The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
(1903-2011)
G

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GEORGE, O.M.I., Francis Eugene
(1937-

Birth. January 16, 1937, Chicago, United States of America. Son of Francis J. George and Julia R. McCarthy. He contracted polio as a child and was rejected by Chicago's archdiocesan seminary because he had a limp; he now runs the archdiocese that once turned him away.

Education. Joined the Oblates of Mary Immaculate, August 14, 1957. St. Henry's Preparatory Seminary, Belleville; solemn profession, Godfrey, 1958; Pine Hills Scholasticate, Ottawa, Canada; University of Ottawa, Ottawa; Catholic University of America, Washington (master in philosophy); Tulane University, New Orleans (doctorate in philosophy); Pontifical Urban University, Rome (doctorate of sacred theology in ecclesiology, dissertation: Inculturation and communion).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1963, St. Pascal Church, Chicago, by Raymond Hillinger, titular bishop of Derbe, auxiliary of Chicago. Further studies, 1963-1965; 1967-1970. Faculty member, Creighton University, Omaha; chairman, Philosophy Department, 1970-1973. Provincial of United States Oblate Western region, 1973-1974. Vicar general of his institute, Rome, 1974-1986. Member and coordinator of the Circle of Associates of Cambridge Center for the Study of Faith and Culture, Boston 1986-1990.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Yakima, July 10, 1990. Consecrated, September 21, 1990, cathedral of Yakima, by Agostino Cacciavillan, titular archbishop of Amiterno, pro-nuncio in the United States of America, assisted by Roger Lawrence Schwietz, O.M.I., bishop of Duluth, and by William Stephen Skylstad, bishop of Spokane. His episcopal motto is Christo Gloria in Ecclesia. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Portland in Oregon, April 30, 1996. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Chicago, April 8, 1997. He is the first Chicagoan to occupy the see of his native city. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; its special secretary.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, February 21, 1998. Preached the Lent Spiritual Exercises of the Pope and the Roman Curia, March 4 to 10, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. He underwent surgery for bladder cancer in July 2007. Elected president of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops on November 13, 2007, for a three year term. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church"; elected member of the Twelfth Council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, October 22, 2008. Named member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See on October 23, 2010. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life on March 29, 2014; on that same date, he was confirmed as member of the Pontifical Council for Culture until the expiration of his mandate.

Bibliography. Cameli, Louis J. "George, Francis E." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyła years. Detroit, MI : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, p. 304-305.

Links. Photograph, arms and biography, in English, archdiocese of Chicago; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana; 'Vatileaks' sheds light on Cardinal George's role in politics by Manya A. Brachear, Chicago Tribune, Posted on Tue, Jun. 05, 2012 02:06 AM., The Kansas City Star; Cardinal enters Chick-fil-A fray, by Bridget Doyle, Chicago Tribune, August 2, 2012; Cardinal Francis George, Archbishop of Chicago, has cancer by Gerard O'Connell, Vatican Insider, 08/21/2012 Cardinal George speaks about cancer diagnosis, WTHITV10.com, Monday, 27 Aug 2012, 10:09 AM EDT.


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GHATTAS, C.M., Stéphanos II
(1920-2009)

Birth. January 16, 1920, Cheick Zein-el-Dine, eparchy of Sohag, Egypt. His baptismal name was Andraos but took the name Stéphanos when elected patriarch to show his devotion and affection for his predecessor, and to indicate continuity.

Education. Minor Seminary of Cairo, Cairo; Jesuit College of the Holy Family (classical education); Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide", Rome (doctorates in philosophy and theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, March 25, 1944, Rome. Professor of philosophy and of dogmatic theology, Major Seminary of Tahta, then of Tanta, Egypt, 1944-1952. Joined the Community of Priests of the Mission of St Vincent de Paul (Lazaristes) in 1952 and did his novitiate in Paris. Missionary work in Lebanon for six years. Treasurer, then superior of the Lazaristes in Alexandria, 1958-1967.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Luqsor of the Copts, May 8, 1967. Consecrated, June 9, 1967, church of the Lazaristes, Alexandria, by Cardinal Stéphanos I Sidarouss, C.M., patriarch of Alexandria of the Copts, assisted by Isaac Ghattas, bishop of Minya of the Copts, by Youhanna Nuer, bishop of Assiut of the Copts, and by Youhanna Kabes, titular bishop of Cleopatride, auxiliary of the diocese of Alexandria of the Copts. Apostolic administrator of the patriarchate of Alexandria of the Copts, February 24, 1984. Attended the Second Extraordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Elected patriarch of Alexandria of the Copts, June 9, 1986; took the name Stéphanos II. Granted ecclesiastica communio by the Pope, June 23, 1986. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; Special Assembly for Lebanon of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 26 to December 14, 1995. He has made numerous trips to Canada, Australia and the United States, where he founded the first parish of Coptic Catholics. President of the Synod of the Catholic Coptic Church and of the Assembly of the Catholic Hierarchy of Egypt.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal patriarch, February 21, 2001. Promoted to the cardinalate when he was over 80 years old, and thus, he did not have the right to participate in the conclave. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Resigned the office of patriarch, March 30, 2006. Since his retirement, he lived in the Saint Stephen Residence for Priests, in Cairo.

Death. January 20, 2009, at night, Italian hospital, Cairo. Cardinal Nasrallah Pierre Sfeir, patriarch of Antioch of the Maronites, attended the exequies as representative of the pope. Buried in the cathedral "Notre Dame d'Egypte" at Madinet-Nasr, Cairo.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, puslibani; and photograph and biography, in English, The Vincentian Encyclopedia.


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GIORDANO, Michele
(1930-2010)

Birth. September 26, 1930, S. Arcangelo, diocese of Anglona-Tursi, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Potenza; at the Pontifical Regional Seminary, Salerno; and at the Pontifical Inter-regional Seminary, Posillipo.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 5, 1953. Successively, 1953-1971, in the diocese of Anglona-Tursi, pastoral ministry; director of the center for social studies; diocesan assistant of the Catholic Action; professor of religion; vicar general. Chaplain of His Holiness, February 23, 1968.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Lari Castello and appointed auxiliary of Matera and apostolic administrator, sede vacante, of Gravina and Irsina, December 23, 1971. Consecrated, February 5, 1972, by Giacomo Palombella, bishop of Matera e Irsina, assisted by Dino Tomassini, bishop of Anglona-Tursi, and by Giuseppe Vairo, bishop emeritus of Gravina-Irsina. His episcopal motto was Sicut flumen pax tua. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Matera e Irsina, June 12, 1974. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Naples, May 9, 1987. President of the Episcopal Conference of Campania, Italy, September 24, 1987. Grand chancellor of the Pontifical Theological Faculty of Southern Italy.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Gioacchino ai Prati di Castello, June 28, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Special papal envoy to the fourth centennial celebration of the Shrine of Madonna dell'Arco, Italy, May 1, 1993; to the closing of the third centennial celebrations of the birth of St. Alphonse Maria Liguori, Pagani, Italy, November 23, 1997. On December 22, 2000, he was acquitted of the charges of complicity in a loan sharking ring that involved his nephew; the cardinal was charged with funneling E 898,553 to his nephew, who allegedly lent it at exorbitant interest rates to struggling businesses. On November 2, 2004, he was given a suspended prison sentence after being found guilty of renovating a building without permission; the criminal conviction was rejected by Italy's highest criminal court on April 28, 2005. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese was accepted on May 20, 2006, in conformity to canon 401§ 1 of the Code of Canon Law. Apostolic administrator of the metropolitan see of Naples from May 20, 2006 until the installation of his successor on July 1, 2006. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on September 26, 2010.

Death. December 2, 2010, at 11:05 p.m., after a brief illness, at Hospital "Monaldi", in Naples. In the previous week he had suddenly become ill and had been taken to that hospital. His condition had improved, but then it quickly deteriorated due to respiratory and cardiac complications. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Benedict XVI sent a telegram of condolence to Cardinal Crescenzio Sepe, current archbishop of Naples. Starting at noon on Friday December 3, the body of the late cardinal was exposed in the basilica dell'Incoronata Madre del Buon Consiglio in Capodimonte. The funeral took place on Saturday December 4, 2010, at 4:30 p.m., at that basilica. It was presided by Cardinal Sepe, and concelebrated by some fifty prelates. According to his wishes, the remains of Cardinal Giordano were buried that basilica, in a lateral chapel opposite to the one in which is buried Cardinal Corrado Ursi, his predecessor. A prize rewarding Catholic editors was named after Cardinal Giordano in 2012. The cardinal had himself organized an annual similar prize named "Premio Buone Notizie" during his episcopate in Naples.

Links. Photograph and biographical data, in Italian, archdiocese of Naples; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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GONZÁLEZ ZUMÁRRAGA, Antonio José
(1925-2008)

Birth. March 18, 1925, Pujilí, diocese of Latacunga, Ecuador. Son of Luis González and Leonor Benilde Zumárraga, who were small landowners. He had seven siblings.

Education. Minor Seminary "San Luis", Quito; Major Seminary "San José", Quito; Pontifical Ecclesiastical University, Salamanca, Spain (doctorate in canon law; thesis: "Problemas del Patronato Indiano a través del Gobierno Eclesiástico Pacífico de Fray Gaspar de Villarroel").

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1951, Quito, by Carlos María de la Torre, archbishop of Quito. Coadjutor of the pastor of "San Sebastián", 1951-1953; coadjutor of the pastor of "El Belén", 1953-1954. Further studies, Salamanca, 1954-1957. Vice-rector of the boarding school Borja,1957-1958. Vice-secretary of the metropolitan curia, 1958; and consecutively, faculty member of the Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador, 1958-1960. Also, faculty member, School of Religious Science and Faculty of Philosophical-Theological Sciences. Canon of the chapter of the metropolitan cathedral, 1961-1969. Faculty member of the school "Sagrados Corazones", Rumipamba, 1964-1966. Chancellor of the archdiocesan curia, 1964-1969. Rector of the school "Nuestra Madre de la Merced", 1961-1969.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tagarata and appointed auxiliary of Quito, May 17, 1969. Consecrated, June 15, 1969, cathedral of Quito, by Cardinal Pablo Muñoz Vega, S.J., archbishop of Quito, assisted by Manuel Jesús Serrano Abad, archbishop of Cuenca, and by Bernardino Echeverría Ruiz, O.F.M., archbishop of Guayaquil. His episcopal motto was Spiritus unitate unitas caritate. Apostolic administrator of Machala, 1976-1978. Transferred to the see of Machala, January 30, 1978. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979. Promoted to archbishop coadjutor, with right of succession, of Quito, June 28, 1980. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Quito, June 1, 1985. President of the Ecuadorian Episcopal Conference, 1987-1990 and 1990-1993. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Named by the Holy See primate of Ecuador, November 11, 1995. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria in Via, February 21, 2001. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 21, 2003. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, March 18, 2005.

Death. October 13, 2008, 5:30 a.m., at his home in Valle de los Chillos, Sangolquí, Quito, accompanied by his close relatives. The death was caused by a stomach cancer, which the cardinal had suffered for some time. His body was exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Quito, where the funeral took place on October 14, in the morning. The bishops of Ecuador, who were in the ad limina Apostolorum visit in Rome, concelebrated a mass of thanksgiving for the canonization of Narcisa de Jesús Martillo Morán, an Ecuadorian laywoman, which took place the day before, and for the eternal repose of the soul of the cardinal, in the papal Liberian basilica. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Benedict XVI prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to the apostolic nuncio in Ecuador, Giacomo Guido Ottonello, titular archbishop of Sasabe. The exequial mass was celebrated by the apostolic nuncio and by José Mario Ruiz Navas, archbishop emeritus of Poroviejo and former president of the Episcopal Conference of Ecuador. The late cardinal was buried in the crypt of the cathedral.

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 149.

Links. Photograph and biographical entry, in Spanish, Conferencia Episcopal Ecuatoriana, last on the list; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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GRÉGOIRE, Paul
(1911-1993)

Birth. October 24, 1911, Verdun, archdiocese of Montréal, Canada. Of a family of twelve children.

Education. Initial studies in a local school, Verdun; Minor Seminary of St. Thérèse, Blainville (classics); Major Seminary, Montréal (licentiate in theology); University of Montréal, Montréal, 1939-1942 (doctorates in philosophy and history; licentiate in letters and diploma in pedagogy).

Priesthood. Ordained, May 22, 1937, Montréal. Professor at the Seminary of St. Thérèse, Blanville, 1937-1939. Further studies, Montréal, 1939-1942. Director of the Seminary of St. Thérèse, Blanville, 1942-1950; faculty member of the Secondary Normal School and at the Pedagogical Institute, Montréal, 1942-1950; chaplain of university students, Montréal, 1950-1961.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Curubi and appointed auxiliary of Montréal, October 26, 1961. Consecrated, December 27, 1961, Montréal, by Cardinal Paul-Emile Léger, P.S.S., archbishop of Montréal, assisted by Émilien Frenette, bishop of Saint-Jérôme, and by Percival Caza, titular bishop of Albule, coadjutor of Valleyfield. His episcopal motto was Caritas et sapientia. Vicar general of Montréal. Apostolic administrator, ad nutum Sanctæ Sedis, of Montréal, December 11, 1967. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Montréal, April 20, 1968. Doctor honoris causa, University of Montréal, 1969; and St. Michael's College, Winooski Park, Vermont, United States of America. Attended the II Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of Nostra Signora del Ss.mo Sacramento e Ss. Martiri Canadesi, June 28, 1988. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 17, 1990. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 24, 1991. He dedicated his retirement years to work in charitable institutions such as Accueil Bonneau and Maison du Père.

Death. October 30, 1993, hospital of Notre Dame, Montréal, of a stomach cancer. The funeral was celebrated by Jean-Claude Turcotte, archbishop of Montréal, on November 3, 1993. Buried, Bishops' Chapel, metropolitan cathedral, Montréal.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 503-505.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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GRILLMEIER, S.J., Alois
(1910-1998)

Birth. January 1, 1910, Pechbrunn, diocese of Regensburg, Germany. One brother was also a Jesuit priest.

Education. Classical Lyceum, Regensburg; Minor Seminary of Regensburg, Regensburg. Joined the Society of Jesus, April 11, 1929; Novitiate of Tisis, Austria, where he took the first vows, April 16, 1931; Philosophical Faculty, Pullach, Münich (licentiate in philosophy); Theological Faculty, Valkenburg, Holland and Frankfürt, Germany (licentiate in theology); the Jesuits were expelled by the Nazis, October 12, 1939 and he had to go to Austria; Theological Faculty, Innsbruck, Austria; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; Jesuit House of scriptors, Münich; Theological Faculty, Freiburg im Breisgau (doctorate in dogmatic theology). Third probation, Rottmannshöhe, Münich, and Feldkirch, Austria; took the final vows, Pullach, August 15, 1946.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 24, 1937, Münich. Further studies, 1937-1942. Military service in the German Army, February 11, 1942 to April 20, 1944, when the Jesuits were expelled because of not being "worthy of defending the motherland". Successively, 1944-1950, faculty member in Pullach and Buren (Westphalia). Faculty member, "St. Georgen" Jesuit theological, Frankfurt, 1950-1978. Counselor to Wilhelm Kempf, bishop of Limburg in the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965; member of the conciliar theological commission alongside Karol Wojtyla, archbishop of Kraków, Poland, 1963-1965; traveled four times to Zambia and Malawi to introduce the conciliar documents to bishops and missionaries. Chief-editor of the journal Scholastik, later Theologie und Philosophie, published by the Theological Faculty of Frankfurt, 1964-1970. Member of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences, 1993. Received honorary degrees from the universities of Mainz, Innsbruck and Bamberg.

Episcopate. Requested to be dispensed from the requirement of episcopal ordination and the dispensation was granted by Pope John Paul II.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere, November 26, 1994. He was 84 years when created a cardinal and, therefore, never had the right to participate in a conclave. He spent his last months in a home for aged Jesuits of the South German Province in Munich-Unterhaching, where he eventually died.

Death. September 13, 1998, Unterhaching, Bavaria, Germany. Buried at Jesuitenfriedhof des Berchmanskollegs in Pullach im Isartal, near Münich.

Links. Bibliography and biography by Theresia Hainthaler, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; photograph, bibliography and biography, in German, Philosophisch-Theologische Hochschule Sankt Georgen.


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GROCHOLEWSKI, Zenon
(1939-

Birth. October 11, 1939, Bródki, diocese of Poznań, Poland. Son of Stanisław Grocholewski and Józefa z Stawińskich. He is the third of four siblings.

Education. Studied at the Archiepiscopal Seminary of Poznań (philosophy and theology); at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (licentiate and doctorate in canon law; thesis: De exclusione indissolubilitatis ex consensu matrimoniali eiusque probatione); at "Studio Rotale", Sacred Roman Rota (lawyer "rotale"); took language courses in Germany and France. Besides his native Polish, he also speaks Italian and English. Received the subdiaconate on March 18, 1961, at the chapel of the Seminary of Poznań, from Antoni Baraniak, archbishop of Poznań; received the diaconate on May 27, 1962, in the cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul, Poznań, from the same archbishop.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 27, 1963, cathedral of Sts. Peter and Paul, Poznań, by Antoni Baraniak, S.D.B., archbishop of Poznań. Pastoral ministry in the parish of Christ the King, Poznań, 1963-1966. Further studies, Rome, 1966-1972. At the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, notary, 1972-1977; acting chancellor, 1977-1980; chancellor, 1980-1982; secretary, 1982-1998. Chaplain of His Holiness, December 6, 1977.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Agropoli and appointed secretary of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, December 21, 1982. Consecrated, January 6, 1983, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy, former archbishop of Bangalore, secretary of the S.C. of the Evangeliation of the Peoples. His episcopal motto is Illum oportet crescere. Promoted to archbishop, December 16, 1991. Special papal envoy to the consecration of the first Catholic church in Almaty, Kazakhstan, June 7, 1998. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, October 5, 1998. President of the Court of Cassation of Vatican City, October 5,1998 to November 15, 1999. Prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education; grand chancellor of the Pontifical Gregorian University and of its associated Pontifical Biblical Institute; grand chancellor of the Pontifical Institute of Sacred Music; grand chancellor of the Pontifical Institute of Christian Archeology; grand chancellor of the Pontifical Institute Arabic and Islamic Studies; patron of the Pontifical Superior Institute of "Latinità". Received a doctorate honoris causa from the Catholic Academy of Theology, 1998. Received a doctorate honoris causa from the Catholic University of Lublin on October 24, 1998. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; president of the commission for the discussion. Grand chancellor of the Faculty of Christian and Classic Letters in the Pontifical Salesian University, November 15, 1999.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere, February 21, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Special papal envoy to Ravenna for the celebration of the millennium anniversary of the departure of the holy monks Giovanni di Classe and Benedetto di Benevento for Eastern Europe, where they spread the Gospel, bearing witness to their faith in Christ with their blood. The event, which was called Ravenna in mission 1001-2001, took place April 28, 2002. Special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the 10th centennial of the martyrdom of San Benedetto da Benevento and companions, evangelizers of Poland, that took place in Benevento, Italy, November 13 to 14, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reappointed prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education and grand chancellor of the Pontifical Gregorian University, April 21, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World". Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 4th centennial of the foundation of the Pontifical University of "Santo Tomás" in Manila, Philippines, which took place on January 28, 2011. Opted for the order of cardinal priests in the consistory of February 21, 2011 and at his request his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the fourth centennial of the dedication of the cathedral of Włocławek, Poland, which took place on June 26, 2011. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. He was confirmed in the post of prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for Bishops on December 16, 2013.

Bibliography. Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 399-409.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Press Office of the Holy See; biography, in Polish, Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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GROËR, O.S.B., Hans Hermann
(1919-2003)

Birth. October 13, 1919, Vienna, Austria, of German parents; moved with his parents to Czechoslovakia in 1929 and lived there for ten years; attended Austrian schools; kept Czech citizenship until 1939. His second middle name was Wilhelm.

Education. Seminary of Hollabrunn, Hollabrunn; Seminary of Vienna, Vienna (doctorate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, April 12, 1942, Sankt Andreas chapel, archbishop`s palace, by Cardinal Theodor Innitzer, archbishop of Vienna. Military service and chaplain in Petronell and Bad Voeslau, 1942-1946. Prefect of studies, minor seminary of Hollabrunn and further studies, 1946-1952. Faculty member, Institute of Hollabrunn, 1952-1974; organizer of the traditional pilgrimages to the shrine of Our Lady of Roggendorf; chamberlain of honor, July 31, 1963; rector of the shrine and director of pilgrimages, 1969-1976; National spiritual director of the Legion of Mary, 1974. Joined the Order of St. Benedict, abbey of Göttweig, diocese of Sankt Pölten, 1974; took the name Hermann; solemn profession, September 8, 1980, Göttweig. Spiritual director and rector of the church of the convent of Mariendorf, Marian shrine of Our Lady of Roggendorf, 1982-1986.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Vienna, July 15, 1986. Consecrated, September 14, 1986, metropolitan cathedral of Vienna, by Cardinal Franz König, archbishop emeritus of Vienna, assisted by Karl Berg, archbishop of Salzburg, and by Stefan László, bishop of Eisenstadt. His episcopal motto was In verbo autem tuo. Ordinary for the faithful of the Byzantine rite residing in Austria, February 21, 1987; resigned the post, September 14, 1995.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Gioacchino ed Anna al Tuscolano, June 28, 1988. Attended the VIII Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Special Assembly of the Synod of the Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Vienna, September 14, 1995, under accusations of sexual abuse. After his resignation, he became abbot of the monastery of Roggendorf until 1998. Relinquished all ecclesiastical duties and privileges as an archbishop and cardinal and left Austria, after he was asked to do so by Pope John Paul II, April 14, 1998. He never admitted any guilt. State prosecution never took place because the statute of limitations had long since expired when the allegations occurred. At the request of the Vatican, he spent several months near Dresden, Germany. Later, he lived in retirement at the priorate of Sankt Josef, Marienplatz, Maria Roggendorf, Austria. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 13, 1999.

Death. March 24, 2003, of pneumonia, during the night, at a hospital in Sankt Pölten, about 40 miles west of Vienna, where he was being treated for cancer. Buried in the cemetery of the Cistercian monastery of Marienfeld, Austria (1).

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the simple inscription in his tomb, provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

HANS HERMANN CARD. GROER
13.10.1919      24.03.2003


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