The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
(1903-2011)
E

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ECHEVERRÍA RUIZ, O.F.M., Bernardino
(1912-2000)

Birth. November 12, 1912, Cotacachí, diocese of Ibarra, Ecuador. His baptismal name was Carlos Honorato Guillermo.

Education. Joined Order of Friars Minor, September 1928. Franciscan houses of study in Ecuador; Pontifical Antonian Athenaeum, Rome (doctorate in philosophy).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 4, 1937. Further studies, Rome, 1937-1941. Successively, 1941-1949, in Ecuador, faculty member in Franciscan houses of study; prefect of studies; provincial commissary of the Franciscan tertians; rector of the Brotherhood of Quito; provincial secretary; and provincial minister; founder of Communion of the Sick; of Jodoco Ricke publishing house; of journal Paz y Bien; of San Andrés school; secretary of the Ecuadoran Institute of Amazonian Studies; member of the International Academy of Franciscan History.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ambato, October 23, 1949. Consecrated, December 4, 1949, church of San Francisco, Quito, by Efrem Forni, titular archbishop of Darni, nuncio in Ecuador, assisted by Alberto Ordóñez, bishop of Riobamba, and by Nicanor Gavinales Chamorro, bishop of Porto Viejo. The Ecuadoran government named him president of the Junta de Reconstrucción of the province of Tungurahua, which was devastated by an earthquake. Founded in Münich, Federal Republic of Germany, Bruderhilfe für Ekuador, work that has generously assisted the dioceses of Ecuador since 1962. Attended the Second General Conference of the Latin American Episcopal Council, Medellín, Colombia, August 24 to September 6, 1968. Secretary general of the Episcopal Conference of Ecuador. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Guayaquil, April 10, 1969. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopal Council, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; he was its moderator. Apostolic administrator of the apostolic prefecture of Los Galápagos, December 8, 1982 to May 14, 1984. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, December 7, 1989. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Apostolic administrator, sede vacante, of Ibarra, 1990 to July 25, 1995.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received red biretta and title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, November 26, 1994. He was 82 years old when created a cardinal, and, therefore, did not have the right to participate in the conclave.

Death. Thursday April 6, 2000, Quito. Buried in the parish church of Cotacachi, his native city, according to his expressed wishes.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B., André and Charles N. Bransom. "Franciscan bishops." Franciscan Studies, XLVIII (1988), 298.

Link. Photograph and biography, in Spanish, Conferencia Episcopal Ecuatoriana, third on the list, click on his name.


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EGAN, Edward Michael
(1932-

Birth. April 2, 1932, Oak Park, archdiocese of Chicago, United States. Son of Thomas J. Egan and Genevieve Costello.

Education. Seminary of Our Lady of the Lake, Mundelein, Illinois (bachelor in philosophy); Pontifical North American College, Rome; Pontifical Gregorian University (licentiate in theology, 1958; doctorate, summa cum laude in canon law, 1964). Besides his native English, he speaks French, Italian, and Spanish.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 15, 1957, North American College, Rome, by Martin John O'Connor, titular bishop of Tespia, rector of the North American College. In the same ceremony was ordained James Francis Stafford, another future cardinal. Further studies, Rome, 1957-1958. In the archdiocese of Chicago, 1958-1960, parochial vicar of Holy Name Cathedral Parish; assistant chancellor; and secretary to Cardinal Albert Gregory Meyer, archbishop of Chicago. Assistant vice-rector of the Pontifical North American College and repetitor of moral theology and canon law, while pursuing doctoral studies in Rome, 1960-1964. Again in Chicago, 1965-1972, secretary to Cardinal John Patrick Cody, archbishop of Chicago; archdiocesan vice-chancellor; and co-chancellor for Ecumenism and Social Relations. Auditor of the Tribunal of the Roman Rota, November 20, 1972. Concurrently, professor of civil and criminal procedure at the Studio Rotale and of canon law at the Pontifical Gregorian University; commissioner of the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments and the Divine Worship; a consultor of the S.C. for the Clergy; and in 1982, one of six canonists who reviewed the new Code of Canon Law with Pope John Paul II, before it was promulgated in 1983.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Allegheny and appointed auxiliary of New York, April 1, 1985. Consecrated, May 22, 1985, basilica of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, Rome, by Cardinal Bernardin Gantin, prefect of the Congregation for Bishops, assisted by John Joseph O'Connor, archbishop of New York, and by John R. Keating, bishop of Arlington. His episcopal motto is In the holiness of truth. Transferred to see of Bridgeport, November 5, 1988. Promoted to the metropolitan see of New York, May 11, 2000.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, February 21, 2001. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, March 10, 2001, for five years. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001; its relator general. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. On February 23, 2009, the pope accepted his resignation from the pastoral government of the metropolitan archdiocese of New York, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. The pope named Timothy Michael Dolan, until then archbishop of Milwaukee, as successor. Cardinal Egan was apostolic administrator of New York until the installation of Archbishop Dolan on April 15, 2009. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on April 2, 2012.

Link. Photograph and biography, in English. archdiocese of New York; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Retired New York Archbishop Edward Egan turns 80. Elector Cardinals drops to 123, Rome Reports, 2012-04-02 16:38:08.


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EHRLE, S.J., Franz (1845-1934)

Birth. October 17, 1845, Isny, diocese of Rottenburg, Germany (1). Son of Franz Ehrle, a physician, and Berta von Frölich.

Education. Jesuit gymnasium "Stella matutina", Feldkirch; entered the Society of Jesus, September 20, 1861, Groheim, Hohenzollern; College of Friedricksburg, Münster 1865 (humanities); abbey of Maria Laach, Germany, 1868 (philosophy); Ditton Hall, Liverpool, England (theology), 1873.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 24, 1876, Liverpool. Further studies, 1876-1877. Pastoral ministry in Liverpool, 1877-1878. Contributor to Stimmen aus Maria Laach, 1878; its director and publisher, Münich, 1916-1918. Literary and pastoral ministry, Tervueren, Brussels, 1878-1880. Research at the Vatican archives and literary work, Rome, 1880-1895. Result of this was the Historia bibliothecæ Romanorum Pontificum, 1890. Promoter of the International Conference of Sankt Gallen, for the preservation of manuscripts, September 1898. Member extraordinary of the Board of Counsellors of the Vatican Library, 1890-1895; pro-prefect, January to June, 1895; prefect, 1895-1914. Associate member of Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, Paris, 1907. Resided in Rome and Feldkirch, 1914-1916. Resided in Münich, 1918-1919. Faculty member of the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, 1919-1922; and of the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1919-1922. He was the principal organizer of Biblioteca Leonina of research.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 11, 1922; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Cesareo in Palatio, December 14, 1922. Papal legate to the 13th centennial celebration of St. Columban's birth, Bobbio, Italy, August 4, 1923. Librarian and archivist of the Holy Roman Church, April 17, 1929 until his death.

Death. March 31, 1934, of pneumonia, at the curia of the Society of Jesus, Rome. The funeral was celebrated in the church of S. Ignazio, Rome; Cardinal Gennaro Granito Pignatelli di Belmonte, bishop of Ostia and Albano, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, imparted the final absolution. Buried, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Bibliography. Brandi, Karl. Franz Ehrle. Berlin : Weidmannsche Buchhandlung, 1934; "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1938, p. 82; Carusi, Enrico. "Il card. Francesco Ehrle bibliotecario di S.R.C. (n. a Isny, Württemberg, il 17 ottobre 1845, m. a Roma il 31 marzo 1934). Accademie e biblioteche d'Italia, VIII (1934), 430-436; Christ, Karl. Kardinal Franz Ehrle. Leipzig: Otto Harrassowitz, 1935; Huber, Raphael M. "Francis Cardinal Ehrle, S. J., 1845-1934: In memoriam." The Catholic Historical Review, XX (1934), 175-184; Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 680; "Liste des cardinaux par ordre alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1933, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1934, pp. 107-108.

Links. Photograph and biographical information, in Italian, Dizionario bio-bibliografico dei bibliotecari italiani del XX secolo; and his photograph, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939, p. 82; Brandi, Franz Ehrle, p. 2; and "Liste des cardinaux par ordre alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1933, p. 107; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 680, says that he was born on October 7, 1845.


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EKANDEM, Dominic Ignatius
(1917-1995)

Birth. 1917, Obio Ibiono, diocese of Uyo, Nigeria. Son of Chief Ekandem Ubo Etok and Nwa Ibong Umana Essien. He was baptized in 1926, at 8 years of age.

Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Onitsha; at the Major Seminary, Enugu-Okpala; and at St. Patrick's College, Calabar.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 7, 1947, Calabar. He was the first priest in the whole of Ibibio, Efik and Annang lands of what was then the Calabar diocese. Pastoral ministry and rector of the Minor Seminary, Calabar, 1947-1952. Rector of Queen of Apostles Seminary, 1952-1953.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Gerapoli di Isauria and appointed auxiliary of Calabar, August 7, 1953. Consecrated, February 7, 1954, Calabar, by James Moynagh, SSPME, bishop of Calabar, assisted by Paul-Joseph Biéchy, C.S.Sp., titular bishop of Telepte, vicar apostolic of Brazzaville, and by Peter Rogan, bishop of Buea. His episcopal motto was In Cruce salus. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Officer of the British Empire. Commander of the Order of River Niger. Transferred to the see of Ikot Ekpene, March 1, 1963. Apostolic administrator of the see of Port-Harcourt, 1970-1973. Elected president of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of Nigeria in 1973; occupied the post for two terms. Founder of the Missionary Society of St Paul of Nigeria.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 24, 1976; received red biretta and the title of S. Marcello, May 24, 1976. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary meeting of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Ecclesiastical superior of the new mission sui iuris of Abuja, November 6, 1981. Transferred to the see of Abuja, with personal title of archbishop, June 19, 1989. Resigned the pastoral government of diocese, September 28, 1992. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994. He was the first cardinal from Nigeria.

Death. November 24, 1995, Garki, Abuja. Buried, pro-cathedral of Our Lady Queen of Nigeria, Garki, Abuja.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, The Missionary Society of Saint Paul of Nigeria; photograph and biography, in German; photograph and biography, Araldica Vaticana.


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ENRIQUE Y TARANCÓN, Vicente
(1907-1994)

Birth. May 14, 1907, Burriana, diocese of Tortosa, Spain. From a family of farmers. Son of Manuel Enrique Urios and Vicenta Tarancón Fandos. He had an older brother, Manuel, and a younger sister, Vicenta. He was baptized in the parish church of Burriana, El Salvador; his godparents were his cousins Dolores Enrique Planelles and Vicente Ríos Enrique; the date of the baptism is unknown because the baptismal certificate was destroyed in a fire in the parochial archive in August 1936. He received first communion in the church of El Salvador, in Easter, 1917.

Education. Initial studies at Colegio de la Consolación in Burriana, from 1911; Colegio San José (minor seminary), Tortosa, September 23, 1917-1921 (Latin and humanities); Seminary of Tortosa, Tortosa, 1921-1928 (philosophy and theology); received the minor orders and the subdiaconate in 1928 from Félix Bilbao y Ugarriza, bishop of Tortosa; Pontifical Seminary of Valencia, Valencia, 1928-1930 (obtained a licentiate, and a doctorate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, November 1, 1929, Tortosa, by Félix Bilbao y Ugarriza, bishop of Tortosa; celebrated his first mass at the church of El Salvador, Burriana, November 3, 1929. Named coadjutor-organist of the church arciprestal of Vinarós on August 4, 1930; director of the Marian Congregation of Mary Immaculate and St. Luis Gonzaga, 1930-1933. Named member of Casa del Consiliario, Catholic Action, Madrid, March 7, 1933. Named archpriest of Vinarós, April 1938. Archpriest of Villarreal, July 13, 1943.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Solsona, November 25, 1945. Consecrated, March 24, 1946, church arciprestal of El Salvador, Burriana, by Manuel Moll y Salord, bishop of Tortosa, assisted by Casimiro Morcillo González, titular bishop of Agatopoli, auxiliary of Madrid, and by Juan Hervás y Benet, titular bishop of Alinda, coadjutor, with right of succession, of Mallorca. Secretary of the Spanish Episcopate, February 1953. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Oviedo, April 12, 1964. Vice-president of the Spanish Episcopal Conference, 1969-1971; its president, 1971-1981. Transferred to the primatial and metropolitan see of Toledo, January 30, 1969.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Giovanni Crisostomo a Montesacro Alto, April 30, 1969. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969. Apostolic administrator of Madrid-Alcalá, May 30 to December 3, 1971. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; its relator; elected member of the Board of the General Secretariat, November 6, 1971. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Madrd-Alcalá, December 3, 1971. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. On November 27, 1975, he celebrated the coronation mass fro King Juan Carlos I of Spain, delivering a very important sermon for Spain's political transition to democracy. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the Plenary Assembly of Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Member of "Real Academia de la Lengua Española". Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, April 12, 1983. He received an honorary doctorate from the Pontifical University of Salamanca in May 1984 ;Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, May 14, 1987. Received an honorary doctorate from the Politechnical University of Valencia on October 4, 1994. The cardinal spent his last years on a farm in Torre Anita, Vila-real, province of Castellón. He was admitted to Valencia's "Casa de Salud" hospital on Wednesday, November 23, 1994; on Friday, he went into a coma.

Death. Monday November 28, 1994, of lung cancer (he was famous for his chain smoking habit), in "Casa de Salud", Valencia. He died apologizing for the inconvenience he was causing in his last moments. Archbishop Agustín García-Gasco of Valencia celebrated a first funeral mass for the cardinal at the chapel of "Casa de Salud". Transferred to Madrid, another funeral mass was celebrated at the Colegiata de San Isidro el Real, presided over by Archbishop Antonio María Rouco Varela of Madrid, who also preached the homily. His body was laid out in state at the colegiata. The apostolic nuncio to Spain, Archbishop Mario Tagliaferri, and the president of the Spanish Episcopal Conference, Archbishop Elías Yanes, were among the hundreds of concelebrants. He was buried at the colegiata according to his will (1). He was interred beneath the floor leading to the main altar, near his predecessors in the see of Madrid, Leopoldo Eijo Garay and Casimiro Morcillo González. A monument in his memory was erected in Burriana, his native town, in 2001; and another one in Vila-real, provincia de Castellón, in 2006.

Bibliography. Blas, Ceferino de. El cardenal que coronó al Rey: Pablo VI eligió a Tarancón para separar a la Iglesia del Franquismo. Barcelona: Prensa Ibérica, 1995; Blas, Ceferino de. Tarancón, obispo y mártir. Prólogo de J.L. Martín Descalzo. Oviedo : Ediciones Naranco, 1976. (Colección España sin secreto, 1); Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 106; Echeverría, Tomás. Don Eduardo Dato su categoría politíca y los errores de don Carlos Seco Serrano : Alfonso XIII y Monseñor Tarancón Cardenal Arzobispo de Madrid. Madrid : Graficas Letra, 1982; Enrique y Tarancón, Vicente. Confesiones. Madrid: PPC: Ediciones SM, 1996; Enrique Tarancón, Vicente. Homenaje al Cardenal Enrique y Tarancón. Valencia : Generalitat Valenciana, 1997. (Monografíes ; 33; Variation: Monografíes del Consell Valencia de Cultura ; 33). Other Titles : Cardenal Enrique y Tarancón; Homenaje al Cardenal Tarancón, 1907-1994; Cardenal Tarancón, 1907-1994. Responsibility : José María Javierre ... et al.; Enrique y Tarancón, Vicente. Recuerdos de juventud. Barcelona : Grijalbo, 1984; Madrigal, Santiago. "Tarancón, intérprete y valedor del Vaticano II." Razón y fe, Tomo 256, 1305-1306, Julio-Agosto 2007, 11-22; Rodríguez, Pedro. Vicente Enrique y Tarancón. Madrid : Grupo Libro 88, 1991. (Colección Yo soy así? ; 6).

Link. Biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

Emmo. y Rvdmo. Sr. Cardenal
D. Vicente Enrique y Tarancón,
Arzobispo de Madrid - Alcalá,
Dic. 1971 - May. 1983.
Nació el 14 de Mayo de 1907,
Descansó en el Señor el 28 de Noviembre de 1994


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ERDÖ, Péter
(1952-

Birth. June 25, 1952, Budapest, Hungary. He is the first of the six children of Dr. Sándor Erdő and Mária Kiss.

Education. Initial studies at the lyceum of the Piarists Fathers, Budapest; later, he entered the Seminary of Esztergom; then, studied at the Central Seminary of Budapest; and finally, at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome, where he obtained doctorates in theology, 1976; and in canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 18, 1975, cathedral basilica, Budapest, by László Lékai, titular bishop of Giro di Tarasio, apostolic administrator, ad nutum Sanctæ Sedis, of Esztergom; incardinated in the archdiocese of Esztergom. Vicar in the parish of Dorog. Further studies, Rome, 1977-1980. Professor of theology and canon law, Seminary of Esztergom, 1980-1988. Guest professor, Faculty of Canon Law, Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1986-2002. Secretary of the Commission of Canon Law of the Hungarian Episcopal Conference, 1986; became its president, 1999. Chancellor of the Pontifical Hungarian Institute, 1987. Ordinary professor, Faculty of Theology, Catholic University Péter Pázmány, Budapest, 1988; dean of the same faculty, 1997. Chancellor of the Catholic University Péter Pázmány, 1998. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999, as an expert.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Puppi and appointed auxiliary of Székesfehérvár, November 5, 1999. Consecrated, January 6, 2000, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Giovanni Battista Re, titular archbishop of Vescovio, substitute of the Secretariat of State for General Affairs, and by Marcello Zago, titular archbishop of Roselle, secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. His episcopal motto is Initio non erat nisi gratia. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of Esztergom-Budapest, December 7, 2002.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Balbina, October 21, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Elected president of the Hungarian Episcopal Conference for a period of five years, September 7, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Special papal envoy to the solemn jubilar celebrations that took place in the Shrine of Mariapócs, Hungary, on December 3, 2005. Received a doctorate honoris causa from the Catholic University of Lublin, Poland, on April 6, 2006. Elected president of the Council of Episcopal Conferences of Europe, for a quienquennium, October 6, 2006; confirmed for another quienquennium, September 30, 2011. Participated in the Fifth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church"; by papal appointment. Member, by papal appointment, of the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City. On October 19, 2011, the apostolic nunciature in Perú announced that he would be apostolic visitor to intervene in the dispute between the Pontifical Catholic University of Perú (PUCP) and the archbishopric of Lima. On September 18, 2012, the pope appointed him synodal father of the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 7 to 28, 2012, on the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of the Christian faith". Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On June 1, 2013, he was named special papal envoy to the celebration of the sixth centennial of the evangelization of the "Samorgizia" (occidental region of Lithuania), which took place in conjunction with a Eucharistic Congress in Telšiai, from August 2 to 4, 2013. On October 14, 2013, he was named relator general of the Third Extraordinary General Assemby of the Synod of Bishops that will be held in the Vatican from October 5 to 19, 2014, on the theme "The challenges of the family in the context of the evangelization". He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013. On March 29, 2014, he was confirmed as member of the Pontifical Council for Culture until the expiration of his mandate.

Bibliography. Tusor, Péter. Purpura Pannonica : az esztergomi "bíborosi szék" kialakulásának elozminyei a 17. században = Purpura Pannonica : the "Cardinalitial See" of Strigonium and its Antecedens in the 17th Century. Budapest : Róma : Research Institute of Church History at Péter Pázmány Catholic University, 2005. (Collectanea Vaticana Hungariae, Classis I, vol. 3), pp. 206, 210 and 330.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Press Offrice of the Holy See; photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e beati; his photograph and arms, archdiocese of Esztergom-Budapest; Péter Pázmámany Catholic University; winner of the prize Galileo Galilei, Italian Rotary Club, Pisa, October 3, 1999; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Il card. Erdo (Ccee): dichiarazione congiunta cattolico-ortodossa sia di aiuto per l'Europa, Chiesa, Avvenire, 18 agosto 2012; Satisfacción del cardenal Erdö por el acuerdo entre la Iglesia católica polaca y la ortodoxa rusa, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 20-08-2012; Cardinal Péter Erdö, archbishop raised under totalitarian Communist regime, video, Rome Reports, 2013-03-02 11:00:00; Cardinal Erdö: Pope Francis will give a social and spiritual push to the Church, video, Rome Reports, 2013-03-22 14:03:02.


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ERRÁZURIZ OSSA, of the Institute of the Fathers of Schönstatt, Francisco Javier
(1933-

Birth. September 5, 1933, Santiago de Chile, Chile. Second of the six children of Pedro Errázuriz Larraín and Marta Ossa Ruiz. He is the second of six children: María Angélica, Francisco Javier, Pedro Pablo, Margarita María, Carmen Gloria and Juan Eduardo.

Education. Primary and secondary stuides at Liceo Alemán, Santiago; in 1951 he entered the Faculty of Engineering, Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Santiago (diploma in superior mathematics); for 8 years, member of the Student Center and of Federation of Students and joined university groups of the nascent Movement of Schönstatt. Befriended the Servant of God Mario Hiriart and with him and other students originated this Marian apostolic movement in Chile. State University of Fribourg, Switzerland (philosophy and doctorate in theology). Besides his native Spanish, he speaks Italian, German and French.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 16, 1961, Fribourg, by Manuel Larraín Errázuriz, bishop of Talca. Further studies, Fribourg, 1961-1962. In October 1962 met Fr. José Kentenich, founder of the secular Institute of Fathers of Schönstatt, whose spiritual paternity he considers a special gift from God. From 1963 to 1965, consultor of communities of youth and university students in several cities in Chile. Named Regional Superior in Chile of the Secular Institute of Fathers of Schönstatt, 1965-1971. From Chile directed the community of the institute in the Iberian peninsula and in Ecuador. As Regional Superior, participated in the Conference of Religious in Chile and was elected its vice-president. During those years worked with Cardinal Raúl Silva Henríquez, who had welcomed the Institute, then in its organizational phase, in his archdiocese. Member of the General Council of the Institute, Germany, 1971-1974. Superior general of the Institute and president of the International Council of the Work of Schönstatt 1974; reelected in 1980 and 1986. Because of his post, he conducted multiple pastoral visits to Europe, America, Africa and Australia.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Hólar and appointed secretary of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life, December 22, 1990. Consecrated, January 6, 1991, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Giovanni Battista Re, titular archbishop of Vescovio, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Justin Francis Rigali, titular archbishop of Bolsena, secretary of the Congregation for Bishops. In the same ceremony were consecrated future Cardinals Jean-Louis Tauran, Vinko Puljić and Julián Herranz Casado. His episcopal motto is Ut vitam habeant. Attended Ninth Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2-29, 1994, by papal appointment. Archbishop-bishop of Valparaíso, Chile, September 24, 1996. Attended Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16-December 12, 1997. Transferred to metropolitan see of Santiago de Chile, April 24, 1998. Grand chancellor of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, 1998. Elected president of the Episcopal Conference of Chile for three years, November 20, 1998; reelected, November 16, 2001. Elected first vice-president of Latin American Episcopal Council (CELAM), May 13, 1999.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received red biretta and title of S. Maria della Pace, February 21, 2001. Attended Tenth Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Member of the Academy of Social, Political and Moral Sciences of the Institute of Chile, Santiago, December 19, 2002. Elected president of the Episcopal Council of Latin America (CELAM), for the term of 2003- 2007, May 16, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005; by papal appointment. Named one of the three presidents of the Fifth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place in Aparecida, Brazil, from May 13 to 31, 2007. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the centennial of the diocese of Catamarca, Argentina, which took place on August 21, 2010. On December 15, 2010, Pope Benedict XVI accepted his resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Santiago de Chile, presented in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. The pope named new metropolitan archbishop Ricardo Ezzati Andrello, S.D.B., until then archbishop of Concepción. Cardinal Errázuriz was apostolic administrator of the see until the installation of his successor on January 15, 2011. The cardinal said farewell to the faithful on the previous January 8. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On April 13, 2013, he was named by Pope Francis member of a group of cardinals to advise him in the government of the universal Church and to study a plan for revising the apostolic constitution on the Roman Curia, Pastor Bonus. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on September 5, 2013. On March 29, 2014, he was confirmed as member of the Pontifical Council for Culture until the expiration of his mandate. On June 14, 2014, he was named special papal envoy to the Third World Apostolic Congress of Mercy (WACOM III), which will be celebrated in Bogotá, Colombia, from August 15 to 19, 2014.

Links. Photo and biography, in Spanish, archdiocese of Santiago de Chile, at the bottom of the page; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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ETCHEGARAY, Roger
(1922-

Birth. September 25, 1922, Espelette, diocese of Bayonne, France. Son of Jean-Batiste Etchegaray and his wife Aurélie Dufau. He was baptized a few days later with the names Roger-Marie-Élie. He had two younger siblings, Jean, who was a member of the Priestly Society of the Mission de France, and Maïté.

Education. Seminary of Ustaritz, Bayonne, September 1934-1943; Major Seminary, Bayonne, September 1943-1947; Pontifical French Seminary, Rome (resident, 1947-1949) Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1947-1949 (doctorate in canon law, July 6, 1949).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 13, 1947, Espelette, by Jean Saint-Pierre, titular bishop of Gordo, former auxiliary bishop of Carthage, Tunisia. Successively, 1947-1961, in the diocese of Bayonne, pastoral work; secretary to Bishop éon-Albert Terrier (July 1949); secretary general of the Catholic Action and of the diocesan works, October 1, 1954; director of works of the diocese, December 3, 1958; vicar general, October 18, 1960. Director adjunct of the secretariat of the Episcopal Conference of France, January 19, 1961-1966. Expert at the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Secretary of the Committee for the relations between the European Episcopal Conferences, 1965. Director of the general secretariat of the Episcopal Conference of France, 1966-1970.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Gemelle di Numidia and appointed auxiliary of Paris, March 29, 1969. Consecrated, May 27, 1969, cathedral Notre-Dame of Paris, by Cardinal François Marty, archbishop of Paris, assisted by Cardinal Paul Gouyon, archbishop of Rennes, and by Władysław Rubin, titular bishop of Serta, secretary of the Synod of Bishops. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969. Promoted to the archbishopric of Marseille, December 22, 1970. First president of the Council of European Episcopal Conferences, 1971-1979. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; member of the council of the general secretariat, 1974. President of the Episcopal Conference of France, 1975-1981. Prelate of Mission de France, November 25, 1975. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the title of S. Leone I, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, May 31, 1981. Resigned the prelature, April 23, 1982. Special papal envoy to the National Eucharistic Congress and the centennial celebrations of the evangelization, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo, August 28, 1983. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; member of the general secretariat, 1983-1986. President of the Pontifical Commission Iustitia et Pax and of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum, April 8, 1984. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Marseille, April 13, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; member of the general secretariat until 1987. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Papal legate to the 44th International Eucharistic Congress, Seoul, South Korea, October 5 to 8, 1989. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Special Assembly of Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Elected membre libre of the Académie des sciences morales et politiques, a part of the Institut de France, March 28, 1994. Named president of the Central Committee and of its Council of Presidency for the Jubilee of the Holy Year 2000, November 15, 1994. Special papal envoy to the celebration of 150th anniversary of evangelization, Savaii and Apia, Samoa, September 12 to 15, 1995. Resigned the presidency of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum, December 2, 1995. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the 750th anniversary of the feast of Corpus Domini, St. Martin's basilica, Liège, Belgium, June 9, 1996; to the celebrations of the 350th anniversary of the Union of Uzhorod and the 3rd centenary of the Marian Shrine of Mariapocs, Hungary, August 18, 1996. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Ceased as president of the Pontifical Council Iustitia et Pax, June 24, 1998. Named cardinal bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Porto-Santa Rufina, June 24, 1998. Awarded an honoris causam degree by the Theology and Canon Law Faculty of the Catholic University of Louvain-La-Neuve, Belgium, on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights, December 1, 1998. Special papal envoy to the National Eucharistic Congress of Portugal, Braga, June 3-6, 1999; to the commemorative celebrations of the second centennial of the death of Pope Pius VI, Valence, France, August 29, 1999. Special papal enoy to the celebration of the World Peace Day in Jerusalem and the Holy Land, January 1, 2001; and to deliver the Papal Message for the occasion to the authorities of Israel and Palestine. Papal legate for the closing of the Holy Door at the basilica of St. Paul outside the Walls. Special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the centennial of the Evangelization of Rwanda that took place in Kigali, February 8, 2001. Papal envoy on a special peace mission to Jerusalem, May 1 to 8, 2002. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, September 25, 2002. Grand office of Légion d'honneur, October 7, 2002. Special papal envoy to Baghdad, Iraq, to demonstrate to all the solicitude of the Holy Father in favor of peace and to help the Iraqi authority to do a serious reflection about the duty of an active international cooperation, based on justice and international law, to insure that population the supreme good of peace, February 10, 2003. Received the Prize "Felix Houphouet-Boigny" for his work towards world peace. The prize was instituted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). He received the recognition together with the great mufti of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Mustafa Cedric, on March 24, 2004. The prize was named after the first president of Ivory Coast. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the centennial of the "Social Week of France", that took place in Lille, September 24 to 26, 2004. Vice-dean of the College of Cardinals, April 30, 2005. Special papal envoy to Lebanon, on August 15, 2006, to bring to that tormented population, and to all those in that region who are suffering, the expression of the pope's spiritual proximity and concrete solidarity, and to pray for the great intention of peace. Member of the delegation of the Holy See to the funeral of His Holiness Alexis II, patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, December 9, 2008. Injured by a mentally unstable woman who jumped Pope Benedict XVI during the procession of the Christmas Eve mass in the Vatican basilica, December 24, 2009; recovered at Policlinico Agostino Gemelli, Rome. Will receive the grand cross of the Légion d'honneur on April 28, 2014.

Bibliography. Etchegaray, Roger. L'homme à quel prix?. Paris : Éditions de la Martinière, 2012; Etchegaray, Roger. J'ai senti battre le coeur du monde. Conversations avec Bernard Lecomte. Paris : Fayard, 2007 (Témoignages pour l'histoire); Jore, Alexander. Épiscopologe Français de 1592 à 1973. Mis à jour et continué jusqu'en 2004. Complément de l'article "France" du Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie Ecclésiastiques t. XVIII, colonnes 161 à 532. Pro-Manuscripto, 25 - III- 2004, no. 3163; Miranda, Salvador. "Etchegaray, Roger." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyla years. Detroit : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, pp. 242-243.

Links. Photographs and biography, in Italian, diocese of Porto-Santa Rufina; biography, in English, Wikipedia; his photograph, Araldica Vaticana; Pope visits cardinal hurt in Mass attack, in English, North Jersey Media Group; What we need most of all is prayer. Witness of Cardinal Roger Etchegaray by Cardinal Roger Etchegaray, 30Days In the Church and in the world, international monthly magazine directed by Giulio Andreotti, from WITNESSES, year XXIX, issue no. 01/02 - 2012; Roger Etchegaray: «Ma che bella avventura...» by Filippo Rizzi, Avvenire, 3 maggio 2012.


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ETSOU-NZABI-BAMUNGWABI, C.I.C.M., Frédéric
(1930-2007)

Birth. December 3, 1930, Mazalaga, diocese of Lisala, Congo (later Zaïre; now Democratic Republic of the Congo), of a pagan tribal chief family. Son of Joseph Honoré Marie Mabomba and Françoise Naanu. His third last name is also listed as ba Mungwabi.

Education. Primary education at the Catholic mission, Boyange; secondary education at the Minor Seminary "Notre Dame de Grâce", Bolongo; Major Seminary, Kabwe, 1949-1954 (first cycle of philosophy, 1949-1953; and first year of theology, 1953-1954); dedicated some time to silence and prayer and then decided to follow a missionary vocation; joined the Congregation of the Immaculate Heart of Mary (C.I.C.M.), also known as the Fathers of Scheut, in the novitiate of Katoka, Western Kasai, 1954 (completed the theological studies); Catholic Institute, Paris (doctorate in sociology); Lumen Vitae Institute, Brussels (doctorate in pastoral theology); Overseas Institute of Higher Studies, Paris (studied letters and sciences).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 13, 1958, by François Van den Berghe, C.I.C.M., titular bishop of Boseta, vicar apostolic of Lisala. Vicar in two parishes of the vicariate apostolic of Leopoldville (1) from 1958: Saint-François de Sales (Kintambo) and Saint-Pierre (Kinshasa). Went to Europe for further studies in France and Belgium until 1968. Successively, 1968-1976, pastor of the parish of Saint-Pierre in the archdiocese of Kinshasa and vice-provincial of his congregation; president of the assembly of superiors major, province of Kinshasa; vice-president of the assembly of superiors major of Zaïre; superior of his congregation in Africa.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Menefessi and named coadjutor, with right of succession, of Mbandaka-Bikoro, July 8, 1976. Consecrated, November 7, 1976, by Cardinal Joseph Malula, archbishop of Kinshasa, assisted by Pierre Wijnants, M.S.C., archbishop of Mbandaka, and by Albert Tshomba Yungu, bishop of Tshumbe. Succeeded to the see of Mbandaka-Bikoro, November 11, 1977. Vice-president of the Episcopal Conference of Zaïre, 1979-1984. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Kinshasa, July 7, 1990. Apostolic administrator, ad nutum Sanctæ Sedis, of Mbandaka-Bikoro, July 7, 1990 until October 11, 1991.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1991; received the red biretta and the title of S. Lucia a Piazza d'Armi, June 28, 1991. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economics Problems of the Holy See, December 2, 1993. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994. Elected president of the National Episcopal Conference of Congo for a four-year term, in its 34th plenary assembly, July 13, 2000. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI.

Death. Saturday January 6, 2007, in the hospital of the University of Louvain, Belgium. He had been hospitalized for two weeks and had been receiving treatment for some months for diabetes. An official statement of the episcopal Conference of Congo (CNECO), announced on January 9, 2007, that the cardinal was going to be buried on Monday January 15, 2007, in the metropolitan cathedral of Notre-Dame du Congo, Lingwala, Kinshasa. The mortal remains of the prelate arrived on Thursday January 11 at Kinshasa's international airport of N'djili. The body of the cardinal was exposed in the cathedral until the day of his burial. During this time, meetings of the prayers and testimonies were organized to pay homage to the late prelate. On Sunday January 14, 2007, the day before the burial, a mass of thanksgiving was said at the Stadium of the Martyrs at 9:30 a.m. for the eternal repose of his soul. Cardinal Christian Wiyghan Tumi, archbishop of Douala, Cameorun, represented Pope Benedict XVI. Cardinals Bernard Agré, archbishop emeritus of Abidjan, Ivory Coast, and Polycarp Pengo, archbishop of Dar-es-Salam, Tanzania, were presnet at the funeral. There were masses starting from 6 p.m. each day in the cathedral. The body of the cardinal was buried beside his predecessor, Cardinal Joseph Malula, the first Congolese cardinal, who has rested in the cathedral since 1989.

Link. Le cardinal Etsou laisse un testament d'unité au peuple congolais, Panapress, 14 Janeiro 2007 18:37:00.

(1) The vicariate apostolic of Leopoldville was elevated to the rank of metropolitan archdiocese on November 10, 1959; its name was changed to Kinshasa on May 30, 1966.


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EYT, Pierre
(1934-2001)

Birth. June 4, 1934, Laruns, diocese of Bayonne, France. Eldest of the three children of Jean Eyt, a hotelier, and Joséphine Gabastou. The other siblings were Jeanne and Henri. His baptismal name was Pierre Étienne Louis. His mother died when he was four years old. The last name "Eyt" already appears in Haut Ossau (Bèarn), in the cartulary of the 14th century (1366).

Education. Primary studies in the public school of Laruns; secondary studies at Collège Saint-Joseph d'Oloron Sainte-Marie; and later at Lycée Montaigne, in Bordeaux; then he studied law at the Institute of Juridical and Economic Studies, Pau; entered the Seminary Pius XI, Bayonne, in 1954; and in 1955, he went to the Seminary of the Catholic Institute, Toulouse; called to serve in the armed forces in 1956, he became sub-lieutenant of Alpine Chasseurs and served in Kabyle from 1957 to 1959; he later studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in theology, in 1967 (thesis: "Structure et exercice de la doctrina sacra d'aprés Dominique Soto (1495-1560). Contribution à l'étude de la tradition thomiste au XVI siècle").

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1961, in Bayonne. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Bayonne, 1961-1963. Further studies and pastoral ministry in Rome, 1963-1967. Assistant professor of theology in 1967 at the Catholic Institute of Toulousee; later, its vice-rector; and rector in 1975. Officer of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1979. Member of the International Theological Commission in 1980. Rector of the Catholic Institute of Paris, 1981. President of the Union of Catholic Institutes of Higher Education of France, 1982. Founder of the Jewish Studies Center, Jerusalem, 1984, by request of the Holy See. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; assistant to the special secretary.

Episcopate. Elected coadjutor archbishop of Bordeaux, June 7, 1986. Consecrated, September 28, 1986, cathedral of Bordeaux, by Marius Maziers, archbishop of Bordeaux, assisted by Cardinal Jean-Marie Lustiger, archbishop of Paris, and by André Collini, archbishop of Toulouse. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; special secretary. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Bordeaux, May 31, 1989; took possession of the see on June 1, 1989. Convoked and presided over the diocesan synod of Bordeaux, 1990-1993. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the title of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, November 26, 1994. Ascribed to the Congregations for Catholic Education and for the Doctrine of the Faith. He was named chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur in 1995. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 9th centenary of the erection of the cathedral of Nîmes, France, June 23, 1996.

Death. June 11, 2001, after a long battle with cancer, Bordeaux, France. The requiem mass, presided over by Cardinal Roger Etchegaray, was celebrated on the following June 15, in the metropolitan cathedral of Saint-André of Bordeaux, with the participation of Cardinals Jean-Marie Lustiger, archbishop of Paris, and Louis-Marie Billé, archbishop of Lyon. The body of the late cardinal was buried in the cemetery of Laruns, city where he was born.

Bibliography. Eyt, Pierre. La joie et l'espérance du cardinal Pierre Eyt. Paris : Cerf, 2009. (L'histoire à vif). Responsibility: [Pierre Eyt] ; textes édités par Françoise Brian et Didier Monget ; préface par Roger Etchegaray ; portrait par Paul Meunier; Lavaud, Claudie. "Pierre, cardinal Eyt." Communio, revue catholique internationale, vol. 27/1, nº 159, Janvier-Février 2002 (02/2002), 115-122; Eyt, Pierre ; Meunier, Paul. Cardinal Pierre Eyt: entretien avec Paul Meunier. Bordeaux : Mollat, 1997; Jore, Alexander. Épiscopologe Français de 1592 à 1973. Mis à jour et continué jusqu'en 2004. Complément de l'article "France" du Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie Ecclésiastiques t. XVIII, colonnes 161 à 532. Pro-Manuscripto, 25-III-2004, no. 3268.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; biography, in French, Wikipedia; photograph and biography by Eman Bonnici, in English, Find a Grave; photographs, Araldica Vaticana; French Cardinal Challenges Ratzinger, Catholic News, 21/2/00; Mort du cardinal Pierre Eyt, La Depeche; French Cardinal Eyt Dies at Age 67, Zenit, the world seen from Rome.

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