The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
(1903-2011)
F

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FAGIOLO, Vincenzo
(1918-2000)

Birth. February 5, 1918, Segni, diocese of Segni, Italy

Education. Seminary of Segni, Segni; Seminary of Anagni, Anagni; Pontifical Major Roman Seminary, Rome; Pontifical Lateran University, Rome (doctorates in theology and canon law); La Sapienza University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 6, 1943. Incardinated in the diocese of Rome. From 1943 to 1971, in Rome, pastoral ministry; national assistant to the Deaf-mutes Association; faculty member, LUISS and of Gabriele D'Annuzio University; judge and president, First Instance Tribunal of Vatican City; prosynodal judge, Tribunal of Vicariate of Rome. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, May 7, 1956. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, July 6, 1961. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965, as expert. Auditor of Sacred Roman Rota, January 16, 1968.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Chieti and administrator of Vasto, November 20, 1971. Consecrated, December 19, 1971, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Carlo Confalonieri, prefect of the S.C. for Bishops, assisted by Costantino Stella, archbishop of Aquila, and by Luigi Maria Carlim, bishop of Segni. Vice-president of the Episcopal Conference of Italy, 1979-1984. In 1983, for his efforts to save Jews during the Holocaust, was recognized by Yad Vashem as "a righteous among the nations,'' with a medal; and a tree was planted in his name at Yad Vashem. The honor is bestowed on gentiles who risked their lives to save Jews during the war. Secretary of the S.C. for Religious and Secular Institutes, April 8, 1984. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, July 15, 1984. President of the Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of Legislative Texts, December 15, 1990. President of the Disciplinary Commission of the Roman Curia, December 29, 1990. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Teodoro, November 26, 1994. Resigned the presidency of the Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of Legislative Texts, December 19, 1994. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, February 5, 1998. Ceased as president of the Disciplinary Commission of the Roman Curia, February 14, 1998. He served as president of Italian Caritas. He was grand prior of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of S. Girogio; and priore spirituale of the Ordine Militare et Hospitaliero di San Lazzaro di Gerusalemme.

Death. September 22, 2000, Rome. Buried in a marble sarcophagus in the metropolitan cathedral of Chieti (1).

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

VINCENTIUS FAGIOLO S.R.E. CARDINALIS
IAM TEATINAE VASTENSIS ECCLESIAE ARCHIEP.
HIC IN PACE CHRISTI REQUIESCIT
V KAL. OCTOB. MM

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FALCÃO, José Freire
(1925-

Birth. October 23, 1925, Ererê, diocese of Limoeiro do Norte, Brazil.

Education. Seminary of Prainha, Fortaleza.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 19, 1949, Limoeiro do Norte. Successively, 1949-1967, in diocese of Limoeiro do Norte, pastoral ministry; vice-director of diocesan lyceum; faculty member of its minor seminary and other educational institutions; and ecclesiastical assistant of the Catholic Action.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Vardimissa and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Limoeiro do Norte, April 24, 1967. Consecrated, June 17, 1967, by José de Medeiros Delgado, archbishop of Fortaleza, assisted by Vicente de Paulo Araújo Matos, bishop of Crato, and by José Mauro Ramalho de Alarcón Santiago, bishop of Iguatú. Succeeded to the see of Limoeiro do Norte, August 19, 1967. Attended the Second General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Medellín, Colombia, August 24 to September 6, 1968. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Teresina, November 25, 1971. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Brasília, February 15, 1984. Second vice president of the Latin American Episcopal Council.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Luca a Via Prenestina, June 28, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, December 2, 1993. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese upon having reached the age limit, January 28, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, October 23, 2005.

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FASOLINO, Nicolás
(1887-1969)

Birth. January 3, 1887, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Of a family of Italian origin.

Education. Studied at the Metropolitan Conciliar Seminary, Buenos Aires; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned doctorates in philosophy, theology and canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 28, 1909, Rome. Returned to Buenos Aires soon and was named vice-pastor of San José de Flores in 1911; occupied the post until 1916; later, professor of theology at the Catholic University; professor of Sacred Scripture and ecclesiastical history at the Center of Religious Studies. Successively, pro-secretary of the archdiocesan curia, 1913-1922; vice-chancellor of the archdiocesan curia of Buenos Aires; visitor general to the Youths Workers Association of Argentina; spiritual director of the Catholic Youth and of the Catholic League. Procurator of the College of Pastors of the city of Buenos Aires; commissary for the borders of the new parishes; secretary and chancellor of the archdiocesan curia of Buenos Aires, 1921-1922; pastor of Balvanera, 1922-1933; vicar general of the archdiocese of Buenos Aires, 1925-1926. Apostolic protonotary, July 19, 1928.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Santa Fe, October 20, 1932. Consecrated, December 21, 1932, Buenos Aires, by Filippo Cortesi, titular archbishop of Sirace, nuncio in Argentina, assisted by Santiago Luis Copello, archbishop of Buenos Aires, and by Fortunato Devoto, titular bishop of Attea, auxiliary of Buenos Aires. His episcopal motto was Narrabo nomen tuum fratribus meis. Promoted to archbishop when Santa Fe was elevated to the metropolitan rank, April 20, 1934. He founded the Catholic University of Santa Fe. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinal. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 26, 1967; received the red biretta and the title of Beata Vergine Addolorata a Piazza Buenos Aires, June 29, 1967.

Death. August 13, 1969, Santa Fe. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Santa Fe.

Bibliography. "Cenni biografici dei nuovi porprati. Il cardinale Nicola Fasolino, arcivescovo di Santa Fé in Argentina." L'attività della Santa Sede nel 1967. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1967, p. 635.

Link. Photograph and biography, in Spanish (toward the middle of the page); and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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FELICI, Angelo
(1919-2007)

Birth. July 26, 1919, Segni, Italy. Nephew of Ettore Felici, titular archbishop of Corinto, nuncio in Ireland.

Education. Completed his primary and secondary studies in Segni; then, he attended the Pontifical Leonine College, Anagni, from 1934 until 1941, where he studied philosophy and theolgy; later, studied diplomacy at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, 1941 (after having received the subdiaconate); and finally, at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 4, 1942, chapel of the Pontifical Collegio Pio Latino Americano, Rome, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age. Further studies, 1942-1945. Joined the Vatican Secretariat of State, first section, 1945, at the invitation of Msgr. Domenico Tardini, secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, future cardinal. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, June 15, 1949. Faculty member, Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, November 28, 1958. Under-secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, February 7, 1964. In 1967, Pope Paul VI sent him on a mission to Jerusalem after the Six-Day War between Arabs and Israelis.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cesariana and appointed pro-nuncio in Holland, July 22, 1967. Consecrated, September 24, 1967, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, bishop of title of suburbicarian see of Frascati, secretary of State, assisted by Giovanni Benelli, titular archbishop of Tusuro, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Luigi Maria Carli, bishop of Segni. His episcopal motto was In lumine tuo, Nuncio in Portugal, May 13, 1976. Nuncio in France, August 27, 1979.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ss. Biagio e Carlo ai Catinari, June 28, 1988. Prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, July 1, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Resigned prefecture, June 13, 1995. President of the Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei, December 16, 1995. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, January 9, 1999. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, July 26, 1999. Resigned the presidency of the Pontifical Commission "Ecclesia Dei", April 14, 2000.

Death. June 17, 2007, at 9:10 a.m., in his Roman residence in Piazza della Città Leonina; he never fully recovered after suffering a fall and breaking his thigh at the Paul VI Audience Hall in 1999. Pope Benedict XVI presided the capella papale for his exequies on Tuesday June 19, 2007, at 5 p.m., in the altar of the Chair of the papal Vatican basilica. Buried in the tomb of his family in the cemetery of Segni.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sedde; and his portrait photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Angelo Felici. Un ricordo del porporato recentemente scomparso by Giulio Andreotti, 30GIORNI, 06 - 2007.


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FELICI, Pericle
(1911-1982)

Birth. August 1, 1911, Segni, Italy. Eldest child of Luigi Felici, land surveyor, and Anna Roscioli, housewife. He had two brothers, Metello and Jonas. His uncle, Giuseppe Sagnori, was for many years vicar general of the diocese of Segni.

Education. Studied as an adolescent at the Minor Seminary of Segni for four years (ginnasio); at the Pontifical Roman Minor Seminary, Rome; at the Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome, 1926-1934, obtaining a doctorate in philosophy in 1929 (thesis: Unione fra l'anima e il corpo); and in theology in 1934, (dissertation: Summa psychanalyseos lineamenta); while studying at the Pontifical Roman Seminary, he was prefect three times, cerimoniereand teacher of Gregorian chant; at the Pontifical Institute Utriusque Iuris of the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome, 1934-1938, earning a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, in June 1938, with a thesis on the interpretation of penal law, entitled De poenali iure interpretando (published in Rome in that same year). He received the minor orders on May 1, 1930; the subdiaconate on September 18, 1932; and the diaconate on the following October 15.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 28, 1933, cathedral of Segni, by Alfonso Maria de Sanctis, bishop of Segni, with papal dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age. In the 1930s, he started a friendship with Giulio Andreoti, leader of the Christian Democracy party and seven-time premier of Italy, which lasted all his life. Assistant professor of institutions of canon law at the Pontifical Institute "Utriusque Iure"; 1938-1939; and professor of moral theology at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", 1938-1943; professor of fundamental theology, 1943-1947; its rector for juridical studies, 1939-1948. In 1940, he was named judge pro sinodale of the tribunal of the Vicariate of Rome and commissary for causes of ordination of the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments; named consultor of the congregation in 1956. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, December 28, 1940. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, September 20, 1947 to 1960. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, September 20, 1947. Spiritual director at the Major Roman Seminary from 1950 to 1959. In1958, he was named president of the tribunal of first instance of the State of Vatican City. Consultor of the S.C. of the Council, May 2, 1959. On May 16, 1959, he was named secretary of the Ante preparatory Commission of the Second Vatican Council, which was presided by Cardinal Domenico Tardini, secretary of State. Named secretary general of the Central Preparatory Commission of the Second Vatican Council on June 7, 1960; the commission was presided by Pope John XXIII after Cardinal Tardini declined the presidency.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Samosota, September 3, 1960, Consecrated, October 28, 1960, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Diego Venini, titular archbishop of Adana, privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Benigno Carrara, bishop of Imola. In the same ceremony were consecrated future Cardinals Dino Staffa, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, secretary of the S.C. of Seminaries and Universities; and Egano Righi-Lambertini, titular archbishop of Doclea, nuncio in Lebanon. His episcopal motto was Fructificat Domino. Named secretary general of the Second Ecumenical Vatican Council on September 6, 1962, as well as of the secretariat for conciliar extraordinary affairs. The new pope, Paul VI, confirmed Cardinal Felici in all his charges on July 5, 1963. His intervention during the council are contained in Acta et documenta concilio oecumenico Vaticano II apparando (Antepraeparatoria) (Città del Vaticano 1960-1961); Acta et documenta concilio oecumenico Vaticano II apparando (Praeparatoria) (Città del Vaticano 1969); and Acta synodalia sacrosanti concilio oecumenico Vaticano II (Città del Vaticano 1970). On January 4, 1966, he was named secretary general of the Central Commission De coordinandis post Concilium laboribus et Concilii decretis interpretandis; its president on July 11, 1967. On December 7, 1966, he delivered to the pope the first edition of the official documents of the Second Vatican Council and undertook the organization of the archive and the publication of the official acts of the council, from the material of the ante preparatory phase. He also undertook the edition of the new Code of Canon Law, which had been announced by Pope John XXIII in January 1959. Named pro-president of the Pontifical Commission for the Revision of the Code of Canon Law, February 21, 1967.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 26, 1967; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Apollinare, June 29, 1967. President of the Pontifical Commission for the Interpretation of the Decrees of the Second Vatican Council, 1967. President of the Special Commission for the Restoration of the Permanent Diaconate, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; one of its three president delegates. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Named prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, August 15, 1977. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; member of its general secretariat, 1977-1980. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I; imposed the pallium to the new Pope John Paul I, September 3, 1978. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II; imposed the pallium to the new pope, October 22, 1978. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; and the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. He was a passionate Latinist and because of this, he was named alto patrono of the Foundation Latinitas, instituted by Pope Paul VI on June 30, 1976. He wrote and published numerous works both in verse and in prose (1)

Death. March 22, 1982, of a heart attack, in Foggia, where he was presiding the celebrations for the 250th anniversary of the apparition of the Blessed Virgin of the Seven Veils, patron of that city; and the diocesan Marian Congress. A funeral, presided by Salvatore de Giorgi, archbishop of Foggia, future cardinal, was celebrated in the metropolitan cathedral on March 23. Later, his body was transferred to Rome and exposed in the church of S. Apollinare, his title. On March 25, in the morning, it was taken to the patriarchal Vatican basilica, where Pope John Paul II presided the exequies concelebrated with the cardinals of the Roman Curia, and delivered the homily. After the exequies, the body of the cardinal was transferred to Segni, his native city, and buried in his family's tomb. A square in Foggia, next to the parish church, was named after him. The square adjacent to the cathedral of Segni was also named after him on the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of his death.

Bibliography. Il Cardinale Pericle Felici [alla memoria dei coniugi Anna Roscioli e Luigi Felici nel X anniversario della beata morte del loro figlio Pericle]. Con contributi di Vincenzo Fagiolo, Sbastiano Corsanego, D. Bianchi, Luigi De Magistris, Tommaso Mariucci, Raffaelo Funghini, Vincenzo Carbone, Julián Herranz. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1992; Il cardinale Pericle Felici : (1911-1982) : convegno di studio nel ventennale della morte : Roma, 22-23 marzo 2002, Palazzo della cancelleria, Sala dei cento giorni, Segni, 24 marzo 2002, Concattedrale. A cura di Andrea Chiarelli and Ugo Meucci. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2003; De Magistris, Luigi. "Mons. Pericle Felice", in La Pontificia Università Lateranense (Roma : Libreria Editrice della Pontificia Università Lateranense, 1963), pp. 130-131; Fagiolo, Vincenzo. "Il cardinale Pericle Felice: sempre al servizio della Chiesa", in Un sinodo per un'autentica recezione del Concilio (Roma : s.n., 1985), pp. 173-177; Fagiolo, Vincenzo. "Il cardinale Pericle Felice a 10 anni dalla sua morte", in Ephemerides iuris canonici, XLVIII (1992), pp. 189-200; Fedele, Pio. "Pericle Felice canonista", in Ephemerides iuris canonici, XLVIII (1992), pp. 201-206; Grootaers, Jan. I protagonisti del Vaticano II : Giovanni XXIII, Paolo VI, Bea, Colombo, Döpfner, Felici, Garrone, König, Lercaro, Maximos IV, McGrath, Ottaviani, Parente, Ruffini, Suenens, Wyszynski. Cinisello Balsamo : San Paolo, 1994. (Attualità e storia). Responsibility: di Jan Grootaers ; traduzione dal francese di Dorino Tuniz, pp. 115-132; Tocanel, Pietro. In Memoriam. Cardinale Pericle Felice, in Apollinaris, LV (1982), pp. 241-244.

Links. Biography by Riccardo Burigana, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 46 (1996), Treccani; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Il cardinale Amieto Cicognani e mons. Pericle Felici by Vincenzo Fagiolo, Publications de l'École française de Rome lien Le deuxième concile du Vatican (1959-1965). Actes du colloque international de Rome (28-30 mai 1986), 1989, pp. 229-242; Convegno sulla figura del Card. Pericle Felici, Cronache Cittadine, Anno XIII, Nº 270, 10 febbraio 2002; Cento anni fa, il 1º agosto 1911, nasceva Pericle Felici. Il nome dell'ecclesiastico ciociaro è legato al Vaticano II di cui fu il segretario generale, L'Osservatore Romano, 31 luglio 2011; I cardinali Antonio Bacci e Pericle Felici. Due latinisti in un ricordo by Oronzo De Simone, L'Ora del Salento, venerdì, giugno 7th, 2013.

(1) Among them were Iuvenalia (Rome 1947); Otia estiva (Rome 1947; re-edited in 1948); Semina flammae sacerdotalis (Rome 1950); "Prospettive e speranze del concilio ecumenico vaticano II", in Rivista diocesana di Roma (VII [1966], pp. 477-512); Il lungo cammino del concilio (Rome 1967); Concilio si Concilio no (Naples 1968); Continuità, coerenza e fermezza di dottrina (Rome 1968); Pensieri sul sacerdozio (Milan 1968); Magistero e autorità nella Chiesa (Brescia 1969); Incontri dello Spirito. Con Paolo VI pellegrino di pace (Milan 1970); Thenis et Thalia (Rome s. d. (ma 1970)); Noi popolo di Dio (Rome 1971); Temi canonistici e conciliari (Rome 1976); Vere sereno (Rome 1981); Ioanni Paulo II coram admittendi coetum certamen Vaticanum celebrantem dicati hexametri (Rome 1981). He also published numerous articles and book chapters: "La teologia del matrimonio", in Spiritualità della familia (a cura di G. Gedda, Milan 1952, pp. 127-135); Casus conscientiae de matrimonio (ed. in coll. con E. Lio - P. Lumbreras - Pietro Palazzini - G. Visser, Rome 1954); Casus conscientiae de censuris (ed. in coll. con gli stessi, Rome 1956); "Il peccato del pansessualismo psicanalitico", in Il peccato (a cura di Pietro Palazzini, Rome 1959, pp. 507-530); "Il concilio ecumenico, e la stampa" (ibid. 1961); "I concili ecumenici e la storia del dogma", in I concili nella vita della Chiesa (Milan 1961, pp. 23-29); "Orientamenti pastorali del Concilio Ecumenico Vaticano II", in Comunità cristiana e comunità polmtica (iibid. 1962, pp. 17-29); "Il Concilio Ecumenico Vaticano II", in Giovanni XXIII (a cura di G. Longo, Bergamo 1963, pp. 226-257); "Il Concilio Vaticano II e la nuova codificazione canonica", in Ius canonicum (VII [1967], pp. 307-320); "La nuova codificazione canonica", in La pastorale nel sinodo episcopale (a cura di G. Concetti, Roma 1968, pp. 31-45); "Il Vaticano II e il celibato sacerdotale" (ibid. 1969); "Oratio initio conventus habita", in Acta Conventus internationalis canonistarum (Rome 1970, pp. XXXI-XXXIV); "La Chiesa comunità di fede" (ibid. 1972); "Chiesa popolo sacerdotale" (ibid. 1972); "Ministro del sole e del sangue" (ibid. 1972); "Indagine psicologica e cause matrimoniali" (ibid. 1973); "De opere codicis iuris canonici recognoscendi", in Osterreichisches Archiv für Kirchenrecht (XIII [1974], pp. 117-128); "Comunità e dignità della persona", in Persona e ordinamento nella Chiesa (Milan 1975, pp. 7-15); "Indagine psicologica e cause matrimoniali", in Studi di diritto canonico in onore di M. Magliocchetti (a cura di P. Fedele, Roma 1975, II, pp. 515-527); "Concilium vitam alere. Meditationes super decretis concilii Vaticani II a card. Pericle Felici ordine depositae" (ibid. 1975); "Formalità giuridiche e valutazione delle prove nel processo canonico" (ibid. 1977); "Homiliae in impositione palliorum" (ibid. 1977).


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FELTIN, Maurice
(1883-1975)

Birth. May 15, 1883, Delle, archdiocese of Besançon, France. He was baptized on the following day in the parish church of Saint-Léger (1).

Education. Studied at the Benedictine monastery at Delle-Mariastein; later, at the Jesuit school in Lyon; and finally, completed his theological and philosophical formation at the seminary of Saint-Sulpice of Issy-les-Moulineaux.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 3, 1909. Vicar of Sainte-Marie-Madeleine, in the archdiocese of Besançon, 1909-1914. Officer in the French Army during the First World War, 1914-1919, decorated with the Croix-de-Guerre, the Medaille militaire, and the Legion d'Honor. From 1919 to 1925, in the archdiocese of Besançon, he was curate of Giromagny; and then, from 1925 to 1927, parish priest of Sainte-Marie-Madeleine.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Troyes, France, December 19, 1927. Consecrated, March 11, 1928, church of Sainte-Madeleine, Besançon, by Cardinal Henri-Charles-Joseph Binet, archbishop of Besançon, assisted by Paul-Jules-Narcisse Rémond, titular bishop of Clisma, general chaplain and inspector of the French army of the Rhine, and by Jean-Marcel Rodié, bishop of Ajaccio. His episcopal motto was Animan pro ovibus. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Sens, August 16, 1932. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Bordeaux, December 16, 1935. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Paris, August 15, 1949.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria della Pace, January 15, 1953. Papal legate to the consecration of the basilica of St. Thérèse de Lisieux, June 30, 1954. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, December 21, 1966. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971. He was president of the Pax Christi Movement International.

Death. September 27, 1975, of a lung infection, at a monastery of the Annunciation in Thiais, a suburb of Paris, where he resided during the last two years of his life. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Paris.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 293-294.

Links. His portrait and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on a plaque commemorating the event, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

LE CARDINAL
MAVRICE FELTIN
A ETE BAPTISE
LE 16 MARS 1883
DANS CETTE EGLISE


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FERRETTO, Giuseppe Antonio
(1899-1973)

Birth. March 9, 1899, Rome, Italy. Son of Tommaso Ferretto and Adele Stazi.

Education. Pontifical Minor Roman Seminary, Vatican; Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome; Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome (doctorates in theology and utroque iure, both canon and civil law); Pontifical Institute of Christian Archeology, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, February 24, 1923, Rome. Further studies, 1923-1926. Faculty member of the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, and of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," 1926-1958. Official in the Vicariate of Rome, 1929-1939. Referendary of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, April 23, 1939. Substitute of the S.C. Consistorial, June 7, 1943; assessor, June 27, 1950. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, May 1, 1953.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Sardica, December 14, 1958. Consecrated, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Girolamo Bartolomeo Bortignon, O.F.M.Cap., bishop of Padua, and by Gioacchino Muccin, bishop of Feltre e Belluno. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinal Domenico Tardini, secretary of State; and future Cardinals Carlo Grano, titular archbishop of Tessalonica, nuncio in Italy; Angelo Dell'Acqua, titular archbishop of Chalcedonia and substitute of the Secretariat of State; Albino Luciani, bishop of Vittorio Veneto, future Pope John Paul I; and Mario Casariego y Acevedo, C.R.S., titular bishop of Pudenziana, auxiliary of Guatemala. His episcopal motto was Fortes in fide. Secretary of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 20, 1959.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 16, 1961; received the red hat and the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, January 19, 1961. Named cardinal bishop of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, March 26, 1961. Transferred to the title of suburbicarian see of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, May 23, 1962 (1). Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Named grand penitentiary, April 7, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, June 26, 1967 until April 28, 1969. Suffering from cardiac related complications, he resigned his post of grand penitentiary on March 1, 1973.

Death. March 17, 1973, in his Vatican residence. Buried in the church of Immacolata e S. Benedetto Giuseppe Labre a via Taranto, Rome.

Bibliography. Alberti, Ottorino. "Card. Giuseppe Ferretto." La Pontificia Università lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, pp. 174-175.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; biography, in English, Wikipedia; his portrait, photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) The motu proprio Suburbicariis sedibus, issued by Pope John XXIII on April 11, 1962, established that the cardinal bishops would have no ordinary jurisdiction over their suburbicarian sees. These dioceses were to be ruled by bishops with complete and independent ordinary power; cardinal bishops would only retain the title of the see. The disposition applied only to the cardinal bishops appointed in 1961 and later. The others, Cardinals Eugène Tisserant, Clemente Micara, Giuseppe Pizzardo, and Benedetto Aloisi Masella, retained the denomination of bishops of their sees. On November 17, 1966, they were listed as bishops of the title of their suburbicarian sees in Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 1967, except Cardinal Micara, who had died in 1965.


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FIETTA, Giuseppe
(1883-1960)

Birth. November 6, 1883, Ivrea, Italy.

Education. Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, November 4, 1906, Ivrea. Secretary to the bishop of Alghero, Oristano, and Cagliari, 1907-1923. Rector of the Seminary of Alghero and canon of its cathedral chapter, 1923-1924. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 9, 1920. Secretary of the nunciature in Costa Rica, 1924; chargé d'affaires, 1925. Internuncio in Central America, February to March, 1926.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Sardica, March 30, 1926. Consecrated, October 10, 1926, basilica of Sacro Cuore a Castro Pretorio, Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni Bonzano, assisted by Ernesto Maria Piovella, archbishop of Cagliari, and by Augustin Blessing, Laz., titular bishop of Tegea, vicar apostolic of Limón, Costa Rica. His episcopal motto was Fiat pax in virtute tua. Nuncio in Central America, July 8, 1926. Nuncio in Haiti and the Dominican Republic, October 18, 1930. Nuncio in Argentina, August 8, 1936. Nuncio in Italy, January 26, 1953.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Paolo Apostolo alla Regola, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, March 12, 1959.

Death. October 1, 1960, Ivrea. Buried in the cathedral of Ivrea.

Links. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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FILIPIAK, Bolesław
(1901-1978)

Birth. September 1, 1901, Osniszczewko, archdiocese of Gniezno, Poland. Eldest of the seven children of Hilary Filipiak and Weronika z Biegałów. His uncle Jan Filipiak was also priest.

Education. Studied at the University of Poznań; and at the Seminary of Poznań; later, at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum S. Apollinare, Institute Utriusque Iuris, Rome, 1930-1935, where he earned a doctorate in utroque ire, both canon and civil law, on April 13, 1935.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 29, 1926, Gniezno, by Antoni Laubtiza, auxiliary bishop of Gniezno. Pastoral ministry, archdiocese of Gniezno, 1926-1930. Further studies, Rome, 1930-1935. Secretary to Cardinal August Hlond, S.D.B., archbishop of Gniezno, 1935-1944. In Nazi prisons, 1944-1945. Member of the archdiocesan tribunal of Gniezno, 1945. President of the tribunal of third instance for matrimonial causes reserved to the Holy See, 1945-1947. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, Rome, September 24, 1947; dean, June 26, 1967; confirmed as dean ad nutum Sanctae Sedis, February 1, 1975. Honorary canon of the cathedral chapter of Gniezno, October 15, 1947. Honorary canon of the cathedral chapter of Poznań, September 8, 1958. President of the Appellate Tribunal of the State of Vatican City.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Plestia, May 1, 1976. Consecrated, Friday May 14 13, 1976, church of S. Anselmo all'Aventino, Rome, by Cardinal Pericle Felici, president of Pontifical Commission for the Revision of the Code of Canon Law and of the Pontifical Commission for the Interpretation of the Decrees of the Second Vatican Council, assisted by Antoni Baraniak, archbishop of Poznań, and by Andrzej Maria Deskur, titular bishop of Tene, president of the Pontifical Council for Social Communications.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 24, 1976; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Giovanni Bosco in Via Tiburtina, May 24, 1976. Because of poor health could not attend the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I; and the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II.

Death. October 14, 1978, of a stroke, at his residence in Poznám, the day the October 1978 conclave began. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Poznám.

Bibliography. Grocholewski, Zenon. "Filipiak Bolesław." In: Encyklopedia katolicka. vol. 5. Lublin : Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL, 1989, p. 208-209; Grocholewski, Zenon. "Kardynał Bolesław Jan Filipiak (1901-1978) długoletni audytor i dziekan Roty Rzymskiej." Prawo Kanoniczne, 25 (1981), nr ¾, p. 265-285; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 313-323.


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FLAHIFF, C.S.B., George Bernard
(1905-1989)

Birth. October 26, 1905, Paris, diocese of Hamilton, Canada. Fourth of the nine children of John Flahiff, an innkeeper, and Eleanor Rose Marie Fleming; the children were six boys and three girls: John Joseph (died at eighteen months, chocking to death on the pits of cherries), Edward Waller, James Norma, George Bernard (the cardinal), Terrence Fleming, Eleanor Rose, Margaret Mary, Catherine McEllistrum and John Benedict.

Education. Primary studies, 1910-1917, in his home town; secondary studies, 1917-1920 and 1921-1922, also in his home town; secondary studies, St. Jerome's School, Kitchener, 1920-1921; St. Michael's College, Toronto, 1922-1926 (classics; bachelor's of arts, 1926; had Mr. Lester Pearson, future prime minister, as one of his professors; he encouraged him to follow a diplomatic career). Joined the Congregation of St. Basil; St. Basil's Novitiate, Toronto, 1926; first profession, September 20, 1927. St. Basil's Seminary, Toronto theology); Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France, 1930-1931 (history and canon law); École de Chartes, Paris (diploma of archiviste-paléographe, June 1935).

Priesthood. Ordained, August 17, 1930, church of St. Basil, Toronto, by Neil McNeil, archbishop of Toronto. Further studies, 1930-1935. Professor of medieval history at the Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, Toronto, 1935-1954; faculty member, Department of History, School of Graduate Studies, University of Toronto, 1940-1954. Secretary of the Institute of Mediaeval Studies, Toronto, 1943-1951. Member of the General Council of the Basilian Fathers, July 6, 1948. Local superior of the Basilian Fathers at Institute House, July 1, 1951. Superior general of his congregation, July 6, 1954; reelected, June 14, 1960. President of the Canadian Religious Conference, 1959-1961.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Winnipeg, March 10, 1961. Consecrated, May 31, 1961, cathedral of St. Michael, Toronto, by Cardinal James Charles McGuigan, archbishop of Toronto, assisted by Philip Francis Pocock, titular archbishop of Isauriopoli, coadjutor of Toronto, and by Michael Cornelius O'Neill, archbishop of Regina. Secretary of the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops, 1961-1962; vice-chairman, 1962; chairman, 1962-1964. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria della Salute a Primavalle, April 30, 1969. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Companion of the Order of Canada, December 6, 1975. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. In September 1980, he suffered a serious fall during the Bishop's Meeting at Chateau Laurier in Ottawa; a night watchman found him unconscious and bleeding on the staircase; evidently he had decided to use the stairs instead of the elevator and somehow missed his step because of insufficient lighting; the fall had tremendous consequences as his brain cells were damaged, which left him paralyzed; his health became more and more frail, until he died. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 31, 1982. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 26, 1985.

Death. Tuesday August 22, 1989, St. Micheal's Hospital, Toronto, of heart and respiratory failure. He was laid out in state in the chapel of Saint Basil's College, which building was later renamed after him. The first funeral took place on Monday August 28, 1989, in the metropolitan cathedral of Toronto, celebrated by Cardinal Gerald Emmett Carter, archbishop of that city; the second one took place on Wednesday August 30, in the archiepiscopal cathedral of St. Mary, Winnipeg. He was buried in the priest's plot in St. Mary's cemetery, Winnipeg (1).

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latines et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson and Lafleur, 2002, pp. 464-465; Platt, Philip Wallace. Gentle Eminence: A life of Cardinal Flahiff. Montreal: McGill Queens University Press, 1999. (McGill-Queen's Studies in the History of Religion).

Link. From Professor to Pastor: George Bernard Flahiff and the Experience of Vatican II by P. Wallace Platt, The Canadian Catholic Historical Association (CCHA), Historical Studies, 67 (2001), 42-56, in English.

(1) This is the inscription in his tomb kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici from Malta:

HIS EMINENCE
GEORGE BERNARD CARDINAL FLAHIFF, C.S.B.
Born: Paris, Ontario, October 26, 1905
Ordained A Priest: August 17, 1930
Consecrated A Bishop: May 31, 1961
Created A Cardinal: April 28, 1969
Archbishop Of Winnipeg 1961 - 1982
Died: August 22, 1989
"Happy Are The Gentle"


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FLORIT, Ermenegildo
(1901-1985)

Birth. July 5 1901, Fagagna, archdiocese of Udine, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Udine, Udine; Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome; Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome; Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 11, 1925. Further studies, 1925-1927. Pastoral ministry in archdiocese of Udine, 1927-1929. Faculty member of the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, 1929-1954; dean of its theological faculty; vice-rector, 1951-1954. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, 1929-1954. Canon of the chapter S. Marco's basilica, 1951. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, August 21, 1951.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Geropoli di Siria and appointed coadjutor of Florence, July 12, 1954. Consecrated, September 12, 1954, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Clemente Micara, bishop of Velletri, vicar general of His Holiness for the diocese of Rome, assisted by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome, and by Emilio Pizzoni, bishop of Terracina, Sezze e Priverno. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Florence, March 9, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of Regina Apostolorum, February 25, 1965. Papal legate to the 17th National Eucharistic Congress, Pisa, March 30, 1965. Resigned the pastoral government of archdiocese of Florence, June 3, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, July 5, 1981.

Death. December 8, 1985, of kidney obstruction, Florence. His funeral, presided by Cardinal Silvano Piovanelli, archbishop of Florence, was celebrated at the metropolitan cathedral basilica S. Maria del Fiore of Florence on December 10, 1985, at 4 p.m. Buried in the crypt underneath the chapel of the Most Blessed Sacrament of that cathedral basilica.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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FORNI, Efrem
(1889-1976)

Birth. January 10, 1889, Milan, Italy. Second of the three sons of Enrico Giancarlo Forni and Angela Ambrosoli; the other brothers were Rutilio Pasquale and Luigi Iginio. He was baptized with the names Efrem Leone Pio.

Education. Studied at the University of Milan; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; and at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 6, 1913. Faculty member of archiepiscopal college of Cantu, and of college of d'Arona, Milan, 1913-1921. Secretary of the apostolic nunciature in Portugal, 1921-1926; auditor, 1926-1928. Honorary chamberlain of His Holiness, October 18, 1921; reappointed, August 12, 1922. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, June 20, 1923. Auditor of the nunciature in France, 1928-1937; counselor, 1937. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 20, 1937.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Darni, November 26, 1937. Named nuncio in Ecuador, November 28, 1937. Consecrated, February 20, 1938, church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, by Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli, secretary of State, assisted by Alberto Levame, titular archbishop of Chersoneso di Zechia, nuncio in Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala, and by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Quito, Ecuador, April 30, 1949. Nuncio in Belgium and internuncio in Luxemburg, November 9, 1953. Extraordinary papal legate to consign Golden Rose to the grand duchess of Luxemburg, July 8, 1956.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 19, 1962; received the red hat and the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, March 22, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971.

Death. February 26, 1976, after a short illness, in the Policlinico Agostino Gemelli, Roman hospital. Buried in a sarcophagus in the the church of S. Francesco in Gallarate, Milan, on the left side of the high altar; the late cardinal used to say that he received the gift of the priestly vocation in that church.

Link. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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FREEMAN, James Darcy
(1907-1991)

Birth. November 19, 1907, Sydney, Australia. Son of Robert Freeman and Margaret Smith.

Education. St Columba's Seminary Springwood; St Patrick's Seminary, Manly, Sydney.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 13, 1940, Sydney, Bartolomeo Cattaneo, titular archbishop of Palmira, apostolic delegate in Australia. Successively, 1940-1956, pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Sydney, director of the Catholic Information Bureau, official in the archdiocesan tribunal, and secretary to the cardinal archbishop of Sydney. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, April 30, 1949.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Ermopoli minore and appointed auxiliary of Sydney, December 9, 1956. Consecrated, January 27, 1957, Sydney, by Cardinal Norman Thomas Gilroy, archbishop of Sydney, assisted by John Toohey, bishop of Maitland, and by James Patrick Carroll, titular bishop of Atenia, auxiliary of Sydney. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Transferred to the see of Armidale, Australia, October 18, 1968. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Sydney, July 9, 1971. President of the Australian Episcopal Conference. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Regina della Pace, March 5, 1973. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, May 31, 1981. In October 1982, he was slightly injured when he was stabbed with a knife in the stomach by a mentally unstable man as he finished celebrating the anniversary mass in memory of his predecessor, Cardinal Norman Thomas Gilroy, in the crypt of the cathedral of Sydney. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, February 12, 1983. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, November 19, 1987.

Death. March 16, 1991, Randwick, Sydney. Buried in the crypt of the metropolitan cathedral of Sydney. The Cardinal Freeman Retirement Village Nursing Home in Clissold street, Ashfield, New South Wales, Australia, is named after him.

Link. Photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of Sydney.


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FRESNO LARRAÍN, Juan Francisco
(1914-2004)

Birth. July 26, 1914, Santiago de Chile, archdiocese of Santiago de Chile, Chile. Fourth of the five children of Luis Alfredo Fresno Ingunza y Elena Larraín Hurtado.

Education. Studied at Colegio Sagrados Corazones, Santiago, from 1922 to 1930. Later, for almost two years, he studied at the Faculty of Engineering of the Catholic University of Santiago; then, in 1931, he entered the Seminary of the Ángeles Custodios, Santiago, where he completed his ecclesiastical studies; and later, he studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in theology. In 1934, while he was a seminarian, he accompanied as secretary Archbishop José Horacio Campillo of Santiago to the International Eucharistic Congress celebrated in Buenos Aires, Argentina. In that same year, he was sent to the parish of San Lázaro, where he remained until 1937.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 18, 1937, cathedral of Santiago, by José Horacio Campillo, archbishop of Santiago. Further studies in Rome, 1938 to 1939, when he returned to Chile due to the beginning of the Second World War. In 1940, he was named administrator of the properties of the Minor and Major Seminaries of Santiago. Concurrently, between 1947 and 1948, he was national assessor of the Catholic Youth, masculine branch; and later, also of the feminine branch. Between 1955 and 1958, he was pastor of the parish of Los Santos Ángeles Custodios. He was also pro-synodal judge.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Copiapó, June 15, 1958. Consecrated, August 15, 1958, in the parish church of Santos Angeles Custodios, Santiago, by Alfredo Cifuentes, archbishop of La Serena, assisted by José Manuel Santos Ascarza, bishop of Valdivia, and by Francisco de Borja Valenzuela Ríos, bishop of Antofagasta. His episcopal motto was Adveniat regnum tuum. 1960, he organized the First Diocesan Eucharistic Congress. He also established the Pre Seminary Casa de la Candelaria of Coquimbo; and in 1961, he organized the First Diocesan Synod; and established the Group of Catholic Friends for women (GRAC); and a similar one for men (AMICAT). In 1962, he created the Institute of Popular Education and inaugurated the branch of the Home of Christ. Attended the Second Vatican Council from 1962 to1965. Attended the Second General Conference of the Latin American Episcopal Council, Medellín, Colombia, August 24 to September 6, 1968. Promoted to the metropolitan see of La Serena, July 28, 1971. President of the Episcopal Conference of Chile from 1975 until 1977. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979. In the early 1980s, he was president of the Pontifical Commission for Colegio Pío Latinoamericano, Rome; delegate to the International Congress of Vocations, celebrated in Rome; and president of the Commission for Vocations of the Chilean Episcopate. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Santiago de Chile, May 3, 1983; and assumed the post of grand chancellor of the Catholic University of Santiago. In 1984, he actively collaborated to obtain the signature of the Treaty of Peace and Friendship between Chile and Argentina. From 1985, he played a key role in the efforts to restore democracy in Chile during the military dictatorship of General Augusto Pinochet; he made contact with opposition leaders and persuaded them to unite in a pro-democracy effort that included Marxists and the democratic right; he then promoted their first tense contacts with the government and was one of the supporters of "Acuerdo Nacional para la Transición a la Democracia Plena" (National Agreement for the Transition to Full Democracy). This led to the 1988 plebiscite that marked the beginning of the end of the military regime.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Immacolata di Lourdes a Boccea, May 25, 1985. Member of the Congregation for Catholic Education. In 1987, after the visit of Pope John Paul II to Chile, he established the John Paul II Foundation to grant scholarships to assist disadvantaged university students. At the invitation of the pope, he attended the beatification of Laura Vicuña in Turin in 1988. The following year, 1989, he received a prize from "The Institute of Religion and Democracy", Washington, D.C. Also in that year, he was named member honoris causa of the Scientific Society of Chile; and attended the Fourth World Youth Day in Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 30, 1990. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, July 26, 1994. Rector of the Sagrada Familia Chapel in La Dehesa, known as Las Pataguas Chapel, for over six years until his death.

Death. October 14, 2004, at 8:50 p.m., of a general renal insufficiency, in his private residence in Santiago. Buried in the crypt of the metropolitan cathedral of Santiago. A school was named after him in San Miguel de Puente Alto.

Bibliography. Caiceo Escudero, Jaime. Cardenal Juan Francisco Fresno Larraín : un Pastor para Chile. Santiago de Chile : Universidad Católica Blas Cañas, Instituto de Ciencias Religiosas, Impresora Madrid, 1996.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Spanish, CIDOC, Universidad Finis Terrae, Santiago; photograph and biography, in Spanish, archdiocese of Santiago de Chile; photographs and biography, in English, by Eman Bonnici, Find a Grave; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Cardenal Fresno: pastor del entendimiento en tiempos de enfrentamiento, in Spanish, Conferencia Episcopal de Chile.


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FURNO, Carlo
(1921-

Birth. December 2, 1921, Bairo Canavese, diocese of Ivrea, Italy. Son of Giuseppe Furno and Maria Bardesono.

Education. Studied at the Diocesan College, Ivrea (secondary education); at the Seminary of Ivrea (philosophy and theology); at the Theological Faculty, Crocetto Salesian Athenaeum, Turin, 1948-1949; at the Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, 1953); and at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, 1951-1953 (diplomacy).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 25, 1944, Ivrea. Vicar at the parish of Ozegna, Turin, 1944-1947. Further studies, Turin and Rome, 1947-1953. Attaché and secretary in the nunciature in Colombia, 1953-1957; in the nunciature in Ecuador, 1954-1957. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, June 24, 1954. Secretary in the apostolic delegation in Jerusalem, 1957-1962. Work in the first section of the Vatican Secretariat of State, 1962-1973. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, June 29, 1966. Faculty member of the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, 1966-1973.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Abari and appointed nuncio in Perú, August 1, 1973. Consecrated, September 16, 1973, Aglié, by Cardinal Paolo Bertoli, assisted by Agostino Casaroli, titular archbishop of Cartago, secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Luigi Bettazzi, bishop of Ivrea. His episcopal motto is Ardere et lucere. Nuncio in Lebanon, November 25, 1978. Nuncio in Brazil, August 21, 1982. Nuncio in Italy, April 15, 1992.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Cuore di Cristo Re, November 26, 1994. Special papal envoy to the closing ceremonies of the first centennial of the evangelization of the Republic of Central Africa, January 8, 1995. Grand Master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, December 16, 1995. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the X anniversary of the Cuban National Ecclesiastical Encounter, La Habana, February 21 to 25, 1996. Pontifical delegate to the patriarchal basilica of St. Francis of Assisi, Italy, May 23, 1996. Special papal envoy to the 13th National Eucharistic Congress, Vitória, Brazil July 7 to 14, 1996. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, September 29, 1997. Ceased as pontifical delegate, November 5, 1998. Papal legate for the closing of the Holy Door at the Liberian basilica, January 5, 2001. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, December 2, 2001. Resigned the post of archpriest, May 27, 2004. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, February 24, 2005. On March 28, 2006, Pope Benedict XVI accepted his request to be transferred to the title of S. Onofrio. Took possession of his title on Wednesday May 10, 2006. On June 27, 2007, the pope accepted his resignation for reasons of age from the charge of grand master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem.

Links. Photoraph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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FURSTENBERG, Maximilien de
(1904-1988)

Birth. October 23, 1904, castle of Ter Worm, Heerlem, diocese of Roermond, Holland. Of the old, Catholic noble family of the barons of Furstenberg-Stammheim, from Westphalia, Germany. His parents were Adolf, baron Furstenberg, and Elisabeth, countess D'Oultremont. His baptismal names were Maximilien, Louis, Hubert, Egon, Vincent, Marie, Joseph. His last name is also listed as de Fürstenberg.

Education. Abbey college of Maredsous, Namur, Belgium, October 1915 to July 1922 (primary education); study travel to Latin America; Saint-Louis College, Brussels, 1922-1928 (classics and philosophy); military service at the regiment of Grenadiers, obtained the rank of sub-lieutenant of reserve, 1924-1925; Superior Institute of Philosophy, University of Louvain, Louvain, 1925-1928 (licentiate in philosophy); Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1928-1932 (doctorate in theology, 1932); resided in the Pontifical Belgian College, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 9, 1931; incardinated in the archdiocese of Mechelen. Returned to Belgium and became a faculty member of the diocesan College of Saint-Jean Berchmans, Antwerp, 1932-1934. Professor of liturgy at the Grand Seminary of Mechelen, 1934-1946. Named master of ceremonies of Cardinal Jozef-Ernest van Roey, archbishop of Mechelen, in 1934. From 1935 to 1949, he was military chaplain of reserve. Canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Mechelen. On Christmas Day 1943, he was arrested by the Germans at his mother's house because of a Latin inscription placed on the Christmas candle in the metropolitan cathedral which appeared to express great hope in the Allied disembarkment in in North Africa; he was sentenced to two years in prison; after a year of detention in the prison of Saint-Gilles, Bruxelles, he was freed on Christmas Day 1944. During the Regency of Belgium, he was named chaplain of the court and decorated with the cross of knight of the Order of Léopold II for his patriotic conduct. Named by the bishops of Belgium rector of the Pontifical Belgian College, Rome, February 27, 1946; occupied the post until his promotion to the episcopate; among his students was the young priest Karol Wojtyla, future Pope John Paul II. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 13, 1947.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Palto, March 14, 1949. Named apostolic delegate in Japan, March 22, 1949. Consecrated, April 25, 1949, cathedral of Saint-Rombaud, Mechelen, by Cardinal Jozef-Ernest van Roey, archbishop of Mechelen, assisted by Jean Marie van Cauwenbergh, titular bishop of Sinao, auxiliary of Mechelen, and by Oscar Joseph Joliet, titular bishop of Costanza di Arabia, auxiliary of Gand. His episcopal motto was Pax et virtute tua. Named internuncio in Japan, April 28, 1952. Regent of the nunciature in Korea, 1952-1953. Apostolic delegate in Australia, New Zealand and Oceania, November 21, 1959. Nuncio in Portugal, April 28, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 26, 1967; received the red biretta and the title of Sacro Cuore di Gesù a Castro Pretorio, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, July 15, 1967. Prefect of the S.C. for Oriental Churches, January 15, 1968. For thirty seven days, in coincidence with the 50th anniversary of the establishment of the S.C. for the Oriental Church in 1969, he traveled to India, Irak, Syria, Jordania, Egypt, Turkey and the Holy Land to visit the patriarchs of the Catholic Oriental Churches and also Orthodox Ecumenical Patriarch Athenagoras I of Constantinople. Special papal envoy to the celebrations for the 10th anniversary of the constitution of the metropolitan see of Philadelphia of the Ukrainians, Philadelphia, July 10, 1969. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969. Papal envoy to the centennial celebrations of Iran, 1971. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Grand master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, March 1972 until his death. Resigned the prefecture, February 28, 1973. Named president of the Central Commission for the Holy Year of 1975, May 9, 1973. Special papal envoy to the 12th centennial celebration of cathedral of Salzburg, Austria, September 21 to 24, 1974; to the Holy See's Day, Oceanic Exposition, Okinawa, Japan, November 5, 1975. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Participated in the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, May 24, 1982 until June 25, 1984; the post had been vacant since the death of Cardinal Egidio Vaganozzi on December 26, 1980. Special papal envoy to the inaugural ceremonies of the International House of the Pilgrim and the consecration of the altar of Pax Christi Chapel, shrine of Kevelaer, Germany, June 5 to 6, 1982. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 23, 1984. Due to bad health, he was interned in the polyclinic "Agostino Gemelli" of Rome for several months; on May 30, 1988, Pope John Paul II visited him; a few days later, he was transferred to the Louvain University clinic of Mont-Godinne, near Namur, Belgium.

Death. September 22, 1988, of a cerebral hemorrhage, Mont-Goddine, Namur, Belgium. The funeral was celebrated on Wednesday September 28, 1988 in the church of Notre-Dame au Sablon, Brussels, which is the capitular church of the Belgian lieutenancy of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulcre of Jerusalem; his coffin was covered with the Belgian flag and surmounted by his red biretta. The following day, in accordance with his will, the cardinal was buried in the crypt that his great-grandfather, Count Franz Egon von Fürstenberg-Stammheim (1797-1859), had had built in the Franciscan church of Mont-Apollinaris, near Remagen (Rhenanie-Palatinat), Germany.

Bibliography. Del Re, Niccolò. "Massimiliano de Furstenberg" in La Sacra Congregazione per le Chiese Orientali. Nel cinquantesimo della fondazione (1917-1967). Grottaferrata, Roma : Tipografia Italo-Orientale "San Nilo", 1969, p. 96-97; Ickx, Johan. De alumni van het Belgisch Pauselijk College te Rome, 1844-1994 = Les anciens étudiants du Collège Pontifical Belge à Romem, 1844-1994. Roma : Il Collegio, Tipografia S.G.S., 1994. Text in Dutch and French. Other title: Anciens étudiants du Collège pontifical belge à Rome, 1844-1994, p. 443; Plavsic, W. S. "Le cardinal de Furstenberg, (1904-1988)", Handelingen van de Koninklgke Kring voor Oudheidkunde, Letteren en Kunst van Mechelen, vol. 106, 2002, p. 249-264.

Links. Biography, in French, Rémersdael; his arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana; and the Furstenberg Family, in French, Rémersdael.

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