The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
(1903-2011)
F

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FAGIOLO, Vincenzo
(1918-2000)

Birth. February 5, 1918, Segni, diocese of Segni, Italy

Education. Seminary of Segni, Segni; Seminary of Anagni, Anagni; Pontifical Major Roman Seminary, Rome; Pontifical Lateran University, Rome (doctorates in theology and canon law); La Sapienza University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 6, 1943. Incardinated in the diocese of Rome. From 1943 to 1971, in Rome, pastoral ministry; national assistant to the Deaf-mutes Association; faculty member, LUISS and of Gabriele D'Annuzio University; judge and president, First Instance Tribunal of Vatican City; prosynodal judge, Tribunal of Vicariate of Rome. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, May 7, 1956. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, July 6, 1961. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965, as expert. Auditor of Sacred Roman Rota, January 16, 1968.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Chieti and administrator of Vasto, November 20, 1971. Consecrated, December 19, 1971, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Carlo Confalonieri, prefect of the S.C. for Bishops, assisted by Costantino Stella, archbishop of Aquila, and by Luigi Maria Carlim, bishop of Segni. Vice-president of the Episcopal Conference of Italy, 1979-1984. In 1983, for his efforts to save Jews during the Holocaust, was recognized by Yad Vashem as "a righteous among the nations,'' with a medal; and a tree was planted in his name at Yad Vashem. The honor is bestowed on gentiles who risked their lives to save Jews during the war. Secretary of the S.C. for Religious and Secular Institutes, April 8, 1984. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, July 15, 1984. President of the Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of Legislative Texts, December 15, 1990. President of the Disciplinary Commission of the Roman Curia, December 29, 1990. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Teodoro, November 26, 1994. Resigned the presidency of the Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of Legislative Texts, December 19, 1994. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, February 5, 1998. Ceased as president of the Disciplinary Commission of the Roman Curia, February 14, 1998. He served as president of Italian Caritas. He was grand prior of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of S. Girogio; and priore spirituale of the Ordine Militare et Hospitaliero di San Lazzaro di Gerusalemme.

Death. September 22, 2000, Rome. Buried in a marble sarcophagus in the metropolitan cathedral of Chieti (1).

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

VINCENTIUS FAGIOLO S.R.E. CARDINALIS
IAM TEATINAE VASTENSIS ECCLESIAE ARCHIEP.
HIC IN PACE CHRISTI REQUIESCIT
V KAL. OCTOB. MM

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FALCÃO, José Freire
(1925-

Birth. October 23, 1925, Ererê, diocese of Limoeiro do Norte, Brazil.

Education. Seminary of Prainha, Fortaleza.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 19, 1949, Limoeiro do Norte. Successively, 1949-1967, in diocese of Limoeiro do Norte, pastoral ministry; vice-director of diocesan lyceum; faculty member of its minor seminary and other educational institutions; and ecclesiastical assistant of the Catholic Action.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Vardimissa and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Limoeiro do Norte, April 24, 1967. Consecrated, June 17, 1967, by José de Medeiros Delgado, archbishop of Fortaleza, assisted by Vicente de Paulo Araújo Matos, bishop of Crato, and by José Mauro Ramalho de Alarcón Santiago, bishop of Iguatú. Succeeded to the see of Limoeiro do Norte, August 19, 1967. Attended the Second General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Medellín, Colombia, August 24 to September 6, 1968. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Teresina, November 25, 1971. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Brasília, February 15, 1984. Second vice president of the Latin American Episcopal Council.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Luca a Via Prenestina, June 28, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, December 2, 1993. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese upon having reached the age limit, January 28, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, October 23, 2005.

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FALCONIO, O.F.M., Diomede
(1842-1917)

Birth. September 20, 1842, Pescocostanzo, archabbey nullius de Monte Cassino, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. One of the five children of Donato Antonio Falconio, a goldsmith, and Maria Giacinta Buccigrossi. Received the sacrament of confirmation, September 5, 1852.

Education. Joined the Order of Friars Minor, province of Abruzzi, Reformed branch (1), September 2, 1860; changed his baptismal name Angelo Raffaele Gennaro to Diomede of Pescocostanzo. Franciscan convents of Magliano, and Carpineto. Took first vows, September 17, 1861; perpetual vows, October 12, 1864. Traveled to the United States of America in the Fall 1865.

Priesthood. Ordained, January 4, 1866, Buffalo, N.Y (2), by John Timon, C.M., bishop of Buffalo. Professor of philosophy, St. Bonaventure's College and Seminary, Alleghany, N.Y., 1865-1868; 1869-1871; president, 1868-1869. Missionary work in Terranova. Became an American citizen. Secretary of the American Franciscan province of the Immaculate Conception, 1867. Administrator, chancellor, and vicar general of diocese of Harbor Grace, 1871-1882. The opposition of the Irish Benevolent Society to the appointment of an Italian bishop to the diocese of Harbor Grace made his superior recall him to the United States. Missionary work in New York and Connecticut, 1882-1883; returned to Italy in 1883. Provincial of his order in the province of S. Bernardino, Abruzzi, Italy, 1884-1889. Prosynodal examiner, archdiocese of Aquilea. Elected procurator general of his order, October 1889; visitor general to the provinces of Naples, and Pouilles, France, 1889-1892.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Lacedonia, Italy, July 11, 1892. Consecrated, July 17, 1892, church of S. Antonio in Via Merulana, Rome, by Cardinal Raffaele Monaco La Valletta, bishop of Ostia and Velletri, dean of Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by Antonio Grasselli, O.F.M.Conv., titular archbishop of Colosso, and by Tancredo Fausti, titular archbishop of Seleucia Pieria. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Acerenza e Matera, November 29, 1895. First apostolic delegate in Canada, August 3, 1899. Transferred to the titular see of Larissa, September 30, 1899. Apostolic delegate in the United States of America, September 30, 1902; he paid special attention to the care of the spiritual needs of the linguistic minorities: to provide spiritual assistance in their language and to nominate bishops of the same ethnic origin, or that at least speak the language of that minority (3).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 27, 1911; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Aracoeli, November 30, 1911. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Velletri, May 25, 1914. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Prefect of the S.C. for Religious, February 26, 1916.

Death. February 8, 1917, Rome. Buried in the Franciscan church of Pescocostanzo (4).

Bibliography. Il cardinale Diomede Falconio, O.F.M. : nel 50 anniversario della morte. L'Aquila : S. Bernardino, 1968. Contents: Presentazione.--Biographical note / I. Herscher.--Diomede Falconio e la sua famiglia religiosa / G. Marinangeli.--Diomede Falconio vescovo / R. Corona.--Il cardinal Falconio e Pescocostanzo / A. Di Ianni.--How Cardinal Falconio helped the Basilian congregation.--Falconio visto da vicino.--Dalle "Memorie."--Carte "Fondo Falconio" / R. Corona.--Bibliography / I. Herscher.--To my loved America. "Supplemento a Acta Provinciae Aprutinae S. Bernardini Senensis O.F.M., Anno XXII (1968)"; Chapeau, O.S.B., André and Charles N. Bransom. "Franciscan bishops." Franciscan Studies, XLVII (1987), 364; Code, Joseph Bernard. Dictionary of American Hierarchy, New York : Joseph Wagner, 1964, p. 86-87; Del Tedesco, Mary Macino. The Franciscan: Cardinal-Bishop Diomede Falconio, September 20, 1842-February 7, 1917. New York, Vantage Press 1972; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 250-254; Pieta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 10, 21 and 23; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, p. 73, 333 and 334; Sanfilippo, M. "Diomede Falconio et l'Église Catholique en Amérique du Nord." Rivista di Studi Canadesi, 1992, 43-47.

Link. His portrait and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his portrait and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his portrait by Thomas Eakins, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., United States of America; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) In 1897, it merged with the Order of Friars Minor.
(2) This is according to Code, Dictionary of American Hierarchy, p. 86; LeBlanc, Dictionnaire biographique des évéques catholiques du Canada, p. 250, indicates that he was ordained on January 4, 1886.
(3) Pope Leo XIII had insisted on these conditions in his apostolic letter to the American hierarchy Quam aerumnosa of December 10, 1888, but the document had had little effect.
(4) This is the text of his epitaph, composed by Fr. Pellegrino Paoli, transcribed from Del Tedesco, The Franciscan: Cardinal-Bishop Diomede Falconio, p. 117:

Qui
Riposono le Ceneri
ci
S. E. Il Cardinale Diomede Falconio
Dell'Ordine dei Frati Minori
Nato in Pescocostanzo il XX Settembre MDCCCXLII
Morto in Roma il VII Febbraio MDCCCXVII
Non Chiese Postumi Onori
Solo invoco
La Preghiera Cristiana.


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FARLEY, John Murphy
(1842-1918)

Birth. April 20, 1842, Newton-Hamilton, archdiocese of Armagh, Ireland. Son of Philip Farley and Catherine Murphy; she was a native of Moyles in the parish of Monaghan and Rackwallace.

Education. St. MacCartan's College, Minor Seminary for the Diocese of Clogher, Monaghan (he studied in the college due to the generosity of an uncle, Patrick Murphy, who had emigrated to New York; the uncle manifested his express wish that John be educated for the priesthood in the archdiocese of New York); St, John's College, Fordham, New York, United States; St. Joseph's Seminary, Troy, New York; North American College, Rome; Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 11, 1870, Rome, by Cardinal Costantino Patrizi, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, vicar general of Rome. Following his ordination, he returned briefly to Monaghan to visit his family, while en route to New York; he subsequently visited Monaghan again in August 1892 for the dedication of St Macartan's cathedral and again in 1906 and 1909. Assistant rector of St. Peter's, New Brighton, Staten Island, New York, 1870-1872; 1884-1902. Privy chamberlain, 1884. Secretary to Archbishop John McCloskey of New York, future cardinal, 1872-1884; accompanied the cardinal to the conclave of 1878 but they arrived after the election of Pope Leo XIII had taken place. Pastor of St. Gabriel, New York, 1884. Attended the III Plenary Council of Baltimore, 1884. Vicar general of the archdiocese of New York, 1891-1902. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, April 8, 1892. Protonotary apostolic, 1894.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Zeugma and appointed auxiliary of New York, November 18, 1895. Consecrated, December 21, 1895, New York, by Michael Augustine Corrigan, archbishop of New York, assisted by Charles Edward McDonnell, bishop of Brooklyn, and by Henry Gabriels, bishop of Ogdensburg. Administrator of the archdiocese of New York after the death of Archbishop Michael Augustine Corrigan on May 5, 1902. Promoted to the metropolitan see of New York, September 15, 1902 (1). Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, 1905.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 27, 1911; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, November 30, 1911. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV.

Death. September 17, 1918, at 9:17, p.m., in his country home at Orienta Point, Mamaroneck, New York, after an illness lasting six weeks, which had left him mostly unconscious. Buried, St. Patrick's metropolitan cathedral, New York.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 50; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 87; Duffy, Joseph. Monaghan Cathedral. Dublin : Eason & Son Ltd., 1992. (Variation: Irish heritage series (Dublin, Ireland) ; 72); Hayes, Patrick Joseph. John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York. [s.l. : s.n.], 1912; Lavelle, M.J. "John Cardinal Farley, archbishop of New York." American Ecclesiastical Review, LX (1919), 113-125; Pieta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 11 and 23; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 407 and 603; St. Macartan's College, 1840-1990 : a history. Corporate author: Saint Macartan's College (Clogher, Northern Ireland). Monaghan : St. Macartan's College, 1990; St Macartans Seminary Centenary Souvenir 1940. Dogheda : Drogheda Independent Co Ltd, 1940.

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in English, in "Archdiocese of New York, III. The Hierarchy, section G; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) He was known to take daily walks with one of his priests down Madison or Fifth Avenue, noting, "A man never collects his thoughts so well as when he walks alone or with a congenial spirit."


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FASOLINO, Nicolás
(1887-1969)

Birth. January 3, 1887, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Of a family of Italian origin.

Education. Studied at the Metropolitan Conciliar Seminary, Buenos Aires; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned doctorates in philosophy, theology and canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 28, 1909, Rome. Returned to Buenos Aires soon and was named vice-pastor of San José de Flores in 1911; occupied the post until 1916; later, professor of theology at the Catholic University; professor of Sacred Scripture and ecclesiastical history at the Center of Religious Studies. Successively, pro-secretary of the archdiocesan curia, 1913-1922; vice-chancellor of the archdiocesan curia of Buenos Aires; visitor general to the Youths Workers Association of Argentina; spiritual director of the Catholic Youth and of the Catholic League. Procurator of the College of Pastors of the city of Buenos Aires; commissary for the borders of the new parishes; secretary and chancellor of the archdiocesan curia of Buenos Aires, 1921-1922; pastor of Balvanera, 1922-1933; vicar general of the archdiocese of Buenos Aires, 1925-1926. Apostolic protonotary, July 19, 1928.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Santa Fe, October 20, 1932. Consecrated, December 21, 1932, Buenos Aires, by Filippo Cortesi, titular archbishop of Sirace, nuncio in Argentina, assisted by Santiago Luis Copello, archbishop of Buenos Aires, and by Fortunato Devoto, titular bishop of Attea, auxiliary of Buenos Aires. His episcopal motto was Narrabo nomen tuum fratribus meis. Promoted to archbishop when Santa Fe was elevated to the metropolitan rank, April 20, 1934. He founded the Catholic University of Santa Fe. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinal. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 26, 1967; received the red biretta and the title of Beata Vergine Addolorata a Piazza Buenos Aires, June 29, 1967.

Death. August 13, 1969, Santa Fe. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Santa Fe.

Bibliography. "Cenni biografici dei nuovi porprati. Il cardinale Nicola Fasolino, arcivescovo di Santa Fé in Argentina." L'attività della Santa Sede nel 1967. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1967, p. 635.

Link. Photograph and biography, in Spanish (toward the middle of the page); and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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FAULHABER, Michael von
(1869-1952)

Birth. March 5, 1869, Klosterheidenfeld, diocese of Würzburg, Germany. Third of the seven children of Michael von Faulhaber and Margarete Schmitt. He had a brother, Robert, who also was a priest; and a sister, Katharina, who accompanied Michael as archbishop and cardinal. Received the sacrament of confirmation, May 10, 1880.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Schwenfurt from 1879 until 1883; then, at the Major Seminary of Würzburg from 1883 until 1888; and later, at the University of Würzburg, where he obtained a doctorate in theology on May 6, 1895.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 1, 1892, Würzburg, by Bishop Franz Joseph von Stein of Würzburg. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Würzburg: chaplain in Kitzingen, 1892-1893. Prefect of studies in the Minor Seminary of Würzburg, 1893-1894. Prefect of studies at the Kilianneum, Würzburg, 1893-1895. Chaplain and vicar rector in the Teutonic Hospital of S. Maria del'Anima, Rome, 1896-1898; conducted research in libraries in Rome and other Italian cities. Parish vicar in Holzkirchen, 1898-1899. Professor of Sacred Scriptures at the University of Würzburg, 1899; and professor of Old Testament exegesis at the University of Strasbourg, 1903-1911.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Speyer, January 7, 1911. Consecrated, February 19, 1911, cathedral of Speyer, by Cardinal Franz von Bettinger, archbishop of München und Freising, assisted by Ferdinand Schlor, bishop of Würzburg, and by Adolphe Fritzen, bishop of Strasbourg. His episcopal motto was Vox temporis vox Dei. Promoted to the metropolitan see of München und Freising, July 24, 1917. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, January 17, 1920.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 7, 1921; received the red hat and the title of S. Anastasia, March 10, 1921. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Papal legate to the Eucharistic Congress, Speyer, July 7, 1930. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Cardinal protoprete, March 13, 1952.

Death. June 12, 1952, München. Buried, metropolitan cathedral, München (1). Last surviving cardinal of Pope Benedict XV.

Bibliography. Akten Kardinal Michael von Faulhabers : 1917-1952. Bearb. von Heinz Hürten unter Benutzung der Vorarbeiten von Ludwig Volk. 3 vols. Paderborn : Schöningh, 1975-2002. (Veröffentlichungen der Kommission für Zeitgeschichte ; Reihe A ; Quellen ; Bd. 48). Contents : 1. 1917-1934 -- 2. 1935-1945 -- v. 3. 1945-1952; Episcopus; Studien über das Bischofsamt ; seiner Eminenz Michael Kardinal von Faulhaber, Erzbischof von München-Freising zum 80. Geburtstag. Regensburg : Gregorius-Verlag vorm. Friedrich Pustet, 1949. Responsibility : Dargebracht von der Theologischen Fakultät der Universität München; Festschrift Kardinal Faulhaber zum achtzigsten Geburtstag. München : J. Pfeiffer, 1949. Responsibility : dargebracht vom Professorenkollegium der Philosophisch-theologischen Hochschule Freising; Forstner, Thomas. Kardinal Michael von Faulhaber 1869-1952 : eine Ausstellung des Archivs des Erzbistums München und Freising, des Bayerischen Hauptstaatsarchivs und des Stadtarchivs München zum 50. Todestag, München, 6. Juni bis 28. Juli 2002. München : Generaldirektion der Staatlichen Archive Bayerns ; München : Archiv des Erzbistums München und Freising, 2002. (Ausstellungskataloge der Staatlichen Archive Bayerns, Nr. 44). Responsibility : Bearbeiter des Katalogs: Thomas Forstner, Susanne Kornacker, Peter Pfister; Klier, Johann. Von der Kriegspredigt zum Friedensappell : Erzbischof Michael von Faulhaber und der Erste Weltkrieg : ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der deutschen katholischen Militärseelsorge. München : Kommissionsverlag UNI-Druck, 1991. (Miscellanea Bavarica Monacensia ; Bd. 154; Neue Schriftenreihe des Stadtarchivs München). Note : Originally presented as the authors thesis (doctoral)--Universität der Bundeswehr, 1990; Leers, Johann von. Der Kardinal und die Germanen. Hamburg : Hanseatische Verlagsanstalt, 1934. Note : Eine Auseinandersetzung mit Kardinal Faulhaber; Michael Kardinal Faulhaber : 25 Bischofsjahre. München : A. Huber, 1936. Responsibility : hrsg. vom Priesterverein der Erzdiözese München-Freising; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. ; Reiser, Rudolf. Kardinal Michael von Faulhaber : des Kaisers und des Führers Schutzpatron. München : Buchendorfer, 2000.

Links. Biography, in English, New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge; photograph, coat of arms, and biography, in German, archdiocese of München und Freising; photograph, Kulturreferat der Landeshauptstadt München; and photograph, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Il cardinale che non piaceva ai nazisti by Marco Roncalli , Avvenire, 25 ottobre 2013.

(1) This is the inscription in vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

MICHAEL CARDINALIS FAVLHABER
TIT.S.ANASTASIAE PRESBYTER
NATVS 5.MARTII 1869
EPISCOPVS SPIRENSIS 1910
ARCHIEPISCOPVS MONACENSIS
ET FRISINGENSIS 1917
DENATVS 12.JVNII 1952


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FELICI, Angelo
(1919-2007)

Birth. July 26, 1919, Segni, Italy. Nephew of Ettore Felici, titular archbishop of Corinto, nuncio in Ireland.

Education. Completed his primary and secondary studies in Segni; then, he attended the Pontifical Leonine College, Anagni, from 1934 until 1941, where he studied philosophy and theolgy; later, studied diplomacy at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, 1941 (after having received the subdiaconate); and finally, at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 4, 1942, chapel of the Pontifical Collegio Pio Latino Americano, Rome, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age. Further studies, 1942-1945. Joined the Vatican Secretariat of State, first section, 1945, at the invitation of Msgr. Domenico Tardini, secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, future cardinal. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, June 15, 1949. Faculty member, Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, November 28, 1958. Under-secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, February 7, 1964. In 1967, Pope Paul VI sent him on a mission to Jerusalem after the Six-Day War between Arabs and Israelis.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cesariana and appointed pro-nuncio in Holland, July 22, 1967. Consecrated, September 24, 1967, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, bishop of title of suburbicarian see of Frascati, secretary of State, assisted by Giovanni Benelli, titular archbishop of Tusuro, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Luigi Maria Carli, bishop of Segni. His episcopal motto was In lumine tuo, Nuncio in Portugal, May 13, 1976. Nuncio in France, August 27, 1979.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ss. Biagio e Carlo ai Catinari, June 28, 1988. Prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, July 1, 1988. Attended the VIII Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the IX Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Resigned prefecture, June 13, 1995. President of the Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei, December 16, 1995. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, January 9, 1999. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, July 26, 1999. Resigned the presidency of the Pontifical Commission "Ecclesia Dei", April 14, 2000.

Death. June 17, 2007, at 9:10 a.m., in his Roman residence in Piazza della Città Leonina; he never fully recovered after suffering a fall and breaking his thigh at the Paul VI Audience Hall in 1999. Pope Benedict XVI presided the capella papale for his exequies on Tuesday June 19, 2007, at 5 p.m., in the altar of the Chair of the papal Vatican basilica. Buried in the tomb of his family in the cemetery of Segni.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sedde; and his portrait photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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FELICI, Pericle
(1911-1982)

Birth. August 1, 1911, Segni, Italy. Son of Luigi Felici and Anna Roscioli. He had two brothers, Metello and Jonas.

Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Segni; at the Pontifical Roman Minor Seminary, Rome; at the Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome, 1925-1934, obtaining a doctorate in philosophy in 1929; and in theology in 1934, with a dissertation on psychopathic affection; at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome, 1934-1938, earning a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, in 1938, with a thesis on the interpretation of penal law.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 28, 1933, cathedral of Segni, by Alfonso Maria de Sanctis, bishop of Segni, with papal dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age. Assistant professor of canon law at the Pontifical Institute "Utriusque Iure, at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", 1938-1943; professor of fundamental theology, 1943-1947; its rector, 1938-1948. Spiritual director at the Major Roman Seminary for sixteen years. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, December 28, 1940. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, September 20, 1947 to 1960. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, September 20, 1947. Secretary general of the Central Preparatory Commission of the Second Vatican Council, June 7, 1960.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Samosota, September 3, 1960, Consecrated, October 28, 1960, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Diego Venini, titular archbishop of Adana, privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Benigno Carrara, bishop of Imola. In the same ceremony were consecrated future Cardinals Dino Staffa, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, secretary of the S.C. of Seminaries and Universities; and Egano Righi-Lambertini, titular archbishop of Doclea, nuncio in Lebanon. Named secretary general of the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Named pro-president of the Pontifical Commission for the Revision of the Code of Canon Law, February 21, 1967.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 26, 1967; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Apollinare, June 29, 1967. President of the Pontifical Commission for the Interpretation of the Decrees of the Second Vatican Council, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; one of its three president delegates. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Named prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, August 15, 1977. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; member of its general secretariat, 1977-1980. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I; imposed the pallium to the new Pope John Paul I, September 3, 1978. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II; imposed the pallium to the new pope, October 22, 1978. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; and the V Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980.

Death. March 22, 1982, of a heart attack, in Foggia, where he was presiding the celebrations for the 250th anniversary of the apparition of the Blessed Virgin of the Seven Veils, patron of that city; and the diocesan Marian Congress. A funeral, presided by Salvatore de Giorgi, archbishop of Foggia, future cardinal, was celebrated in the metropolitan cathedral on March 23. Later, his body was transferred to Rome and exposed in the church of S. Apollinare, his title. On March 25, in the morning, it was taken to the patriarchal Vatican basilica, where Pope John Paul II presided the exequies concelebrated with the cardinals of the Roman Curia, and delivered the homily. After the exequies, the body of the cardinal was transferred to Segni, his native city, and buried in his family's tomb. The square adjacent to the cathedral of Segni was named after him on the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of his death.

Bibliography. Il cardinale Pericle Felici : (1911-1982) : convegno di studio nel ventennale della morte : Roma, 22-23 marzo 2002, Palazzo della cancelleria, Sala dei cento giorni, Segni, 24 marzo 2002, Concattedrale. A cura di Andrea Chiarelli and Ugo Meucci. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2003.

Link. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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FELTIN, Maurice
(1883-1975)

Birth. May 15, 1883, Delle, archdiocese of Besançon, France. He was baptized on the following day in the parish church of Saint-Léger (1).

Education. Studied at the Benedictine monastery at Delle-Mariastein; later, at the Jesuit school in Lyon; and finally, completed his theological and philosophical formation at the seminary of Saint-Sulpice of Issy-les-Moulineaux.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 3, 1909. Vicar of Sainte-Marie-Madeleine, in the archdiocese of Besançon, 1909-1914. Officer in the French Army during the First World War, 1914-1919, decorated with the Croix-de-Guerre, the Medaille militaire, and the Legion d'Honor. From 1919 to 1925, in the archdiocese of Besançon, he was curate of Giromagny; and then, from 1925 to 1927, parish priest of Sainte-Marie-Madeleine.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Troyes, France, December 19, 1927. Consecrated, March 11, 1928, church of Sainte-Madeleine, Besançon, by Cardinal Henri-Charles-Joseph Binet, archbishop of Besançon, assisted by Paul-Jules-Narcisse Rémond, titular bishop of Clisma, general chaplain and inspector of the French army of the Rhine, and by Jean-Marcel Rodié, bishop of Ajaccio. His episcopal motto was Animan pro ovibus. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Sens, August 16, 1932. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Bordeaux, December 16, 1935. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Paris, August 15, 1949.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria della Pace, January 15, 1953. Papal legate to the consecration of the basilica of St. Thérèse de Lisieux, June 30, 1954. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, December 21, 1966. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971. He was president of the Pax Christi Movement International.

Death. September 27, 1975, of a lung infection, at a monastery of the Annunciation in Thiais, a suburb of Paris, where he resided during the last two years of his life. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Paris.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 293-294.

Links. His portrait and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on a plaque commemorating the event, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

LE CARDINAL
MAVRICE FELTIN
A ETE BAPTISE
LE 16 MARS 1883
DANS CETTE EGLISE


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FERRETTO, Giuseppe Antonio
(1899-1973)

Birth. March 9, 1899, Rome, Italy. Son of Tommaso Ferretto and Adele Stazi.

Education. Pontifical Minor Roman Seminary, Vatican; Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome; Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome (doctorates in theology and utroque iure, both canon and civil law); Pontifical Institute of Christian Archeology, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, February 24, 1923, Rome. Further studies, 1923-1926. Faculty member of the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, and of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," 1926-1958. Official in the Vicariate of Rome, 1929-1939. Referendary of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, April 23, 1939. Substitute of the S.C. Consistorial, June 7, 1943; assessor, June 27, 1950. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, May 1, 1953.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Sardica, December 14, 1958. Consecrated, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Girolamo Bartolomeo Bortignon, O.F.M.Cap., bishop of Padua, and by Gioacchino Muccin, bishop of Feltre e Belluno. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinal Domenico Tardini, secretary of State; and future Cardinals Carlo Grano, titular archbishop of Tessalonica, nuncio in Italy; Angelo Dell'Acqua, titular archbishop of Chalcedonia and substitute of the Secretariat of State; Albino Luciani, bishop of Vittorio Veneto, future Pope John Paul I; and Mario Casariego y Acevedo, C.R.S., titular bishop of Pudenziana, auxiliary of Guatemala. His episcopal motto was Fortes in fide. Secretary of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 20, 1959.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 16, 1961; received the red hat and the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, January 19, 1961. Named cardinal bishop of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, March 26, 1961. Transferred to the title of suburbicarian see of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, May 23, 1962 (1). Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Named grand penitentiary, April 7, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, June 26, 1967 until April 28, 1969. Suffering from cardiac related complications, he resigned his post of grand penitentiary on March 1, 1973.

Death. March 17, 1973, in his Vatican residence. Buried in the church of Immacolata e S. Benedetto Giuseppe Labre a via Taranto, Rome.

Bibliography. Alberti, Ottorino. "Card. Giuseppe Ferretto." La Pontificia Università lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, pp. 174-175.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; biography, in English, Wikipedia; his portrait, photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) The motu proprio Suburbicariis sedibus, issued by Pope John XXIII on April 11, 1962, established that the cardinal bishops would have no ordinary jurisdiction over their suburbicarian sees. These dioceses were to be ruled by bishops with complete and independent ordinary power; cardinal bishops would only retain the title of the see. The disposition applied only to the cardinal bishops appointed in 1961 and later. The others, Cardinals Eugène Tisserant, Clemente Micara, Giuseppe Pizzardo, and Benedetto Aloisi Masella, retained the denomination of bishops of their sees. On November 17, 1966, they were listed as bishops of the title of their suburbicarian sees in Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 1967, except Cardinal Micara, who had died in 1965.


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FIETTA, Giuseppe
(1883-1960)

Birth. November 6, 1883, Ivrea, Italy.

Education. Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, November 4, 1906, Ivrea. Secretary to the bishop of Alghero, Oristano, and Cagliari, 1907-1923. Rector of the Seminary of Alghero and canon of its cathedral chapter, 1923-1924. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 9, 1920. Secretary of the nunciature in Costa Rica, 1924; chargé d'affaires, 1925. Internuncio in Central America, February to March, 1926.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Sardica, March 30, 1926. Consecrated, October 10, 1926, basilica of Sacro Cuore a Castro Pretorio, Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni Bonzano, assisted by Ernesto Maria Piovella, archbishop of Cagliari, and by Augustin Blessing, Laz., titular bishop of Tegea, vicar apostolic of Limón, Costa Rica. His episcopal motto was Fiat pax in virtute tua. Nuncio in Central America, July 8, 1926. Nuncio in Haiti and the Dominican Republic, October 18, 1930. Nuncio in Argentina, August 8, 1936. Nuncio in Italy, January 26, 1953.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Paolo Apostolo alla Regola, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, March 12, 1959.

Death. October 1, 1960, Ivrea. Buried in the cathedral of Ivrea.

Links. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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FILIPIAK, Bolesław
(1901-1978)

Birth. September 1, 1901, Osniszczewko, archdiocese of Gniezno, Poland. Eldest of the seven children of Hilary Filipiak and Weronika z Biegałów. His uncle Jan Filipiak was also priest.

Education. Studied at the University of Poznań; and at the Seminary of Poznań; later, at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum S. Apollinare, Institute Utriusque Iuris, Rome, 1930-1935, where he earned a doctorate in utroque ire, both canon and civil law, on April 13, 1935.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 29, 1926, Gniezno, by Antoni Laubtiza, auxiliary bishop of Gniezno. Pastoral ministry, archdiocese of Gniezno, 1926-1930. Further studies, Rome, 1930-1935. Secretary to Cardinal August Hlond, S.D.B., archbishop of Gniezno, 1935-1944. In Nazi prisons, 1944-1945. Member of the archdiocesan tribunal of Gniezno, 1945. President of the tribunal of third instance for matrimonial causes reserved to the Holy See, 1945-1947. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, Rome, September 24, 1947; dean, June 26, 1967; confirmed as dean ad nutum Sanctae Sedis, February 1, 1975. Honorary canon of the cathedral chapter of Gniezno, October 15, 1947. Honorary canon of the cathedral chapter of Poznań, September 8, 1958. President of the Appellate Tribunal of the State of Vatican City.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Plestia, May 1, 1976. Consecrated, Friday May 14 13, 1976, church of S. Anselmo all'Aventino, Rome, by Cardinal Pericle Felici, president of Pontifical Commission for the Revision of the Code of Canon Law and of the Pontifical Commission for the Interpretation of the Decrees of the Second Vatican Council, assisted by Antoni Baraniak, archbishop of Poznań, and by Andrzej Maria Deskur, titular bishop of Tene, president of the Pontifical Council for Social Communications.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 24, 1976; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Giovanni Bosco in Via Tiburtina, May 24, 1976. Because of poor health could not attend the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I; and the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II.

Death. October 14, 1978, of a stroke, at his residence in Poznám, the day the October 1978 conclave began. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Poznám.

Bibliography. Grocholewski, Zenon. "Filipiak Bolesław." In: Encyklopedia katolicka. vol. 5. Lublin : Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL, 1989, p. 208-209; Grocholewski, Zenon. "Kardynał Bolesław Jan Filipiak (1901-1978) długoletni audytor i dziekan Roty Rzymskiej." Prawo Kanoniczne, 25 (1981), nr ¾, p. 265-285; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 313-323.


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FLAHIFF, C.S.B., George Bernard
(1905-1989)

Birth. October 26, 1905, Paris, diocese of Hamilton, Canada. Fourth of the nine children of John Flahiff, an innkeeper, and Eleanor Rose Marie Fleming; the children were six boys and three girls: John Joseph (died at eighteen months, chocking to death on the pits of cherries), Edward Waller, James Norma, George Bernard (the cardinal), Terrence Fleming, Eleanor Rose, Margaret Mary, Catherine McEllistrum and John Benedict.

Education. Primary studies, 1910-1917, in his home town; secondary studies, 1917-1920 and 1921-1922, also in his home town; secondary studies, St. Jerome's School, Kitchener, 1920-1921; St. Michael's College, Toronto, 1922-1926 (classics; bachelor's of arts, 1926; had Mr. Lester Pearson, future prime minister, as one of his professors; he encouraged him to follow a diplomatic career). Joined the Congregation of St. Basil; St. Basil's Novitiate, Toronto, 1926; first profession, September 20, 1927. St. Basil's Seminary, Toronto theology); Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France, 1930-1931 (history and canon law); École de Chartes, Paris (diploma of archiviste-paléographe, June 1935).

Priesthood. Ordained, August 17, 1930, church of St. Basil, Toronto, by Neil McNeil, archbishop of Toronto. Further studies, 1930-1935. Professor of medieval history at the Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, Toronto, 1935-1954; faculty member, Department of History, School of Graduate Studies, University of Toronto, 1940-1954. Secretary of the Institute of Mediaeval Studies, Toronto, 1943-1951. Member of the General Council of the Basilian Fathers, July 6, 1948. Local superior of the Basilian Fathers at Institute House, July 1, 1951. Superior general of his congregation, July 6, 1954; reelected, June 14, 1960. President of the Canadian Religious Conference, 1959-1961.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Winnipeg, March 10, 1961. Consecrated, May 31, 1961, cathedral of St. Michael, Toronto, by Cardinal James Charles McGuigan, archbishop of Toronto, assisted by Philip Francis Pocock, titular archbishop of Isauriopoli, coadjutor of Toronto, and by Michael Cornelius O'Neill, archbishop of Regina. Secretary of the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops, 1961-1962; vice-chairman, 1962; chairman, 1962-1964. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria della Salute a Primavalle, April 30, 1969. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Companion of the Order of Canada, December 6, 1975. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. In September 1980, he suffered a serious fall during the Bishop's Meeting at Chateau Laurier in Ottawa; a night watchman found him unconscious and bleeding on the staircase; evidently he had decided to use the stairs instead of the elevator and somehow missed his step because of insufficient lighting; the fall had tremendous consequences as his brain cells were damaged, which left him paralyzed; his health became more and more frail, until he died. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 31, 1982. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 26, 1985.

Death. Tuesday August 22, 1989, St. Micheal's Hospital, Toronto, of heart and respiratory failure. He was laid out in state in the chapel of Saint Basil's College, which building was later renamed after him. The first funeral took place on Monday August 28, 1989, in the metropolitan cathedral of Toronto, celebrated by Cardinal Gerald Emmett Carter, archbishop of that city; the second one took place on Wednesday August 30, in the archiepiscopal cathedral of St. Mary, Winnipeg. He was buried in the priest's plot in St. Mary's cemetery, Winnipeg (1).

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latines et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson and Lafleur, 2002, pp. 464-465; Platt, Philip Wallace. Gentle Eminence: A life of Cardinal Flahiff. Montreal: McGill Queens University Press, 1999. (McGill-Queen's Studies in the History of Religion).

Link. From Professor to Pastor: George Bernard Flahiff and the Experience of Vatican II by P. Wallace Platt, The Canadian Catholic Historical Association (CCHA), Historical Studies, 67 (2001), 42-56, in English.

(1) This is the inscription in his tomb kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici from Malta:

HIS EMINENCE
GEORGE BERNARD CARDINAL FLAHIFF, C.S.B.
Born: Paris, Ontario, October 26, 1905
Ordained A Priest: August 17, 1930
Consecrated A Bishop: May 31, 1961
Created A Cardinal: April 28, 1969
Archbishop Of Winnipeg 1961 - 1982
Died: August 22, 1989
"Happy Are The Gentle"


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FLORIT, Ermenegildo
(1901-1985)

Birth. July 5 1901, Fagagna, archdiocese of Udine, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Udine, Udine; Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome; Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome; Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 11, 1925. Further studies, 1925-1927. Pastoral ministry in archdiocese of Udine, 1927-1929. Faculty member of the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, 1929-1954; dean of its theological faculty; vice-rector, 1951-1954. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, 1929-1954. Canon of the chapter S. Marco's basilica, 1951. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, August 21, 1951.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Geropoli di Siria and appointed coadjutor of Florence, July 12, 1954. Consecrated, September 12, 1954, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Clemente Micara, bishop of Velletri, vicar general of His Holiness for the diocese of Rome, assisted by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome, and by Emilio Pizzoni, bishop of Terracina, Sezze e Priverno. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Florence, March 9, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of Regina Apostolorum, February 25, 1965. Papal legate to the 17th National Eucharistic Congress, Pisa, March 30, 1965. Resigned the pastoral government of archdiocese of Florence, June 3, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, July 5, 1981.

Death. December 8, 1985, of kidney obstruction, Florence. His funeral, presided by Cardinal Silvano Piovanelli, archbishop of Florence, was celebrated at the metropolitan cathedral basilica S. Maria del Fiore of Florence on December 10, 1985, at 4 p.m. Buried in the crypt underneath the chapel of the Most Blessed Sacrament of that cathedral basilica.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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FORNI, Efrem
(1889-1976)

Birth. January 10, 1889, Milan, Italy. Second of the three sons of Enrico Giancarlo Forni and Angela Ambrosoli; the other brothers were Rutilio Pasquale and Luigi Iginio. He was baptized with the names Efrem Leone Pio.

Education. University of Milan, Milan; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 6, 1913. Faculty member of archiepiscopal college of Cantu, and of college of d'Arona, Milan, 1913-1921. Secretary of the apostolic nunciature in Portugal, 1921-1926; auditor, 1926-1928. Honorary chamberlain of His Holiness, October 18, 1921; reappointed, August 12, 1922. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, June 20, 1923. Auditor of the nunciature in France, 1928-1937; counselor, 1937. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 20, 1937.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Darni, November 26, 1937. Named nuncio in Ecuador, November 28, 1937. Consecrated, February 20, 1938, church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, by Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli, secretary of State, assisted by Alberto Levame, titular archbishop of Chersoneso di Zechia, nuncio in Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala, and by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Quito, Ecuador, April 30, 1949. Nuncio in Belgium and internuncio in Luxemburg, November 9, 1953. Extraordinary papal legate to consign Golden Rose to the grand duchess of Luxemburg, July 8, 1956.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 19, 1962; received the red hat and the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, March 22, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971.

Death. February 26, 1976, in a Roman hospital. Buried in the church of S. Francesco in Gallarate, Milan, on the left side of the high altar; the late cardinal used to say that he received the gift of the priestly vocation in that church.

Link. Biography, in English; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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FOSSATI, O.Ss.C.G.N., Maurilio
(1876-1965)

Birth. May 24, 1876, Arona, diocese of Novara, Italy. One of the ten children of Giacomo Maurilio Fossati, a steamboat operator, and Domenica Destefanis.

Education. Seminary of Novara, Novara.

Priesthood. Ordained, November 27, 1898, by Bishop Edoardo Pulciano of Novara, to whom he had been already serving as a secretary for a year. When Bishop Pulciano was transferred to the archbishopric of Genoa, Father Fossati moved with him. When the archbishop died unexpectedly in 1911, he returned to Novara and joined the Oblates of Saints Charles and Gaudentius. Pastoral ministry in Novara, 1911-1914. Military chaplain in the Italian Army during the First World Wsr, 1914-1919. Superior of the Oblates in Varallo Sesio, 1919-1924.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Nuoro, Sardinia, March 24, 1924. Consecrated, April 27, 1924, Varallo Sesio, by Giuseppe Gamba, archbishop of Turin, assisted by Angelo Scapardini, archbishop-bishop of Vigevano, and by Giovanni Garigliano, bishop of Biella. His episcopal motto was Gressus meos dirige. He was apostolic administrator of Ogliastra from 1925 to 1927. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Sassari, October 2, 1929. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Turin, December 11, 1930.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 13, 1933; received the red hat and the title of S. Marcello, March 16, 1933. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI.

Death. March 30, 1965, of pneuomonia, after a long illness, in Turin. Buried in the chapel of the Seminary of Rivoli, Turin. In 1977, his remains were transferred to Consolata Shrine, Turin, and buried under a black marble tomb stone.

Link. Photographs and arms, Araldica Vatican.


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FREEMAN, James Darcy
(1907-1991)

Birth. November 19, 1907, Sydney, Australia. Son of Robert Freeman and Margaret Smith.

Education. St Columba's Seminary Springwood; St Patrick's Seminary, Manly, Sydney.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 13, 1940, Sydney, Bartolomeo Cattaneo, titular archbishop of Palmira, apostolic delegate in Australia. Successively, 1940-1956, pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Sydney, director of the Catholic Information Bureau, official in the archdiocesan tribunal, and secretary to the cardinal archbishop of Sydney. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, April 30, 1949.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Ermopoli minore and appointed auxiliary of Sydney, December 9, 1956. Consecrated, January 27, 1957, Sydney, by Cardinal Norman Thomas Gilroy, archbishop of Sydney, assisted by John Toohey, bishop of Maitland, and by James Patrick Carroll, titular bishop of Atenia, auxiliary of Sydney. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Transferred to the see of Armidale, Australia, October 18, 1968. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Sydney, July 9, 1971. President of the Australian Episcopal Conference. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Regina della Pace, March 5, 1973. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, May 31, 1981. In October 1982, he was slightly injured when he was stabbed with a knife in the stomach by a mentally unstable man as he finished celebrating the anniversary mass in memory of his predecessor, Cardinal Norman Thomas Gilroy, in the crypt of the cathedral of Sydney. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, February 12, 1983. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, November 19, 1987.

Death. March 16, 1991, Randwick, Sydney. Buried in the crypt of the metropolitan cathedral of Sydney. The Cardinal Freeman Retirement Village Nursing Home in Clissold street, Ashfield, New South Wales, Australia, is named after him.

Link. Photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of Sydney.


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FRESNO LARRAÍN, Juan Francisco
(1914-2004)

Birth. July 26, 1914, Santiago de Chile, archdiocese of Santiago de Chile, Chile. Fourth of the five children of Luis Alfredo Fresno Ingunza y Elena Larraín Hurtado.

Education. Studied at Colegio Sagrados Corazones, Santiago, from 1922 to 1930. Later, for almost two years, he studied at the Faculty of Engineering of the Catholic University of Santiago; then, in 1931, he entered the Seminary of the Ángeles Custodios, Santiago, where he completed his ecclesiastical studies; and later, he studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in theology. In 1934, while he was a seminarian, he accompanied as secretary Archbishop José Horacio Campillo of Santiago to the International Eucharistic Congress celebrated in Buenos Aires, Argentina. In that same year, he was sent to the parish of San Lázaro, where he remained until 1937.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 18, 1937, cathedral of Santiago, by José Horacio Campillo, archbishop of Santiago. Further studies in Rome, 1938 to 1939, when he returned to Chile due to the beginning of the Second World War. In 1940, he was named administrator of the properties of the Minor and Major Seminaries of Santiago. Concurrently, between 1947 and 1948, he was national assessor of the Catholic Youth, masculine branch; and later, also of the feminine branch. Between 1955 and 1958, he was pastor of the parish of Los Santos Ángeles Custodios. He was also pro-synodal judge.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Copiapó, June 15, 1958. Consecrated, August 15, 1958, in the parish church of Santos Angeles Custodios, Santiago, by Alfredo Cifuentes, archbishop of La Serena, assisted by José Manuel Santos Ascarza, bishop of Valdivia, and by Francisco de Borja Valenzuela Ríos, bishop of Antofagasta. His episcopal motto was Adveniat regnum tuum. 1960, he organized the First Diocesan Eucharistic Congress. He also established the Pre Seminary Casa de la Candelaria of Coquimbo; and in 1961, he organized the First Diocesan Synod; and established the Group of Catholic Friends for women (GRAC); and a similar one for men (AMICAT). In 1962, he created the Institute of Popular Education and inaugurated the branch of the Home of Christ. Attended the Second Vatican Council from 1962 to1965. Attended the Second General Conference of the Latin American Episcopal Council, Medellín, Colombia, August 24 to September 6, 1968. Promoted to the metropolitan see of La Serena, July 28, 1971. President of the Episcopal Conference of Chile from 1975 until 1977. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979. In the early 1980s, he was president of the Pontifical Commission for Colegio Pío Latinoamericano, Rome; delegate to the International Congress of Vocations, celebrated in Rome; and president of the Commission for Vocations of the Chilean Episcopate. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Santiago de Chile, May 3, 1983; and assumed the post of grand chancellor of the Catholic University of Santiago. In 1984, he actively collaborated to obtain the signature of the Treaty of Peace and Friendship between Chile and Argentina. From 1985, he played a key role in the efforts to restore democracy in Chile during the military dictatorship of General Augusto Pinochet; he made contact with opposition leaders and persuaded them to unite in a pro-democracy effort that included Marxists and the democratic right; he then promoted their first tense contacts with the government and was one of the supporters of "Acuerdo Nacional para la Transición a la Democracia Plena" (National Agreement for the Transition to Full Democracy). This led to the 1988 plebiscite that marked the beginning of the end of the military regime.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Immacolata di Lourdes a Boccea, May 25, 1985. Member of the Congregation for Catholic Education. In 1987, after the visit of Pope John Paul II to Chile, he established the John Paul II Foundation to grant scholarships to assist disadvantaged university students. At the invitation of the pope, he attended the beatification of Laura Vicuña in Turin in 1988. The following year, 1989, he received a prize from "The Institute of Religion and Democracy", Washington, D.C. Also in that year, he was named member honoris causa of the Scientific Society of Chile; and attended the Fourth World Youth Day in Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 30, 1990. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, July 26, 1994. Rector of the Sagrada Familia Chapel in La Dehesa, known as Las Pataguas Chapel, for over six years until his death.

Death. October 14, 2004, at 8:50 p.m., of a general renal insufficiency, in his private residence in Santiago. Buried in the crypt of the metropolitan cathedral of Santiago. A school was named after him in San Miguel de Puente Alto.

Bibliography. Caiceo Escudero, Jaime. Cardenal Juan Francisco Fresno Larraín : un Pastor para Chile. Santiago de Chile : Universidad Católica Blas Cañas, Instituto de Ciencias Religiosas, Impresora Madrid, 1996.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Spanish, CIDOC, Universidad Finis Terrae, Santiago; photograph and biography, in Spanish, archdiocese of Santiago de Chile; photographs and biography, in English, by Eman Bonnici, Find a Grave; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Cardenal Fresno: pastor del entendimiento en tiempos de enfrentamiento, in Spanish, Conferencia Episcopal de Chile.


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FRINGS, Joseph
(1887-1978)

Birth. February 6, 1887, in the small city of Neuss, archdiocese of Köln, Germany. Second of the eight children of Heinrich Frings, a weaving mill manufacturer and a city councillor, and Maria Sels. His baptismal name was Joseph Richard. Very early he discovered that he had a vocation to the priesthood. The house of his family was destroyed by a bomb during the Second World War.

Education. Initially, he frequented the gymnasium of Neus; then he studied at the University of Innsbruck; later at the University of Bonn (theology); from 1913 until 1915, at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome; while in Rome, he resided in Collegio Germanico di Santa Maria dell'Anima; and finally at the University of Freiburg, where he obtained a doctorate in theology in 1916.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 10, 1910, Köln, by Anton Hubert Fischer, archbishop of Köln. Four days later, he sang his first mass in his home town. Chaplain in Köln-Zollstock, 1910-1913. Further studies in Rome, 1913-1915. Pastor in Köln-Fühlingen, 1915-1922. Director of an orphanage in Neuss, 1922-1924. Named pastor in Köln-Braunsfeld on April 2, 1924; remained in the post until 1937. Named rector of the Seminary of Köln on March 4, 1937; occupied the post until his promotion to the episcopate in 1942.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Köln, May 1, 1942. Consecrated, June 21, 1942, metropolitan cathedral of Köln, by Cesare Orsenigo, titular archbishop of Tolemaide di Libia, nuncio in Germany, assisted by Joseph Hammels, titular bishop of Soli, auxiliary of Köln, and by Wilhelm Stockums, titular bishop of Eritre, auxiliary of Köln. His episcopal motto was Pro hominibus constitutus. Soon afterward, he issued a pastoral letter, "Justice and Law", protesting against those in power who flouted law; against the race struggle; and against the persecution of the Jews. Chairman of the Fulda Conference of Catholic Bishops (1), 1945-1965. After the end of the Second World War, he went to Canada, the United States of American and Great Britain asking for help to end the German misery. He celebrated a diocesan synod in 1954 with three hundred delegates of the Köln clergy participating. By 1955, through his efforts, 724 churches had been rebuilt; 163 had been totally renovated; 59 new ones had been built; and he built the Marian College, for priestly formation, in Neuss. He was the honorary chairman of the Association of Catholic Merchants Societies in Germany.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, February 22, 1946. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965; member of the Board of Presidency, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, February 10, 1969. Lost his right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years of age, January 1, 1971. Cardinal protoprete, October 21, 1977. By the end of his life he had lost most of his eyesight. He was closely linked to Adveniat and Misereor, the two great relief societies of German Catholics in the underdeveloped countries. He played the violin well and liked both classical and modern music. His favorite author was William Shakespeare.

Death. December 17, 1978, of a heart attack, in Köln. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Köln.

Bibliography. Dahm, Paul. Joseph Cardinal Frings. Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press, 1964. (The Men who make the Council, 10); Frings, Joseph. Für die Menschen bestellt : Erinnerungen des Alterzbischofs von Köln Josef Kardinal Frings. Köln : Bachem, 1973; Frings, Josef ; Froitzheim, Dieter. Kardinal Frings : Leben u. Werk. Köln : Wienand, 1979. Responsibility: Dieter Froitzheim, Herausgeber; Hegel, Eduuard. "Frings, Joseph." Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1785/1803 bis 1945 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1983, pp. 210-213; Sikora, Joachim ; Nitsche, Hans. Josef Kardinal Frings : Honnefer Akzente. Bad Honnef : Katholisch-Soziales Institut der Erzdivzese Kvln, 1996. Note: "Schriften von und über Kardinal Frings": Responsibility: Joachim Sikora, Hans Nitsche (Hg.) ; herausgegeben aus Anlass der Wiederervffnung des Kardinal-Frings-Hauses am 1. September 1996, mit Bildern und Skizzen von Ernst G|nter Hansing; Trippen, Norbert. Josef Kardinal Frings (1887-1978). 2 vols. Paderborn : Ferdinand Schöningh, 2003-2005. (Veröffentlichungen der Kommission für Zeitgeschichte ; Reihe B ; Forschungen ; Bd. 94; 104).

Links. Biography, in German; his tomb, metropolitan cathedral of Cologne; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) The conference was established by the German bishops meeting in 1848 in the episcopal city of Fulda at the grave of Saint Bonifacius, the patron saint of Germany. After the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965), the German Catholic bishops established the German Conference of Bishops in 1966.


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FRÜHWIRTH, O.P., Andreas
(1845-1933)

Birth. August 21, 1845, St. Anna am Aigen, diocese of Seckau, Austria, Austrian Empire. His baptismal name was Franz. His last name is also listed as Frühwirt.

Education. Joined the Order of Preachers, September 13, 1863, Graz; changed his name to Andreas; professed, September 13, 1864. Dominican houses of studies, Graz, Austria (philosophy and theology); Pontifical Roman Academy of St. Thomas Aquinas, Rome, 1869-1870.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 5, 1868, Graz. Lector of theology, Pontifical Roman Academy of St. Thomas Aquinas, July 14, 1870. Named magister in theology. Professor of theology for six years in the Dominican College of Graz; prior, 1872-1875. Prior in Vienna, 1876-1880; provincial of Austria-Hungary, from April 20, 1880 to 1891. Elected master general of his order in the general chapter of Lyon, September 19, 1891; occupied the post until May 21, 1904. Founder of Analecta Ordinis Praedicatorum, 1892. Apostolic visitor to the convent of Klosterneuburg, Austria, of the Clerics Regular of Saint Augustine, December 19, 1906. Consultor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, December 19, 1906. Named nuncio in Bavaria, October 26, 1907.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Eraclea, November 5, 1907. Consecrated, November 30, 1907, National Teutonic church of S. Maria dell'Anima, Rome, by Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val, secretary of State, assisted by Diomede Panici, titular archbishop of Laodicea, secretary of the S.C. of Rites, and by Giuseppe Cecchini, O.P., titular bishop of Alicarnaso, archpriest of Altamura and Acquaviva delle Fonti.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 6, 1915; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, December 7, 1916. Remained in nunciature until November 1916. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, May 23, 1923 until March 24, 1924. Papal legate to the consecration of cathedral of Linz, Austria, April 12, 1924. Grand Penitentiary, January 8, 1925 until December 9, 1927. Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, December 19, 1927 until his death. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, assigned to the chancellorship, December 19, 1927.

Death. February 9, 1933, Rome. Buried in the parish church of St. Anna am Aigen, diocese of Seckau. A bust in his honor was erected in his native town. At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Bibliography. Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 677; Pięa, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 16, 23, 25 and 195-196.

Links. Biography, in German; and photographs, Araldica Vaticana.


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FUMASONI BIONDI, Pietro
(1872-1960)

Birth. September 4, 1872, Rome, Italy. Son of Filippo Fumasoni Biondi and Gertrude Roselli.

Education. Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 17, 1897, Rome, by Lucido Maria Parocchi, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, vicar general of Rome. Successively, 1897-1916, faculty member of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenueum "De Propaganda Fide", Rome, and staff member of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Doclea and appointed apostolic delegate to the East Indies, November 14, 1916. Consecrated, December 10, 1916, chapel of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenueum "De Propaganda Fide", Rome, by Cardinal Domenico Serafini, O.S.B.Cas., prefect of S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, assisted by Joseph Armand Legrand, C.S.C, bishop of Dacca, and by Agostino Zampini, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, sacristan of His Holiness. Apostolic delegate to Japan, December 6, 1919. Secretary of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, June 14, 1921. Apostolic delegate to the United States, December 14, 1922.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 13, 1933; received the red hat and the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, March 16, 1933. Prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, March 16, 1933 until his death. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Teramo, Italy, August 20, 1935. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, May 12, 1941 to February 18, 1946. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII.

Death. July 12, 1960, after a long illness, Rome. Buried, Campo Verano Cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 207; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 100-101.

Link. Photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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FURNO, Carlo
(1921-

Birth. December 2, 1921, Bairo Canavese, diocese of Ivrea, Italy. Son of Giuseppe Furno and Maria Bardesono.

Education. Studied at the Diocesan College, Ivrea (secondary education); at the Seminary of Ivrea (philosophy and theology); at the Theological Faculty, Crocetto Salesian Athenaeum, Turin, 1948-1949; at the Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, 1953); and at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, 1951-1953 (diplomacy).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 25, 1944, Ivrea. Vicar at the parish of Ozegna, Turin, 1944-1947. Further studies, Turin and Rome, 1947-1953. Attaché and secretary in the nunciature in Colombia, 1953-1957; in the nunciature in Ecuador, 1954-1957. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, June 24, 1954. Secretary in the apostolic delegation in Jerusalem, 1957-1962. Work in the first section of the Vatican Secretariat of State, 1962-1973. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, June 29, 1966. Faculty member of the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, 1966-1973.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Abari and appointed nuncio in Perú, August 1, 1973. Consecrated, September 16, 1973, Aglié, by Cardinal Paolo Bertoli, assisted by Agostino Casaroli, titular archbishop of Cartago, secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Luigi Bettazzi, bishop of Ivrea. His episcopal motto is Ardere et lucere. Nuncio in Lebanon, November 25, 1978. Nuncio in Brazil, August 21, 1982. Nuncio in Italy, April 15, 1992.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Cuore di Cristo Re, November 26, 1994. Special papal envoy to the closing ceremonies of the first centennial of the evangelization of the Republic of Central Africa, January 8, 1995. Grand Master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, December 16, 1995. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the X anniversary of the Cuban National Ecclesiastical Encounter, La Habana, February 21 to 25, 1996. Pontifical delegate to the patriarchal basilica of St. Francis of Assisi, Italy, May 23, 1996. Special papal envoy to the 13th National Eucharistic Congress, Vitória, Brazil July 7 to 14, 1996. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, September 29, 1997. Ceased as pontifical delegate, November 5, 1998. Papal legate for the closing of the Holy Door at the Liberian basilica, January 5, 2001. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, December 2, 2001. Resigned the post of archpriest, May 27, 2004. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, February 24, 2005. On March 28, 2006, Pope Benedict XVI accepted his request to be transferred to the title of S. Onofrio. Took possession of his title on Wednesday May 10, 2006. On June 27, 2007, the pope accepted his resignation for reasons of age from the charge of grand master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem.

Links. Photoraph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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FURSTENBERG, Maximilien de
(1904-1988)

Birth. October 23, 1904, castle of Ter Worm, Heerlem, diocese of Roermond, Holland. Of the old, Catholic noble family of the barons of Furstenberg-Stammheim, from Westphalia, Germany. His parents were Adolf, baron Furstenberg, and Elisabeth, countess D'Oultremont. His baptismal names were Maximilien, Louis, Hubert, Egon, Vincent, Marie, Joseph. His last name is also listed as de Fürstenberg.

Education. Abbey college of Maredsous, Namur, Belgium, October 1915 to July 1922 (primary education); study travel to Latin America; Saint-Louis College, Brussels, 1922-1928 (classics and philosophy); military service at the regiment of Grenadiers, obtained the rank of sub-lieutenant of reserve, 1924-1925; Superior Institute of Philosophy, University of Louvain, Louvain, 1925-1928 (licentiate in philosophy); Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1928-1932 (doctorate in theology, 1932); resided in the Pontifical Belgian College, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 9, 1931; incardinated in the archdiocese of Mechelen. Returned to Belgium and became a faculty member of the diocesan College of Saint-Jean Berchmans, Antwerp, 1932-1934. Professor of liturgy at the Grand Seminary of Mechelen, 1934-1946. Named master of ceremonies of Cardinal Jozef-Ernest van Roey, archbishop of Mechelen, in 1934. From 1935 to 1949, he was military chaplain of reserve. Canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Mechelen. On Christmas Day 1943, he was arrested by the Germans at his mother's house because of a Latin inscription placed on the Christmas candle in the metropolitan cathedral which appeared to express great hope in the Allied disembarkment in in North Africa; he was sentenced to two years in prison; after a year of detention in the prison of Saint-Gilles, Bruxelles, he was freed on Christmas Day 1944. During the Regency of Belgium, he was named chaplain of the court and decorated with the cross of knight of the Order of Léopold II for his patriotic conduct. Named by the bishops of Belgium rector of the Pontifical Belgian College, Rome, February 27, 1946; occupied the post until his promotion to the episcopate; among his students was the young priest Karol Wojtyla, future Pope John Paul II. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 13, 1947.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Palto, March 14, 1949. Named apostolic delegate in Japan, March 22, 1949. Consecrated, April 25, 1949, cathedral of Saint-Rombaud, Mechelen, by Cardinal Jozef-Ernest van Roey, archbishop of Mechelen, assisted by Jean Marie van Cauwenbergh, titular bishop of Sinao, auxiliary of Mechelen, and by Oscar Joseph Joliet, titular bishop of Costanza di Arabia, auxiliary of Gand. His episcopal motto was Pax et virtute tua. Named internuncio in Japan, April 28, 1952. Regent of the nunciature in Korea, 1952-1953. Apostolic delegate in Australia, New Zealand and Oceania, November 21, 1959. Nuncio in Portugal, April 28, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 26, 1967; received the red biretta and the title of Sacro Cuore di Gesù a Castro Pretorio, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, July 15, 1967. Prefect of the S.C. for Oriental Churches, January 15, 1968. For thirty seven days, in coincidence with the 50th anniversary of the establishment of the S.C. for the Oriental Church in 1969, he traveled to India, Irak, Syria, Jordania, Egypt, Turkey and the Holy Land to visit the patriarchs of the Catholic Oriental Churches and also Orthodox Ecumenical Patriarch Athenagoras I of Constantinople. Special papal envoy to the celebrations for the 10th anniversary of the constitution of the metropolitan see of Philadelphia of the Ukrainians, Philadelphia, July 10, 1969. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969. Papal envoy to the centennial celebrations of Iran, 1971. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Grand master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, March 1972 until his death. Resigned the prefecture, February 28, 1973. Named president of the Central Commission for the Holy Year of 1975, May 9, 1973. Special papal envoy to the 12th centennial celebration of cathedral of Salzburg, Austria, September 21 to 24, 1974; to the Holy See's Day, Oceanic Exposition, Okinawa, Japan, November 5, 1975. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Participated in the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, May 24, 1982 until June 25, 1984; the post had been vacant since the death of Cardinal Egidio Vaganozzi on December 26, 1980. Special papal envoy to the inaugural ceremonies of the International House of the Pilgrim and the consecration of the altar of Pax Christi Chapel, shrine of Kevelaer, Germany, June 5 to 6, 1982. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 23, 1984. Due to bad health, he was interned in the polyclinic "Agostino Gemelli" of Rome for several months; on May 30, 1988, Pope John Paul II visited him; a few days later, he was transferred to the Louvain University clinic of Mont-Godinne, near Namur, Belgium.

Death. September 22, 1988, of a cerebral hemorrhage, Mont-Goddine, Namur, Belgium. The funeral was celebrated on Wednesday September 28, 1988 in the church of Notre-Dame au Sablon, Brussels, which is the capitular church of the Belgian lieutenancy of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulcre of Jerusalem; his coffin was covered with the Belgian flag and surmounted by his red biretta. The following day, in accordance with his will, the cardinal was buried in the crypt that his great-grandfather, Count Franz Egon von Fürstenberg-Stammheim (1797-1859), had had built in the Franciscan church of Mont-Apollinaris, near Remagen (Rhenanie-Palatinat), Germany.

Bibliography. Del Re, Niccolò. "Massimiliano de Furstenberg" in La Sacra Congregazione per le Chiese Orientali. Nel cinquantesimo della fondazione (1917-1967). Grottaferrata, Roma : Tipografia Italo-Orientale "San Nilo", 1969, p. 96-97; Ickx, Johan. De alumni van het Belgisch Pauselijk College te Rome, 1844-1994 = Les anciens étudiants du Collège Pontifical Belge à Romem, 1844-1994. Roma : Il Collegio, Tipografia S.G.S., 1994. Text in Dutch and French. Other title: Anciens étudiants du Collège pontifical belge à Rome, 1844-1994, p. 443; Plavsic, W. S. "Le cardinal de Furstenberg, (1904-1988)", Handelingen van de Koninklgke Kring voor Oudheidkunde, Letteren en Kunst van Mechelen, vol. 106, 2002, p. 249-264.

Links. Biography, in French, Rémersdael; his arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana; and the Furstenberg Family, in French, Rémersdael.

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