Birth. September 20, 1862, Pamplona, Spain.
Education. Seminary of Pamplona, Pamplona; Seminary of Ciudad Real, Ciudad Real.
Priesthood. Ordained, 1886, Pamplona. Faculty member of the Seminary of Pamplona, 1886-1891. Canon schoolmaster of the cathedral chapter of Ciudad Real, 1891-1901. Rector of the Seminary of Segovia, 1901-1904.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Orense, November 14, 1904. Consecrated, March 13, 1905, chapel of the Virgen del Camino, parish church of San Saturnino, Pamplona, by José Cadena Eleta, bishop of Vitoria; assisted by José López Mendoza y García, O.S.A., bishop of Pamplona, and by José Marí Salvador y Barrera, bishop of Tarazona. Senator of the Spanish Kingdom by the province of Santiago de Compostela. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Sevilla, December 16, 1920.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 30, 1925; received the red hat and the title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, December 17, 1925. Papal legate to the Spanish-American Marian Congress, Sevilla, May 13, 1929.
Death. August 10, 1937, Sevilla. Buried, metropolitan cathedral, Sevilla.
Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 67; Tovar González, Laureano. Ensayo biográfico del Emmo. Señor Cardenal Ilundain y Estéban opispo que fué de Orense y arzobispo de Sevilla. Pamplona : Ed. Aramburu, 1942.
Link. His photograph, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. December 25, 1875, Wipert, archdiocese of Prague, Austria-Hungary. Son of Wilhelm Innitzer, a lace maker, and Maria Seidi.
Education. Gymnasium of Kaaden/Eger, 189-1898; Studium of Theology, University of Vienna, Vienna, 1898-1902; studied moral theology under Franz Schindler; and history of the church under Albert Ehrhard.
Priesthood. Ordained, July 25, 1902, Vienna. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Vienna, 1902-1913. Faculty member at the University of Vienna and secretary of the "Leo-Gessellschaft Catholic Cultural Society", 1913-1932. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, June 11, 1921; reappointed, May 23, 1924. Apostolic visitor to the Barnabite Order in Austria, 1923. Minister of Social Welfare in the cabinet of Johann Schober, 1929-1930.
Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Vienna, Austria, September 19, 1932. Consecrated, October 16, 1932, at Sankt Stephans metropolitan cathedral, Vienna, by Enrico Sibilia, titular archbishop of Side, nuncio in Austria, assisted by Ernest Seydl, titular bishop of Eucarpia, and by Franz Kamprath, titular bishop of Stadia, auxiliary of Vienna. Apostolic administrator of Burgenland, 1932-1949.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 13, 1933; received the red hat and the title of S. Crisogono, March 16, 1933. Immediately after the invasion of Austria by the German army at the beginning of the Second World War, he was condescending with the invasion and encouraged Catholics to offer peaceful collaboration with the Nazi regime; but when he saw the tendency of the regime to inhibit and repress Catholic activities, and after an audience with Pope Pius XI, he was obliged to defend the rights of the Roman Catholic Church in Austria; because of this defense, his opposition to civil marriages and his support to Catholic schools, he incurred the opposition and persecution of the regime, which even attacked and wounded him in the archiepiscopal palace. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Papal legate to the celebrations of Katolikentag, July 23, 1952.
Death. October 9, 1955, of a heart ailment, Vienna. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Sankt Stephans, Vienna.
Bibliography. Liebmann, Maximilian. "Innitzer, Theodor." Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1785/1803 bis 1945 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1983, pp. 339-343; Liebmann, Maximilian. Theodor Innitzer und der Anschluss : Österreichs Kirche 1938. Graz : Styria, 1988. (Grazer Beiträge zur Theologie-Geschichte und kirchlichen Zeit-Geschichte, Bd. 3); Reimann, Viktor. Innitzer : Kardinal zwischen Hitler und Rom. Edition: Uberarbeitete Neuausg. Wien : Amalthea, 1988.
Links. Biography, in English (Britannica); biography, in German; biography, in Spanish; and his photograph and arms..
Birth. August 23, 1915, Poppi, diocese of Fiesole, Italy. His father died, when he was still a one year old child, of injuries he sustained during the First World War.
Education. Seminary of Fiesole, Fiesole; Pontifical Gregroian University, Rome (doctorate in canon law, 1941); Pontifical Lateran University, Rome (licentiate in dogmatic theology, 1950); Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy).
Priesthood. Ordained, July 17, 1938, Florence. Pastoral ministry in Valdarno, Toscana, 1938. Further studies and pastoral ministry in Rome, 1938-1941. Successively, 1941-1948, in the diocese of Fiesole, professor of canon law and moral theology at its seminary; secretary to its bishop; convicted twice of helping the victims of the Nazi occupation, he was taken before a firing squad but freed at last minute; pastoral ministry after the Second World War; founder of the Christian Association of Italian Workers (ACLI) in Fiesole; further studies in Rome, 1948-1950. Entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See, 1950. Secretary of the apostolic delegation in the Belgian Congo, Ruanda Urundi, 1950-1953. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, August 28, 1951; reappointed, October 28, 1958. Auditor of the nunciature in Switzerland, 1953-1960; of the internunciature in Holland, 1960-1961; of the internunciature in Egypt, Syria and Jerusalem, 1961-1962; of the nunciature in Belgium, 1962-1964. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 26, 1963. Counselor of the nunciature in France, 1964-1967.
Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Eclano and appointed nuncio in Paraguay, December 15, 1967. Consecrated, February 18, 1968, basilica of SS. Annunciata, Florence, by Cardinal Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, bishop of title of suburbicarian see of Frascati, secretary of State, assisted by Giovanni Benelli, titular archbishop of Tusuro, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Antonio Bagnoli, bishop of Fiesole. Secretary of the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments, February 26, 1973; the congregation was reorganized and united with the S.C. for Divine Worship as the S.C. for the Sacraments and Divine Worship, July 11, 1975. Nuncio in Spain, October 4, 1980.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Maria in Aquiro, May 25, 1985. Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy, January 9, 1986. Attended the VII Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. President of the Pontifical Commission for the Conservation of the the Artistic and Historical Patrimony of the Church, October 8, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; president delegate. Resigned the prefecture and the presidency, July 1, 1991. President of the Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei, July 1, 1991. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, August 23, 1995. Resigned the presidency, December 16, 1995. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, January 29, 1996. The Associazione Cardinale Innocenti per lo studio e la cura del morbo di Alzheimer e della malattia della senescenza ONLUS, was created in May 2008, following his wishes and with the funds that he donated.
Death. September 6, 2008, at 1:03 p.m., in his apartment at Piazza della Città Leonina 9, Vatican City. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, the pope prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to the cardinal's sister. On Wednesday September 10, 2008, at 9 a.m., in the Altar of the Chair of the papal Vatican basilica, took place the exequies for the late cardinal. The holy mass was celebrated by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, and twenty-five other cardinals, among them, Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., secretary of State. Present were Cardinal Roger Etchegaray, vice-dean of the College of Cardinals, and Cardinal Giovanni Canestri, archbishop emeritus of Genoa, together with numerous archbishops and bishops. With the diplomatic corps were Archbishops Fernando Filoni, substitute of the secretariat of State, and Dominique Mamberti, secretary for the rapport with the States, and Msgrs. Gabriele Giordano Caccia, assessor, Pietro Parolin, under-secretary for the rapport with the States, and Fortunatus Nwachukwu, head of protocol. Also present in the celebration were the sister of the late cardinal, Maria Antonietta Baggiani, and the nephews, together with the persons who always assisted and collaborated with the cardinal. Also present were the mayor and the parish priest of Lama Mocogno, the Modenese city dear to Cardinal Innocenti. At the end of the eucharistic celebration, Pope Benedict XVI delivered the homily and presided over the rites of Ultima Commendatio and Valedictio. The body of the cardinal was buried in the cemetery of Poppi, his native town.
Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Tu es Petrus; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.
©1998-2013 Salvador Miranda.