of the late cardinal was transferred to the National Basilica of Guadalupe, where it was in repose until Saturday at noon, when it was taken to the metropolitan and primatial cathedral of México; Cardinal Norberto Rivera Carrera, archbishop of México, presided the funeral mass on Sunday April 13 in that cathedral. His burial took place in the crypt of the archbishops, fila 2, sitio 41, beneath the Altar de los Reyes of that cathedral.

Links. Biography, in Spanish, Arzobispado de México; photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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COS Y MACHO, José María
(1838-1919)

Birth. August 6, 1838, Terán, Cabuérniga, diocese of Santander, Spain. Baptized in the parish of Santa Eulalia, August 9, 1838, with the names José María Justo.

Education. Jesuit School, Segura, Guipúzcoa; Seminary of Monte Corbán, Santander; University of Salamanca, Salamanca (doctorate in theology).

Priest. Ordained, September 1862. Further studies, 1862-1864. Faculty member of the Conciliar Seminary of Santander, 1862-1865. Canon magister of the cathedral of Oviedo, 1865. Secretary of the chamber of the bishop of Oviedo, 1882. Archdeacon of the cathedral chapter of Córdoba, 1884; exchanged the post for canon maestreescuela of the cathedral chapter of Oviedo.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Mondoñedo, June 10, 1886. Consecrated, September 12, 1886, at the cathedral of Oviedo, by Victoriano Guisasola y Rodríguez, archbishop of Santiago de Compostela, assisted by Ramón Martínez Vigil, O.P., bishop of Oviedo, and by José Tomás de Mazarrasa y Rivas, titular bishop of Filippopoli in Arabia, apostolic administrator of Ciudad Rodrigo. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, February 14, 1889. Senator of the Spanish kingdom, 1891 until his death. Transferred to the diocese of Madrid-Alcalá, with the title of archbishop ad personam, June 11, 1892. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Valladolid, April 18, 1901.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 27, 1911; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria del Popolo, December 2, 1912. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Apostolic administrator of Avila, December 4, 1918.

Death. December 17 (1), 1919, of bronchopneumonia, Valladolid. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Valladolid.

Bibliography. Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1922, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1921, p. 66; Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 53; Pieta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 10 and 24; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 314, 373, 386 and 580.

Links. Biography by Salvador Miranda, in Spanish, Episcopologio de la Iglesia Católica en Cuba; brief biographical data, in Spanish, Ayuntamiento de Cabuérniga (Cantabria); and photographs, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Echeverría, Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985, p. 53; Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 580; and Pieta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, p. 10; Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1922, p. 66, says that he died on December 16, 1919.


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COSTANTINI, Celso
(1876-1958)

Birth. April 3, 1876, Castion di Zoppola, diocese of Concordia, Italy. Second of the ten children of Costante Costantini, a small building contractor, and Maddalena Altan, from an illegitimate branch of the counts Altan di San Vito al Tagliamento. Brother of Giovanni (1880-1956), first bishop of La Spezia and titular archbishop of Colosso. His baptismal name was Celso Benigno Luigi.

Education. After completing his elementary education, he followed his father's trade as a mason and worked as a bricklayer the age of eleven. From 1892 until 1897, he studied at the Seminary of Portogruaro. Between 1897 and 1899, in Rome, he frequented the Accademia di S. Tommaso, where he obtained a doctorate in philosophy on May 10, 1899.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 26, 1899, Portogruaro. Named vice-chancellor of the curia of Concordia and chaplain at the hospital of Portogruaro. In 1900 he was named spiritual economous of Roraigrande. On February 21, 1901 he was named vicario of Concordia Sagittaria. Founder of the "Società degli Amici dell'Arte Sacra", Milan, 1912. In January 1915, he founded the illustrated journal "Arte Cristiana", which he directed for nine years. Named regent of the parish of Aquileia on July 5, 1915. On December 12, 1917, during the First World War, he was named military chaplain in the Italian Army. Named vicar general of the diocese of Concordia on November 5, 1918. In 1918-1919, he founded the "Istituto S. Filippo Neri" for the sons of the war; and the "Opera nazionale di soccorso per le chiese devastate dalla guerra". In October 1919, he was named director of the Archeological Museum of Aquileia. On April 30, 1920, he was named apostolic administrator of Fiume, which was occupied by Gabriele D'Annunzio.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Gerapoli, July 22, 1921. Consecrated, August 24, 1921, cathedral of Concordia Sagittaria, by Cardinal Pietro LaFontaine, patriarch of Venice, assisted by Angelo Bartolomasi, bishop of Trieste, and by Luigi Paulini, bishop of Concordia. His episcopal motto was In hoc signo. On March 4, 1922, he conducted an apostolic visitation to the diocese of Trento. Named first apostolic delegate in China on August 12, 1922. Promoted to titular archbishop of Teodosiopoli di Arcadia, September 9, 1922. Arrived in China on November 8, 1922 and announced his role to the missionaries. Presided over the First Chinese Council, celebrated in Shanghai, in May-June 1924. The Holy See officially recognized the new Republic of China on August 1, 1928, thanks to the work of Apostolic Delegate Costantini. On October 28, 1928, he attended the consecration of the first six Chinese bishops by Pope Pius XI at the Vatican. Named Latin ordinary of Karbin on May 28, 1931. Founder of the Congregation of the Lord's Disciples, a Chinese congregation that has spread to various parts of Asia. In 1931, he returned to Italy and then went to the United States of America to recover from health problems. In November 1933, Pope Pius XI accepted his resignation as apostolic delegate in China. On December 3, 1933, he was named consultor of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith; named secretary of that congregation on December 20, 1935. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, January 19, 1936.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, January 15, 1953. He was member of the SS. CC. for the Oriental Church, Council, Propaganda Fide, Rites, and Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. Protector of the Missionaries of Mary Immaculate and St. Catherine of Siena, Medellín. Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, May 22, 1954 until his death. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, assigned to chancellor, June 9, 1958. He received a visit from Cardinal Angelo Roncalli, patriarch of Venice, on the eve of his death, while recovering at the "Villa Margherita Clinic" in Via Massimo, Rome, where he was to undergo a prostate operation; he did not survive the operation. A fortnight later, Roncalli was elected Pope John XXIII. He was a prolific writer in varied fields (1).

Death. October 17, 1958, of a cardiac collapse, Rome. Buried in the cemetery Zoppola, next to the grave of his brother the archbishop. The remains of Archbishop Giovanni were moved to the Cristo Re Cathedral of La Spezia on May 13, 1959, yet those of Cardinal Celso remain to this day at the cemetery of Zoppola. On December 16, 2011, the Galleria d'Arte Civica of Castions di Zoppola was inaugurated in the birthplace of the Costantini brothers, the cardinal and the archbishop, and was officially named after them.

Bibliography. Brender, Andreas ; Kierein-Kuenring, Mandred D. Catholic Hierarchy in China since 1307. Cluj-Napoca, 2012, p. 301-302 (Episcopal lineage); Butturini, Giuseppe. Alle origini del Concilio Vaticano II. Una proposta di Celso Costantini. Pordenone : Concordia sette, 1988. (Storia, cultura, arte, economia ; 10); "Celso Costantini" in "S. Collegio dei Cardinali" in Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1958. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1957, p. 58; Costantini, Celso. Edizione critica del diario inedito del cardinale Celso Costantini : Ai margini della guerra (1938-1947). Curato da monsignor Bruno Fabio Pighin. Venice : Marcianum Press, 2010. Contents: Presentazione (o Proemio) 3; Abbreviazioni 7; Introduzione 9; Tratti biografici di Celso Costantini 21; Premessa 71; Anno 1938 73; Anno 1939 81; Anno 1940 99; Anno 1941 147; Anno 1942 209; Anno 1943 249; Anno 1944 369; Anno 1945 495; Anno 1946 573; Anno 1947 591; Conclusione 597; Appendici: Appendice all'anno 1945: L'opera dei Vescovi durante la guerra 601; Premessa introduttiva preparata nel 1987 per l'edizione non realizzata del Diario 621; Fonti utilizzate dall'autore: Quotidiani 631; Altre pubblicazioni 631; Lettere 632; Indice dei nomi di persona presentati nelle note 633; Enti Promotori della presente opera 637; Indice generale 639; Pighin, Bruno Fabio. Chiesa e Stato in Cina. Dalle imprese di Costantini alle svolte attuali. Venezia : Marcianum Press, 2010; Pighin, Bruno Fabio ; Gabrieli, Christian ; Marcon, Andrea. Il ritratto segreto del Cardinale Celso Costantini in 10.000 lettere dal 1892 al 1958. Venezia : Marcianum Press, 2012; Simonato, Ruggero. Celso Costantini tra rinnovamento cattolico in Italia e le nuove missioni in Cina. Pordenone : Concordia sette, 1985. (Storia, cultura, arte, economia ; 8; Documenti e studi per la storia concordiese ; 4).

Links. Biography by Giuliano Bertuccioli, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 30 (1984), Treccani; Piazza Celso Costantini, Concordia; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Cardinal Costantini: The history between the Catholic Church and China, Rome Reports, 2012-08-19 09:00:00.

(1) This is a list of his books taken from Simonato: Celso Costantini tra rinnovamento cattolico in Italia e le nuove missioni in Cina; I doveri dei clero ai principio dei secolo XX, Rome 1901; Le unioni professionali, Portogruaro 1902; Nozioni d'arte per ii clero, Florencea 1919; Parole dette in morte di D. Antonio AgnoIutto, [s.l.] 1919; Gli orfaneIIi della Patria, Venice 1921; La Ouaresima. Lettera pastorale, Fiume 1922; Contra spem in spero (ossia l'attuale dramma missionario in Cina), Rome 1931; L'Azione Cattolica in Cina. Mobilitare la Cina per convertire la Cina, Rome 1933; Il crollo dell'antica Cina, Rome 1934; Aspetti del problema missionario, Milan-Rome 1935; Arte sacra e novecentismo, Rome 1935; Commemorazione di S.E. ii Cardinale Pietro La Fontaine patriarca di Venezia letta nella saia Napoleonica da S.E. Mons. Gelso Costantini arci-vescovo titolare di Teodosia Segretario della S.C. di Propaganda Fide il 26 novembre 1936, Venice 1937; L'arte cristiana nelle missioni, Rome 1940; Induite vos armaturare Dei (Ricordi-Pensieri-Raccomandazioni ai DiscepoIi del Signore), Rome 1942; Gesù Cristo via, verità e vita (Riproduzione di cento stampe antiche con commenti sui Vangeli), Rome 1943; Va e annunzia il Regno di Dio (scritti, appelli e messaggi cristiano, 2 vols., Brescia 1943; Dio nascosto. Splendori di [ede e d'arte nella Santa Eucarestia, Rome 1944; Con i missionari in Cina, 2 vols., Rome 1946; Foglie secche, Rome 1948; Il divino consolatore. II senso della vita e della morte, Rome 1950; Le missioni cattoliche, Milan 1950; Il libro della sposa, Novara 1952; Ultime fogIie, Rome 1954; La beatificazione di frà Odorico da Pordenone nei suo secondo centenario, Venice (1955); Cum Petro in Christo, Rome 1957; Renovabitur ut Aquilae ]uventus tua, Rome 1958; In difesa dell'arte cristiana, Milan 1958. Following is a list of his articles: "Un incontro col conte Grosoli", La Concordia, VIII (1904), 6 marzo 1984, p. 1 (*); "L'arte benedettina", Emporium ", XXXIII (1911), pp. 83-100; "Contraffazioni dell'arte sacra: te statue industriali", Arte Cristiana, I (1913), pp. 53-55; Per la rinascita dell'arte del cesello: Eugenio BeIIosio, Arte Cristiana, I (1913), pp. 66-73; "Il 'Missale Romanum' miniato da Attillo Razzolini", Arte Cristiana, I (1913), pp. 83-87; PoIemichetta cortese, Arte Cristiana, I (1913), p. 250; I nostri criteri sull'arte cristiana, Arte Cristiana, I (1913), p. 309; Le imagini sacre, Arte Cristiana, II (1914), pp. 90-93; Florete, fiores, Arte Cristiana, II (1914), pp. 271-273; Diversi aspetti doli'arte cristiana, Arte Cristiana, III (1915), pp. 34-41; La mostra nazionale dell'incisione in Milano, Arte Cristiana, III (1915), p. 115; Il ferrobattuto nelle chiese, Arte Cristiana, III (1915), pp. 244-248; La vittoria eucaristica dei mosaico di Aquileia, Arte Cristiana, IV (1916), pp. 1-5; Un viaggio in Francia, Arte Cristiana, V (1917), pp. 146-175; La gran pietà delle nostre chiese sul fronte, Arte Cristiana, VI (1918), pp. 34-44; I mosaici cristiani scoperti ad Aquileia negli ultimi scavi, Arte Cristiana, VI (1918), pp. 66-76; A Lourdes, Arte Cristiana, VI (1918), pp. 145-158; Carlo Donati e la decorazione di una cappella per i caduti di Ravenna, Arte Cristiana, VIlI (1920), pp. 1-9; Preghiera al milite ignoto, Democrazia cristiana, II (1922), n. 1, p. 26; Il cattolicesimo in Cina, Le Missioni Cattoliche, LIII (1923), pp. 259-261; Il problema della cultura missionaria e la Cina d'oggi, Vita e Pensiero, XIV (1931), n. 5-6, pp. 5-22; La suppellettile ecclesiastica nei paesi di missione, Il Pensiero Missionario, V (1934), pp. 403-413; I doveri di discrezione della stampa missionaria, Il Pensiero Missionario, IX (1937), pp. 159-164; Musica indigena e liturgia cattolica, Il Pensiero Missionario, XII (1940), pp. 120-131; "Il grande dramma missionario", Il Pensiero Missionario, XII (1940), pp. 193-209. "Dell'Arte Cristiana indigena", Eglise Vivante, V (1952), pp. 279-285; "Tradizione e modernità", Fede e Arte, V (1957), pp. 198-201; "Antonio Canova, l'uomo, il cristiano, il cittadino", Fede e Arte, V (1957), pp. 450-461.


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COTTIER, O.P., Georges Marie Martin
(1922-

Birth. April 25, 1922, Carouge (or Céligny), diocese of Lausanne (1), Switzerland, where the family had resided for three generations. His father, Louis, was a master watchmaker, as had been his grandfather, Emmanuel.

Education. Primary studies at Carouge. Attended collège in Genève, obtaining the classical maturity in 1941; then, studied at the Faculty of Letters at the University of Genève, obtaining a doctorate in classical letters in 1944. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) in 1945; studied at the Pontifical Collegio S. Tommaso d'Aquino, Rome, until 1952, obtaining a bachelor in philosophy and a doctorate in theology; in 1952, he returned to Genève, furthering his theological studies at the University of Genève; in 1959 he defended his doctoral dissertation "L'athéisme du jeune Marx et ses origines hégéliennes", at the Faculty of Letters of that university.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 2, 1951, Rome. In 1962, he became lecturer of philosophy at the Faculty of Letters, University of Genève. He participated as an expert at the Second Vatican Council, first as private expert of Charles de Provenchères, archbishop of Aix en Provence, France; and in the last session (1965), as an expert to the council, together with Cardinal Charles Journet. He was visiting professor at the University of Montréal in 1969; at the Institute Catholique de Paris from 1974 to 1975; at the Sacro Cuore University, Milan, from 1985 to 1986; and at the University of Padua in 1986. From 1973 until 1990, he was responsible of the courses of modern and contemporary philosophy at the University of Fribourg. Director of the Dominican Center of Genève. In the 1980s, he collaborated on numerous occasions with Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. Opposed to the theology of liberation, he had an active role in the preparation of the second document issued by the Vatican against such theological movement. Published in April 1986, the document expresses reservations concerning its conformity with the Church's tradition. Consultor of the Pontifical Council for the Dialog with Non-Believers; as such, participated in colloquies in Ljubljana, Budapest, Strassbourg and Moscow. He was also consultor to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and to the Pontifical Council for Culture. Member of the International Theological Commission in 1986; secretary general from March 1989 until October 2003. Theologian of the Pontifical Household, December 1989 until October 2003. Moved to Rome in 1990. Preached the spiritual exercises of Lent for the pope and the Roman Curia, March 1990. Honorary member of the Pontifical Academy of Science, October 28, 1992. Director of the journal Nova et Vetera, founded by Cardinal Journet. Member of the Pontifical Academy of Science; of the Pontifical Academy "San Tommaso d'Aquino"; of the Pontifical Academy of Theology; of the Institute of Synthesis of the Görres Society of Germany; of the Foundation "Cardinal Journet" of Fribourg; of the Cercle Jacques et Raïssa Maritain, until 1990; and of the Committee for International Encounters of Genève. He was president of the historical-theological commission established by the Central Committee of the Grand Jubilee of the Year 2000.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tullia, October 7, 2003. Consecrated on October 20, 2003, church of S. Sabina, Rome, by Cardinal Christoph Schönborn, O.P., archbishop of Vienna, assisted by Bernard Genoud, bishop of Lausanne, Genève et Fribourg, and by Archbishop Paolo Sardi, titular archbishop of Sutri, nuncio with special charges. His episcopal motto is Veritas et misericordia.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ss. Domenico e Sisto, October 21, 2003. When he was promoted to the cardinalate, the cardinal was already 80 years old, therefore, he did not have the right to participate in the conclave. Pro-theologian of the Pontifical Household, October 21, 2003; reappointed, April 21, 2005; ceased, December 1, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005; by papal appointment. Opted for the order of cardinal priests on June 12, 2014 and his deaconry, Ss. Domenico e Sisto, was elevated pro hac vice to title.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Press Office of the Holy See; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in Spanish, Orden de Predicadores; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Talk given by His Eminence Cardinal Georges Marie Martin Cottier at the Round Table Presentation of the LEV publication. John Paul II. The Development of a Theology of Communication, February 4, 2009 in the Sala Marconi at Vatican Radio headquarters in Rome; Cottier: e iniziò un'era nuova by Filippo Rizzi, Avvenire (Quelli del Concilio/1), 25 aprile 2012; Hacer algunas renuncias y aceptar los cambios que la Iglesia propone. Coloquio con el cardenal Georges Cottier, testigo directo del Concilio Vaticano II. By José Antonio Varela Vidal, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 09-07-2012; En su petición de perdón, el papa Juan Pablo II tuvo una gran intuición. Coloquio con el cardenal Georges Cottier, testigo directo del Concilio Vaticano II (parte 2). By José Antonio Varela Vidal, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 11-07-2012; Los papas Juan XXIII y Pablo VI dieron mensajes que dejaron atrás la doctrina de la guerra justa. Coloquio con el cardenal Georges Cottier, testigo directo del Concilio Vaticano II (parte final). By José Antonio Varela Vidal, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 13-07-2012; «Nei suoi gesti una profonda libertà spirituale», in Italian, L'Intervista, Avvenire, 22 marzo 2013.

(1) On October 17, 1924, the diocese of Lausanne was united to that of Fribourg, which had also the title of Genève since January 30, 1821.


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COUSSA, O.S.B.M.A., Gabriel Acacius
(1897-1962)

Birth. August 3, 1897, Aleppo, Syria. Son of Rizcallah Coussa and his wife Suzanne. He had two brothers, Georges and Nsri. His baptismal name was Gabriel Léon.

Education. Initial studies and part of his secondary ones at the Franciscan and Jesuit schools in Aleppo. Joined the Order of St. Basil of the Melkites of Aleppo at the monastery of Saint-Georges Deir-es-Chir in 1911; admitted to the novitiate in 1912, he took the name Acacius; sent to Rome to Collège Saint-Atanase, he made the simple profession on November 21, 1914 in the church of the Navicella; the First World War forced him to go to Switzerland because he was a Turkish citizen; he spent eighteen months in the Benedictine monastery of Einsiedeln, where he continued his theological studies; returned to Rome on November 9, 1916 thanks to the intervention of the Holy See before the Italian government; continued his studies at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propoganda Fide," and resided at the Pontifical Greco-Roman College; he made the solemn profession on July 6, 1918 at the church of the Navicella, and received the minor orders; on July 11, 1920, he received the diaconate; obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, November 4, 1922.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 25, 1920, Rome, by Isaïe Papadopoulos, titular bishop of Grazianopoli, assessor of the S.C. of the Oriental Church. Director of the Melkite Scholasticate, Beyrut, Lebanon, 1921-1925. Assistant general of his order, December 19, 1925 to May 20, 1934. Superior of the monastery of Deir-es-Cheir, January 1929; at the end of the year, he left for Rome, where he arrived on December 31, 1929. Delegate of the Melkite hierarchy in the commission for the preparatory studies for the codification of the Oriental canon law, 1929-1935. Professor of canon law at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", 1932-1936. Assistant to the Pontifical Commission for the Preparation of the Oriental Canon Law, March 21, 1933; when the commission was charged with the redaction of the Code of Oriental Canon Law, he became its secretary, July 16, 1935. Professor of De personis of the Latin Code of Canon Law, at the Pontifical Institute "Utriusque Iuris," Rome, 1936-1953; dean of the faculty of canon law, 1946. Secretary of the Pontifical Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law, March 3, 1946. Elected Assessor of the S.C. for the Oriental Church, January 15, 1953.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Gerapoli in Siria, February 26, 1961. Consecrated, Sunday April 16, 1961, Sistine chapel, the Vatican, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Giovanni Mele, bishop of Lungro, for the Italo-Albanians of Continental Italy, by Giuseppe Perniciaro, titular bishop of Arbano, auxiliary and vicar general of the apostolic administrator of Piana degli Albanesi, by Archmandrite Théodore Minisci, higoumène of the Italo-Greek monastery of Grottaferrata, and by Archmandrite Ambroise Kassis, superior general of the Basilian Order of Aleppo. His episcopal motto was Misericordiam et veritatem doligit Dominus. Named pro-secretary of the S.C. for the Oriental Church on August 4, 1961.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 19, 1962; received the red hat and the title of S. Atanasio, March 22, 1962. Named secretary of the S.C. for Oriental Church on March 24, 1962.

Death. July 29, 1962, of peritonitis caused by appendicitis, in the hospital Salvator Mundi, Rome. The Byzantine divine liturgy, followed by a funeral service, was presided by Pope John XXIII in the patriarchal Vatican basilica on August 1, 1962. Temporarily buried in a crypt in the chapel of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, next to Cardinal Pietro Fumasoni Biondi, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. His remains were transferred to the church of S. Atanasio, Rome, his cardinalitial title, in May 1963.

Bibliography. Le Cardinal Gabriel Acace Coussa : Memorial. Beyrouth : L'Order basilien alépin, 1964; Del Re, Niccolò. "Gabriele Acacio Coussa" in La Sacra Congregazione per le Chiese Orientali. Nel cinquantesimo della fondazione (1917-1967). Grottaferrata, Roma : Tipografia Italo-Orientale "San Nilo", 1969, p. 93-95.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CREMONESI, Carlo
(1866-1943)

Birth. November 4, 1866, Rome, Papal State.

Education. Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 21, 1890, Rome. Professor of literature at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, 1890-1909. Secretary of Cardinal Luigi Galimberti. Canon of the chapter of S. Angelo in Pescheria. Honorary chamberlain, May 22, 1898; reappointed, September 15, 1903. Notary for the processes of the candidates to the Italian episcopal sees. Secretary of Pontifical Commission for Works of Religion, 1909-1921. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, September 9, 1910. Cleric of Apostolic Chamber, June 14, 1914.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nicomedia and appointed privy almoner of His Holiness, December 29, 1921. Consecrated, January 8, 1922, Sistine chapel, at the Vatican, by Pope Benedict XV, assisted by Giovanni Battista Nasalli Rocca di Corneliano, archbishop of Bologna, former privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Agostino Zampini, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, sacristan of His Holiness. Pontifical delegate and first prelate nullius of the prelature of Valle di Pompei, March 20, 1926; took possession on May 22, 1926; resigned the prelature because of other charges in Rome, September 28, 1928. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, December 21, 1926.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1935; received the red hat and the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, December 19, 1935. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII.

Death. November 25, 1943, of a heart attack, Vatican City. Buried in the basilica of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, Rome.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1958, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1958, p. 80; Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 683; "Liste des cardinaux par ordre alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1936. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1937, p. 95.

Links. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; photograph and biographical information by Nicola Avellino, in Italian, Istituto "Antonio Aveta"; and his photographs, portrait and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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CSERNOCH, János
(1852-1927)

Birth. June 18, 1852, Szakolcza, archdiocese of Esztergom (Gran), Hungary (1). Received the sacrament of confirmation, May 1861.

Education. Studied at Collegium Pazmaneum, Vienna; at the Institute Sankt Augustinum, Vienna; at the University of Vienna, where he earned a doctorate in theology on June 2, 1876); and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome. Received the insignias of the clerical character and the minor orders on July 22, 1874; the subdiaconate on July 23, 1874; and the diaconate on July 24, 1874.

Priesthood. Ordained, November 18, 1874, Vienna. Further studies, 1874-1877. Successively, in the archdiocese of Esztergom, 1877-1908, cooperator in Radossócz and Budapest; professor of theology and biblical studies at the Seminary of Esztergom, 1879; librarian and archivist of the archiepiscopal palace; secretary to Cardinal János Simor; notary of the Holy See; cathedral canon, 1888; titular abbot of Savnyik, 1888; archiepiscopal chancellor for six years; pastor of the cathedral, 1893. Privy chamberlain honorary, 1882. Royal chaplain, 1887. Deputy in the parliament of Hungary, representing his native city, 1901. Co-founder of the Catholic Party. Protonotary apostolic, April 15, 1907. Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary nominted him to the see of Csanád on January 12, 1908.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Csanád, Hungary, February 16, 1908. Consecrated, 10 May, 1908, cathedral of Temesvar, by Käroly Hörnig, bishop of Vezprém, assisted by Jozsef Németh, titular bishop of Isauropoli, auxiliary of Csanád, and by Vasile Hossu, bishop of Lugoj. Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary nominated him to the see of Kalocsa on March 8, 1911. Promoted to metropolitan see of Kalocsa, April 20, 1911. He received the pallium on November 30, 1911. Royal counselor. Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary nominated him to the see of Esztergom. Transferred to the metropolitan and primatial see of Esztergom, December 13, 1912.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1914; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief dated May 25, 1914; received the red biretta in the chapel of the Hofburg Palace, Vienna, from archduke Franz-Ferdinand (who was assassinated in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914), substituting for the aged Emperor Francis Joseph I; received the red hat and the title of S. Eusebio, September 8, 1914. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1915. Crowned Karoly IV of Hungary, December 31, 1916. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI.

Death. July 25, 1927, of pneumonia, Esztergom. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Esztergom (2).

Bibliography. Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 13, 22, 135, 147 and 351; Tusor, Péter. Purpura Pannonica : az esztergomi "bíborosi szék" kialakulásának elozminyei a 17. században = Purpura Pannonica : the "Cardinalitial See" of Strigonium and its Antecedens in the 17th Century. Budapest : Róma : Research Institute of Church History at Péter Pázmány Catholic University, 2005. (Collectanea Vaticana Hungariae, Classis I, vol. 3), pp. 209, 280-284, and 329.

Links. Biography, in Hungarian. Magyar Elektronikus Könyutár; his photograph, Araldica Vaticana; and his portrait by Ferenc Hatvany, Magyar Képzőmüvészeti Egyetem.

(1) Now Skalica, archdiocese of Bratislava-Trnava, Slovakia.
(2) This is the text of the inscription on a monument above his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici:

CSERNOCH JANOS. BIBOROS.
HERCEGPRIMAS. ESZTERGOMI ERSEK.
NAGY IDOKBEN HV PASZTOR ES
BOLCS ALLAMFERFIV. 1927. JVL. 25.
OTA AZ OROKKEVALOSAGBAN
IMADKOZVA VISSZAKERI AMIT
ELETEBEN MEGMENTENI NEM TVDOTT


cushing.jpg

CUSHING, Richard James
(1895-1970)

Birth. August 24, 1895, South Boston, archdiocese of Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America. Son of Patrick Cushing, a blacksmith, and Mary Dahill.

Education. Boston College, Boston; St. John's Seminary, Brighton, Massachusetts.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 26, 1921, Boston, by Cardinal William Henry O'Connell, archbishop of Boston. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Boston, 1921-1939. Assistant director of the Society for the Propagation of Faith, 1922-1929; director, 1929-1944. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 14, 1939.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Mela and appointed auxiliary of Boston, June 10, 1939. Consecrated, June 29, 1939, metropolitan cathedral of the Holy Cross, Boston, by Cardinal William Henry O'Connell, archbishop of Boston, assisted by John Bertram Peterson, bishop of Manchester, and by Thomas Addis Emmet, titular bishop of Tuscamia, apostolic vicar of Jamaica. His episcopal motto was Ut cognoscant te. Apostolic administrator, sede vacante, of Boston, April-September, 1944. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Boston, September 25, 1944. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 11, 1954. Founder of the Missionary Society of St. James.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Susanna, December 18, 1958. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Lima, Perú, June 27, 1960; to the National Eucharistic Congress, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, July 4, 1961. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. He officiated in the funeral of President John F. Kennedy of the United States of American in November 1963. Papal legate to the consecration of cathedral of Galway, Ireland, March 10, 1965. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, September 8, 1970.

Death. November 2, 1970, of cancer, in Boston. Buried in the Porciuncula Chapel, St. Coletta School for Exceptional Children, Boston. The grounds of the school have been since renamed as Cardinal Cushing Centers.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 96; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 59; Dever, Joseph. Cushing of Boston : a candid portrait. Boston : Bruce Humphries, 1965; Devine, M.C. The world's cardinal. Boston : St. Paul Editions, 1964; Fenton, John H. Salt of the earth : an informal profile of Richard Cardinal Cushing. New York : Coward-McCann, 1965.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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