The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary


JAVIERRE ORTAS, S.D.B., Antonio María

Birth. February 21, 1921, Siétamo, diocese of Huesca, Spain. One of his brother, José María Javierre Ortas, operario diocesano, is a priest and one of the most distinguished and successful writers and journalists in the Spanish language countries (1).

Education. Joined the Pious Society of St. Francis de Sales (Salesians of Don Bosco); professed in 1940. Salesian houses of study in Huesca, Saragossa and Barcelona (middle studies); Gerona, Barcelona and Salamanca (philosophy); Gerona and Santander (pedagogy); Salamanca, Rome, Italy, and Louvain, Belgium (doctorate in theology; wrote his thesis on the apostolic succession).

Priesthood. Ordained, April 24, 1949. Professor of fundamental theology at the Pontifical Salesian Athenaeum, Turin, 1951-1976; later the athenaeum was transferred to Rome as the Pontifical Salesian University; dean of the theological faculty, 1959-1971; rector magnifico, 1971-1974. Delivered conferences and lectures at the universities of Salamanca, Lima, Guatemala, Navara, Lublin, Warsaw, and Rome (Regina Mundi, Angelicum, Marianum, Gregorian and Lateranense). He had an active participation in several congresses, especially on fundamental theology. Creator, cofounder and secretary general of the "Symposium" of fundamental theology in Louvain and Gazzada. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1959, as expert of the Spanish episcopate. Member of the Faith and Constitution Department, Ecumenical Council of Churches for three years; participated in its World Conferences in New Delhi, Upsala and Nairobi; and in several conferences of "Faith and Constitution", particularly in Montréal, Louvain and Accra; also, in conferences of "Church and Society" of Génève; and in several meetings of the central committee of The Ecumenical Council of Churches held in Paris, Geneva, Utrecht and Heraclion. Consultor of the Vatican Secretariat for Christian Unity. Preached the spiritual exercises for Pope Paul VI and the Roman Curia in Lent.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Meta and appointed secretary of the S.C. for Catholic Education, May 20, 1976. Consecrated, June 29, 1976, cathedral of Huesca, by Cardinal Vicente Enrique Tarancón, archbishop of Madrid, assisted by Javier Osés Flamarique, titular bishop of Abula, apostolic administrator, sede vacante, of Huesca, and by Rosalio José Castillo Lara, S.D.B, titular bishop of Precausea, secretary of the Pontifical Commission for the Revision of the Code of Canon Law. Attended the III General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Maria Liberatrice a Monte Testaccio. Librarian and archivist of Holy Roman Church, July 1, 1988 until April 9, 1992. Special papal envoy to the closing celebrations of the 4th centennial of St. John of the Cross' death, December 15, 1991, Ubeda, Spain. Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, January 24, 1992 until June 21, 1996. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the IX Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Special papal envoy to the 6th Bolivian Marian Eucharistic Congress, October 7 to 12, 1997, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Opted for the order of priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, January 9, 1999. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, February 21, 2001. On Wednesday January 31, 2007, feast of San Giovanni Bosco, founder of the Salesians, the cardinal celebrated mass in the chapel of his residence, near the Vatican; after dinner, the cardinal, the religious of the Congregation of the Servants of Jesus Christ Priest, who took care of his household, and some of his close friends watched the movie "Don Bosco".

Death. Thursday February 1, 2007, at 6:30 a.m., of a cardiac arrest, in his residence in Rome. He had been undergoing dialysis for some time. The body was exposed in his Roman residence, Via Rusticucci nº 13, until Friday, February 2, 2007 at 9:30 a.m., and then transferred to the papal Vatican basilica. On that day, at noon, in the Altar of the Chair, took place the exequies for the late cardinal, presided by Pope Benedict XVI. After the eucharistic celebration, his mortal remains were buried in the chapel tomb of the Salesians next to the Catacombs of San Callisto, Rome (2).

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 140.

Link. Photograph and biography, in Spanish.

(1) Some of his works are Pío X, several editions (Juan Flors, Editor, 1955); Merry del Val (Juan Flors, 1956); El arzobispo mendigo : biografía de Marcelo Spínola (Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1974); and Juan XXIII : reto para hoy (Editorial Sígueme, 2000).
(2) This is the inscrition in his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

N. SPAGNA 21.2.1921        M. ROMA 1.2.2007



Birth. August 21, 1926, Lwów, Poland (now Lviv, Ukraine). Son of Wincenty Jaworski and Stanisława Łastowiecka. His baptismal name is Marian Franciszek.

Education. Studied at the Lviv Major Seminary (moved to Kalwaria Zebrzydowska, Poland), 1945; then at the Jagellonian University, Kraków, where he obtained a doctorate in theology, in 1952; later, at Lublin Catholic University, where he eraned a doctorate in philosophy, in 1954); and also, at the Warsaw Theological Academy, earning a doctorate in the philosophy of religion, in 1965.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 25, 1950, Kalwaria Zebrzydowska, by Eugeniusz Baziak, archbishop of Lviv of the Latins. Vicar of Bashnia parish, Lubachiv, 1950-1952; vicar of Poronin parish. Further studies in Kraków, 1952-1954; further studies in Lublin and Warsaw, 1954-1965. Secretary of the Scientific Council of the Episcopate of Poland, 1970-1984. Dean of the Pontifical Theological Department, Kraków, 1976-1981. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, December 14, 1976. Rector of the Pontifical Theological Academy, Kraków, 1981-1987.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Lambesi and appointed apostolic administrator of Lviv for territories within Poland (Lubachiv), May 21, 1984. Consecrated, June 23, 1984, Wawel, Kraków, by Cardinal Franciszek Macharski, archbishop of Kraków, assisted by Henryk Roman Gulbinowicz, archbishop of Wrocław, and by Jerzy Ablewicz, bishop of Tarnów. Doctor Honoris Causa of Bonn University, Germany, 1985. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lviv of the Latins, January 16, 1991. Attended the First Special Assembly of the the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. Elected president of the Conference of Roman Catholic Bishops of Ukraine, 1992. Attended theNinth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994, by papal appointment. Apostolic administrator of Lutsk, 1996-1998. Rector of the Major Theological Seminary, Lviv-Briuhovychi, 1997. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of February 21, 1998; published in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of S. Sisto, February 21, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, August 21, 2006. On October 21, 2008, the pope accepted his resignation from the pastoral government of the see according to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law.

Bibliography. Nitecki, Piotr. Biskupi Kościoła w Polsce w latach 965-1999. Słownik biograficzny. Przedmowa Henryk Gulbinowicz. Warszawa : Instytut Wydawniczy "Pax", Warszawa 2000, col. 179-180; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 383-398.

Links. Photograph, arms and biographical data, in Ukrainian, archdiocese of Lviv; and his arms Araldica Vaticana.


JOOS, Gustaaf

Birth. July 5, 1923, Sint-Niklaas, diocese of Gent, Belgium. The youngest of eight children, he had three brothers who were priests, one of whom was a missionary in Japan.

Education. Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in canon law, 1949). He became a friend of Karol Wojtyla, future Pope John Paul II, while both resided at the Belgian College in Rome between 1946 and 1948 (1).

Priesthood. Ordained, April 28, 1946, Gent. Vicar in Beveren-Waas, December 13, 1949. Professor in Aalst (Centre d' Information pour Brancardier Ecclesiastiques), September 5, 1951. Professor at the Major Seminary of Gent, July 3, 1959. Notary at the ecclesiastical tribunal of the diocese of Gent, August 8, 1959. Honorary canon of the cathedral chapter of Gent, September 29, 1961; ordinary canon, September 22, 1967. Pastor in Landskouter, August 11, 1970 until his death. Judicial vice-vicar of the diocese of Gent, 1970; judicial vicar, November 5, 1984. Judge of the Interdiocesan Court of the Belgian Church, Amberes, February 1, 1994 until his death.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Ieper, October 7, 2003. Consecrated, October 11, 2003, chapel of the bishopric of Gent, by Arthur Luysterman, bishop of Gent, assisted by Paul Van den Berghe, bishop of Antwerpen, and by Jozef De Kesel, titular bishop of Bulna, auxiliary of Malines-Brussels. His episcopal motto was Diliges me.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Pier Damiani ai Monti di San Paolo, October 21, 2003. When he was promoted to the cardinalate, the cardinal was already 80 years old, therefore, he did not have the right to participate in the conclave.

Death. November 2, 2004, at his home adjacent to the rural parish of Landskouter, Oosterzele, which he led since 1970, when he fell ill after saying mass. His funeral mass was celebrated at the cathedral of Saint-Bavon de Gand on Friday November 12, at 11 a.m., by Luc Van Looy, bishop of Gent. In accordance to the cardinal's wishes, the final absolution was held in his parish church in Landskouter prior to the burial in the local cemetery (2).

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) At that time, young Father Joos was studying canon law at the Pontifical Gregorian University, while Father Wojtyla was writing his doctoral thesis under the direction of Dominican Father Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange.
(2) This is the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

Gustaaf Kardinaal Joos
* Sint-Niklaas 5 juli 1923
+ Landskouter 2 november 2004
Pastoor van Landskouter
1970 - 2004
Kardinaal benoemd

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