The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
(1903-2011)
G

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GAGNON, P.S.S., Édouard
(1918-2007)

Birth. January 15, 1918, Port-Daniel, diocese of Gaspé, Canada. Of a family that had thirteen children.

Education. Primary studies, 1923-1930, Hochelaga-Maisonneuve, Montréal, where his family had moved in 1921 for economic reasons; classic studies in private schools, 1930-1935; Collège de l'Assomption, University of Montréal, Montréal (bachelor in arts, 1936; doctorate in theology,1941, dissertation: La lecture de l'Écriture sainte par les fidèles); Grand Seminary of Montréal, Montréal (licentiate in theology, 1940); University of Laval, Québec (doctorate in canon law, 1944; dissertation: La censure des livres, 1944). Entered the novitiate of the Compagnie des Prêtres de Saint-Sulpice, 1944; did his solitude in the Seminary of Philosophy; admitted to the Society in 1945.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 15, 1940, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age, Contrecoeur, by Anastase Forget, bishop of Saint-Jean-de-Québec. Further studies, Québec, 1941-1944. Professor of moral and canon law at the Grand Seminary of Montréal and at Pius XI Institute, 1945-1954. Director of the journal Le Séminaire, 1946-1954. Auditor of the ecclesiastical tribunal of the archdiocese of Montréal, 1947-1954. Secretary, Office of Clergy, Montréal, 1952-1954. Supervisor of the archdiocesan vacation colony at Contrecoeur, 1947-1954. Preacher of retreats. Rector, Major Seminary of St. Boniface, Manitoba, 1954-1960; 1965-1966; professor and diocesan consultor. Director, Major Seminary of Manizales, Colombia, 1961-1965. Attended, at the request of the Canadian bishops, the third and fourth sessions of the Second Vatican Council, 1964-1965, as an expert in charge of lay auditors. Secretary of the Pontifical Commission for Social Communication, September 1966. Provincial of the Society in Canada, Japan, and Latin America, 1966-1970.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Saint Paul in Alberta, February 19, 1969. Consecrated, March 25, 1969, St. Paul, by Emmanuele Clarizio, titular archbishop of Claudiopolis in Isauria, pro-nuncio in Canada, assisted by Anthony Jordan, O.M.I., archbishop of Edmonton, and by Maurice Baudoux, archbishop of Saint Boniface. His episcopal motto was Christus lux mea. Resigned the pastoral government of diocese, May 3, 1972. Rector of the Pontifical Canadian College, Rome, 1972-1973. First vice-president of the Pontifical Committee for the Family, January 11, 1973; president, 1974. Head of the Vatican delegation to the International Population Conference, Bucharest, Rumania, August 19 to 30, 1974. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Vice-president of the Pontifical Committee for the Family, December 10, 1976. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Promoted to the titular see of Giustiniana prima and appointed pro-president of the Pontifical Council for the Family, July 7, 1983. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Elena fuori Porta Prenestina, May 25, 1985. President of the Pontifical Council for the Family, May 27, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Resigned the presidency, November 8, 1990. President of the Pontifical Committee for the International Eucharistic Congresses, January 3, 1991. Officer of the Order of Canada, 1993. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Marcello, January 29, 1996. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, January 15, 1998. Ceased as president of the Pontifical Committee for International Eucharistic Congresses, March 2001. Cardinal patron of the Militia Templi, Catholic knights based in Tuscany.

Death. Saturday August 25, 2007, at the provincial house of the Compagnie des Prêtres de Saint-Sulpice, Montréal. The funeral mass was held in Notre-Dame Basilica, 116 West Notre-Dame St., Montréal, on Tuesday September 4, 2007, at 10 a.m.; Cardinal Jean-Claude Turcotte, archbishop of Montréal, presided the funeral mass; and Cardinal Marc Ouellet, P.S.S., archbishop of Québec, concelebrated and gave the homily. The mortal remains of the cardinal were exposed on September 2 and 3, 2007, from noon to 8 p.m., in the chapel of Notre-Dame-du-Sacré-Cœur of the basilica of Notre-Dame. The body was buried in the crypt of the Grand Seminary of Montréal.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 477-479.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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GALEN, Clemens August von
(1878-1946)

Birth. March 16, 1878, Dinklage Castle, Oldenburg, diocese of Münster, Germany. He was the eleventh of the thirteen children of Count Ferdinand von Galen and Elisabeth von Spee. He received first communion on April 27, 1890, in the parish church of Dinklage. Cousin of Cardinal Konrad von Preysing (1946). His uncle, Gereon Maximilian Graf von Galen (1832-1908), was the auxiliary bishop of the diocese of Münster and a renowned theologian.

Education. "Stella Matutina" Jesuit secondary school, Feldkirch, Austria, until Summer of 1894; Catholic public school "Antonianum," Vehcta, 1894-1896 (obtained his "leaving certificate," Summer of 1896); Catholic University of Fribourg, Switzerland, Spring of 1897 (philosophy); traveled to Rome in the Spring of 1898; attended a mass celebrated by Pope Leo XIII; made a retreat at the Benedictine abbey of Maria-Laach, Switzerland; decided to become a priest; "Canisianum" Jesuit Theological College, Innsbruck, Fall of 1898 until 1903; Seminary of Münster, Münster (theology), 1903-1904.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 28, 1904, cathedral of Münster, by Hermann Dingelstad, bishop of Münster. Assistant priest at the cathedral of Münster, 1904-1906; at the same time, he was commissioned to accompany his uncle, Bishop Maximilian Gereon von Galen, auxiliary of Münster, on his pastoral visits to confer the sacrament of confirmation. Assistant priest, and later curatus at St. Matthias church, Berlin, 1906-1929. In Berlin, he lived through the difficult itmes of the First World War, the troubled post-war year and a great part of the Weimar Republic. Called back to Münster in 1929 and appointed parish priest of St. Lambert's; he started his ministry on April 24, 1929. In 1932, he completed his work Die Pest des Laizismus und ihre Erscheinungsformen, which dealt with the secularization of human society and the rejection of God and his laws. That same year he protested the dissolution by the German authorities of the Young Men's Association.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Münster, September 5, 1933. Consecrated, October 28, 1933, cathedral of Münster, by Cardinal Karl Josef Schulte, archbishop of Cologne, assisted by Wilhelm Berning, bishop of Osnabrück, and by Franz Rudolf Bornewasser, bishop of Trier; his episcopal motto was Nec laudibus nec timore (Neither praise nor fear) (1). Invited to go to Rome, together with other German bishops, to discuss the situation in Germany with Pope Pius XI and to prepare the encyclical letter Mit brennender Sorge (With burning anxiety), which condemned the policies of the National Socialist regime before the world. For his courage and strong opposition to the Nazi regime in Germany was called the "Lion of Münster." In the church of St. Lambert on July 13, 1941 and August 3, 1941, and in the church of Our Lady in Überwasser, on July 20, 1941, he delivered three celebrated homilies against Adolf Hitler's regime. In those occasions the bishop of Münster expressed himself in defense of the right to life, of the inviolability and the freedom of its sick citizens, and harshly censured the killing of the psychologically ill (2). Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, September 13, 1943.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Bernardo alle Terme, February 22, 1946.

Death. March 22, 1946, at about 5 p.m., of peritonitis, a few days after his return from Rome, in St. Franziskus Hospital of Münster, due to an appendix infection diagnosed too late (3).The lying-in-state lasted four days in the Erpochapel of the church of St. Maurice. Three cardinals, including Bernard Griffin of Westminster, attended the funeral celebrated in the cathedral of Münster. His body was buried on March 28, 1946 in the Galen chapel, in that cathedral, which was in ruins because of the war; the chapel's door had been walled up since the 17th century when the last prince-bishop, Christoph Bernard von Galen, was interred there (4).

Beatification. The decree concerning his heroic virtues was promulgated by the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints on December 20, 2003; the decree concerning a miracle attributed to his intercession was promulgated on December 20, 2004. The ceremony of his beatification took place on Sunday October 9, 2005, at 10 a.m., in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, presided in the name of Pope Benedict XVI by Cardinal José Saraiva Martins, C.M.F., prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints. His feast is celebrated on March 22.

Bibliography. Bierbaum, Max. Nicht Lob, nicht Furcht : das Leben des Kardinals von Galen nach unveröffentlichten Briefen und Dokumenten. Münster : Verlag Regensberg, 1955; Clemens August Graf von Galen : neue Forschungen zum leben und wirken des bischofs von Münster. Münster : Regensburg, 1992; Falasca, Stefania ; Galen, Clemens August ; Pius; XII. Un vescovo contro Hitler : Von Galen, Pio XII e la resistenza al nazismo. Cinisello Balsamo (Milano) : San Paolo, 2006. (Attualità e storia ; 83; Variation: Attualità e storia ; 83); Galen, Clemens August von. Akten, Briefe und Predigten, 1933-1946. 2 vols. Bearbeitet von Löffler, Peter. 2d ed. Paderborn : Schoöningh, 1996; Galen, Clemens August von. Les sermons de S. Exc. Mgr von Galen, Évêque de Münster (Westphalie). Fribourg : Ed. "Pro Deo et Patria", 1942; Hegel, Eduard. "Galen, Clemens Ausgust Graf von." Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1945 2001 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Unter Mitwirkung von Franz Xaver Bischof ... [et al.] ; herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 2002, p. 406-408; Knecht, Thierry. Mgr von Galen. L'évêque qui a défié Hitler. Paris : Parole et silence, 2007. (Cahiers de l'école cathédrale ; 79; Variation: Cahiers de l'école cathédrale ; 79); Kuropka, Joachim. Clemens August Graf von Galen. Neue Forschungen zum Leben und Wirken des Bischofs von Münster. 2 vols. Münster : Verlag Regensberg, 1992; Kuropka, Joachim. Clemens August Graf von Galen : Menschenrechte, Widerstand, Euthanasie, Neubeginn. Münster : Regensberg, 1998; Portmann, Heinrich. Kardinal von Galen : ein Gottesmann seiner Zeit. Edition: Neuaufl. Münster : Aschendorff, 2005. Note : Original: 1e dr.: 1948; Portmann, Heinrich. Cardinal von Galen. Translated by R.I. Sedgwick. London : Jarrols, 1957; Sandstede-Auzelle, Marie-Corentine. Clemens August Graf von Galen, Bischof von Münster im Dritten Reich. Münster : Aschendorff, 1986; Wolf, Hubert. Clemens August von Galen. Ein Kirchenfürst im Nationalsozialismus. Darmstadt : Wiss. Buchges, 2007; Wolf, Hubert ; Flammer, Thomas ; Schüler, Barbara. Clemens August von Galen. Ein Kirchenfürst im Nationalsozialismus. Darmstadt : WBG, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2007. Contents: Jenseits von Apologetik und Polemik : Clemens August von Galen zwischen kollektivem Gedächtnis und historischer Rekonstruktion / Hubert Wolf -- Kardinal von Galen als Problem der Historie / Heinz H|rten -- Das Bistumsarchiv M|nster und Clemens August von Galen / Horst Ruth -- Zwei Menschen "mit festem Charakter" : die Br|üer Clemens August und Franz von Galen und die elterliche Richtschnur / Ingrid Lueb -- Die Spiritualität Clemens August von Galens / Harald Wagner -- Galens Berliner Jahre 1906 bis 1929 / Wolfgang Knauft -- Clemens von Galen als Stadtpfarrer und Bischofskandidat von Münster in den Jahren 1929 bis 1933 / Thomas Flammer -- Nationalsozialismus und katholische Kirche in Westfalen / Hans-Ulrich Thamer -- Galens politischer Standort bis zur jahreswende 1933/34 in Selbstzeugnissen und Fremdeinschätzungen bis zur Gegenwart / Rudolf Morsey -- Politik für die Seelsorge : Anmerkungen zu Rudolf Morseys Beitrag / Joachim Kuropka -- Die "Mauer des Schweigens durchbrechen" : Bischof von Galen und die "Geltung des Christentums" unter dem NS-Regime / Joachim Kuropka -- Clemens August Graf von Galen und der Zweite Weltkrieg : Kriegstheologie und Kriegserfahrungen des Bischofs von Münster (1939-1945) / Christoph Kosters -- Ein Skandal im Sommer 1941 : Reaktionen auf den "Euthanasie"-Protest des Bischofs von Münster / Winfried S|ss -- Bischof Clemens August von Galen und die Juden : zum Forschungsstand / Heinrich Mussinghoff -- Una reciproca rassicurazione : l'epistolario tra Pio XII e Clemens August von Galen / Emma Fattorini -- Gedenken und Instrumentalisierung : Kardinal von Galen in der Erinnerung der Nachkriegszeit / Thomas Grossbölting -- Das Seligsprechungsverfahren für Kardinal von Galen / Martin Hülskamp. Note: International conference proceedings.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, The Vatican; pictures and chronology, in German, Deutsches Historisches Museum; biography, in English (Britannica); photograph and biography, in German; The Lion of Münster and Pius XII (Clemens August von Galen) by Stefania Falasca, in English, storialibera; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Portmann, Cardinal von Galen, p. 58-59, relates that "Under the provisions of the then recently concluded Concordat, Clemens August, as the first bishop appointed under the Third Reich, had to take the oath of allegiance before the Prussian President of the Council of Ministers, Göring. The Bishop took a New Testament with him and, as a precaution, his pectoral cross also. And in fact there was no crucifix available at the Ministry: excuses were offered and also an assurance that next time, that was to say when another bishop was appointed, proper provision would be made. Göring, in view of the fact that this was the first swearing-in under the Concordat, read a discourse which Clemens August replied with due deliberation and according to a text that had been previously settled. After the discourses Göring gave a lunch at which he emphasized the necessity of getting the clergy on the side of National Socialism. The Bishop replied that according to the Concordat the clergy were not to take part in any party politics, to which Göring rejoined that to be a good National Socialist it was not necessary to be actually a member of the party. When in later years Göring's popularity and moderation for the time being were praised by those more intimately connected with the Bishop, he would have nothing to do with any favourable forecast; he asserted that in his view Göring was not a whir better than the rest of them. Clemens August had to pay a series of visits to the chief personages of the Reich. Adolf Hitler acknowledged his card by sending his own by post. So that he could see the grey-headed president personally, the Bishop prolonged his stay in Berlin by a day. Hindenburg inquired with interest about the Bishop's homeland; he had a dear recollection of Oldenburg from manoeuvres in the eighties of the last century; he spoke also of his being wounded at the battle of Königgrätz. When the Bishop on taking leave promised that he and his flock would pray for him, Hindenburg thanked him and asked that they should do so."
(2) According to John Allen, Anit-Nazi prelate beatified, "The word from Rome", The National Catholic Reporter, October 14, 2005, Vol. 5, No. 7, "A Nazi official, Walter Tiessler, proposed in a letter to Martin Bormann that they hang the bishop. He told Bormann he had discussed this issue with Joseph Göbbels, who said only Hitler could order such an action. Von Galen survived, but Tiessler's proposal demonstrates the risk some outspoken Catholic leaders took".
(3) His last words were: "Yes, Yes, as God wills it. May God reward you for it. May God protect the dear fatherland. Go on working for him... oh, you dear Savior!"
(4) This is the text of the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

NEC LAUDIBUS NEC TIMORE

HIC EXSPECTAT RESURRECTIONEM MORTUORUM
CLEMENS·AUGUSTINUS·DE·GALEN
S·R·E·PRESBYTER CARDINALIS
EPISCOPUS MONASTERIENSIS
1878    +   1946

BEATIFICATIO 2005


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GALLI, Aurelio
(1866-1929)

Birth. February 26, 1866, Frascati, Papal State.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Roman Seminary; and later, attended the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 21, 1889, Rome. Further studies, 1889-1892. Staff member of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, 1893-1899. Secretary to the secretary of Latin Letters, 1899-1903. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, 1899. Composed and delivered the funeral oration for Pope Leo XIII in July 1903; and for Pope Pius X in August 1914; as well as the oratio pro eligendo pontifice, in the conclaves of 1914 and 1922. Secretary of Latin Letters and domestic prelate of His Holiness, August 5, 1903. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, June 24, 1908. Protonotary apostolic supernumerary, November 27, 1908. Secretary of Briefs to Princes, November 7, 1911.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 20, 1923; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria on December 23, 1923. Member of the SS. CC. of Rites, Seminaries and Universities, Fabric of St. Peter's basilica (December 23, 1923) and Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs (January 15, 1924). Protector of the Daughters of Mercy of the Third Order of Saint Francis Assisi of Palma de Mallorca, Spain (December 4, 1924); of the Franciscan Sisters of the Family of Mary of the Third Order of Saint Francis Assisi in Leopol (January 7, 1928; and of the Little Sisters of the Providence of Corenc, Grenoble (March 12, 1928). He resided in the Palace of the Holy Office in Rome.

Death. March 26, 1929, of a stroke, in Rome. Buried in Campo Verano cemetry, Rome. In the first anniversary of his death, his remains were transferred to the cathedral of Frascati. Biagio Budelacci, titular bishop of Nissa, pronounced the oration for the occasion.

Bibliography. Budelacci, Biagio. Per la traslazione della salma dell4Emo cardinale Aurelio Galli alla cattedrale Tuscolana nel primo anniversario della sua morte; orazione tenuta da Mons. Biagio Budelacci vesc. tit. di Nissa ... Frascati : Tip. Tuscolana, 1930; "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1931. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1931, p. 60; "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 90; "Liste générale alphabétique des protonotaires apostoliques, prélates de Sa Santité, camériers secrets et d'honneur, d'honneur 'extra urbem', chapelains communs, secrets, d'honneur'extra urbem', et autres collèges prélatices." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1920. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1920, p. 617.


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GAMBA, Giuseppe
(1857-1929)

Birth. April 25, 1857, borgata San Giulio, S. Damiano d'Asti, diocese of Asti, Italy. From a family of modest sharecroppers. Son of Pietro Gamba, who died when Giuseppe was seven years old, and Lucia Aschiero, who supported the family alternating between working in the field and as a laundrywoman. He had two younger sisters.

Education. His mother could not afford his seminary studies when young Giuseppe decided to become a priest. It was thanks to Don Giovanni Bosco, founder of the Salesians and future saint, who after learning of his desire during a visit to San Damiano, arranged for him to enter the "Apostolo dei Giovani", at Valdocco, where he studies from 1870 to 1871; and then, the following year, he entered the Seminary of Asti; later, he studied at the Pontifical Roman Seminary "S. Apollinare", Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in theology

Priesthood. Ordained, September 18, 1880, at the cathedral of Asti, Bishop Carlo Savio of Asti. He served as vice parish priest of the cathedral of Asti between November 1, 1881 and November 7, 1884, when he was appointed its parish priest; later, he became canon of the cathedral chapter; and was vicar general from 1883 to 1901.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Biella, Italy, December 16, 1901. Consecrated, February 23, 1902, in Asti, by Giacinto Arcangeli, bishop of Asti, assisted by Giuseppe Francesco Re, bishop of Alba, and by Luigi Spandre, titular bishop of Tiberias and auxiliary of Turin. His episcopal motto was Dirige in conspecto tuo viam mea. Transferred to the see of Novara, August 13, 1906. Three times he visited the entire territory of the diocese. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, July 10, 1917. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Turin, December 20, 1923.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 20, 1926; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, December 23, 1926. Papal legate to the Regional Council of Piedmont, Turin, October 1927. He was member of the SS.CC. for Sacraments, Council and Religious. He was known as "il Cardinale dei Giovani" due to his great initiatives towards the youth in Turin; Pier Giorgio Frassati was among his favorite friends from this sector. The cardinal became a promotor of his life after his early death, authoring the first biography of the now beatified Frassati. The cardinal was taken ill after celebrating the traditional midnight Christmas mass in 1929 and died the day after.

Death. December 26, 1929, at 7 am, of a heart attack, in Turin, while he was preparing an archdiocesan synod. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Turin.

Link. Biography by Bartolo Gariglio, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 51 (1998), Treccani; biographical entry, in Italian, Wikipedia; his photograph and portrait, Araldica Vaticana; and arms of the bishops of Novara, in alphabetical order, Araldica Vaticana.


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GANTIN, Bernardin
(1922-2008)

Birth. May 8, 1922, Toffo, archdiocese of Cotonou, Bénin (then Dahomey). Son of Henri Gantin, chief of the local railroad station, and Anne Tonondji, great-granddaughter of King Glèlè. He was baptized shortly after his birth by Father Gaymard. His last name means iron tree (Gan=tree and tin=iron) and this is reflected in his coat of arms.

Education. He studied at the regional school of Abomey from 1929 to 1935; in 1934, he was prepared for his first communion by Father Le Port; studied at the School of Petits Clercs, Ouidah from May to October 1935; counseled by Father Gautier, he entered the Seminary of Ouidah on October 28, 1935; in 1953, he was sent to Rome to study at the Pontifical Urbanian Athaenaeum and at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum (licentiate in dogmatic theology, 1954); licentiate in canon law, 1955; preparation for the doctorate, 1956; subject of his thesis: "Les bénédictions et consécrations en comparaison avec quelques coutumes et rites religieux du paganisme africain spécialement au Dahomey"; it was at this time that he was surprised by the promotion to the episcopate by Pope Pius XII.

Priesthood. Ordained, January 14, 1951, cathedral of Ouidah, by Louis Parisot, S.M.A. (Society of African Missions), vicar apostolic of Ouidah (later archdiocese of Cotonou). Professor of languages at the Seminary of Ouidah; and pastoral ministry in apostolic vicariate of Ouidah, 1951-1953. Further studies, 1953-1956, Rome.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tipasa di Mauritania and appointed auxiliary of Dahomey (later Cotonou), December 11, 1956. Consecrated, February 3, 1957, chapel of Collegio de Propagande Fide, Rome, by Cardinal Eugène Tisserant, bishop of the suburbicarian sees of Ostia and Porto e Santa Rufina, dean of Sacred College of Cardinals, prefect of S.C. Ceremonial and librarian and archivist of the Holy Roman Church, assisted by Pietro Sigismondi, titular archbishop of Neapolis di Pisidia, secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, and by André Pierre Duirat, S.M.A., bishop of Bouaké. His episcopal motto was In tuo sancto servitio. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Cotonou, January 5, 1960; he was the first African metropolitan archbishop. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969. Secretary adjunct of the S.C. for the Evangelization of Peoples, March 5, 1971. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, June 28, 1971. Secretary of the S.C. for the Evangelization of Peoples, February 26, 1973. Vice-president of the Pontifical Commission Iustitia et Pax, December 19, 1975; pro-president, December 16, 1976.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 27, 1977; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Sacro Cuore di Cristo Re, June 27, 1977. President of the Pontifical Commission Iustitia et Pax, June 29, 1977; he was the first African cardinal heading a dicastery of the Roman Curia; resigned the post, April 8, 1984. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. President of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum, September 4, 1978; resigned the post, April 8, 1984. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Special papal envoy to the 4th centennial celebrations of St. Peter Claver's birth, Cartagena, Colombia, June 24, 1980. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; president delegate. Papal legate to the 42nd International Eucharistic Congress, July 16 to 23, 1981, Lourdes, France. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Prefect of the S.C. for Bishops and president of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America, April 8, 1984; resigned both posts, June 25, 1998. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, June 25, 1984. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of 150th anniversary of the beginning of the evangelization in the archdiocese of Papetee, Tahiti, French Polynesia, August 10, 1984. In 1985, he was named member of the Royal Academy of Morocco by King Hassan II. Attended the Third Plenary Assembly of the College of Cardinals, November 21 to 23, 1985; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Cardinal bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, September 29, 1986. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the first centennial of the evangelization, Port-Vila, Republic of Vanuatu, September 8, 1987. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Dean of the College of Cardinals and bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Ostia, retaining the title of the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, June 5, 1993. Special papal envoy to the inauguration of the shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe, Campinas, Brazil, December 12, 1993. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Special papal envoy to the funeral of Pierre Lucien Claverie, bishop of Oran, Algeria, killed in a bomb explosion, Oran, Algeria, August 5, 1996. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998. Papal representative to the funeral of King Hassan II of Morocco, Rabat, July 25, 1999. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Special papal envoy to the National Eucharistic Congress of Haiti, Port-au-Prince, December 1 to 3, 2000. Special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the Evangelization of Burkina Faso, Ouagadougou, January 21, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, May 8, 2002. Resigned the deanship of the College of Cardinals and the title of the suburbicarian see of Ostia, and became dean emeritus, November 30, 2002. Returned to live in Bénin, December 4, 2002. In 2003, he received the Légion d'Honneur from Jacques Chirac, president of the Republic of France. He was the first, and so far, only cardinal from the Popular Republic of Bénin; and the first African to be both head of a Vatican dicastery and dean of the College of Cardinals since this office was established by Pope Bl. Eugenius III in 1150.

Death. May 13, 2008, at 4:45 p.m., from severe complications of dehydration, in the Hospital Georges Pompidou, Paris, France, after a long illness. On May 7, 2008, the President of the Republic, Chief of State and Chief of the Government, learning of the deterioration of the state of health of the cardinal, visited him and ordered his translation to the hospital in Paris. The transfer took place on May 8, the day of his 86th birthday. On the day of the cardinal's death, the Council of Ministers held an extraordinary session and issued a communique expressing the sorrow of the Government of the Republic of Bénin to the entire Nation, to the Catholic Church, to His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI, to the Catholic community of Bénin and to the cardinal's family for the loss of the cardinal. A delegation headed by the Minister of Health went to Paris to arrange the return of the body of the late cardinal to Bénin. A period of three days of national mourning was observed in memory of the cardinal from Wednesday May 14. During this period, the flags flew at half mast in all the national territory. Msgr. Anatole Dédégbé, vicar general of the archdiocese of Cotonou, expressed the sorrow of the Catholic Church in Bénin for the death of Cardinal Gantin. Upon learning the news of the death of Cardinal Gantin, Pope Benedict XVI prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to Archbishop Marcel Honorat Léon Agboton of Cotonou. On May 15, 2008, the newspaper Le Matinal, of Cotonou, Republic of Bénin, reported that the late cardinal would be buried, according to his own wishes, beside the vault of Bishop Louis Parisot, S.M.A., on May 24, near the altar of the chapel of the Grand Seminary of Saint Gall, Ouidah. His mortal remains reposed in the chapel of the house of the Sœurs Petites Servantes des Pauvres, sixth district, 49 Rue Notre Dame des Champs, Paris; after two days, they were driven in the Funérarium of the Cimetière des Batignolles, in Paris (17º); and arrived in Bénin on May 21. On May 15, a large governmental delegation accompanied by René Marie Ehuzu, C.I.M., bishop of Porto Novo, and by Eugène Cyrille Houndékon, bishop of Abomey, arrived in Paris to organize the repatriation of the body to Bénin. On Tuesday May 20, a mass in memory of the late cardinal was celebrated by Cardinal André Vingt-Trois, archbishop of Paris, at 6:15, in Notre-Dame cathedral; Archbishop Agboton of Cotonou, pronounced the homily. Cardinal Giovanni Battista Re, papal representative, presided the mass in the Stadium "Amitié" in Cotonou of May 22; with him concelebrated Cardinals Francis Arinze, prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments; Polycarp Pengo, archbishop of of Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania; Théodore-Adrien Sarr, archbishop of Dakar, Sénégal; Bernard Agré, archbishop emeritus of Abidjan, Ivory Coast; and Anthony Olubunmi Okogie, archbishop of Lagos, Nigeria, as well as forty archbishops and bishops; Cardinal Re delivered the homily. On Friday May 23, 2008, at 11 a.m., in the Altar of the Chair of the papal Vatican basilica, was celebrated a Holy Mass of suffrage for the late cardinal. The Holy Mass was celebrated by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, with the other cardinals present. At the end of the celebration, Pope Benedict XVI delivered the homily and imparted the apostolic blessing. The International Airport of Cadjèhoun, in Cotonou, has been renamed "Aéroport international Bernardin Cardinal Gantin".

Bibliography. Missionario africano a Roma. Missionario romano in Africa. Curato da Giulio Cerchietti, Gianfranco Grieco e Luigi Lalloni. Citt` del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2010.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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GARIBI RIVERA, José
(1889-1972)

Birth. January 30, 1889, Guadalajara, México. Youngest of the three children of Miguel Garibi y Reyes and Joaquina Rivera y Robledo; his brother and sister were Juan Manuel y Carmen. He was baptized by Fr. Lorenzo Altamirano; his baptismal name was José Mariano. On March 26, 1889, he was confirmed in the cathedral of Guadalajara, by Pedro Loza y Pardavé, archbishop of that see. He received first communion on June 25, 1897 in the parish of Nuestra Señora del Pilar from Fr. Arnulfo Jiménez, the pastor of the parish.

Education. Colegio del Señor San José (primary education); co-founder of the Marian Congregation of Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe and San Estanislao de Kotska, 1897; Seminary of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, October 18, 1900 to 1906 (humanities, sciences, Latin, Greek, philosophy and theology); Franciscan convent of Zapopán, October 1, 1906 to September 30, 1907 (decided not to join the order); Seminary of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, 1907-1912; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, October 1913 to July 4, 1916 (doctorate in theology and licentiate in canon law); resided at the Pontifical Collegio Pio-Latinoamericano, Rome. Received the minor orders on February 2, 1908 from José de Jesús Ortiz, archbishop of Guadalajara, in the church of Nuestra Señora de la Soledad; the subdiaconate on June 25, 1911, from the same archbishop and in the same church; and the diaconate on August 20, 1911, from the same archbishop in the same church. Named professor of Latin at the Seminary of Guadalajara, November 5, 1911; occupied the post until August 26, 1913.

Priesthood. Ordained, February 25, 1912, church of Nuestra Señora de la Soledad, Guadalajara, by José de Jesús Ortiz, archbishop of Guadalajara. Further studies in Rome, 1913-1916. Travelled to Chicago to meet his archbishop, Francisco Orozco y Jiménez, October 1916; went to San Antonio, Texas; later to Laredo; and then, on November 13th, to México, where the situation was very tense. Prefect of the Seminary of Totatiche, November 20, 1916 to October 22, 1917. Vicar cooperator in Atotonilco, October-November 1917. Vicar cooperator of the parish of Jesús, November 28 to December, 1917. Second auxiliary of the archdiocesan curia of Guadalajara, December 3, 1917. Professor of philosophy at the Major Seminary of Guadalajara, April 28, 1918. Chaplain of San Nicolás de Bari, annexed to the parish of Nuestra Señora del Pilar, February 1 to September 16, 1919. Chaplain of the church of Nuestra Señora de la Soledad, January 20 to August, 1920. Professor of pastoral theology, ascetics, mystics, pedagogical catechesis, and ecclesiastical history at the Seminary of Guadalajara, 1920. Official major of the archdiocesan curia, June 14, 1920 until 1924. Canon doctoral of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Guadalajara, October 22, 1923; took possession on March 17, 1924. Given the charge of the construction of Templo Expiatorio, March 24, 1924. Secretary of the Sacred Miter, July 2, 1924. Secretary general of the Chamber and Government of the archdiocese of Guadalajara, 1925 to May 7, 1930. During the religious persecution, while Archbishop Orozco was confined in "La Lobera", Msgr. Garibi and Fr. Narciso Aviña governed the archdiocese; Msgr. Garibi signed his correspondence as Mariano Reyes, his second name and his father's second last name. In 1929, Archbishop Orozco was expelled from México to the United States of America; Msgr. Garibi accompanied him. They went to Laredo; Msgr. Garibi stayed there as chaplain of a community of nuns from Guadalajara until November 1929, and the archbishop went to Chicago. Named canon chantre of the chapter of the metropolitan cathedral of Guadalajara, November 16, 1929. Sent to Rome by the archbishop, he arrived in December 1929.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Roso and appointed auxiliary of Guadalajara, December 16, 1929; the election occurred while he was in Rome; arrived in México on March 11, 1930; Archbishop Orozco was allowed to return to Guadalajara on March 30, 1930. Consecrated, May 7, 1930, metropolitan cathedral of Guadalajara, by Francisco Orozco Jiménez, archbishop of Guadalajara, assisted by Ignacio Placencia y Moreira, bishop of Zacatecas, and by Miguel de la Mora y Mora, bishop of San Luis de Potosí. His episcopal motto was Diligite alterutrum. Vicar general of the archdiocese of Guadalajara, January 1, 1933. Promoted to titular archbishop of Bizia and appointed coadjutor of Guadalajara, with right of succession, December 22, 1934. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Guadalajara, February 18, 1936. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, May 13, 1948. President of the Mexican Episcopal Conference for six consecutive terms.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Onofrio, December 18, 1958. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Papal legate to the National Missionary Congress, Guadalajara, October 30, 1966. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 1, 1969. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years of age, January 1, 1971. He was the first Mexican cardinal.

Death. May 27, 1972, at 11:40 p.m., of a pulmonary edema and cardiac insufficiency, at Hospital de la Santísima Trinidad, Guadalajara. Exposed in the Archdiocesan Seminary of Guadalajara and, later, in the metropolitan cathedral of Guadalajara; the funeral took place on May 30, 1972 in that cathedral and his remains were buried in its crypt, under the main altar.

Bibliography. Bravo Ugarte, José. Diócesis y obispo de la iglesia mexicana (1519-1965). Con un apéndice de los representantes de la S. Sede en México y viceversa. 2d ed. México : Editorial Jus, 1965. (Colección México Heorico, 39), p. 55; Valdés Salazar, Inocencia. El primer cardenal mexicano don José Garibi Rivera. Mexico : s.n., 1992.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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GARRONE, Gabriel-Marie
(1901-1994)

Birth. October 12, 1901, Aix-les-Bains, archdiocese of Chambéry, France. His father was a tailor.

Education. Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; Pontifical French Seminary, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 11, 1925. Faculty member of the Minor Seminary of Chambéry, 1925-1926. Faculty member of the Major Seminary of Chambéry, 1926-1939. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Chambéry, 1926-1939. Officer in the French Army during World War II, and prisoner of war, 1939-1945. Rector of the Major Seminary of Chambéry, 1945-1947.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Lemno and appointed coadjutor of Toulouse, with the right of succession, April 24, 1947. Consecrated, June 24, 1947, metropolitan cathedral of Chambéry, by Émile-Maurice Guerry, titular archbishop of Acrida and coadjutor of Cambrai, assisted by Frédéric Duc, bishop of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne, and by Alfred Ancel, titular bishop of Mirina, auxiliary of Lyon. His episcopal motto was Omne bonum a patre. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Toulouse, November 5, 1956. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Pro-prefect of the S.C. of Seminaries and Universities, January 28, 1966. Transferred to the titular see of Torri di Numidia, March 24, 1966.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 26, 1967; received the red biretta and the title of S. Sabina, June 29, 1967. Prefect of the S.C. for Catholic Education, and grand chancellor of the Pontifical Gregorian University, January 17, 1968. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, June 27, 1977 until June 30, 1979. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Resigned the prefecture, January 15, 1980. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 12, 1981. President of the Pontifical Council for Culture, May 20, 1982. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Resigned the presidency, April 19, 1988.

Death. January 15, 1994, Rome. Buried, temporarily, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome, until the definitive tomb in the church of S. Luigi dei Francesi is finished.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 309-310.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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GASPARRI, Enrico
(1871-1946)

Birth. July 25, 1871, Ussita, diocese of Norcia, Italy. Nephew of Cardinal Pietro Gasparri (1907).

Education. Seminary of Nepi, Nepi; Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome (doctorates in theology and utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Priesthood. Ordained, August 10, 1894, Rome. Pastoral ministry in Rome, 1894-1898. Secretary to his uncle, the apostolic delegate in Perú, Ecuador, and Bolivia, 1898-1901. Honorary chamberlain of His Holiness, March 12, 1904. Secretary of the nunciature in Portugal, August 14, 1906; of the nunciature in Belgium, January 24, 1908. Auditor of the nunciature in Brazil, November 28, 1912. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, May 29, 1913; reappointed, December 25, 1914.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Sebaste, December 9, 1915. Consecrated, December 12, 1915, Rome, by Victor Amedeo Ranuzzi de' Bianchi, titular archbishop of Tiro, majordome of His Holiness, assisted by Donato Sbarretti, titular archbishop of Efeso, assessor of the Supreme S.C. of Holy Office, and by Luigi Ermini, bishops of Caiazzo. Appointed apostolic delegate and extraordinary envoy in Colombia, November 14, 1915. Internuncio in Colombia, May 8, 1916, when the delegation was elevated to that rank. Nuncio in Colombia, July 20, 1917, when the internunciature was elevated to nunciature, second class. Nuncio in Brazil, September 1, 1920.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 14, 1925; received the red hat and the title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, December 17, 1925. His creation was an exception made to canon 232, 3, that forbade anyone having an uncle in the Sacred College of Cardinals to be a cardinal. His uncle, Pietro, had been created in 1907 and was still alive. Papal legate to the Eucharistic Congress of Sardinia, May, 1931; to the Regional Eucharistic Congress, Sulmona, Italy, August 15, 1932. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, May 18, 1933. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Velletri, October 16, 1933. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, February 26, 1942.

Death. May 20, 1946, of heart ailment in his residence in Rome. Buried in Sacrofano.

Bibliography. Restrepo Posada, José. "Galería de representantes de la Santa Sede en Colombia." Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Historia Eclesiástica, V (January-June, 1970), 225-233.

Link. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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GASPARRI, Pietro
(1852-1934)

Birth. May 5, 1852, Capovallazza, parish of Ussita, diocese of Norcia, Papal State. The youngest of the nine children of Bernardino Gasparri and Giovanna Sili, shepherds and owners of sheep. Received the sacrament of confirmation, July 5, 1855. Uncle of Cardinal Enrico Gasparri (1925); and of Filippo Bernardini, secretary of the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith and titular archbishop of Antiochia in Pisidia. First cousin of Cardinal Augusto Silj (1919).

Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Nepi (until 1870); then, at the Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome; and later, at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome, where he obtained doctorates in theology, philosophy and utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 31, 1877, Rome. Secretary to Cardinal Teodolfo Mertel, 1877. Professor of ecclesiastical history and theology, Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome; professor of canon law, Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome; and of Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome, 1877-1879. Faculty member of the Institut Catholique, Paris, 1870-1898. Ablegato to deliver the red biretta to the new Cardinal Joseph Alfred Foulon, archbishop of Lyon, France, in 1893. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, May 3, 1889. Pastoral ministry in Paris with the Italian immigrants. Collaborator with the archiepiscopal curia of Paris. Domestic prelate, April 13, 1894. Member of the papal commission to study validity of Anglican ordinations, 1896.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, January 2, 1898. Consecrated, March 6, 1898, church of Saint-Joseph des Carmes, Paris, by Cardinal François Richaud, archbishop of Paris, assisted by Louis François Sueur, archbishop of Avignon, and by Charles Turinaz, bishop of Nancy. Apostolic delegate and extraordinary envoy to Perú, Ecuador, and Bolivia, March 26, 1898 (1). Secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, April 23, 1901. Secretary the of Pontifical Commission for the Codification of Canon Law and of the Consulta of consultors, April 4, 1904; its relator, December 1907 to 1917; worked on this project for thirteen years. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, May 24, 1907.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1907; received the red hat and the title of S. Bernardo alle Terme, December 19, 1907. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, May 24, 1914 until January 22, 1915. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Secretary of State, October 13, 1914 until February 7, 1930; he negotiated with the Italian Government the Lateran Treaty and Pact. President of the Commission for the Patrimony of the Holy See, October 13, 1914. Prefect of the Apostolic Palace, October 1914 to October 1918. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, January 22 1915; retained in commendam his former title until December 9, 1915. Camerlengo of Holy Roman Church, December 4, 1916 until his death. Archchancellor of the Roman University. President of the Pontifical Commission for Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law, October 16 (2), 1917. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Reappointed as secretary of State, February 6, 1922. Legate for the translation of the new statue of Our Lady of Loreto, September 1922. Prefect of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, July 5, 1925. Signatory of the Lateran Pact, February 11, 1929. Papal legate to the 14th centennial celebration of the Abbey of Monte Cassino, April 15, 1929. President of the Cardinalitial Commission for the Preparatory Study of the Codification of the Oriental Canons, December 1929. Resigned the post of secretary of State, February 7, 1930.

Death. November 18, 1934, of pneumonia following influenza. Rome; shortly before, he had donated all his belongings to the S.C. of Propaganda Fide. The funeral took place on November 22, 1934 in the church of S. Ignazio, Rome; the final absolution was imparted by Cardinal Gennaro Granito Pignatelli di Belmonte, bishop of Ostia and Albano. Buried the following day in the cemetery of Ussita (which he had had built in 1914) during a ceremony presided by his nephew, Cardinal Enrico Gasparri.

Bibliography. Il Cardinale Pietro Gasparri. Edited by L. Fiorelli. Rome : Università Laterana, 1960; "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1938, p. 82; Castillo-Illingworth, J. Santiago. "La misión diplomática de Mons. Pedro Gasparri en el Ecuador. Las Conferencias de Santa Elena" in Ius Ecclesiae, Rivista internazionale di Diritto Canonico, IX, 2/97, p. 509-544; De Marchi, Giuseppe. Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956. Pref. di Antonio Samoré. Roma : Edizioni di Storia e letteratura, 1957, pp. 14, 24, 70, 112 and 204; Gasparri, Pietro. Il cardinale Gasparri e la questione romana. (Con brani delle memorie inedite). A cura di Giovanni Spadolini. Firenze : F. Le Monnier, 1972. (Quaderni di storia, 23.); "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1933, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1933, pp. 108-109; "Nécrologe. Cardinaux." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1934, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1935, p. 927; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 9-10, 22, 23 and 30; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, p. 167; Roberti, Francesco. "Il Cardinal Pietro Gasparri: L'uomo, il sacerdote, il diplomatico, il giurista". Apollinaris, XXIII (1960), 5-43. Taliani, Francesco Maria. Vita del Cardinale Pietro Gasparri, Segretario di Stato e povero prete. Milan : A. Mondadori, 1938.

Links. Biography by Carlo Fantappiè, Romeo Astorri, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 52 (1999), Treccani; photographs, arms and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; photographs and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photograph, arms and biography, in French, Wikipedia; photographs and biography, in German, Wikipedia; biography, in Spanish; photographs and biographies, in English and German, Ken Pennington, The Catholic University of America; photograph after the signing of the Lateran Pact in 1929; his photograph; portraits, photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Fedele interprete della volontà del papa, by Giuseppe Sciacca, auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, 30Giorni nella Chiesa e nel mondo, September 2006; Pietro Gasparri, non solo diplomazia. Una giornata di studi sul Cardinale Segretario di Stato di Pio XI (1913-1930) by Gianfranco Armando, Archivio Segreto Vaticano, Vatican Insider, 18/06/2013.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 167; De Marchi, Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956, p. 70, says that he was named on December 18, 1897; on that same page, the source adds that he occupied the titular see of Iconio from December 18, 1897 until January 2, 1898; Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 318, does not list him among the occupants of that see.
(2) This is according to Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 9; "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1933, p. 109, says that he was named on October 18, 1917.


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GASQUET, O.S.B., Francis Aidan
(1846-1929)

Birth. October 5, 1846, Somers Twon, north of London, England. He was the third son among the six children of Raymon Gasquet, a physician descendant from French royalists, and Mary Apollonia Kay. His baptismal name was Francis Neil; he was always known to his friends as Frank. After the father's death in 1856, the family became parishioners of Fr. Henry Edward Manning, future cardinal, at Baywater, where young Frank acted as his acolyte, and as train-bearer to Cardinal Nicholas Wiseman, when he visited the parish.

Education. College of the Oblates of Saint Charles, Bayswater; College of Saint Gregory, Downside, Bath (graduated in 1864). Joined the Order of St. Benedict, priorate of Belmont, Hereford, January 1866-1867; took the name Aidan; received the religious habit, September 28, 1866, Belmont; professed, September 30, 1867; solemn profession, December 8, 1870. Studied at the priorate of Downside, 1867-1874.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 19, 1874, Downside, by George Errington, titular archbishop of Trebizonda, former coadjutor archbishop of Westminster. Subprefect of studies, Downside, 1875. Prefect of studies and professor of theology, Downside, 1877. Prior of Downside Abbey, 1878-1885; had to resign because of ill health; went home to his mother in Kensington to recover and stay until 1890. Elected to the Council of the old Camden Society of historians, 1886. Research work at the British Museum and the Record Office, London, 1892-1900. Member of the Pontifical Commission to study the validity of the Anglican ordinations, 1896; his historical contribution against their validity was decisive. Elected abbot president of the English Benedictine Confederation, September 26, 1900; reelected in 1904. President of the Pontifical Commission for Revision of the Vulgate, fall 1907. Titular abbot of St. Albans.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 25, 1914; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, May 28, 1914; he never took possession of the deaconry because of some difficulties raised by the Italian government. Member of the Pontifical Biblical Commission, May 28, 1914. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. He decidedly supported the establishment of the British Mission before the Holy See, which took place in December 1914. Protector of the Venerable English College, Rome September 10, 1915. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Portico Campitelli, December 6, 1915. Prefect of the Vatican Archive, November 28, 1917. Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, May 9, 1919 until his death. Archivist of the Holy Roman Church, November 11, 1920 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. In 1924, he received King George V and Queen Mary of Great Britain at the Vatican Library. Opted for the order of cardinal priests, December 18, 1924; his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title. From his sick bed, he went to attend the funeral of Cardinal Aurelio Galli, who had died on March 26, 1929; he caught a chill which led to pneumonia which quickly became fatal.

Death. April 5, 1929, at 4:30 p.m., of pneumonia and heart disease, in his apartment in Palazzo San Callisto, Rome. He was laid-in-state for two days in his residence. The funeral in Rome took place in the church of S. Maria in Trastevere; the mass was celebrated by the abbot of Montecassino; Cardinal Vincenzo Vannutelli, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, imparted the final absolution. Transferred to England, his body arrived in Downside on April 12; Cardinal Francis Bourne, archbishop of Westminster, sang the solemn requiem mass on April 15; and later on that same day, the remains were buried in the church of the Benedictine abbey of Downside; his self-standing tomb is of Palombino marble and alabaster. It is covered by an elaborate canopy. The work is all by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott (1).

Bibliography. Bellenger, Dominc Aidan and Stella Fletcher. Princes of the church. A history of the English cardinals. Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire : Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2001, pp. 146-150; Gasquet, Francis Aidan. Edward VI and the Book of Common Prayer. An examination into its origin and early history with an appendix of unpublished documents. London ; John Hodges, 1890. (The Catholic standard library); Knowles, David. Cardinal Gasquet as an historian. London : University of London, Athlone Press, 1957. (The Creighton lecture in history, 1956); Heseltine, George Coulehan. The English cardinals. With some account of those of other English-speaking countries. London : Burns Oates & Washbourne, 1931, p. 173-174; Leslie, Shane. Cardinal Gasquet : a memoir. London: Burns and Oates, 1953; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 13, 25 and 26.

Links. Biography and bibliography, in English, New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge; biography, in English (Britannica); biographical data, in English, English Benedictine Congregation History; and his photograph and portraits, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb taken from Leslie, Cardinal Gasquet : a memoir, p. 268: AIAE. IMPLORA PACEM. FRANCISCO AIDANO GASQVET. S. MARIAE IN PORTICV S.R.E. PBRO. CARDINALI. S. GREGORII MONACHO. OLIM S. ALBANI ABBATI TITVLARI. QVI. A.D. NON. OCTOBR. MDCCCXLVI NATVS. OBIIT. NON. APRIL. MXMXXIX. AMICI. POSVERVNT.


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GEORGE, O.M.I., Francis Eugene
(1937-

Birth. January 16, 1937, Chicago, United States of America. Son of Francis J. George and Julia R. McCarthy. He contracted polio as a child and was rejected by Chicago's archdiocesan seminary because he had a limp; he now runs the archdiocese that once turned him away.

Education. Joined the Oblates of Mary Immaculate, August 14, 1957. St. Henry's Preparatory Seminary, Belleville; solemn profession, Godfrey, 1958; Pine Hills Scholasticate, Ottawa, Canada; University of Ottawa, Ottawa; Catholic University of America, Washington (master in philosophy); Tulane University, New Orleans (doctorate in philosophy); Pontifical Urban University, Rome (doctorate of sacred theology in ecclesiology, dissertation: Inculturation and communion).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1963, St. Pascal Church, Chicago, by Raymond Hillinger, titular bishop of Derbe, auxiliary of Chicago. Further studies, 1963-1965; 1967-1970. Faculty member, Creighton University, Omaha; chairman, Philosophy Department, 1970-1973. Provincial of United States Oblate Western region, 1973-1974. Vicar general of his institute, Rome, 1974-1986. Member and coordinator of the Circle of Associates of Cambridge Center for the Study of Faith and Culture, Boston 1986-1990.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Yakima, July 10, 1990. Consecrated, September 21, 1990, cathedral of Yakima, by Agostino Cacciavillan, titular archbishop of Amiterno, pro-nuncio in the United States of America, assisted by Roger Lawrence Schwietz, O.M.I., bishop of Duluth, and by William Stephen Skylstad, bishop of Spokane. His episcopal motto is Christo Gloria in Ecclesia. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Portland in Oregon, April 30, 1996. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Chicago, April 8, 1997. He is the first Chicagoan to occupy the see of his native city. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; its special secretary.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, February 21, 1998. Preached the Lent Spiritual Exercises of the Pope and the Roman Curia, March 4 to 10, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. He underwent surgery for bladder cancer in July 2007. Elected president of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops on November 13, 2007, for a three year term. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church"; elected member of the Twelfth Council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, October 22, 2008. Named member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See on October 23, 2010. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life on March 29, 2014; on that same date, he was confirmed as member of the Pontifical Council for Culture until the expiration of his mandate.

Bibliography. Cameli, Louis J. "George, Francis E." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyła years. Detroit, MI : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, p. 304-305.

Links. Photograph, arms and biography, in English, archdiocese of Chicago; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana; 'Vatileaks' sheds light on Cardinal George's role in politics by Manya A. Brachear, Chicago Tribune, Posted on Tue, Jun. 05, 2012 02:06 AM., The Kansas City Star; Cardinal enters Chick-fil-A fray, by Bridget Doyle, Chicago Tribune, August 2, 2012; Cardinal Francis George, Archbishop of Chicago, has cancer by Gerard O'Connell, Vatican Insider, 08/21/2012 Cardinal George speaks about cancer diagnosis, WTHITV10.com, Monday, 27 Aug 2012, 10:09 AM EDT.


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GERLIER, Pierre-Marie
(1880-1965)

Birth. January 1, 1880, Versailles, France. His father was a high government functionary. Great-grand-nephew of Saint Catherine de Gênes.

Education. Initial studies at Collège of Saint Lô, where he was condisciple of Georges-François-Xavier-Marie Grente, future cardinal; École Fontanes, Paris; Faculty of Law, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (thesis on the contract of labor); in 1912 he inscribed himself as a lawyer and worked at the court of appeal of Paris; entered the Grand Seminary of Issy-les-Moulineaux on December 8, 1913; interrupted his theological studies because of the First World War; Seminary of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland.

Early life. Adjudant in the 104th infantry regiment in the French Army during the First World War; wounded on September 16, 1914, during the battle of Marne, and captured by the enemy; imprisoned first in Cologne and later in Celle, Hannover; after some time in Switzerland, he was sent back to France and demobilized on March 14, 1919; decorated with the Croix de Guerre. He then reentered the Seminary of Issy-les-Moulineaux.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 29, 1921, Paris. Pastoral ministry and director of Catholic Works in the archdiocese of Paris, 1921-1929.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tarbes and Lourdes, May 14, 1929. Consecrated, July 2, 1929, metropolitan cathedral of Paris, by Cardinal Louis-Ernest Dubois, archbishop of Paris, assisted by Benjamin Roland-Gosselin, titular bishop of Mosinopoli, coadjutor of Versailles, and by Maurice Dubourg, bishop of Marseille. His episcopal motto was Ad Jesum per Mariam. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lyon, July 30, 1937.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 13, 1937; received the red hat and the title of Ss.ma Trinità al Monte Pincio, December 16, 1937. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Papal legate to the National Marian Congress, Lyon, June 13, 1954. In 1954, he was decorated with the Légion d'Honneur by President Rene Coty. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Lyon, July 5, 1959. Attended the first three sessions of the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI.

Death. January 17, 1965, of a heart attack, Lyon. Buried in the choir of the metropolitan cathedral Saint-Jean of Lyon.

Bibliography. Barbier, Jean. Le cardinal Gerlier. Roanne/Le Coteau : Horvath, 1987.; Berthod, Bernard; Ladous, Régis. Cardinal Gerlier : (1880-1965). Lyon : LUGD, 1995; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 315-316; Comte, B. Les Théologiens lyonnais et la persécution contre les juifs : table ronde tenue le 20 janvier 1993 en commémoration de la protestation du Cardinal Gerlier en september 1942. Lyon : Associations des facultis catholiques de Lyon : Université catholique de Lyon, 1994; Pierre-Marie Gerlier : Archevêque de Lyon : 1880-1965. Lyon : Éditions Lyonnaise d'Art et d'Histoire, 1987.

Link. Photographs and atms, Araldica Vaticana.


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GHATTAS, C.M., Stéphanos II
(1920-2009)

Birth. January 16, 1920, Cheick Zein-el-Dine, eparchy of Sohag, Egypt. His baptismal name was Andraos but took the name Stéphanos when elected patriarch to show his devotion and affection for his predecessor, and to indicate continuity.

Education. Minor Seminary of Cairo, Cairo; Jesuit College of the Holy Family (classical education); Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide", Rome (doctorates in philosophy and theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, March 25, 1944, Rome. Professor of philosophy and of dogmatic theology, Major Seminary of Tahta, then of Tanta, Egypt, 1944-1952. Joined the Community of Priests of the Mission of St Vincent de Paul (Lazaristes) in 1952 and did his novitiate in Paris. Missionary work in Lebanon for six years. Treasurer, then superior of the Lazaristes in Alexandria, 1958-1967.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Luqsor of the Copts, May 8, 1967. Consecrated, June 9, 1967, church of the Lazaristes, Alexandria, by Cardinal Stéphanos I Sidarouss, C.M., patriarch of Alexandria of the Copts, assisted by Isaac Ghattas, bishop of Minya of the Copts, by Youhanna Nuer, bishop of Assiut of the Copts, and by Youhanna Kabes, titular bishop of Cleopatride, auxiliary of the diocese of Alexandria of the Copts. Apostolic administrator of the patriarchate of Alexandria of the Copts, February 24, 1984. Attended the Second Extraordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Elected patriarch of Alexandria of the Copts, June 9, 1986; took the name Stéphanos II. Granted ecclesiastica communio by the Pope, June 23, 1986. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; Special Assembly for Lebanon of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 26 to December 14, 1995. He has made numerous trips to Canada, Australia and the United States, where he founded the first parish of Coptic Catholics. President of the Synod of the Catholic Coptic Church and of the Assembly of the Catholic Hierarchy of Egypt.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal patriarch, February 21, 2001. Promoted to the cardinalate when he was over 80 years old, and thus, he did not have the right to participate in the conclave. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Resigned the office of patriarch, March 30, 2006. Since his retirement, he lived in the Saint Stephen Residence for Priests, in Cairo.

Death. January 20, 2009, at night, Italian hospital, Cairo. Cardinal Nasrallah Pierre Sfeir, patriarch of Antioch of the Maronites, attended the exequies as representative of the pope. Buried in the cathedral "Notre Dame d'Egypte" at Madinet-Nasr, Cairo.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, puslibani; and photograph and biography, in English, The Vincentian Encyclopedia.


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GILROY, Norman Thomas
(1896-1977)

Birth. January 22, 1896, Glebe, Sydney, Australia. Eldest of the six children of William James Gilroy, a tailor's cutter, and Catherine Slattery. They both were Australians of Irish extraction. The other two brothers were Ted and William, and the three sisters, Ellen, Rita and Catherine.

Education. Initial studies with the Marist priests in Sydney (1); St. Columba's College, Springwood, Sydney, 1916-1919; Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propagada Fide," Rome, 1919-1924 (doctorate in theology, 1924).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 24, 1923, Rome, by Cardinal Willem Marinus van Rossum, C.SS.R., prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith. Returned to Australia and became secretary to the apostolic delegate, Bartolomeo Cattaneo, titular archbishop of Palmira, 1924-1930. Secretary to the bishop of Lismore and diocesan chancellor, 1930-1935.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Port Augusta, Australia, December 10, 1934. Consecrated, March 17, 1935, St. Mary's cathedral, Sydney, by Filippo Bernardini, titular archbishop of Antiochia di Pisidia, apostolic delegate in Australia, assisted by John Joseph Carroll, bishop of Lismore, and by Terence Bernard McGuire, bishop of Townsville. His episcopal motto was Christus lux mea. Promoted to titular archbishop of Cipsela and appointed coadjutor of Sydney, with right of succession, July 1, 1937. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Sydney, March 8, 1940.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati, February 22, 1946. Papal legate to the 4th centennial celebrations of Saint Francis Xavier's arrival at Nagasaki, Japan, April 17, 1949; to the Plenary Council of the Eastern Indies, Bangalore, India, November 7, 1949. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council; member of its board of presidency, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969. Named knight commander of the British Empire in 1969, he became the first cardinal to be knighted since the Reformation. He was "Australian of the Year" in 1970. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, July 9, 1971. He went to live at the St. John Vianney Villa for Retired Priests, Randwick, run by the Little Sisters of the Poor. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, January 22, 1976. Cardinal protoprete, August 2, 1977. He was the first Australian born cardinal.

Death. October 21, 1977, Lewisham Hospital, Sydney. In order to enable the public to pay their respects, a series of requiem masses for the late cardinal were held at St. Mary's cathedral prior to his interment. His embalmed body was received at the cathedral by Cardinal James Darcy Freeman, archbishop of Sydney, and by James Patrick Carroll, titular archbishop of Amasea, auxiliary of Sydney, where lying in state was held with a closed casket. His red hat was laid at the head of the casket while his mitre and crozier lay on top. Archbishop Carroll celebrated the first mass in the presence of the cardinal's three sisters. Another mass was concelebrated by priests from the Gilroy family with other members of the family present; another one was concelebrated by former secretaries of the cardinal, while the pontifical requiem mass was presided over by Cardinal Freeman. The body of the late cardinal was buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Sydney.

Bibliography. Williams, Graham. Cardinal Sir Norman Gilroy. Sydney : Alella Books, 1971.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of Sydney; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) At 13, he became a GPO messenger boy; the following year, he was promoted to the telegraphic division; two years later, he was assigned as postal assistant at Bourke, 500 miles north-west of Sydney; when the First World War erupted, he wanted to enlist but he was under 18 and his parents refused; at that time, he was a relieving telegraphist at Narrabri; when wireless operators became urgently needed to staff the troops transports leaving for Europe, his opportunity came because parental consent was not necessary in such cases; he applied immediately, was given an extended leave of absence without pay by the Post and Telegraph Department and became a junior wireless operator on the troop ship "Hessen" that left Sydney in January 1915 for Egypt and later Gallipoli. The ship, carrying 400 Sikh troops of the 26th Indian Mountain Gun Battery and their weapons, lay offshore at Gallipoli for three weeks during the great disaster; he kept a detailed personal diary of the experience; after leaving Gallipoli, he arrived in London and returned to Australia nine months after he had left; the Post and Telegraph Department sent him to Lismore; in that city he decided to enter the seminary at the age of 20.


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GIOBBE, Paolo
(1880-1972)

Birth. January 10, 1880, Rome, Italy.

Education. Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome (doctorates in theology and canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 4, 1904, Rome. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, 1904-1909. Pontifical ceremonery supernumerary, May 3, 1909. From 1909 to 1918, censor of the Roman Liturgical Academy; minutant in the S.C. of Propaganda Fide; assistant at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," 1909-1918. Pontifical ablegato for the imposition of the red biretta to new Cardinal Enrique Almaraz y Santos, archbishop of Sevilla, 1911. Ceremonery at the International Eucharistic Congess, Lourdes, France, 1914. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, November 6, 1917. Rector of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, 1918-1925.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tolemaide di Tebaide, March 30, 1925. Consecrated, April 26, 1925, chapel of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, secretary of State, assisted by Tito Trocchi, titular archbishop of Lacedaemonia, and by Alessandro Fontana, bishop of Ferentino. His episcopal motto was Haerere Christo. Appointed nuncio in Colombia, June 16, 1925. Internuncio, with title of nuncio ad personam, in Holland, August 12, 1935.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Vallicella, December 18, 1958. Papal Datary, November 14, 1959 until January 1, 1968, when the office was suppressed. Cardinal patron of the Sovereign Order of Malta, August 8, 1961. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Lost his right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971.

Death. August 14, 1972, Rome. Buried in the chapel of the S.C. for the Evangelization of the Peoples, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Bibliography. Restrepo Posada, José. "Galería de representantes de la Santa Sede en Colombia." Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Historia Eclesiástica, V (January-June, 1970), 240.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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GIORDANO, Michele
(1930-2010)

Birth. September 26, 1930, S. Arcangelo, diocese of Anglona-Tursi, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Potenza; at the Pontifical Regional Seminary, Salerno; and at the Pontifical Inter-regional Seminary, Posillipo.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 5, 1953. Successively, 1953-1971, in the diocese of Anglona-Tursi, pastoral ministry; director of the center for social studies; diocesan assistant of the Catholic Action; professor of religion; vicar general. Chaplain of His Holiness, February 23, 1968.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Lari Castello and appointed auxiliary of Matera and apostolic administrator, sede vacante, of Gravina and Irsina, December 23, 1971. Consecrated, February 5, 1972, by Giacomo Palombella, bishop of Matera e Irsina, assisted by Dino Tomassini, bishop of Anglona-Tursi, and by Giuseppe Vairo, bishop emeritus of Gravina-Irsina. His episcopal motto was Sicut flumen pax tua. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Matera e Irsina, June 12, 1974. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Naples, May 9, 1987. President of the Episcopal Conference of Campania, Italy, September 24, 1987. Grand chancellor of the Pontifical Theological Faculty of Southern Italy.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Gioacchino ai Prati di Castello, June 28, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Special papal envoy to the fourth centennial celebration of the Shrine of Madonna dell'Arco, Italy, May 1, 1993; to the closing of the third centennial celebrations of the birth of St. Alphonse Maria Liguori, Pagani, Italy, November 23, 1997. On December 22, 2000, he was acquitted of the charges of complicity in a loan sharking ring that involved his nephew; the cardinal was charged with funneling E 898,553 to his nephew, who allegedly lent it at exorbitant interest rates to struggling businesses. On November 2, 2004, he was given a suspended prison sentence after being found guilty of renovating a building without permission; the criminal conviction was rejected by Italy's highest criminal court on April 28, 2005. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese was accepted on May 20, 2006, in conformity to canon 401§ 1 of the Code of Canon Law. Apostolic administrator of the metropolitan see of Naples from May 20, 2006 until the installation of his successor on July 1, 2006. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on September 26, 2010.

Death. December 2, 2010, at 11:05 p.m., after a brief illness, at Hospital "Monaldi", in Naples. In the previous week he had suddenly become ill and had been taken to that hospital. His condition had improved, but then it quickly deteriorated due to respiratory and cardiac complications. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Benedict XVI sent a telegram of condolence to Cardinal Crescenzio Sepe, current archbishop of Naples. Starting at noon on Friday December 3, the body of the late cardinal was exposed in the basilica dell'Incoronata Madre del Buon Consiglio in Capodimonte. The funeral took place on Saturday December 4, 2010, at 4:30 p.m., at that basilica. It was presided by Cardinal Sepe, and concelebrated by some fifty prelates. According to his wishes, the remains of Cardinal Giordano were buried that basilica, in a lateral chapel opposite to the one in which is buried Cardinal Corrado Ursi, his predecessor. A prize rewarding Catholic editors was named after Cardinal Giordano in 2012. The cardinal had himself organized an annual similar prize named "Premio Buone Notizie" during his episcopate in Naples.

Links. Photograph and biographical data, in Italian, archdiocese of Naples; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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GIORGI, Oreste
(1856-1924)

Birth. May 19, 1856, Valmontone, diocese of Segni, Papal State. He had an older brother, Erasmo. It is said that his last name derived from that of Zorzi.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1878, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Raffaele Monaco La Valletta, vicar of Rome; in the same ceremony was ordained Father. Giacomo della Chiesa, future cardinal and Pope Benedict XV. Faculty member of the Roman College, Rome, 1879-1891. Ascribed among the advocates of the Sacred Congregations, March 24, 1889. Substitute of the Sacred Apostolic Penitentiary, December 30, 1891. Auditor of the S.C. of Bishops and Religious, December 24, 1896. Privy chamberlain supra numerum, February 9, 1897. Canon of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, 1903. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, October 8, 1903. Protonotary apostolic ad instar participantium, November 5, 1903. Consultor of the Pontifical Commission for the Codification of Canon Law, April 15, 1904. Canon of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, July 27, 1904. Later, canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. President of the Commission for the Examination of the New Institutes in 1905. Undersecretary of the S.C. for Bishops and Religious, June 3, 1907. Regent of the Sacred Apostolic Penitentiary, February 9, 1908. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, February 11, 1908. Secretary of the S.C. of the Council, December 7, 1911. Consultor of the S.C. Consistorial, February 5, 1912.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 4, 1916; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, December 7, 1916. Took possession of his deaconry on January 7, 1917. Member of the SS. CC. of the Discipline of the Sacraments, Council, Religious (December 7, 1916), Index (December 7, 1916), Holy Office (April 5, 1918), Propaganda Fide (April 10, 1919), Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs (July 3, 1922), Oriental Church (July 16, 1922). Confraternity of Saint Michael Archangel ai Corridori of Rome (May 21, 1917); Archconfraternity of Saint Triphon in San Salvalore in Primicerio (June 16, 1917); Sister of the Cross of Sevilla, (November 12, 1918); Institute of the Poor, Bergamo (December 30, 1918); Philippine Oblates of Rome (April 22, 1919); Institute of Daughters of the Blessed Virgin (July 5, 1919); Congregation of the Poor Daughters of Saint Joseph Calasanz (July 30, 1919); Oblate of the Virgin Mary (November 19, 1919); Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans) (April 24, 1920); Sisters of the Charity of the Immaculate Conception of Ivrea (May 11, 1920); Sisters of the Missions of Southwark (June 25, 1920); Tertiary Sisters of Saint Francis of Assisi and of the Immaculate Conception of Valencia (July 3, 1920); Annonciades in Villeneuve-sur-Lot (October 13, 1920); Sisters of the Immaculate Conception of the Third Franciscan Order of the diocese of Barcelona (November 13, 1920); Daughters of Mary of Gerona (December 15, 1920); Franciscan Tertiary Sisters of Buenos Aires (February 10, 1921); Archconfraternity of Saint Joseph dei Falegnami (March 15, 1921); Sisters of the Nativity of Notre-Dame of the Regular Third Order of Saint Francis of Barcelona (April 15, 1921); Franciscan Tertiary Missionaries of Córdoba (May 31, 1921); Pious Union for the Trespassed in Santa Barbara (November 6, 1921); Ursulines of the Roman Union (July 26, 1922); Daughters of Saint Mary of the Providence of Còme (August 21, 1922); Franciscan Tertiary of Charity of de Malta (September 14, 1922); Canossiennes Daughters of Charity of Verona (March 6, 1923); Sisters of the Purity of Mary of Palma de Mallorca (May 28, 1923); Servants of Jesus of Warsaw (September 23, 1923). Member of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature (June 4, 1919). Member of the Pontifical Academy of Theology (May 10, 1920). Member of the Pontifical Commission for the Code of Canon Law (November 24, 1922). Grand Penitentiary, March 12, 1918. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, May 25, 1923.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Ancira, April 26, 1924. Consecrated, April 27, 1924, Sistine chapel, at the Vatican, by Pope Pius XI, assisted by Carlo Cremonesi, titular archbishop of Nicomedia, privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Agostino Zampini, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, sacristan of His Holiness. He resigned the titular see after his consecration. Pontifical delegate to the church and monastery of S. Chiara, Naples, May 19, 1920. Papal legate for the consecration of two churches in the Holy Land, April 8, 1924. Resided in via della Maschera d'Oro, 20, Rome.

Death. December 30, 1924, of pneumonia, in his residence at Palazzo Altemps of Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Agostino, Rome, where the funeral took place on Saturday, January 3, 1925. Buried in the tomb of his family in the collegiate church of Santa Maria Assunta, Valmontone, beside the baptismal font. He was one of the conservators of that collegiate church. The state school "Istituto Comprensivo Cardinale Oreste Giorgi" of Valmontone was named after him.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1938, p. 75; "Em. Giorgi (Oreste)" in "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1924. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1924, p. 113; "Liste générale alphabétique des protonotaires apostoliques, prélates de Sa Santité, camériers secrets et d'honneur, d'honneur 'extra urbem', chapelains communs, secrets, d'honneur'extra urbem', et autres collèges prélatices." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1916. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1916, p. 688; Fioramonti, Stanislao. La porpora semplice. Vita del Cardinale Oreste Giorgi (1856-1924). Valmontone : Edizioni il Campanone, 1990; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 17-18 and 26.

Links. His photograph, Araldica Vaticana; A proposito del ritrato del Cardinal Orsete Giorgi tra le nuove acquisizioni del Museo Diocesano di Velletri by Stanislao Fioramonti, Ecclesia in cammino, Mensile a carattere divulgativo e ufficiale per gli atti della Curia, pastorale per la vita della Diocesi di Velletri-Segni, Anno 4 - numero 11 (35) - Novembre 2007, p. 34; Oreste Giorgi - InfoRapid Wissensportal, in German, Enzyklopädie Wikipedia; Cardinal Oreste Giorgi by Eman Bonnici, Find a Grave..


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GIUSTINI, Filippo
(1852-1920)

Birth. May 8, 1852, Cineto Romano, diocese of Tivoli, Papal State. Son of Andrea Giustini and Dorotea Caponetti.

Education. Initial studies at the Seminario of Subiaco, next to the Benedictine monastery; yhen, he attended the Seminary of Tivoli, directed by the Society of Jesus; later, studied at the Pontifical Pio Seminary, Rome, from November 1871; and finally, at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome, where he studied philosophy, theology and canon law, obtaining a doctorate in 1880.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 23, 1876, Tivoli. Faculty member of the Seminary of Tivoli, 1876-1878. Professor of Roman Law at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", 1878-1896; prefect of studies, February 26, 1878. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, December 11, 1886. Canon of the chapter of the basilica of S. Maria in Trastevere, May 21, 1891. Counselor of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, June 22, 1892. Domestic prelate, August 18, 1896. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, February 11, 1897 (1). Judge of the Vatican Tribunal of First Instance. Secretary of the S.C. for Bishops and Regulars, April 28, 1902. Counselor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, August 27, 1902. Member of the Pontifical Commission for the Codification of Canon Law, April 2, 1904. Secretary of the S.C. for Discipline of the Sacraments, October 24, 1908.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 25, 1914; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria, May 28, 1914. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Prefect of the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments, October 14, 1914. Member of the Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law, October 16, 1917. Protector of the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans). In September 1919, he participated as papal legate in the centennial celebration of S. Stefano of Hungary in Capua. In October 1919, he was the papal legate to the Holy Land for the celebration of the 7th centennial of the visit to Egypt and Palestine of St. Francis of Assisi.

Death. March 17, 1920 (2), at 11:20 a.m., of a pulmonary disease, in his Roman residence. Exposed for two days in the church of S. Maria Nuova, where the funeral also took place. His body was buried in the crypt of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. Boublik, Vladimiro. "Card. Filippo Giustini." La Pontificia Università lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, p. 232; "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1922, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1921, p. 66; Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 681; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 13 and 25.

Links. Photographs and biography, in Italian, Comune di Cineto Romano; and his photograph, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 13; and his biography in Italian, linked above; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 681, indicates that he was named on March 1, 1877; Boublik, "Card. Filippo Giustini." La Pontificia Università lateranense, p. 232, says that he died on March 20, 1920.
(2) This is according to Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 13. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1922, p. 66, indicates that he died on March 18, 1920.


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GLEMP, Józef
(1929-2013)

Birth. December 18, 1929, Inowroclaw, archdiocese of Gniezno, Poland. Son of Kazimierz Glemp, a salt miner, who joined the resistance against the Nazis in Greater Poland, and Salomea z Kośmickich. He was baptized on the same day of his birth by Father Ludwik Sobieszczyk, parish vicar in the Church of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. During the Nazi occupation, Józef, his mother; sister, Stanisława; and two brothers, Czesław and Jan, were interned in a forced labor farm.

Education. Studied at the primary school in Kościelec Kujawski until fourth grade; studies interrupted because of the Second World War; March of 1945, he re-started his studies in the State secondary school "Jan Kasprowicz" in Inowrocław; on May 25, 1950, he obtained the certificate of maturation together with the diploma approving his entrance to higher studies without the customary matriculation examinations; then, he entered the Faculty of Polish Studies of the University of Warsaw; later, he transferred to the University of Mikołaj Kopernik in Toruń afterward, he entered the Primatial Major Seminary in Gniezno, where he studied philosophy and theology; on September 30, 1952, he entered the Archiepiscopal Seminary of Poznań, furthering his theological studies; after ordination, in 1958, he was sent to Rome for specialized studies in canon and civil law at the Pontifical Lateran University, where he obtained a licentiate on both laws on June 20, 1960; and the doctorate on June 23, 1964; his doctoral thesis was entitled De evolutione conceptus fictionis iuris (The evolution of the concept of legal fiction); for one year he also attended specialized courses at the Pontifical Gregorian University, among them Latin stylistics; also, he completed the Studium of Ecclesiastical Administration at the Congregation of the Council in 1962; and took a three-year course in the Studium of the Sacred Roman Rota, which he completed with the title of Advocate of the Roman Rota, from 1961 to 1964. In that year, he returned to Gniezno.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 25, 1956, in the cathedral basilica Gniezno, by Franciszek Jedwabski, titular bishop of Massula, auxiliary of Poznań (1). Impeded by the State authorities to take up his appointment at the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Inowrocław, he worked pastorally in the parish of Saint James in Mogilno, where his family had relocated. On December 7, 1956, he was named chaplain to the Dominican Sisters in Mielżyn near Gniezno, in an institution for incurably ill children. Concurrently, he taught religion in the school of Ruchocinek and in the home for youthful offenders in Witkowo, just outside Gniezno. Later, he was chaplain to the Sisters of Sacré Coeur in Polska Wieś, near Pobiedziska. Named vicar and prefect of the secondary school of education of the parish of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Wągrowiec. Transferred as vicar to the parish of Miasteczko Krajeńskie. Further studies, Rome, 1958-1964. Successively, 1964-1967, in Gniezno, secretary of the Primatial Seminary; notary of the curia and metropolitan tribunal; counselor of the primatial tribunal super ratio, 1965; defender of the matrimonial bond; and consultor in the Primatial Tribunal for matters of dispensation concerning ratified and non-consummated marriage. He taught courses for priests of the archdiocese of Gniezno in post conciliar studies; and in the academic year of 1966-1967, he was pro synodal examiner in that area. Successively, From December 1, 1967, in Warsaw, chief of the primatial secretariat; chaplain to the primate; secretary for matters concerning the archdiocese of Gniezno; Secretariat's press officer; faculty member of the Catholic Theological Academy; simultaneously to his work in the secretariat, he was chaplain of the Congregation of Franciscan Sisters, Servants of the Cross in Laski; and of the Congregation of the Sisters of the Most Holy Name of Jesus; also, he was named judge in the process of beatification of the Servant of God, Father Władysław Korniłowicz; and at the same time, he did pastoral work in the parish church of Saint Martin and in the pastoral center of the University Church of Saint Anne in Warsaw. From February 1968, he was a volunteer assistant in the Faculty of Canon Law of the Academy of Catholic Theology in Warsaw, in the field of Roman Law; and during the academic year 1973-1974, in the field of matrimonial canon law. He continued these assignments until his promotion to the episcopate. From 1970, he was given the pastoral care of lawyers and jurists in Warsaw. Named chaplain of honor of His Holiness on November 29, 1972. On January 15, 1975, he was named secretary of the Commission of the Episcopate for matters concerning Polish Institutions in Rome. In the same year, he was named member of the Episcopal Commission for the Revision of Canon Law. On March 12, 1975, he received the confirmation of his doctorate from the Faculty of Canon Law. On March 19, 1976, he was named gremial canon of the metropolitan and primatial cathedral chapter of Gniezno. He participated in the Third International Congress of Canon Law in Pamplona in October 1976.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Warmia, March 4, 1979; took canonical possession of the see on the following March 19. Consecrated, April 21, 1979, cathedral basilica of Gniezno, by Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński, archbishop of Gniezno and Warsaw, primate of Poland, assisted by Franciszek Macharski, archbishop of Kraków, and by Jan Obłąk, titular bishop of Abbir maggiore, auxiliary of Warmia. His episcopal motto was Caritati in iustitia. In the Polish episcopate, he was named chair of the Commission of Iustitia et Pax; as well as member of other commissions: Pastoral Care of Workers and the Revision of Canon Law; he also co-chaired the legislative assembly established by the Joint Commission of Representatives of the Government and the Episcopate. In Warmia, he erected many parishes and pastoral and catechetical centers; convoked a presbyteral council (September 15, 1979); a pastoral council (September 20, 1979); and reactivated the Diocesan Commission of Art (October 8, 1979); the Council for Publications (November 30, 1979); and the Liturgical Commission (December 21, 1979). On March 19, 1980 he announced the beginning of the preparatory phase of the Pastoral Synod of the Diocese of Warmia, whose previous synod had taken place in 1922. Further, he gave new impulse to the process of beatification of the Servant of God, Cardinal Stanisław Hosius (Hozjusz). Promoted to the metropolitan see of Gniezno, July 7, 1981; having united with it, pro illa vice et ad personam, the archdiocese of Warsaw. Took possession of both archdioceses on July 9, 1981. Ordinary of the faithful of Oriental Rite residing in Poland without ordinary of their own rite, September 18, 1981 to June 9, 2007. President of the Episcopal Conference of Poland from 1981 until 2004. As Primate of Poland he became protector of Pastoral Care for Poles Abroad. He received doctorates honoris causa from The Academy of Catholic Theology, Warsaw, 1982; Villanova University, Philadelphia, 1985; The Catholic University of Lublin, 1985; The University of Santo Tomas, Manila, 1988; The University of Bari, 1990; Seton Hall University, South Orange, New Jersey, 1991; Warsaw Agricultural University (SGGW), 1992; the Pontifical Faculty of Theology, Warsaw, 1995; Loyola University of Chicago, 1998 and University of Stefan Cardinal Wyszyński, 2001.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, February 2, 1983. Member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches (1983), of the Pontifical Council for Culture (1993), and of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature (2002). He accompanied Pope John Paul II during his pilgrimages to Poland in 1983, 1987, 1991, 1995, 1997, 1999 and 2002; during World Youth Day in Częstochowa and Paris; and in several foreign pilgrimages, among them, to Spain, France, Austria, Lithuania and Latvia, Slovakia and Ukraine. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Papal representative to the funeral of Cardinal Julijonas Vaivods, apostolic administrator of Riga and Liepaja, Latvia, May 1990. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; president delegate. On March 25, 1992, with the restructuring of the dioceses in Poland, Pope John Paul II dissolved the union "ad personam" of Gniezno and Warsaw, confirming Cardinal Glemp as archbishop of Warsaw, and as guardian of the relics of Saint Wojciech (Adalbert), venerated in the cathedral of Gniezno, continued to bear the title of primate of Poland. He was bailiff grand cross of honor and devotion of the Sovereign Military and Hospitaller Order of Malta in its Polish association (1994); and grand prior of the Grand Priory of Poland of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem (1996). He was also the honorary chairman of the international meetings of Uomini e Religioni. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. At the request of Pope Benedict XVI, presided over the closing mass of the National Eucharistic Congress and the beatification of three Polish priests on Sunday, June 19, 2005. On November 1, 2006, Pope Benedict XVI confirmed the title of the cardinal as primate until the completion of his eightieth year of age. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, December 6, 2006. Named apostolic administrator of Warsaw on January 6, 2007; occupied the post until April 1, 2007, when the new archbishop of Warsaw, Kazimierz Nycz, took possession of the see. Resigned the office of ordinary of the faithful of Oriental Rite residing in Poland without ordinary of their own rite on June 9, 2007. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the millennium of the death of Saint Bruno, which took place in Lomża and Giżycko, Poland, from June 19 to 21, 2009. Lost the right to participate in the conclave and the title of primate of Poland, when turned eighty years of age, December 18, 2009. He was grand chancellor of the University of Stefan Cardinal Wyszyński (Academy of Catholic Theology); and of the Pontifical Faculty of Theology in Warsaw. He was named honorary citizen of many cities, among them Warsaw, Inowrocław, Mogilno, Źnin, Darłów, Miechów, Piastów and Łowicz, as well as Castel Sant'Elia in Italy. He published numerous works (2). He helped steer Poland through a historic and relatively peaceful transition from Communism to democracy in 1989.

Death, January 23, 2013, at 9:30 p.m., in the hospital "Instytut Grużlicy i Chorób Płuc", Płocka 26 Street, in Warsaw, from lung cancer. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Benedict XVI sent a telegram of condolence to Cardinal Kazimierz Nycz, current archbishop of Warsaw. The body of Cardinal Glemp was exposed in the church of the Sisters of the Visitation in Warsaw on Saturday January 26 from 9 a.m. throughout the day with the opportunity of individual prayers for the deceased. On Sunday January 27 in the morning, the body was transported to the Basilica of Holy Cross in Warsaw. At 9 a.m, the first radio mass was celebrated. At 4 p.m., a solemn mass was celebrated by Celestino Migliore, titular archbishop of Canossa, nuncio in Poland. The homily was delivered by Józef Michalik, archbishop of Przemyśl of the Latins, president of the Episcopal Conference of Poland. After this mass, around 5:30 p.m., the body of the late cardinal was transported in a solemn procession to the Cathedral Basilica of Saint John the Baptist in Warsaw, where it was exposed until 10.00p.m. The funeral mass, which took place on Monday January 28, 2013, at 11 a.m., in that cathedral basilica, was presided over by Cardinal Stanisław Dziwisz, archbishop of Kraków. Concelebrating were Cardinals Kazimierz Nycz, archbishop of Warsaw; Stanisław Ryłko, president of the Pontifical Council for the Laity, representing the Holy See at the funeral; Franciszek Macharski, archbishop emeritus of Kraków; Henryk Roman Gulbinowicz, archbishop emeritus of Wrocław; Péter Erdö, archbishop of Estergom-Budapest, Hungary; Dominik Duka, O.P., archbishop of Prague, Czech Republic; Lluís Martínez Sistach, archbishop of Barcelona, Spain; Josip Bozanić, archbishop of Zagreb, Croatia; and Joachim Meisner, archbishop of Cologne, Germany. Other bishops and priests also concelebrated. The homily was delivered by Józef Kowalczyk, archbishop of Gniezno, primate of Poland. Following the funeral, the body of the late cardinal was buried in a black granite sarcophagus in the crypt of the cathedral basilica, where his two immediate predecessors, Cardinals Stefan Wyszyński and August Hlond, S.D.B., are also buried.

Bibliography. Kindziuk, Milena. Kardynal Józef Glemp : ostatni taki Prymas(Cardinal Jozef Glemp: the last such Primate). Warszawa : "Swiat Ksiazki", 2010; Nitecki, Piotr. Biskupi Kościoła w Polsce w latach 965-1999. Słownik biograficzny. Przedmowa Henryk Gulbinowicz. Warszawa : Instytut Wydawniczy "Pax", Warszawa 2000, col. 119; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 345-352.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and biography, in English, Sekretariat Prymasa Polski; photographs and biography, in Polish, Sekretariat Prymasa Polski; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; catalog of the archbishops of Gniezno and primates of Poland, in English, Wikipedia.

(1) Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński, archbishop of Gniezno and Warsaw, primate of Poland, was under detention; and Lucjan Bernacki, titular bishop of Mela, auxiliary of Gniezno, was absent.
(2) De conceptu fictionis iuris apud Romanos, 1974; Lexiculum iuris romani, 1974; Przez sprawiedliwość ku miłości (Through Justice to Love), 1982; Człowiek wielkiej miary (A Man of Great Calibre), 1983; Kościół na drogach Ojczyzny (The Church on the Paths of the Fatherland), 1985; Chcemy z tego sprawdzianu wyjść prawdomówni i wiarygodni, 1985; Kościół i Polonia (The Church and Polonia), 1986; Umocnieni nadzieją (Strengthened by Faith), 1987; W tęczy Franków orzeł i krzyż (In the Rainbow of the Franks: the Eagle and The Cross), 1987; O Eucharystii (The Eucharist), 1987; Nauczanie pasterskie (Pastoral Teachings), 5 volumes, 1981-95; Let My Call Come to You, 1988; A wołanie moje niech do Ciebie przyjdzie (Let My Cry Come Unto Thee), 1988; Boże, coś Polskę posłał nad Tamizę (The Visitation to the Church on the Thames), 1988; Nauczanie społeczne 1981-1986 (Social Teaching 1981-1986), 1989; Na dwóch wybrzeżach (On Two Coasts), 1990; U przyjaciół Belgów (Among Our Belgian Friends), 1990; I uwierzyli uczniowie (And His Disciples Believed in Him), 1990; Zamyślenia Maryjne (Marian Reflections), 1990; Słowo Boże nad Łyną, 1991; Tysiąclecie wiary świętego Włodzimierza (The Millennium of Faith of Saint Vladimir), 1991; Gniezno - ciągła odnowa (Gniezno - Constant Renewal), 1991; Służyć Ewangelii słowem (Serving the Gospel in Word), 1991; Solidariet : La Polonia che sogniamo, 1991; Na Skałce - na opoce (On Skałka - On the Rock), 1991; Niebo ściągają na ziemię, 1991; Między Ewangelią a Konstytucją (Between the Gospel and the Constitution), 1992; Na wyspie Świętego Patryka (On the Isle of Saint Patrick), 1992; Idżmy do Betlejem (Let Us Go to Bethlehem), 1992; Wartości chrześcijańskie nabywane pod Kalwarią (Christian Values Won on Calvary), 1993; W blaskach Zmartwychwstania (In the Splendor of the Resurrection), 1994; Być znakiem miłości (To be a Sign of Love), 1994; Rodzina drogą Kościoła (The Family and the Path of the Church), 1995; Boskie i cesarskie (What is God's and What is Caesar's), 1995; Idzie, idzie Bóg prawdziwy (He Comes, the True God, He Comes), 1995; Le Chemins des Pélerins, 1996; Od Kalwarii na drogi Europy (From Calvary down to the Paths of Europe), 1997; Święci idą przez Warszawę (Saints Have Walked through Warsaw), 1997; Piętnaście lat posługi prymasowskiej (Fifteen Years of Primatial Service), 1997; Poles - We enter now the Twenty-first Century!, 1998; Modlimy się w kraju Helwetów, 1998; Zachowanie tożsamości narodowej a solidarność międzyludzka (The Preservation of National Identity and Interhuman Solidarity), 1998; Z krzyżem przez dzieje wierzącej Stolicy, 1998; Odkrywać drogi Opatrzności Bożej, 1999; Listy pasterskie Prymasa Polski, 1999; La speranza a Varsavia si stringe alla Croce, 1999; Sławny w męczenników gronie, 1999; Chrystus wciąż żyje, 2001; Ściśle duszpasterskie, 2002; "Caritati in iustitia", 2002; Opatrzność pod krzyżem Chrystusa i naszym, 2003; Z Jasnogórskiego Szczytu, 2004.


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GLENNON, John Joseph
(1862-1946)

Birth. June 14, 1862, Kinnegad, diocese of Meath, Ireland. Son of Matthew Glennon and Catherine Rafferty.

Education. Studied at St. Mary's College, Mullingar; at All Hallows College and Seminary, Dublin; and at the University of Bonn, Germany. After finishing his studies, he went to the United States of America.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 20, 1884, Kansas City, by John Joseph Hogan, bishop of Kansas City. Pastoral ministry in diocese of Kansas City, 1884-1896. Rector of the cathedral; Vicar general of Kansas City, 1892-1894. Apostolic administrator of Kansas City, 1894-1896.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Pinora and appointed coadjutor of Kansas City, with right of succession, March 14, 1896, Consecrated, June 29, 1896, Kansas City, by John Joseph Kain, archbishop of St. Louis, assisted by Maurice Burke, bishop of St. Joseph, and by John Joseph Henessy, bishop of Wichita. Appointed coadjutor bishop, with right of succession, and apostolic administrator of St. Louis, April 27, 1903. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of St. Louis, October 13, 1903. Assistant at Pontifical Throne, June 28, 1921. On Christmas Eve 1945, it was announced that the Archbishop Glennon would be elevated to the Sacred College of Cardinals. He originally thought himself to be too old to make the journey to Rome, but eventually joined fellow Cardinals-elect Francis Joseph Spellman and Thomas Tien Ken-sin, S.V.D., on their flight, during which time Archbishop Glennon caught a cold from which he would not be able to recover.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Clemente, February 22, 1946. During the return trip to the United States, the cardinal stopped in his native Ireland, where he was received by President Seán T. O'Kelly and Taoiseach Éamon de Valera. While in Dublin, he was diagnosed with uremic poisoning and later died.

Death. March 9, 1946, Dublin. His body was returned to St. Louis and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of that city (1). The only diocesan hospital for children in the United States, "Cardinal Glennon Children's Hospital", affiliated with St. Louis University Medical Center, was established in his name.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 51; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 112; Finn, Brendan A. Twenty-four American cardinals. Boston: B. Humphries, 1947; Thornton, Francis B. Our American princes. New York: Putnam, 1963.

Link. Photograph and biography, in English, together with the other archbishops of St. Louis, archdiocese of St. Louis.

(1) This is the inscription in his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

CARDINAL
JOHN J.
GLENNON
1862 - 1946


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GODFREY, William
(1889-1963)

Birth. September 25, 1889, Liverpool, England. He was the youngest son of George Godfrey and Maria Garvey; his father, who was a haulage contractor, died before William was born.

Education. Ushaw College, Durham, 1903-1910; Venerable English College, Rome (1910-1917); Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in philosophy; and in theology, 1917).

Priesthood. Ordained, October 28, 1916, Rome. Further studies, 1916-1918. Pastoral ministry as a curate in St. Michael's, West Derby Road, in the archdiocese of Liverpool, 1918-1919. Classics professor at Ushaw College, 1918-1928; profesor of theology, 1928-1930. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, October 28, 1930. Rector of the Venerable English College, Rome, 1930-1938. Member of the Pontifical Commission to Malta, 1935. Member of the pontifical delegation to the coronation of King George VI of England in May 1937. Apostolic visitor to the seminaries and ecclesiastical colleges of England, Wales, and Malta, 1938.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cio and appointed apostolic delegate to Great Britain, Gibraltar, Malta, and Bermuda, November 21, 1938. Consecrated, December 21, 1938, chapel of the Venerable English College, Rome, by Cardinal Raffaele Carlo Rossi, O.C.D., secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, assisted by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea in Palaestina, vice-gerent of Rome, and by Ralph Leo Hayes, titular bishop of Gerapoli. His episcopal motto was Pax a Deo. Chargé d'affaires of the Holy See in Poland in 1943. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Liverpool, November 10, 1953. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Westminster, December 3, 1956.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, December 18, 1958. Attended the first session of the Second Vatican Council, 1962. He loved sports and playing piano.

Death. January 22, 1963, at 4:45 p.m., of a heart attack, at Westminster Hospital, in London, just as Dr. Michael Ramsey, archbishop of Canterbury was due to visit him. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Westminster, London.

Bibliography. Bellenger, Dominc Aidan and Stella Fletcher. Princes of the church. A history of the English cardinals. Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire : Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2001, p. 157-159, 169 and 178; Quinlan, John. Our English cardinals, including the English pope. Alcester ; Dublin : C. Goodliffe Neale, 1972, p. 101-103; Schofield, Nicholas ; Skinner, Gerard. The English cardinals. Oxford, UK : Family Publications, 2007, p. 203-207; Walsh, Michael J. The Westminster cardinals : the past and the future. London ; New York : Burns & Oates, 2008, p. 155-166.

Link. His portrait and biography, in English, archdiocese of Westminster; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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GOMÁ TOMÁS, Isidro
(1869-1940)

Birth. August 19, 1869, La Riba, archdiocese of Tarragona, Spain. Fourth of the nine children of José Gomá Pedrol and María Tomás Bosch; the other siblings were Teresa, José (who died at three), José, Ignacio, María, Isabel, Marceliana and Matías.

Education. Seminary of Montblanch, Montblanch; Seminary of Tarragona, Tarragona; Pontifical University of Tarragona, Tarragona (doctorates in philosophy and canon law); University of Valencia, Valencia (doctorate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 8, 1895, Tarragona, by Archbishop Tomás Costa y Fornaguera of Tarragona. Celebrated his first mass in La Riba. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Tarragona, 1895-1897, first, as coadjutor of the parish "del Carmen" in Valls; and later, was economous in Montbrió del Campo. Professor of Latin at the Seminary of Tarragona, 1897-1899; its rector, 1899-1906. Canon, by opposition, of the cathedral chapter of Tarragona, 1907; later, provisor and metropolitan judge, 1908-1927.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tarazona, June 20, 1927. Consecrated, October 2, 1927, cathedral of Tarragona, by Cardinal Francisco de Asís Vidal y Barraquer, archbishop of Tarragona, assisted by Valentín Comellas y Santamaría, titular bishop of Amata, apostolic administrator of Solsona, and by Manuel Irurita y Almandoz, bishop of Lériva; entered the diocese on October 17, 1927. Apostolic administrator of Tudela, December 1927-June 1933. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of Toledo, April 12, 1933. Apostolic administrator of Tarazona, June 1933 to July 1935.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1935; received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, December 19, 1935. Strongly supported the National Movement during Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Elected member de número of the Royal Academy of the Spanish Language at the beginning of 1940.

Death. August 22, 1940, at 11:15 p.m., archiepiscopal palace of Toledo. Exposed in the Salón de Concilios of the archiepiscopal residence (1). The funeral was celebrated in the metropolitan and primatial cathedral of Toledo, by Gaetano Cicognani, titular archbishop of Ancira, nuncio in Spain; attended by the auxiliary bishop and apostolic administrator of Toledo, Gregorio Modrego; the archbishop of Granada; and the bishops of Mardid-Alcalá, Salamanca, Málaga, Coria, León and Kuwtno (Poland). Buried, Sunday August 25, 1940, at 11 a.m., on the side of the Gospel in the chapel of the Virgen del Sagrario in the metropolitan cathedral of Toledo; his tomb is very near the one of Cardinal Bernardo de Rojas y Sandoval. Shortly after, his red hat was hung over the tomb; and later, a bronze plaque was placed near by (2).

Bibliography. Archivo Gomá : documentos de la Guerra Civil. Edicisn de José Andrés-Gallego y Antón M. Pazos.Madrid : Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 2001- . Contents: 1. Julio-diciembre de 1936 / con la colaboración de Carlos Carrascal del Solar y José Manuel Martínez Jiménez -- 2. Enero de 1937 / con la colaboración de Santiago María Barroso Sánchez-Lafuente -- 3. Febrero de 1937 / con la colaboración de Santiago María Barroso Sánchez-Lafuente -- 4. Marzo 1937 / con la colaboración de Santiago María Barroso Sánchez-Lafuente -- 5. Abril-mayo de 1937 / con la colaboración de Joaquín María Usunariz Belber. Other title: Documentos de la Guerra Civil; Ayers, Rachel Joy. Defending the rebellion : Cardinal Gomá y Tomás, the Catholic Church, and the Spanish civil war. Dissertation: Thesis (M.A.)--Bowling Green State University, 2005; Azpilikoeta, de ; Gomá y Tomás, Isidro ; Aguirre y Lecube, José Antonio de. The Basque problem, as seen by Cardinal Goma and President Aguirre. New York : Basque Archives, 1938. Note : "Letters and documents, which have passed between Cardinal Goma and President Aguirre, and the commentaries which their interesting contents have suggested". Responsibility: by Dr. de Azpilikoeta; Casañas Guasch, Luis; Sobrino Vázquez, Pedro. El Cardenal Gomá : pastor y maestro, 1869-1940. 2 vols. Toledo : Estudio Teológico de San Ildefonso, Seminario Conciliar, 1983; Comas, Ramón. Gomà-Vidal i Barraquer : dues visions antagòniques de l'Església del 1939. Barcelona : Editorial Laia, 1974. (Les Eines, 7. Sèrie Assaig); Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 89; Granados, Anastasio. El cardenal Gomá; primado de España. Madrid : Espasa-Calpe, 1969; Homenaje al eminentísimo doctor D. Isidro Gomá y Tomás cardenal primado de España en el centenario de su nacimiento, 1870-1970. Barcelona : Sección de Prensa de la Diputación Provincial, 1971; Lobo, Leocadio. Primate and priest. London : Press Dept. of the Spanish Embassy, 1937. Note : "A reply to the martyrdom of Spain, a pastoral letter of His Eminence Señor d. Isidro Gomá y Tomás"; Rodríguez Aisa, María Luisa. El cardenal Gomá y la guerra de España : aspectos de la gestión pública del Primado, 1936-1939.Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, C.S.I.C., 1981. (Monografías de historia eclesiástica ; v. 10); Zumeta, Angel de ; Gomá y Tomás, Isidro ; Aguirre y Lecué, José Antonio de. Un cardenal español y los católicos vascos : la conciencia cristiana ante la guerra de la Península Ibérica. Bilbao : Publicaciones Minerva, 1937. Contents: Prólogo / V. de Uriondo --Introducción-- 1st. pt. [Comentario sobre El caso de España] -- 2nd pt. [Comentario sobre Respuesta obligada. carta abierta al sr. d. José Antonio de Aguirre, Bilbao -- El caso de España / Cardenal Arzobispo de Toledo -- Discurso del presidente del gobierno de Euzkadi, el dma 22 de diciembre de 1936 / José Antonio de Aguirre -- Respuesta obligada, carta abierta / José Antonio Aguirre.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Spanish, Proyecto filosofía en español; and his photograph, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) It is traditional in Toledo that the body of the dead cardinals be taken on the 14th century stretcher that was used to transport the body of Cardinal Gil de Albronoz from Italy to Toledo; the funeral procession follows the same path of the procession of Corpus Christi but in reverse order. All of this was observed in the funeral of Cardinal Gomá.
(2) This is the text of the inscription on the plaque, taken from Granados, El cardenal Gomá; primado de España, p. 271-272:

D. D. ISIDORUS GOMA ET TOMAS
S. R. E. PRESBYTER CARDINALIS
TIT. SCTI. PETRI «IN MONTORIO»,
ARCHIEPISCOPUS TOLETANUS, HISPANIARUM PRIMAS,
MAGNIS PRO ECCLESIA ET PATRIA EXANTLATIS LABORIBUS,
PIE IN DOMINO OBIIT
XXII AUG. MCMXL
IN PACE CHRISTI REQUIESCAT
-----------------------------------
REXIT ECCLESIAM TURIASONENSEM
X OCT. MCMXXVII-IX AUG. MCMXXXV
PRAEFUIT HUIC ECCLESIAE TOLET XVIII IUNII MCMXXXIII-XXII AUG. MCMXL.
------------------------------------
AD DOMINUM JBSUM CHRISTUM:
VOCA ME CUM BENEDICTIS.
AD VIRGINEM MATREM:
MONSTRA TE ESSE MATREM;
NEC AVERTE PECCATORES
SINE QUIBUS NUNQUAM FORES
TANTI MATER FILII


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GONZÁLEZ MARTÍN, Marcelo
(1918-2004)

Birth. January 16, 1918, Villanubla, archdiocese of Valladolid, Spain. Son of Marcelo González, a small merchant; and Costanza Martín.

Education. Seminary of Valladolid, Valladolid; Pontifical University of Comillas, Comillas (theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1941, Valladolid. Successively, 1941-1960, faculty member of the Seminary of Valladolid; faculty member of the University of Valladolid; pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Valladolid and several dioceses of Spain; diocesan chaplain of the Catholic Action; delegate of "Caritas"; founder of "Patronato de San Pedro Regalado" for construction of houses for poor families; canon of the cathedral chapter; and synodal judge. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, March 24, 1960.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Astorga, December 31, 1960. Consecrated, March 5, 1961, cathedral of Valladolid, by Ildebrando Antoniutti, titular archbishop of Sinnada di Frigia, nuncio in Spain, assisted by Luis Almarcha Hernández, bishop of León, and by José María Cirarda Lachiondo, titular bishop of Drusiliana, auxiliary of Sevilla. His episcopal motto was Pauperes evangelizatur. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to titular archbishop of Case Mediane and appointed coadjutor of Barcelona, with right of succession, February 21, 1966. Archbishop of Barcelona, January 7, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Transferred to the metropolitan and primatial see of Toledo, December 3, 1971. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the title of S. Agostino, March 5, 1973. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 - 9, 1979. Special papal envoy to the 4th centennial celebration of the founding of the English College, Valladolid, Spain, December 10, 1989; to the 5th centennial celebration of the Treaty of Tordesilla, Valladolid, Spain, June 7, 1994. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, June 23, 1995. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, January 16, 1998.

Death. August 25, 2004, at 7:50 p.m., in Fuentes de Nava, Palencia, Spain. Buried in the chapel of San Ildefonso, in front of the tomb of Cardinal Gil Álvarez de Albornoz, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine (+ August 23, 1367), in the metropolitan and primatial cathedral of Toledo.

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 122.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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GONZÁLEZ ZUMÁRRAGA, Antonio José
(1925-2008)

Birth. March 18, 1925, Pujilí, diocese of Latacunga, Ecuador. Son of Luis González and Leonor Benilde Zumárraga, who were small landowners. He had seven siblings.

Education. Minor Seminary "San Luis", Quito; Major Seminary "San José", Quito; Pontifical Ecclesiastical University, Salamanca, Spain (doctorate in canon law; thesis: "Problemas del Patronato Indiano a través del Gobierno Eclesiástico Pacífico de Fray Gaspar de Villarroel").

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1951, Quito, by Carlos María de la Torre, archbishop of Quito. Coadjutor of the pastor of "San Sebastián", 1951-1953; coadjutor of the pastor of "El Belén", 1953-1954. Further studies, Salamanca, 1954-1957. Vice-rector of the boarding school Borja,1957-1958. Vice-secretary of the metropolitan curia, 1958; and consecutively, faculty member of the Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador, 1958-1960. Also, faculty member, School of Religious Science and Faculty of Philosophical-Theological Sciences. Canon of the chapter of the metropolitan cathedral, 1961-1969. Faculty member of the school "Sagrados Corazones", Rumipamba, 1964-1966. Chancellor of the archdiocesan curia, 1964-1969. Rector of the school "Nuestra Madre de la Merced", 1961-1969.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tagarata and appointed auxiliary of Quito, May 17, 1969. Consecrated, June 15, 1969, cathedral of Quito, by Cardinal Pablo Muñoz Vega, S.J., archbishop of Quito, assisted by Manuel Jesús Serrano Abad, archbishop of Cuenca, and by Bernardino Echeverría Ruiz, O.F.M., archbishop of Guayaquil. His episcopal motto was Spiritus unitate unitas caritate. Apostolic administrator of Machala, 1976-1978. Transferred to the see of Machala, January 30, 1978. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979. Promoted to archbishop coadjutor, with right of succession, of Quito, June 28, 1980. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Quito, June 1, 1985. President of the Ecuadorian Episcopal Conference, 1987-1990 and 1990-1993. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Named by the Holy See primate of Ecuador, November 11, 1995. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria in Via, February 21, 2001. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 21, 2003. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, March 18, 2005.

Death. October 13, 2008, 5:30 a.m., at his home in Valle de los Chillos, Sangolquí, Quito, accompanied by his close relatives. The death was caused by a stomach cancer, which the cardinal had suffered for some time. His body was exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Quito, where the funeral took place on October 14, in the morning. The bishops of Ecuador, who were in the ad limina Apostolorum visit in Rome, concelebrated a mass of thanksgiving for the canonization of Narcisa de Jesús Martillo Morán, an Ecuadorian laywoman, which took place the day before, and for the eternal repose of the soul of the cardinal, in the papal Liberian basilica. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Benedict XVI prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to the apostolic nuncio in Ecuador, Giacomo Guido Ottonello, titular archbishop of Sasabe. The exequial mass was celebrated by the apostolic nuncio and by José Mario Ruiz Navas, archbishop emeritus of Poroviejo and former president of the Episcopal Conference of Ecuador. The late cardinal was buried in the crypt of the cathedral.

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 149.

Links. Photograph and biographical entry, in Spanish, Conferencia Episcopal Ecuatoriana, last on the list; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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GOUVEIA, Teodósio Clemente de
(1889-1962)

Birth. May 13, 1889, at 8 a.m., São Jorge, Madeira, diocese of Funchal, Portuguese Africa. Son of Clemente Francisco de Gouveia and Ana Augusta Jardim, farmers. He was baptized on May 25, 1889, in the parish church of São Jorge, by Vicar José Calisto de Andrade; his godparents were Teodósio Francisco de Gouveia and Maria Rosa Jardim.

Education. Primary education in São Jorge; Seminary "Nossa Senhora da Encarnaçao", Funchal, October 4, 1905; the seminary was confiscated in October 1910 by the revolution; Claretians priests, directors of the seminary, took the students to the house of studies of the congregation in Paris 1912-1913; later, because of the German invasion they went to the Lazarist Seminary, Dax, France, 1914-1915 (philosophy and theology); joined the order in 1911; Seminary of Saint Sulpice, Paris; Institut Catholique, Paris (philosophy); left the order in 1915 and arrived in Rome on January 7, 1916; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1916-1919 (doctorates in theology and canon law); resided in the Colégio Português, Rome; School of Social Studies, Bergamo, 1920-1921 (licentiate in social sciences); University of Louvain, Louvain, 1921-1922 (licentiate in social sciences); returned to Madeira in 1922. Received the last two minor orders, exorcist and acolyte, May 12, 1918; the subdiaconate, November 1, 1918; and the diaconate, December 21, 1918, church of S. Andrea della Valle, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, Holy Saturday April 19, 1919, patriarchal Lateran basilica, by Cardinal Basilio Pompilj, vicar of Rome and archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica; celebrated his first mass on Easter Sunday April 20, 1919 in the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Secretary of the ecclesiastical chamber of the diocese of Funchal and faculty member of its seminary; director of Boletim Diocesano da Madeira, 1922-1929. Vice-rector of the Pontifical Portuguese College, Rome, March 1929-1934; rector, March 1934-1936. Rector of the church of S. Antonio dei Portughesi, Rome, 1931-1936. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, November 26, 1931. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, April 23, 1934.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Leuce and appointed prelate nullius of Moçambique, Portuguese Africa, May 18, 1936. Consecrated, July 9, 1936, church of S. Antonio dei Portughesi, Rome, by Cardinal Raffaele Carlo Rossi, O.C.D., secretary of S.C. Consistorial, assisted by Ernesto Senna de Oliveira, titular archbishop of Mitilene, auxiliary of Lisbon, president of the Central Board of the Portuguese Catholic Action, and by Ildebrando Antoniutti, titular archbishop of Sinnada de Frigia, apostolic delegate in Albania. His episcopal motto was Omnibus omnia facto. Decorated with the grand cross of the Ordem da Cristo, 1939. Promoted to the newly erected archdiocese of Lourenço Marques (now Maputo), Moçambique, January 18, 1941.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, February 22, 1946. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Decorated with the grand cross of the Ordem do Infante D. Henrique, 1961. He was the first cardinal from Moçambique.

Death. February 6, 1962, at 3:45 p.m., of leukemia, in São Vicente archiepiscopal palace, Lourenço Marques. He was exposed in the palace until the following day at 5 p.m., when the body was transferred to the metropolitan cathedral of "Nossa Senhora da Conceição"; the funeral took place on February 8, 1962 at 10 a.m., in that cathedral, where he was buried, behind the main altar, in a plain tomb marked only with his arms, according to his will.

Bibliography. Veloso, Agostinho. D. Teodósio Clemente de Gouveia; paladino do Portugal ao serviço de Deus. 2 vols. Lisbon : Agencia-Geral do Ultramar, 1965.

Link. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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GOUYON, Paul
(1910-2000)

Birth. October 24, 1910, Bordeaux, France. His baptismal name was Paul-Joseph-Marie.

Education. University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux; Seminary of Bordeaux, Bordeaux; Seminary of Saint-Sulpice, Paris; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; Institut Catholique, Paris.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 13, 1937. Further studies, 1937-1939. In the French Army during the Second World War, 1939-1940. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Bordeaux: pastor of Montussan and of Beychac (1940-1944); chaplain of the lycée Michel-Montaigne, in Bordeaux (1944-1951); and vicar general, in charge of the direction of Works (1951). Domestic prelate of His Holiness, April 6, 1955.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Bayonne, August 6, 1957. Consecrated, October 7, 1957, cathedral of Saint-André, Bordeaux, by Paul-Marie-André Richaud, archbishop of Bordeaux, assisted by Joseph-Marie-Eugène Martin, archbishop of Rouen, and by Louis Jean Guyot, bishop of Coutances et Avranches. His episcopal motto was In spiritu et veritate. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to titular archbishop of Pessinonte and appointed coadjutor of Rennes, with right of succession, August 6, 1963. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Rennes, September 4, 1964.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of Natività di Natività di Nostro Signore Gesù Cristo in via Gallia, April 30, 1969. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. National president of the association Pax Christi. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, October 15, 1985. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 24, 1990.

Death. Tuesday September 26, 2000, in the morning, in Bordeaux. His funeral took place at the metropolitan cathedral of Rennes on Friday September 29, at 3 p.m. Buried in the cemetery of the Mother House of the Little Sisters of the Poor in Saint-Pern.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 321-322.

Links. His episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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GRACIAS, Valerian
(1901-1978)

Birth. October 23, 1901, Karachi, India (now Pakistan). His parents came from Navelim, Goa; later, they moved to Karachi seeking better employment opportunities. Son of José and Carlota Gracias; his father died in 1902. Valerian had a older sister, Pauline. He was baptized, confirmed and received first communion at St. Parick's church, Karachi.

Education. St. Patrick's High School, Karachi; St. Joseph Seminary of Mangalore, Mangalore, 1918-1921 (rhetoric, oratory and philosophy); Pontifical Seminary of Kandy, Ceylon, 1921-1926 (doctorate in theology); Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, November 1927-1929 (magister aggregatus).

Priesthood. Ordained, October 3, 1926, Kandy. Pastoral ministry in the church of St. Peter, Bandra, 1926-1927. Further studies in Rome, 1927-1929. Secretary to Joachim Lima, S.J., archbishop of Bombay, and chancellor of the archdiocese, August 1929-1937. Preacher in Bombay, other dioceses of India and Burma. From 1937-1946, in Bombay, pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Bombay, advisor to the Catholic Students' Union, editor of Messenger of the Sacred Heart, 1935-1942; member of the editorial board of Clergy Monthly; and co-editor of The Examiner, 1938-1939. First Indian rector of the pro-cathedral of the Holy Name, Bombay, December 1941.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tenneso and appointed auxiliary of Bombay, May 16, 1946. Consecrated, June 29, 1946, church of St. Peter, Bombay, by Thomas D. Roberts, S.J., archbishop of Bombay, assisted by Victor Fernandes, bishop of Mangalore, and by Thomas Pothacamury, bishop of Bangalore. His episcopal motto was Fraternitatis amore. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Bombay, December 4, 1950. He was present at the solemn proclamation of the dogma of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary in body and soul to heaven, Rome, December 8, 1950.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in via Lata, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, January 15, 1953. President of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of India, 1954-1972. Papal legate to the Marian Congress of Eastern India, Bombay, November 18, 1954; to the Eucharistic Congress of Birmania, Rangoon, December 25, 1955. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. On January 26, 1966, he was awarded the Padma Vibhushan, the nation's second highest distinction, by President Radhakrishnan. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; one of the three presidents delegate of the assembly. Did not participate in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I, because of illness. He was the first cardinal from India.

Death. September 11, 1978, of cancer, in Bombay. Buried in a vault which is located in front of the Altar of Our Lady of Lourdes in the metropolitan cathedral of the Holy Name, Bombay.

Bibliography. De Souza, Dento S. India's first cardinal: Highlights in the life of Valerian Cardinal Gracias. Bombay : Examiner Press, 1971.

Link. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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GRANITO PIGNATELLI DI BELMONTE, Gennaro
(1851-1948)

Birth. April 10, 1851, Naples, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Son of Angelo Granito, 4th marquis of Castellabate, and Paolina Francesca Pignatelli e Aymerich, 7th princess di Belmonte and 9th duchess of Acerenza. Received the sacrament of confirmation, September 6, 1871.

Education. Collegio Mondragone, Naples; private tutoring, Naples (doctorate in theology). Adscribed to the Neapolitan clergy, March 2, 1878.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 7, 1879, Naples. Secretary to the cardinal archbishop of Naples, 1879-1886. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, April 4, 1884. Editor of La Libertá Cattolica, Naples, 1886-1891. Canon and archdiocesan official of Naples, 1891-1892. Staff member of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, 1892. In 1893, he was named ablegato to deliver the red biretta to the two new Cardinals Victor-Lucien-Sulpice Lécot and Joseph-Chrétien-Ernest Bourret of France. Attaché in the nunciature in France, 1893-1896. Member of the papal mission to the coronation of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, 1896; to the 60th anniversary of Queen Victoria of Great Britain, 1897. Auditor of Cardinal Guglielmo Sanfelice D'Acquavilla, O.S.B.Cas., archbishop of Naples; later, pro-secretary of the archiepiscopal visitations. Counselor of the nunciature in France, 1897-1899; chargé d'affaires, 1899.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Edessa di Osrhoëne, November 17, 1899. Consecrated, November 26, 1899, chapel of the Sisters of S. Anna, in via Merulana, Rome, by Cardinal Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro, secretary of State, assisted by Casimiro Gennari, titular archbishop of Lepanto, assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, and by Carlo Caputo, titular archbishop of Nicomedia. Nuncio in Belgium, December 5, 1899. Special papal envoy to the funeral of Queen Victoria of Great Britain, 1901. Nuncio in Austria-Hungary, with faculties of legate a latere, January 15, 1904. Resigned nunciature, January 6, 1911. Special papal envoy to the coronation of King George V of Great Britain, June 1911.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 27, 1911; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria degli Angeli, November 30, 1911. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1911. Named papal legate to the International Eucharistic Congress of Lourdes, France, July 12, 1914. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, December 6, 1915. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, December 4, 1916 until March 10, 1919. Papal legate to the celebrations in honor of Sainte-Jeanne d'Arc, Orléans, France, May 8, 1921. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Palermo, Italy, August 6, 1924. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, February 25, 1929. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, retaining the suburbicarian see of Albano, July 9, 1930. Prefect of the S.C. Ceremonial, July 14, 1930. Named legate a latere to the opening of the Holy Door at the basilica of San Paolo fuori le mura, Rome, March 13, 1933; to its closing, March 5, 1934. Grand prior of the Sovereign Order of Malta in Roma from 1937 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. He was protector of numerous religious orders and congregations, among them the Discalced Augustinians, the Friars Minor (Franciscans), the Hermits of St. Augustine and the Firars Minor Capuchins.

Death. February 16, 1948, at 10.13 a.m., of a bladder ailment complicated by old age, in his simply furnished apartment in the historic Vatican house of Santa Marta. Buried in the tomb of the Capuchin friars, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Last surviving cardinal of Pope St. Pius X.

Bibliography. Ilario da Teano. Il cardinale Gennaro Granito Pignatelli di Belmonte. Teano : D'Amico, 1957; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 239-241.

Link. Biography by Ekkart Sauser, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; portrait and biography, in English, Pignatelli; and his portrait, photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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GRANO, Carlo
(1887-1976)

Birth. October 14, 1887, Rome, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome; and at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome (philosophy, theology and canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 14, 1912, Rome, Giuseppe Cepetelli, titular Latin patriarch of Constantinople, vice-gerent of Rome. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, 1912-1920. Pontifical ceremonery supernumerary, January 23, 1920. Staff member of the Secretariat of State, 1923-1945; chief of protocol, 1945-1953; substitute and secretary of ciphering, 1953-1958.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tessalonica and appointed nuncio in Italy, December 13, 1958. Consecrated, December 27, 1958, Rome, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Girolamo Bartolomeo Bortignon, O.F.M.Cap., bishop of Padua, and by Gioacchino Muccin, bishop of Feltre e Belluno. His episcopal motto was Copiosa messis e grano humili. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinal Domenico Tardini, secretary of State; and future cardinals Angelo Dell'Acqua, titular archbishop of Chalcedonia, substitute of the Secretariat of State; Giuseppe Ferretto, titular archbishop of Sardica, assessor of the S.C. Consistorial; and Mario Casariego y Acevedo, C.R.S., titular bishop of Pudenziana and auxiliary of Guatemala. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 26, 1967; received the red biretta and the title of S. Marcello, July 15, 1967. Lost his right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years of age, January 1, 1971.

Death. April 2, 1976, in his Roman residence. Buried in the church of S. Marcello, his title, in Rome.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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GRAY, Gordon Joseph
(1910-1993)

Birth. August 10, 1910, Leith, northern Edinburgh, Scotland. He was the third child of Frank Gray and Angela Jane Oddy; the other two were Josephine and George. His uncle, Canon John Alan Gray, was the first one who approached him about the priesthood.

Education. Studied at Holy Cross Academy, Edinburgh; at Saint Joseph's Junior College Seminary, Mark Cross, East Sussex, from 1927 to July 1929; at Saint John's Seminary, Wonersh, Southwark, England, from September 1929 to 1935. He received the minor orders, the subdiaconate and the diaconate from Peter Emanuel Amigo, bishop of Southwark. He also studied at Saint Andrews University, Saint Andrews from 1936 to 1939 (honors; he was the first Catholic priest to graduate since the Reformation); and at Strawbridge Hill College of Education, London, 1939; his studies were interrupted by the Second World War.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 15. 1935, St. Mary's metropolitan cathedral, Edinburgh, by Andrew Joseph McDonald, O.S.B., archbishop of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh, 1935-1947. Rector of Saint Mary's College, Blairs, Aberdeen, 1947-1951.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh, June 20, 1951. Consecrated, September 21, 1951, St. Mary's metropolitan cathedral, Edinburgh, by William Godfrey, titular archbishop of Cio, apostolic delegate in Great Britain, assisted by James Donald Scanlan, bishop of Dunkeld, and by Edward Wilson Douglas, bishop of Motherwell. His episcopal motto was Spiritus Sanctus subveniet. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Chiara a Vigna Clara, April 30, 1969. President of the Bishops' Conference of Scotland. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the III Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Special papal envoy to the centennial celebrations of Fort Augustus Abbey, Scotland, July 11, 1981. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, May 30, 1985. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, August 10, 1990. First cardinal resident of Scotland since the assassination of Cardinal David Beaton, archbishop of Saint Andrews, in 1546.

Death. July 19, 1993, of a heart ailment, Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh. His body was exposed in Gillis College and in St. Mary's metropolitan cathedral. The funeral mass was celebrated by Keith Michael O'Brien, archbishop of St. Andrews and Edinburgh. Buried in the crypt of St. Mary's metropolitan cathedral, Edinburgh.

Bibliography. Turnbull, Michael. Cardinal Gordon Joseph Gray : a biography. Edinburgh : Saint Andrew, 1994.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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GRÉGOIRE, Paul
(1911-1993)

Birth. October 24, 1911, Verdun, archdiocese of Montréal, Canada. Of a family of twelve children.

Education. Initial studies in a local school, Verdun; Minor Seminary of St. Thérèse, Blainville (classics); Major Seminary, Montréal (licentiate in theology); University of Montréal, Montréal, 1939-1942 (doctorates in philosophy and history; licentiate in letters and diploma in pedagogy).

Priesthood. Ordained, May 22, 1937, Montréal. Professor at the Seminary of St. Thérèse, Blanville, 1937-1939. Further studies, Montréal, 1939-1942. Director of the Seminary of St. Thérèse, Blanville, 1942-1950; faculty member of the Secondary Normal School and at the Pedagogical Institute, Montréal, 1942-1950; chaplain of university students, Montréal, 1950-1961.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Curubi and appointed auxiliary of Montréal, October 26, 1961. Consecrated, December 27, 1961, Montréal, by Cardinal Paul-Emile Léger, P.S.S., archbishop of Montréal, assisted by Émilien Frenette, bishop of Saint-Jérôme, and by Percival Caza, titular bishop of Albule, coadjutor of Valleyfield. His episcopal motto was Caritas et sapientia. Vicar general of Montréal. Apostolic administrator, ad nutum Sanctæ Sedis, of Montréal, December 11, 1967. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Montréal, April 20, 1968. Doctor honoris causa, University of Montréal, 1969; and St. Michael's College, Winooski Park, Vermont, United States of America. Attended the II Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of Nostra Signora del Ss.mo Sacramento e Ss. Martiri Canadesi, June 28, 1988. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 17, 1990. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 24, 1991. He dedicated his retirement years to work in charitable institutions such as Accueil Bonneau and Maison du Père.

Death. October 30, 1993, hospital of Notre Dame, Montréal, of a stomach cancer. The funeral was celebrated by Jean-Claude Turcotte, archbishop of Montréal, on November 3, 1993. Buried, Bishops' Chapel, metropolitan cathedral, Montréal.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 503-505.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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GRENTE, Georges-François-Xavier-Marie
(1872-1959)

Birth. May 5, 1872, Percy, diocese of Coutances, France. Son of Émile Grente, merchant of wines and groceries, and Augustine Victoire Gihaut Montsurvent. He had an older brother, Henri. He received first communion at the church of Percy.

Education. Diocesan Collège of Saint-Lô, October 4, 1886 to July 1891 (baccalaureate), where he was condisciple of Pierre-Marie Gerlier, future cardinal; University of Paris School of Law (thesis in letters on poet Jean Bertrand; obtained a doctorate in law); Major Seminary of Coutances, Coutances, February 1892; Institut Catholique, Paris.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1895; celebrated his first mass at the church of Percy on the following July 7. Faculty member of the Minor Seminary of Mortain, 1895-1903. Director of the diocesan college of Saint Lo, 1903-1916. In July 1914 he was named rector of the Catholic University of Lille, but because of the First World War could not occupy the post. Superior of Institut Saint-Paul de Cherbourg, 1916-1918. Honorary canon of the cathedral chapter of Coutances, 1917.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Le Mans, January 30, 1918; he was the youngest French bishop. Consecrated, April 17, 1918, church of Notre Dame du Vœu, Cherbourg, by Cardinal Louis-Ernest Dubois, archbishop of Rouen, assisted by Claude Bardel, bishop of Sées, and by Joseph Guérard, bishop of Coutances. His episcopal motto was Dux untinam exemplar. Assistant at Pontifical Throne, January 18, 1933. Elected member of Academie Française on November 12 1936; received on the following November 25 by Duke de La Force. Archbishop ad personam, March 16, 1943.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Bernardo alle Terme, January 15, 1953. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. He was a prolific writer and published numerous works throughout his life (1).

Death. May 5, 1959, of influenza, early in the morning, Le Mans. The solemn funeral was celebrated by Louis Ferrand, archbishop of Tours. Buried in the crypt of the cathedral of Le Mans. On June 13, 1959, Msgr. Émile Arsenius Blanchet, titular bishop of Lero, rector of the Catholic Institute of Paris, pronounced the panegyric of the late cardinal at the cathedral of Le Mans. His heart was deposited in the parish church of Percy, his birthplace. At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 325-326; Guérande, Louis. Le Cardinal Grente, un prélat humaniste au XXe siècle; chroniques sur ses ouvrages et son action. Rennes : Impr. Bretonne, 1958; Gury, Christian. Le Cardinal Grente. Paris : Éditions Kimé, 1995. (Collection "Détours littéraires").

Link. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the list of his books, taken from the site of Academie Française: Quae fuerit in cardinali Davy du Perron vis oratoria (1903); Le poète Jean Bertaut, abbé d'Aunay, Premier Aumônier de la Reine, évêque de Séez (1903) La Composition et le Style (1909); Saint Pie V (1914); La bienheureuse Marie-Madeleine Postel (1917) Semailles et semeurs, propos déducation (1918); uvres oratoires et pastorales, 10 vol. (1920-1955); Une mission au Levant (1922); Aux parents : les vices actuels de l'éducation familiale (1924); Le beau voyage des cardinaux français aux États-Unis et au Canada (1927); Le 13e centenaire de l'abbaye de Jouarre (1931); Dix siècles de Cotentin normand (1933); Fléchier (1934); Rayons de France (1935); Écrits et paroles (1937); Notre Dame (1939); Les pensées de Joubert (1941); Léminence grise. Frangais et Chrétiens (1941); La magnificence des Sacrements (1945); Sainte Jeanne de France : les épines dune couronne (1950); Notre Père (1953); Paroles romaines (1953); Vie et passion de Jeanne d'Arc (1955); Ces Français qui furent des saints (1956); Aimer et servir (1959);


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GRIFFIN, Bernard William
(1899-1956)

Birth. February 21, 1899, Oakfiled Road, Cannon Hill, Birmingham, England. He was the twin son of William Griffin, a cycle manufacturer's manager and city councillor, and his wife, Helen Swadkins; they had five children; his younger twin brother, Walter Basil, became a Benedictine at the Douai abbey community; and one of his three sisters joined the Sisters of Mercy.

Education. Studied at King Edward's Grammar School, Birmingham; at Cotton College, a junior seminary, Staffordshire, from 1913 to 1917; together with his twin brother Walter Basil, he joined the ranks of the Royal Naval Air Service from 1917 until 1918, he spent the final year of the First World War; at Oscott College, Birmingham, from 1919 to 1922; at the Venerable English College, Rome, 1922, where the rector was Monsignor Arthur Hinsley, future cardinal; at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in theology in 1924; and at the Venerable Beda College, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in canon law in 1927.

Priesthood. Ordained, November 1, 1924, Rome. Further studies, Rome, 1924-1927. Secretary to the archbishops of Birmingham, John McIntyre and Thomas Williams, 1927-1937. Parish priest of Coleshill and administrator of Father Hudson's Homes from 1927 to 1943. Chancellor of archdiocese of Birmingham; and vicar general; director of studies of Catholic Evidence Guild, and Catholic representative on religious advisory committee of British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), between 1929 and 1938. Administrator of diocesan charitable homes, 1937-1943.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Appia and appointed auxiliary of Birmingham, May 26, 1938. Consecrated, June 30, 1938, in the cathedral of Saint Chad, Birmingham, by Thomas Williams, archbishop of Birmingham, assisted by John Patrick Barrett, bishop of Plymouth, and by William Lee, bishop of Clifton. His episcopal motto was Da mihi animas. He served as an air raid warden during the Battle of Britain, July 10 to October 31, 1940. Promoted to metropolitan see of Westminster, December 18, 1943.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Andrea e Gregorio al Monte Celio, February 22, 1946. Papal legate to the centennial celebrations of the restoration of the Catholic Hierarchy in England, London, September 16, 1950.

Death. August 20, 1956, of a heart attack, while holidaying at "Winwaloe", a resting house, in Polzeath Bay, Cornwall. A funeral cortege brought his body back to London. He was buried in the crypt of the metropolitan cathedral of Westminster, London, under the place where the old wooden throne of the vicars apostolic had been for many years.

Bibliography. Bellenger, Dominc Aidan and Stella Fletcher. Princes of the church. A history of the English cardinals. Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire : Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2001, p. 156-157 and 178; La Bedoyere, Marc de. Cardinal Bernard Griffin. London: Burns and Oates, 1955; Quinlan, John. Our English cardinals, including the English pope. Alcester ; Dublin : C. Goodliffe Neale, 1972, p. 98-100; Schofield, Nicholas ; Skinner, Gerard. The English cardinals. Oxford, UK : Family Publications, 2007, p. 199-202; Walsh, Michael J. The Westminster cardinals : the past and the future. London ; New York : Burns & Oates, 2008, p. 135-153.

Link. His portrait and biography, in English, archdiocese of Westminster; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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GRILLMEIER, S.J., Alois
(1910-1998)

Birth. January 1, 1910, Pechbrunn, diocese of Regensburg, Germany. One brother was also a Jesuit priest.

Education. Classical Lyceum, Regensburg; Minor Seminary of Regensburg, Regensburg. Joined the Society of Jesus, April 11, 1929; Novitiate of Tisis, Austria, where he took the first vows, April 16, 1931; Philosophical Faculty, Pullach, Münich (licentiate in philosophy); Theological Faculty, Valkenburg, Holland and Frankfürt, Germany (licentiate in theology); the Jesuits were expelled by the Nazis, October 12, 1939 and he had to go to Austria; Theological Faculty, Innsbruck, Austria; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; Jesuit House of scriptors, Münich; Theological Faculty, Freiburg im Breisgau (doctorate in dogmatic theology). Third probation, Rottmannshöhe, Münich, and Feldkirch, Austria; took the final vows, Pullach, August 15, 1946.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 24, 1937, Münich. Further studies, 1937-1942. Military service in the German Army, February 11, 1942 to April 20, 1944, when the Jesuits were expelled because of not being "worthy of defending the motherland". Successively, 1944-1950, faculty member in Pullach and Buren (Westphalia). Faculty member, "St. Georgen" Jesuit theological, Frankfurt, 1950-1978. Counselor to Wilhelm Kempf, bishop of Limburg in the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965; member of the conciliar theological commission alongside Karol Wojtyla, archbishop of Kraków, Poland, 1963-1965; traveled four times to Zambia and Malawi to introduce the conciliar documents to bishops and missionaries. Chief-editor of the journal Scholastik, later Theologie und Philosophie, published by the Theological Faculty of Frankfurt, 1964-1970. Member of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences, 1993. Received honorary degrees from the universities of Mainz, Innsbruck and Bamberg.

Episcopate. Requested to be dispensed from the requirement of episcopal ordination and the dispensation was granted by Pope John Paul II.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere, November 26, 1994. He was 84 years when created a cardinal and, therefore, never had the right to participate in a conclave. He spent his last months in a home for aged Jesuits of the South German Province in Munich-Unterhaching, where he eventually died.

Death. September 13, 1998, Unterhaching, Bavaria, Germany. Buried at Jesuitenfriedhof des Berchmanskollegs in Pullach im Isartal, near Münich.

Links. Bibliography and biography by Theresia Hainthaler, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; photograph, bibliography and biography, in German, Philosophisch-Theologische Hochschule Sankt Georgen.


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GROCHOLEWSKI, Zenon
(1939-

Birth. October 11, 1939, Bródki, diocese of Poznań, Poland. Son of Stanisław Grocholewski and Józefa z Stawińskich. He is the third of four siblings.

Education. Studied at the Archiepiscopal Seminary of Poznań (philosophy and theology); at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (licentiate and doctorate in canon law; thesis: De exclusione indissolubilitatis ex consensu matrimoniali eiusque probatione); at "Studio Rotale", Sacred Roman Rota (lawyer "rotale"); took language courses in Germany and France. Besides his native Polish, he also speaks Italian and English. Received the subdiaconate on March 18, 1961, at the chapel of the Seminary of Poznań, from Antoni Baraniak, archbishop of Poznań; received the diaconate on May 27, 1962, in the cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul, Poznań, from the same archbishop.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 27, 1963, cathedral of Sts. Peter and Paul, Poznań, by Antoni Baraniak, S.D.B., archbishop of Poznań. Pastoral ministry in the parish of Christ the King, Poznań, 1963-1966. Further studies, Rome, 1966-1972. At the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, notary, 1972-1977; acting chancellor, 1977-1980; chancellor, 1980-1982; secretary, 1982-1998. Chaplain of His Holiness, December 6, 1977.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Agropoli and appointed secretary of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, December 21, 1982. Consecrated, January 6, 1983, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy, former archbishop of Bangalore, secretary of the S.C. of the Evangeliation of the Peoples. His episcopal motto is Illum oportet crescere. Promoted to archbishop, December 16, 1991. Special papal envoy to the consecration of the first Catholic church in Almaty, Kazakhstan, June 7, 1998. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, October 5, 1998. President of the Court of Cassation of Vatican City, October 5,1998 to November 15, 1999. Prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education; grand chancellor of the Pontifical Gregorian University and of its associated Pontifical Biblical Institute; grand chancellor of the Pontifical Institute of Sacred Music; grand chancellor of the Pontifical Institute of Christian Archeology; grand chancellor of the Pontifical Institute Arabic and Islamic Studies; patron of the Pontifical Superior Institute of "Latinità". Received a doctorate honoris causa from the Catholic Academy of Theology, 1998. Received a doctorate honoris causa from the Catholic University of Lublin on October 24, 1998. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; president of the commission for the discussion. Grand chancellor of the Faculty of Christian and Classic Letters in the Pontifical Salesian University, November 15, 1999.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere, February 21, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Special papal envoy to Ravenna for the celebration of the millennium anniversary of the departure of the holy monks Giovanni di Classe and Benedetto di Benevento for Eastern Europe, where they spread the Gospel, bearing witness to their faith in Christ with their blood. The event, which was called Ravenna in mission 1001-2001, took place April 28, 2002. Special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the 10th centennial of the martyrdom of San Benedetto da Benevento and companions, evangelizers of Poland, that took place in Benevento, Italy, November 13 to 14, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reappointed prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education and grand chancellor of the Pontifical Gregorian University, April 21, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World". Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 4th centennial of the foundation of the Pontifical University of "Santo Tomás" in Manila, Philippines, which took place on January 28, 2011. Opted for the order of cardinal priests in the consistory of February 21, 2011 and at his request his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the fourth centennial of the dedication of the cathedral of Włocławek, Poland, which took place on June 26, 2011. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. He was confirmed in the post of prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for Bishops on December 16, 2013.

Bibliography. Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 399-409.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Press Office of the Holy See; biography, in Polish, Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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GROËR, O.S.B., Hans Hermann
(1919-2003)

Birth. October 13, 1919, Vienna, Austria, of German parents; moved with his parents to Czechoslovakia in 1929 and lived there for ten years; attended Austrian schools; kept Czech citizenship until 1939. His second middle name was Wilhelm.

Education. Seminary of Hollabrunn, Hollabrunn; Seminary of Vienna, Vienna (doctorate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, April 12, 1942, Sankt Andreas chapel, archbishop`s palace, by Cardinal Theodor Innitzer, archbishop of Vienna. Military service and chaplain in Petronell and Bad Voeslau, 1942-1946. Prefect of studies, minor seminary of Hollabrunn and further studies, 1946-1952. Faculty member, Institute of Hollabrunn, 1952-1974; organizer of the traditional pilgrimages to the shrine of Our Lady of Roggendorf; chamberlain of honor, July 31, 1963; rector of the shrine and director of pilgrimages, 1969-1976; National spiritual director of the Legion of Mary, 1974. Joined the Order of St. Benedict, abbey of Göttweig, diocese of Sankt Pölten, 1974; took the name Hermann; solemn profession, September 8, 1980, Göttweig. Spiritual director and rector of the church of the convent of Mariendorf, Marian shrine of Our Lady of Roggendorf, 1982-1986.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Vienna, July 15, 1986. Consecrated, September 14, 1986, metropolitan cathedral of Vienna, by Cardinal Franz König, archbishop emeritus of Vienna, assisted by Karl Berg, archbishop of Salzburg, and by Stefan László, bishop of Eisenstadt. His episcopal motto was In verbo autem tuo. Ordinary for the faithful of the Byzantine rite residing in Austria, February 21, 1987; resigned the post, September 14, 1995.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Gioacchino ed Anna al Tuscolano, June 28, 1988. Attended the VIII Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Special Assembly of the Synod of the Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Vienna, September 14, 1995, under accusations of sexual abuse. After his resignation, he became abbot of the monastery of Roggendorf until 1998. Relinquished all ecclesiastical duties and privileges as an archbishop and cardinal and left Austria, after he was asked to do so by Pope John Paul II, April 14, 1998. He never admitted any guilt. State prosecution never took place because the statute of limitations had long since expired when the allegations occurred. At the request of the Vatican, he spent several months near Dresden, Germany. Later, he lived in retirement at the priorate of Sankt Josef, Marienplatz, Maria Roggendorf, Austria. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 13, 1999.

Death. March 24, 2003, of pneumonia, during the night, at a hospital in Sankt Pölten, about 40 miles west of Vienna, where he was being treated for cancer. Buried in the cemetery of the Cistercian monastery of Marienfeld, Austria (1).

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the simple inscription in his tomb, provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

HANS HERMANN CARD. GROER
13.10.1919      24.03.2003


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GUARDINI, Romano
(1885-1968)

Birth. February 17, 1885, Verona, Italy. Son of Romano Tullo Guardini and Paolo Maria Bernardinella. His baptismal name was Romano Michele Antonio Maria. He had three brothers, Gino, Mario and Aleardo. In 1886, the family moved to Mainz, Germany.

Education. Gymnasium of Mainz (graduated in August 1903; humanities); studied chemistry and then economics in Tübingen, Münich, and Berlin, 1903-1905; in August 1905, he experienced a religious conversion and the following November decided to study for the priesthood; studied theology in Freiburg, Tübingen, and Mainz, 1906-1910; doctoral studies at the University of Freiburg, October 1912 (obtained a doctoral degree in May 1915; dissertation: Die Lehre des heiligen Bonaventura von der Erlösung; it was published in 1922); studies for his "Habilitation" in Bonn, 1920.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 28, 1910, by Georg Heinrich Kirstein, bishop of Mainz. He celebrated his first mass the next day in the Abbey of Beuron with the chalice given to him by his parents as a present for his ordination. Curate in the diocese of Mainz, 1910-1912. Further studies, Freiburg, 1912-1915. Became a German citizen in 1911. Curate in the diocese of Mainz and chaplain to "Iuventus", 1915-1920. His father died in September 1919 and his mother and brothers moved to Lake Como and eventually to Isola Vicentina. Further studies, Bonn, 1920; in Easter of that year, he attended a meeting of the youth movement "Quickborn" in Burg Rothenfels. In 1923, he began to teach "Religionsphilosophie und Katholische Weltanschauung" at the University of Berlin. Together with Josef Aussem, became co-editor of Die Schildgenossen in 1924. In 1927, he became the national leader of "Quickborn" and the spiritual leader at Burg Rothenfels. Preacher at St. Benedict chapel in Berlin, 1928-1942. In February 1939, he was dismissed by the Third Reich from his professorship; and in August, the SS seized Burg Rothenfels and the Reich disbanded "Quickborn". From 1939 to 1943, he remained in Berlin, continued to write, and lectured at St. Canisius church. In 1941, the Reich suppressed Die Schildgenossen and prohibited Fr. Guardini from giving public addresses. From 1943 to 1945, he resided in Mooshausen with Fr. Josef Weiger. From 1945 to 1947, he was professor of "Religionsphilosophie und Christliche Weltanschauung" at the University of Tübingen; and 1948 to 1963, taught the same subject at the University of Münich; also, during those years, he preached every Sunday at St. Ludwig's church. On February 21, 1952, Pope Pius XII named him domestic prelate. That same year, he was awarded the Peace Prize of the German Book Association. In 1954, he was awarded an honorary doctorate in philosophy by the University of Freiburg. He was received into the Peace Society of the Order "Pour le Mérite" in 1958. The following year, 1959, he was awarded the Medal of Distinguished Service by the West German government; and in 1962, the "Erasmus Prize". In the Fall 1959, he had to stop teaching at the University of Münich because of bad health; in 1963, he retired from the university. The University of Padua awarded him an honorary degree in 1965.

Cardinalate. According to numerous sources, Pope Paul VI offered him the promotion to the cardinalate in 1965 but he declined. He wrote more than 75 books and 100 articles in theology, divine revelation, Jesus Christ as mediator, liturgy, history of the church, religious literature, Nazism and the Christian acceptance of modernity. Respected theologians like Karl Rahner, S.J.; Hans Urs von Balthasar, quasi cardinal; and Joseph Ratzinger, later Pope Benedict XVI, have acknowledged his influence over their theological formation and thought. From 1965 to 1968, he had to be hospitalized several times.

Death. October 1, 1968, of a cerebral hemorrhage, in a hospital in Münich. Cardinal Julius Döpfner, archbishop of Münich und Freising, presided the funeral mass on October 4, 1968 at St. Ludwig church, Münich. After the funeral, he was buried in the small cemetery of the Oratorians in the church of St. Laurentius in Münich-Nymphenburg. In 1969, he was awarded posthumously an honorary doctorate in philosophy by the University of Bologna and in 1970, the Katholische Akademie in Bayern established the "Guardini Prize", whose early recipients were Karl Rahner in 1970; Hans Urs von Balthasar in 1971; Oswald Nell-Breuning in 1972; and Werner Heisenberg in 1973. In 1997, his remains were transferred to a side chapel beside the altar of that church; his name and a cross mark his final resting place.

Bibliography. Babolin, Albino. Romano Guardini-Filosofo dell'alterità. 2 vols. Bologna: Zanichelli, 1968-1969. Volume I: Realta e persona. Vol II: Situazione umana ed esperienza religiosa; Balthasar, Hans Urs von. Romano Guardini. Reform aus dem Ursprung. Münich : Kösel, 1970; Balthasar, Hans Urs von. Romano Guardini. Translated by Albert Wimmer. San Francisco : Ignatins Press, forthcoming; Berning-Baldeaux, Ursula. Person und BiIdung im Denken Romano Guardini. Wiirzburg : Echter, 1968; Binkowski, Johannes. Jugend als Wegbereiter. Stuttgart : Konrad Theiss, 1981; Biser, Eugen. Interpretation und Veranderung. Paderborn : Ferdinand Schöningh, 1979; Börsig-Hover, Lina. Das personale Antlitz des Menschen. Eine Untersuchung zum Personbegriff bei Romano Guardini. Mainz : Matthias Griinewald, 1987; Faber, Eva-Maria. Kirche zwischen Identitdt und Differenz. Würzburg : Echter, 1993; Fischer, Dorothee. Wort und Welt. Die Pneuma-Theologie Romano Guardinis als Beitrag zur Glaubensentdeckung und Glaubensbegldtung. Stuttgar t: W. Kohlhammer, 1993; Forster, Karl, ed. Akademische Feier zum 80. Geburtstag von Romano Guardini. Wütrzburg : Echter, 1965; Gerl, Hanna Barbara. Anfechtung und Treue: Romano Guardinis geistige Gestalt in ihrer heutigen Bedeutung. Donauwörth : Ludwig Auer, 1989; Gerl, Hanna Barbara. Begegungen in Mooshausen. Weissenhorn : Anton H. Konrad, 1990; Gerl, Hanna Barbara. Romano Guardini 1885-1968. Mainz : Matthias Grtinewald, 1985; Guardini, Romano. Letters from Lake Como : explorations in technology and the human race. Uniform Title: Briefe vom Comer See. English With an introduction by Louis Dupré ; translated by Geoffrey W. Bromiley. Grand Rapids, Mich. : W.B. Eerdmans, 1994. (Ressourcement; Variation: Ressourcement (Grand Rapids, Mich.)) Abstract: This book collects a fascinating series of letters written by theologian-philosopher Romano Guardini in the mid-1920s in which he works out for the first time his sense of the challenges of humanity in a culture increasingly dominated by the machine. With prophetic clarity and unsettling farsightedness, Guardini's letters poignantly capture the personal implications and social challenges of living in the technological age - concerns that have now come to fruition seventy years after they were first raised; Guardini, Romano. Meditations before mass. Translated from the German by Elinor Castendyk Briefs. Westminster, Md. : Newman Press, 1956, ©1955 Note: Translation of Besinnung vor der Feier der heiligen Messe; Halda, Bernard. Christianisme et humanisme chez Romano Guardini. Paris : Editions Fleurus, 1978; Haubenthaler, Reinhard. Askese und Freiheit bei Romano Guardini. Paderborn : Ferdinand Schöningh, 1995; Henrich, Franz. Die Bünde der katholischen lugendbewegung. Münich : Kösel, 1968; Honnefelder, Ludger, and Mattbias Lutz-Bachmann, eds. Auslegungen des Glaubens Zur Hermeneutik christlicher Existenz. Berlin : Morus, 1987; Kleiber, Hansruedi. Glaube und religiöse Erfahrung bei Romano Guardini. Freiburg : Herder, 1985; Knoll, Alfons. Glaube und Kultur bei Romano Guardini. Paderborn : Ferdinand Schöningh, 1993-; Krieg, Robert A. Romano Guardini, a precursor of Vatican II. Notre Dame : University of Notre Dame Press, 1997; Krieg, Robert A., ed. Romano Guardini: Proclaiming the Sacred in a Modern World. Chicago : Liturgy Training Publications, 1995; Kuhn, Helmut. Romano Guardini. Münich: Kösel, 1961; Kuhn, Helmut. Romano Guardini, Philosoph der Sorge. St. Ottilien : EOS, 1987; López Quintas, Alfonso. Romano Guardini y la dieléctica de lo viviente. Madrid : Los Libros del Monograma, 1966; Marschall, Martin. In Wahrheit beten. St. Ottilien : EOS, 1986; Mercker, Hans. Christliche Weltanschauung als Problem: Untersuchungen zur Grundstruktur im Werk Romano Guardinis. Paderborn : Ferdinand Schöningh, 1988; Mercker, Hans; Katholische Akademie in Bayern, eds. Bibliographie Romano Guardini (1885-1968). Paderborn : Ferdinand Schöningh, 1978; Negri, Luigi. La antropologia di Romano Guardini. Milan : Jaca, 1989; Ratzinger, Joseph, ed. Wege zur Wahrheit. Düsseldorf : Patmos, 1985-; Richter, Klemens ; Arno Schilson, eds. Den Glauben feiern. Mainz : Matthias Grünewald, 1989; Ruster, Thomas. Die verlorene Niitzlichkeit der Religion. Paderborn : Ferdinand Schöningh, 1994; Schilson, Arno, ed. Konservative mit Blick nach Vorn: Versuche zu Romano Guardini. Würzburg : Echter, 1994; Schilson, Arno. Perspektiven theologischer Erneuerung. Düsseldorf : Patmos, 1986; Schlette, Heinz Robert. Romano Guardini. Werk und Wirkung. Bonn : Bouvier, 1985; Schmucker von Koch, Joseph F. Autonomie und Transzendenz: Untersuchungen zur Religionsphilosophie Romano Guardinis. Mainz : Matthias Grünewald, 1985; Schuster, Hermann Josef, ed. Guardini Weiterdenken. Berlin : Guardini Stiftung, 1993; Seidel, Walter, ed. "Christliche Weltanschauung'". Wiederbegegnung mit Romano Guardini. Würzburg : Echter, 1985; Watzal, Ludwig. Das Politische bei Romano Guardini. Percha am Starnberger See : R. S. Schulz, 1987; Wechsler, Fridolin. Romano Guardini als Kerygmatiker. Paderborn : Ferdinand Schöningh, 1973; Wucherer-Huldenfeld, Karl. Die Gegensatzphilosophie Romano Guardinis in ihren Grundlagen und Folgerungen. Vienna : Verlag Notring, 1968.

Links. Photographs and biographical information, in German; photographs and biography, in German; postal stamp and biography, in English; photograph and profile, in Italian; and photograph and biographical chronology, in German; Benedict XVI Has a Father, Romano Guardini by Sandro Magister, Chiesa, October 1, 2008.

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GUERRI, Sergio
(1905-1992)

Birth. December 25, 1905, Tarquinia, Italy.

Education. Interdiocesan Seminary of Montefiascone, Montefiascone; Seminary of Viterbo, Viterbo; Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome; Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome; Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 30, 1929. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Tarquinia, 1931-1937. Further studies, 1929-1931. Administrator of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," 1937-1941. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, April 11, 1940. Official of the Institute for Works of Religion, 1941-1946; substitute secretary, 1946-1948. Pro-secretary of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Holy See, March 9, 1948. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 19, 1949. Secretary of the Cardinalitial Commission for the Administration of the Patrimony of the Holy See, January 1, 1951. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, April 25, 1952. Secretary of the Administrative Secretariat for the Preparation of the Second Vatican Council, June 22, 1960. Delegate for the Special Administration of the Holy See, October 4, 1961. Administrative secretary of the II Vatican Council, 1960-1965. Secretary of the Administration of the Patrimony of Holy See, May 7, 1968. Pro-president ad interim of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City, November 6, 1968.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Trevi, April 11, 1969. Consecrated, April 27, 1969, chapel of the Lateran Seminary, Rome, by Cardinal Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, secretary of State, cardinal bishop of title of suburbicarian see of Frascati, assisted by Joseph Mark McShea, bishop of Allentown, and by Plinio Pascoli, titular bishop of Suava, auxiliary of Rome.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ss.mo Nome di Maria al Foro Troiano, April 30, 1969. Confirmed as pro-president of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City.Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Resigned the pro-presidency, September 26, 1981. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, December 25, 1985.

Death. March 15, 1992, Vatican City. After learning the news of his death, Pope John Paul II visited his Vatican apartment and prayed before his body. Buried in his family's chapel in the cemetery of Tarquinia.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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GUEVARA, Juan Gualberto
(1882-1954)

Birth. July 12, 1882, Villa de Vitor, diocese of Arequipa (archdiocese since 1943), Perú. Son of Simón Guevara and Eulogia Cuba.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of San Jerónimo, Arequipa; received the minor orders, the subdiaconate and the diaconate from Bishop Manuel Segundo Ballón of Arequipa; he also studied at the University of San Agustín, Arequipa, where he entered in 1912 and obtained a bachelor's in letters; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in canon law in 1922.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 2, 1906, Arequipa, by Bishop Ismael Puirredón of Arequipa. Pastoral ministry in Arica, 1906-1910; vice pastor and chaplain of Yura; expelled by Chile when it claimed the province of Arica. Vice-rector of the Seminary of Arequipa, 1914-1920. Further studies, 1910-1912. Staff member of El Deber, oldest newspaper in southern Perú, 1916-1940; its director, 1928-1940. Sacristan of the cathedral of Arequipa, 1916-1920. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 10, 1936.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Trujillo, Perú, December 15, 1940. Consecrated, March 2, 1941, Arequipa, by Fernando Cento, titular archbishop of Seleucia Pieria, nuncio in Perú, assisted by Felipe Santiago Hermosa y Sarmiento, bishop of Cuzco, and by Domingo Juan Vargas, O.P., titular bishop of Gerara, former bishop of Huaraz. His episcopal motto was Dominus illuminatio mea. Promoted to archbishop when Trujillo was elevated to metropolitan see, May 23, 1943. During his episcopate in Trujillo, he carried out an exhaustive visitation of his extensive jurisdiction up to Pataz; the separation of the school of externs from the seminary; the celebration of the Third National Eucharistic Congress, on October 27-31, 1943; and the canonical coronation of Our Lady of the Gate of Otuzco in 1944. Named military vicar of Perú on January 13, 1945. Transferred to the metropolitan and primatial see of Lima on December 16, 1945.Took possession of the see through a delegate on January 11, 1946 because he had to leave for Rome to receive the red hat.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat, February 21, 1946; and the title of S. Eusebio, February 28, 1946. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Sucre, Bolivia, June 16, 1946. He died while the 5th National Eucharistic and Marian Congress was being celebrated in Lima. He was the first Peruvian cardinal.

Death. November 27, 1954, of a heart attack after a long battle with cancer, in Lima, on the eve of celebrating the Fifth National Eucharistic and Marian Congress of Perú, which he had diligently prepared and organized. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Lima (1).

Links. His portrait and biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; chronography, in English, Catholic Hierarchy; his photograph, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; and catalog of the archbishops of Lima, in Spanish, Wikipedia.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

HIC JACET JOANNES GUALBERTUS GUEVARA, ARCHIEPISCOPUS LIMAE, PRIMAS PERUVIAE
QUI ORNATUS PURPURA CARDENALITIA, PRIMUS FUIT. INGENIO, VIRTUTE, PRAESTANS, SCRIPTIS, ROBORE,
APOSTOLICO ZELO ATQUE. CARITATE IN ECCLESIA PRAEFULSIT.
OMNIA BENE FECIT SEMPER IN MENTE HABENS MAJOREM DEI LAUDEM ANIMARUMQUE SALUTEM.
OBDORMIVIT IN DOMINO DIE 26 NOVEMBRIS 1954
REQUIESCAT IN CHRISTI PACE!


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GUISASOLA Y MENÉNDEZ, Victoriano
(1852-1920)

Birth. April 21, 1852, Oviedo, Spain. Nephew of Victoriano Guisasola Rodríguez, archbishop of Santiago de Compostela (1886-1888).

Education. Seminary of Oviedo, Oviedo (licentiate in theology); University of Oviedo, Oviedo (doctorate in canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained, 1876, by his uncle. Professor of canon law, Seminary of Ciudad Real and beneficiary canon of its cathedral, 1876-1882; canon, 1880-1882. Chancellor-secretary to his uncle the bishop of Orihuela, 1882-1884. Canon schoolmaster and vicar general of Orihuela, 1884-1886. Cathedral canon of Santiago de Compostela, 1886-1893; vicar capitular at the death of his uncle, 1888.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Osma, June 15, 1893. Consecrated, October 1, 1893, cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, by José María Martín de Herrera y de la Iglesia, archbishop of Compostela, assisted by Manuel Fernández de Castro y Menéndez, bishop of Mondoñedo, and by Valeriano Menéndez Conde, titular bishop of Tamaso, auxiliary of Toledo. Transferred to diocese of Jaén, April 19, 1897. Senator of the Spanish kingdom, from 1899 until his death. Transferred to diocese of Madrid-Alcalá, December 16, 1901. Promoted to metropolitan see of Valencia, December 14, 1905. Member of the Royal Academies of Moral and Juridical Sciences from 1906, and of History from 1910. Transferred to metropolitan and primatial see of Toledo and patriarchate of West Indies, January 1, 1914.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1914; received the red biretta from King Alfonso XIII of Spain, June 3, 1914; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati, September 8, 1914. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV.

Death. September 2, 1920, Madrid. Buried in the chapel of the Seminary of Toledo.

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 58; Olmos Canalda, Elías. Los prelados valentinos. Madrid : Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Instituto Jerónimo Zurita, 1949.

Links. Portrait and biography, in Spanish, archdiocese of Valencia, Spain; and photographs, Araldica Vaticana.


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GULBINOWICZ, Henryk Roman
(1923-

Birth. October 17, 1923, Szukiski, archdiocese of Vilnius, Poland (now Lithuania). Son of Antoni Gulbinowicz and Waleria z Gajewskich. Baptized in the church of Our Lady of the Scapular and St. George in Bujwidze, by the parish priest Aleksander Dulko. He received the sacrament of confirmation in in 1940 in Vilnius from Romuald Jałbrzykowski, archbishop of Vilnius. His parents altered his birth records, with the help of a local priest, so that he could avoid being enlisted in the Red Army of the Soviet Union, or sent to a labor camp (1); 1928 was entered as the year of birth; the correct year of birth was not publicly acknowledged until February 2005.

Education. Seminary of Vilnius, Vilnius; Seminary of Białystok, Białystok; Catholic University of Lublin, Lublin (doctorate in moral theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 18, 1950, pro-cathedral of the Assumption, Białystok, by Romuald Jałbrzykowski, archbishop of Vilnius; incardinated in the diocese of Białystok, Poland. Pastoral ministry in Białystok, 1950-1951. Further studies, 1951-1955, Lublin. Chaplain of the Academy of Bialystok, 1956-1959. Faculty member, Seminary of Warmia, Warmia, and officer in the diocesan curia of Olsztyn, 1959-1970.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Acci and apostolic administrator of Białystok, Polish territory of the archdiocese of Vilnius, January 12, 1970. Consecrated, February 8, 1970, pro-cathedral of the Assumption, Białystok, by Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski, archbishop of Gniezno and Warsaw, assisted by Józef Drzazga, titular bishop of Siniando, apostolic administrator, ad nutum Sanctæ Sedis, for the Central and Southern part of the diocese of Warmia, and by Kazimierz Majdański, titular bishop of Zorolo, auxiliary of Włocławek. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Wrocław, January 3, 1976.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of Immacolata Concezione di Maria a Grottarossa. Attended the VIII Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when he turned 80 years old, October 17, 2003. The pope accepted his resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese for having reached the age limit, in conformity with canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law, April 3, 2004.

Bibliography. Nitecki, Piotr. Biskupi Kościoła w Polsce w latach 965-1999. Słownik biograficzny. Przedmowa Henryk Gulbinowicz. Warszawa : Instytut Wydawniczy "Pax", Warszawa 2000, col. 135-136; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 363-370.

Links. Photograph, arms and biography, in Polish, archdiocese of Wrocław; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Lithuania was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1944, and many seminarians were pressed into military service or sent to labor camps.


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GUSMINI, Giorgio
(1855-1921)

Birth. December 9, 1855, Gazzaniga, diocese of Bergamo, Lombardy, Austrian Empire. Son of Santo Gusmini and Maddalena Cagnoni; the father died when Giorgio was five years old.

Education. Seminary of Bergamo, Bergamo, November 4, 1869-1875 (ginnasiali and liceali studies); sent to Rome, he resided at Collegio Cersaoli; Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome, April 1875 (philosophy and theology; obtained a doctorate in theology, July 7, 1878); Royal University of Padua, Padua (doctorate in belle lettere, 1882).

Priesthood. Ordained, September 8, 1878, Rome, by Giulio Lenti, titular archbishop of Side, vice-gerent of Rome. Professor of letters and philosophy at the Seminary of Bergamo, 1882-1888. Professor of letters, philosophy and history at Collegio San Alessandro, Bergamo, 1888-1890. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Bergamo, 1878-1880. Further studies, 1880-1882. One of the founders of Società Cattolica Universitaria, now F.U.C.I. Pastoral ministry in Bergamo, 1888-1910. Municipal counselor and president of the Bureau of Beneficence of Bergamo; provincial counselor of Mandamento di Gandin, 1886-1902. Archpriest and vicar foraneus in Clusone, 1902. Privy chamberlain supra numerum, December 16, 1901; reappointed, October 20, 1903. Provost of the parish of S. Alessandro in Colonna, the most populous parish of Bergamo, 1909. Ecclesiastical assistant of the diocesan board of the Catholic Action and member of the administrative council of the newspaper "L'Eco di Bergamo". Prosynodal examiner and socius of the council of vigilance. He published several works among them, "La vita spirituale" in four volumes; "La missione sociale del clero"; "Le omelie populari"; and a historical summary of Italian literature and a shorter version of the same for secondary schools.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Foligno, April 15, 1910. Consecrated, May 16, 1910, Bergamo, by Giacomo Maria Radini Tedeschi, bishop of Bergamo, assisted by Luigi Spandre, bishop of Asti, and by Antonio Padovani, titular bishop of Canope, auxiliary of Cremona. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Bologna, September 8, 1914.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 6, 1915; received the red hat and the title of S. Susanna, December 9, 1915.

Death. August 24, 1921, at 7 a.m., after a long illness, Bologna. The funeral, celebrated by Cardinal Vittorio Amedeo Ranuzzi de' Bianchi, took place on August 25, 1921, in the metropolitan cathedral of Bologna. Vincenzo Bacchi, bishop of Faenza, Paolino Giovanni Tribbioli, O.F.M.Cap., bishop of Imola, Gherardo Sante Menegazzi, O.F.M.Cap., bishop of Commacchio, and other prelates were also in attendance. Buried in the Carthusian cemetery of Bologna. Transferred to the metropolitan cathedral of Bologna, April 22, 1923; the following day, his remains were buried in the chapel of S. Anna (1).

Bibliography. Il Cardinale Giorgio Gusmini. Bergamo : Sc. tip. Patronato di Bergamo, 1971. Contents: Pino Gusmini. Il pensiero sociale del card. Giorgio Gusmini nel movimento cattolico e nell'azione pastorale.--Francesco Vistalli. Biografia del card. Giorgio Gusmini (1855-1921); Meluzzi, Luciano. I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna. Bologna : Grafica Emiliana, 1975. (Collana Storico-Ecclesiastica, 3), pp. 566-572; Valoti, Piermauro. Il Cardinale Giorgio Gusmini. Bergamo : Società Editora S. Alessandro, 1955.

Links. Biographical data, in Italian, archdiocese of Bologna; and photographs, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) In the south side, first pillar on the south side thereof, there is a memorial tablet, a coat of arms of the cardinal at the top, then a portrait bust, by Arturo Orsoni, 1923, with the legend FORTITER ET SUAVITER; and the text of the inscription, provided by Mr. Mark West, London, England:

HONORI ET QUIETI
GEORGII GUSMINI
DOMO BERGAMO
PRAESB. CARD. T.S. SUSANNAE. ARCHIEP. BON
VIRI INGENIO ET SOLLERTIA PRAESTANTISS
DE RE SOCIALI EGREGIE MERITI
QUI. PRAEP. ECCL. FULGINATIUM. ANN. IV. NOSTRAE. VII
NITORE VIRTUTUM FACTIS SCRIPTISQUE
UTRAMQUE HONESTAVIT
DEC. SUM. CIV. LUCTU. IX. K. SEPT. A. MCMXXI. ANN. NAT. LXVI


and then at the foot of pillar just above the floor are the words

QUEM
CLERUS POPULUSQUE
E COEMITERIO PUBLICO ELATUM
IN HOC MONUM. STIPE CONLATA EXSTRUCTO
COMPOSUERE IX. K. MAIAS. AB. EIUS. OB. A. SECONDO


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GUT, O.S.B., Benno Walter
(1897-1970)

Birth. April 1, 1897, Reiden, diocese of Basel, Switzerland. His father was a teacher and organist.

Education. Joined the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) at the Abbey of Einsiedeln; on January 1, 1918, at the Abbey College of Einsiedeln, he took the religious vows and the name of Benno, which was the name of the rector of the abbey, Benno Kuene, who had died a short time before; Musical Conservatory of Basel, Basel; University of Basel, Basel; International College of Saint Anselm, Rome; Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 10, 1921, Rome. Further studies, 1921-1923. Pastoral ministry in the Abbey of Einsiedeln, 1923-1930. Faculty member of the International College of Saint Anselm, Rome, 1930-1939. Faculty member and prefect of the Abbey College of Einsiedeln, 1939-1947. Elected abbot ordinary of Einsiedeln, April 15, 1947; received the abbatial benediction from Filippo Bernardini, titular archbishop of Antiochia di Pisidia, nuncio in Switzerland, May 5, 1947. Elected fourth abbot primate of the Benedictine Confederation, September 24, 1959. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tuccabora, June 10, 1967. Consecrated, June 18, 1967, abbey of Einsiedeln, by Cardinal Eugène Tisserant, bishop of title of Ostia and Porto e Santa Rufina, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by Joseph Hasler, bishop of Sankt Gallen, and by Johannes Vonderach, bishop of Chur. His episcopal motto was Gaudete in Domino semper.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 26, 1967; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, June 29, 1967. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites and president of the "Consilium" for the Application of the Liturgical Reform, January 8, 1968. Prefect of the S.C. for Divine Worship, May 7, 1969. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969.

Death. December 8, 1970, during the night in a Roman hospital, after suffering from an acute circulatory ailment. Buried in the abbey church of Maria Einsiedeln, Switzerland, on December 12, 1970.

Links. His portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; and The Abbots Primate of the Benedictine Confederation, The Order of Saint Benedict.


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GUYOT, Louis-Jean
(1905-1988)

Birth. July 7, 1905, Bordeaux, France. His baptismal name was Louis-Jean-Frédéric.

Education. University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux; Seminary of Bordeaux, Bordeaux; Pontifical "Angelicum" Athenaeum, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1932, Bordeaux. Successively, 1932-1944, pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Bordeaux; further studies, archdiocesan chaplain of the Catholic Youth Organization; founder of Saint-Maurice Seminary for late vocations. Vicar general of Bordeaux, 1944-1949.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Elenopoli di Palestina and appointed coadjutor of Coutances, with right of succession, March 18, 1949. Consecrated May 4, 1949, metropolitan cathedral of Bordeaux, by Maurice Feltin, archbishop of Bordeaux, assisted by Joseph Martin, archbishop of Rouen, and by Alfred Ancel, titular bishop of Mirina, auxiliary of Lyon. His episcopal motto was Ut omnes unm sint. Succeeded to the see of Coutances, April 8, 1950. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Toulouse, April 28, 1966.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the title of S. Agnese fuori le mura, March 5, 1973. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, November 16, 1978. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, July 7, 1985.

Death. August 1, 1988, Bordeaux. Buried beside the main altar of the metropolitan cathedral of Toulouse (1).

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 33-334.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription in his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

Cardinal Jean GUYOT
1905 - 1988
Archevêque de Toulouse
1966 - 1978

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