Birth. February 5, 1862, Dęmbiny, diocese of Płock, Poland, Kingdom of Prussia. Son of Franciszek Kakoswki Kośiesza and Paulina z Ossowskich, coat Dołęga. Received the sacrament of confirmation, May 29, 1880.
Education. Seminary of Warsaw, Warsaw, 1878; Ecclesiastical Academy of Saint Petersburg, 1882-1883 (doctorate in canon law, 1886); Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1883-1885 (theology and canon law). Received the insignias of the clerical character and the minor orders, May 29, 1880; subdiaconate, May 16, 1886; diaconate, May 23, 1886.
Priesthood. Ordained, May 30, 1886, Warsaw, by Wincenty Teofil Chościak-Popiela, archbishop of Warsaw. In the archdiocese of Warsaw, 1886-1911: vicar of the parish of Swiety Andrzej, for a year; defender of the matrimonial bond in the curia of Warsaw, for nine years; professor of its seminary, for 24 years beginning in 1887; administrator of the parish of Kurdwanów; assessor of the archiepiscopal curia until 1898; rector of its seminary, 1898; honorary canon of its cathedral chapter, 1901; censor of religious books and prosynodal examiner. Rector of the Theological Ecclesiastical Academy of Saint Petersburg and ordinary professor of canon law, 1910-1913. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, January 12, 1911.
Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Warsaw, May 7, 1913. Consecrated, June 22, 1913, church of Saint Catherine, Saint Petersburg, Russia, by Stanisław Casimir Zdzitowiecki, bishop of Włocławek, assisted by Jan Cieplak, titular bishop of Evaria and auxiliary of Mohilev, and by Longin Zarnowiecki, titular bishop of Mosinopoli and auxiliary of Luck i Zytomierz. His episcopal motto was Operare sperare. He was one of the three members of Council of Regency of the Polish State, 1917-1918.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1919; received the red hat and the title of S. Agostino, December 18, 1919. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Presided at the funeral of Marshal Pilsudski, 1935.
Death. December 30, 1938, of heart ailment after an attack of pneumonia, Warsaw. He was exposed in the archiepiscopal palace of Warsaw on January 3 to 4, 1939. The funeral was celebrated by Cardinal August Hlond, S.D.B., archbishop of Gniezno and Poznań, primate of Poland. Buried in the cemetery of Bródnowski, Warsaw (1).
Bibliography. Arcybiskup budowniczy i protektor prasy katolickiej : album ku upamietnieniu 50-lecia kaplanstwa Jego Eminencji Ks. Dr. Aleksandra Kardynala Kakowskiego Arcybiskupa Metropolity Warszawskiego. Warszawa : [s.n.], 1936. Corporate name: Catholic Church. Archdiocese of Warsaw (Poland); Kakowski, Aleksander ; Pamiętniki. Krawczak, Tadeusz (red.) ; Świętek, Ryszard (red.). Z niewoli do niepodległošci. Kraków: Platan 2000; Nitecki, Piotr. Biskupi Kościoła w Polsce w latach 965-1999. Słownik biograficzny. Przedmowa Henryk Gulbinowicz. Warszawa : Instytut Wydawniczy "Pax", Warszawa 2000, col. 190-191; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 18, 21 and 388; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 227-236.
Link. Photographs and biography, in English Wikipedia; his episcopal lineage by Mr. Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; and his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) This is the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:
Birth. May 16, 1870, Mirošově, archdiocese of Prague, Austria-Hungary (later Czechoslovakia). Son of Jana Nepomuckého Kašpar and Filípina Heidelbergová. His baptismal name was Karel Borromejský. His name in Czech is Karla Kašpara.
Education. Seminary of Plzeň, Plzeň; Pontifical Roman Athenaeum of "S. Apollinare", Rome.
Priesthood. Ordained, February 25, 1893, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Lucido Maria Parocchi, vicar general of Rome. Pastoral ministry in Sevopin, 1893-1895. Further studies, 1895-1898. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Prague and canon of its cathedral chapter, 1899-1920.
Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Betsaida and appointed auxiliary of Hradec-Králové, March 8, 1920. Consecrated, April 11, 1920, Prague, by Franziskus Kordače, archbishop of Prague, assisted by Josef Doubrava, bishop of Hradec-Králové, and by Wenceslas Frind, titular bishop of Gadara, auxiliary of Prague. Transferred to the diocese of Hradec-Králové, June 13, 1921. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Prague, October 22, 1931. Military vicar of Czechoslovakia.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1935; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Vitale, Valeria, Gervasio e Protasio, December 19, 1935. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII.
Death. April 21, 1941, Prague. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Prague.
Bibliography. Poul, Frantisek ; Frslínek, Josef ; Mikuta, Rudolf. Zivot a dílo Karla Kardinála Kaspara. V Praze, Vydala Správní rada Ceskoslovenské akciové tiskárny v Praze, 1940.
Link. Llist of the archbishops of Prague, in Czech, archdiocese of Prague; and photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. March 5, 1933, Heidenheim/Brenz, diocese of Rottenburg (now Rottenburg-Stuttgart), Germany. Besides his native German, he speaks English and Italian.
Education. Seminary of Tübingen, Tübingen (philosophy and doctorate in theology); Seminary of Münich, Münich (theology).
Priesthood. Ordained, April 6, 1957, Rotteburg, by Carl Joseph Leiprecht, bishop of Rottenburg. Vicar, parish of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, Stuttgart, 1957-1958. Faculty member, Theological Seminary of Tübingen, 1958-1961; further studies, 1961. Assistant of Professor Dr. Leo Scheffczyk (created cardinal in the same consistory) and of Professor Dr. Hans Küng, in Tübingen. Professor of dogmatic theology in Münster, 1961-1969. Dean of the Faculty of Theology in Münster, 1969. Professor of dogmatic theology and dean of the Theological Faculty, Tübingen, 1970. Visiting professor, Washington, United States, 1983. Member of the International Theological Commission. Member of the Heidelberger Academy of Science, 1985. Attended the II the Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8,1985; special secretary.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Rottenberg-Stuttgart, April 4, 1989; confirmed by Pope John Paul II, April 17, 1989. Consecrated, June 17, 1989, cathedral of Sankt Martin, Rottenburg, by Oskar Saier, archbishop of Freiburg im Brisgau, assisted by Karl Lehmann, bishop of Mainz, and by Franz Josef Kuhnle, titular bishop of Sorres, auxiliary of Rottenberg-Stuttgart. His episcopal motto is Veritatem in caritate. Co-president of the Lutheran-Roman Catholic Commission on Unity, 1994. Secretary of the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity, March 16, 1999. Resigned the pastoral government of the diocese, May 31, 1999.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ognissanti in Via Appia Nuova, February 21, 2001. President of the Pontifical Secretariat for the Promotion of Christian Unity, March 3, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reappointed as president of the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity, April 21, 2005. Attended the XI General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Represented Pope Benedict XVI at the International Conference on Peace and Tolerance - Dialog and Understanding in South East Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia, celebrated in Istanbul, November 7 to 9, 2005. Headed the papal delegation to the funeral of Orthodox Patriarch Teoctist of Rumania, which was celebrated on Friday August 3, 2007, at 11 a.m., in the patriarchal cathedral of Bucarest, Rumania. Special papal envoy to the solemn celebrations of the 8th centennial of the translation of the relics of the Apostle Saint Andrew to Amalfi, Italy, which took place on May 8, 2008. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church"; elected member of the Twelfth Council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, October 22, 2008. Member of the delegation of the Holy See to the funeral of His Holiness Alexis II, patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, December 9, 2008. Led a papal delegation to the enthronement of His Holiness Kyrill, new patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, which took place in the cathedral of Christ the Savior, Moscow, on February 1, 2009. Special papal envoy to the conclusive ceremonies of the Pauline Year observed on June 29, 2009, in the Holy Land. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World". Resigned the presidency of the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity for reasons of limit of age, July 1, 2010. On July 14, 2010, he was granted the Cardinal Bea award for services to Jewish-Christian relations, established by the Sisters of Notre Dame de Sion, for the cardinal's activities as head of the Commission for the Religious Relations with Judaism during the last ten years. The ceremony took place in the order's general house in Rome. On January 11, 2011, he was awarded an honorary doctoral degree in Sacred Theology from Saint Joseph's University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in a ceremony at the Vatican. On January 25, 2011, he was honored by the Anglican archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, with a dinner and the award of the Cross of Lambeth. On February 4, 2011, during the celebration of the National Day of the Catholic University of Portugal, in Lisbon, he received a doctorate honoris causa from that university. Opted for the order of cardinal priests in the consistory of February 21, 2011 and at his request his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title; in his absence, his request was presented by the secretary of the College of Cardinals Manuel Monteiro de Castro, titular archbishop of Benevento. On September 27, 2011, he was named special papal envoy to the celebrations marking the 950th anniversary of the dedication of the cathedral of Speyer in Germany, programmed for October 2, 2011. Turned eighty years old on March 5, 2013, after the Apostolic See had become vacant on February 28, 2013; according to the regulation in the seventh paragraph of the introduction of the apostolic constitution Universi Dominici Gregis, the cardinals lose the right to participate in the conclave if the birthday occurs before the vacancy of the Holy See, therefore, he remained eligible to participate in the March 2013 conclave but not in subsequent elections. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis.
Bibliography. Kasper, Walter. Chiesa Cattolica, essenza, realtà, missione. Brescia : Editrice Queriniana, 2012. (Biblioteca di teologia contemporanea, 157); Kasper, Walter. Harvesting the Fruits. Basic Aspects of Christian Faith in Ecumenical Dialogue. Ecumenical Consensus, Convergences and Differences. London : Continuum, 2009.
Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. March 4, 1931, San Antonio, Texas, United States. Son of Thomas L. Keeler and Margaret T. Conway. Soon after his birth, the family moved to Lebanon, Pennsylvania.
Education. Catholic elementary and high schools, Lebanon; St. Charles Seminary, Overbrook, Philadelphia (bachelor's in arts, 1952); Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (licentiate in theology, 1956; doctorate in canon law, 1961).
Priesthood. Ordained, July 17, 1955, church of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. From 1955 to 1979, pastoral ministry in Harrisburg; secretary of the diocesan tribunal; further studies in Rome; defensor of the matrimonial bond; expert at the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965; vice-chancellor, 1965, and later chancellor. Chaplain of His Holiness, November 9, 1965. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, May 8, 1970.
Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Dulcigno and appointed auxiliary of Harrisburg, July 24, 1979. Consecrated, September 21, 1979, St. Patrick's cathedral, Harrisburg, by Joseph Thomas Daly, bishop of Harrisburg, assisted by Francis Joseph Gossman, bishop of Raleigh, and Martin Nicholas Lohmuller, titular bishop of Ramsbiria, auxiliary of Philadelphia. His episcopal motto is Opus fac evangelistae. Apostolic administrator of Harrisburg, September 3, 1983. Transferred to see of Harrisburg, November 10, 1983. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Baltimore, April 6, 1989. Vice-president of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops/U.S. Catholic Conference, 1989-1992; president, 1992-1995. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria degli Angeli, November 26, 1994. Member, by papal appointment, of the council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, January 11, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Special papal envoy to the National Congress on the Holy Spirit, Manila, Philippines, January 22 to 25, 1998. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. On July 12, 2007, Pope Benedict XVI accepted his resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Baltimore, United States of America, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. Apostolic administrator of the archdiocese until the installation of his successor on October 1, 2007. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on March 4, 2011. An Eagle Scout, he is the recipient of the Silver Beaver, Silver Antelope and Distingushed Eagle Scout of the Boy Scouts of America.
Bibliography. Branson, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic Bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 180; Kauffman, C. J. "Keeler, William Henry." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyła years. Detroit, MI : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, p. 237-238.
Links. Photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of Baltimore; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. September 20, 1907, Ain Ebel, archdiocese of Tyr of the Maronites, Lebanon. He was the eldest of seven children. His last name is also listed as Khreich.
Education. Patriarchal Seminary of Tyr, Tyr; Pontifical Urbanian University, Rome; St. Joseph Pontifical University, Beirut (doctorate in philosophy).
Priesthood. Ordained, April 12, 1930. Successively, 1930-1940, faculty member of Sophia School, Beirut; patriarchal vicar of Palestine and president of the Maronite tribunal in the Holy Land. Vicar general of the archdiocese of Tyr of the Maronites, 1940-1950.
Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tarso of the Maronites and appointed auxiliary of Saïda of the Maronites, April 25, 1950. Consecrated, October 15, 1950, Diman, Lebanon, by Antoine-Pierre Arida, patriarch of Antioch of the Maronites, assisted by Ignace Ziadé, archbishop of Alep of the Maronites, and François Ayoub, bishop of Cyprus of the Maronites. Apostolic administrator, sede plena, of Saïda of the Maronites. Transferred to the see of Saïda of the Maronites, November 25, 1957. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Administrator delegate of the patriarchate of Antioch of the Maronites, 1974. Episcopal delegate for the Maronite seminaries and president of the executive commission of the Inter-ritual Assembly of Patriarchs and Bishops of Lebanon. Elected patriarch of Antioch of the Maronites, Bkerké, February 3, 1975; received the ecclesiastica communio, February 15, 1975. Attended the IV Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; the V Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal patriarch, February 2, 1983; received the red biretta, February 2, 1983. Attended the VI Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the II Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Resigned the pastoral government of the patriarchate, April 3, 1986. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, September 20, 1987.
Death. August 19, 1994, Beirut. Buried, patriarchal see, Bkerké, Lebanon.
Birth. May 8, 1922, Tae Gu, South Korea. He was the youngest of the eight children of a poor and devout Catholic family. His grandfather, John Kim Bo-hyeon, died while preaching in prison after being persecuted for being a Catholic.
Education. Secondary studies at Dong Sung High School, a Catholic institution; Seminary of Tae Gu, Tae Gu; Catholic University of Sophia, Tokyo, Japan, 1941 to 1944 (philosophy); while studying in Japan, he was temporarily sent to train as a student soldier; later, he returned to his studies when the Korean War (1950-53) ended; Catholic University of Korea, 1947 to 1951 (theology); University of Münster, 1957 to 1964 (theology and sociology).
Priesthood. Ordained, September 15, 1951, Tae Gu. Secretary to the bishop of Tae Gu, pastoral ministry in the diocese of Tae Gu, and director of the diocesan newspaper The Catholic Shilbo, 1947-1956, and 1964-1966. Further studies, 1957-1964.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Masan, February 15, 1966. Consecrated, May 31, 1966, by Antonio del Giudice, titular archbishop of Gerapoli di Siria, internuncio in Korea, assisted by John B. Sye Bong-Kil, archbishop of Tae Gu, and by John A. Choi Jae-seon, bishop of Pusan. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Seoul, April 9, 1968.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Felice da Cantalice a Centocelle, April 30, 1969. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Apostolic administrator of Pyeong Yang, June 10, 1975. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 19 to May 18, 1998; one of its three president delegates. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, May 29, 1998. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, May 8, 2002. Cardinal protopriest, March 13, 2004. He was renowned as an advocate of human rights and contributed to the democracy in his country where military regimes ruled in 1960s and 1970s. He was devoted to North Korean churches and their believers and created a religious organization in 1995 to prepare for the reunification of the two Koreas. He was the first cardinal from South Korea.
Death. Monday February 16, 2009, at 6:12 p.m., Korean time, of a combination of old age and a history of frail health, at the Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital in Seoul, where he had been since last July. The archdiocese of Seoul set up a mourning hall in the Myeongdong metropolitan cathedral and celebrated a funeral mass at 10 a.m., February 20 there after four days of memorial masses dedicated to Cardinal Kim. More than 400,000 people had paid homage to the late cardinal over the past four days. According to the hospital where he died, his eyes were donated to two patients awaiting cornea transplants. The number of organ donations tripled after his death. Cardinal Nicholas Cheong Jin-suk, archbishop of Seoul, was appointed by Pope Benedict XVI as special representative to preside over the funeral ceremony on his behalf. Nuncio Osvaldo Padilla read a eulogy on behalf of the pope; there were four more eulogies during the mass, including one from President Lee Myung-bak read by Prime Minister Han. Around 800 people, including the cardinal's family and close friends, Catholic clergymen, Prime Minister Han Seung-soo, Culture Minister Yu In-chon, and ambassadors from Britain, Spain, Germany, Italy and Australia, attended the nearly two-hour-long ceremony. Religious leaders from Protestantism, Buddhism, Won-Buddhism and Cheondoism took up the first-row at the funeral mass. Another estimated 10,000 people braved the cold weather to watch it on big screens outside the cathedral. Many were seen wiping away tears throughout the Mass. The body of the late cardinal was buried in the ground in the Catholic priests' cemetery in Yongin, province of Gyeonggi, next to Archbishop Paul Marie Ro Ki-nam. A red banner inscribed with the late cardinal's name and titles was placed over the coffin. Incense was burnt and holy water sprinkled over it. Then shovels of dirt were heaped on by remaining family members and bishops. Sounds of prayer grew louder as dirt covered the coffin, and hymns were mixed with them to bid a final farewell. U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton, who was holding a press conference with Foreign Minister Yu Myung-hwan at the same time as the funeral, also paid tribute to Cardinal Kim.
Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. January 25, 1929, Samphran, apostolic vicariate of Bangkok, Thailand.
Education. Seminary of Siracha, Siracha; Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide", Rome.
Priesthood. Ordained, December 20, 1959, Rome, by Cardinal Grégoire-Pierre Agagianian, pro-prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith. Pastoral ministry in Bangkok, 1960-1965. Rector of the Metropolitan Seminary of Bangkok, 1965-1972.
Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Bangkok, December 18, 1972. Consecrated, June 3, 1973, by Joseph Khiamsun Nittayo, former archbishop of Bangkok, assisted by Lawrence Thienchai Samanchit, bishop of Chanthaburi, and by Michel-Auguste-Marie Langer, M.E.P., bishop of Nakhorn-Sawan. Attended the III Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. President of the Episcopal Conference of Thailand, 1979-1982.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, February 2, 1983. Attended the II Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, December 2, 1993. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when he turned eighty years old on January 25, 2009. On May 14, 2009, Pope Benedict XVI accepted his resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Bangkok, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. The pope named Francis Xavier Kriengsak Kovithavanij, until then bishop of Nakhon Sawan, new archbishop of Bangkok. The cardinal was apostolic administrator of the see until the installation of his successor. He is the first cardinal from Thailand.
Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. March 2, 1914, Bayswater, archdiocese of Perth, Australia. Second of the three children of John Knox and Emily Walsh, both from Ireland.
Education. Seminary of New Norcia, Australia; Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide", Rome.
Priesthood. Ordained, December 22, 1941, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Fumasoni-Biondi. Chaplain and vice-rector of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," 1941-1949. Staff member of the Secretariat of State, 1948-1950. Member of the Central Committee for the Holy Year, 1949-1950. Staff member of Vatican Radio, 1949-1950. Secretary to the apostolic delegate in Japan, 1950-1953. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, July 22, 1950.
Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Melitene and appointed apostolic delegate in British Africa, with residence in Mombasa, July 20, 1953. Consecrated, November 8, 1953, Rome, by Cardinal Celso Costantini, assisted by Filippo Bernardini, titular archbishop of Aniochia di Pisidia, nuncio in Switzerland, and by Antonio Samorè, titular archbishop of Tirnovo, secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. Internuncio in India and apostolic delegate in Burma and Ceylon, February 14, 1957. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Co-organizer of the papal visit to India, December 2 to 4, 1964. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Melbourne, April 13, 1967. Organized the 40th International Eucharistic Congress, Melbourne, February 18 to 25, 1973.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria in Vallicella, March 5, 1973. Prefect of the SS. CC. for Sacraments and for Divine Worship, January 25, 1974. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, July 1, 1974. Attended the III Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Prefect of the new S.C. for Sacraments and Divine Worship, August 1, 1975. Papal legate to the 41st International Eucharistic Congress, Philadelphia, United States, August 1 to 8, 1976. Attended the IV Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Special papal envoy to the National Eucharistic Congress, Kampala, Uganda, and to the celebrations commemorating the first centennial of the establishment of the Catholic Church in Uganda, February 10 to 20, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the V Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. President of the Pontifical Council for the Family, August 4, 1981. Special papal envoy to the National Eucharistic Congress, Nigeria, November 19 to 21, 1982. He collapsed during a meeting in the Vatican in mid-May 1983, and was in a coma for the last two weeks of his life due to complications from a cerebral occlusion.
Death. Sunday June 26, 1983, in the night, Rome. The funeral took place the following June 30, in the patriarchal Vatican basilica; Pope John Paul II presided the concelebration, in which participated twenty two cardinals and eight Australian bishops, who were in Rome for the ad limina visit; present were numerous officers and priests from the Roman Curia, among the officers of the Pontifical Council for the Family, headed by Francisco José Cox Huneeus, of the Fathers of Schönstatt, bishop emeritus of Chillán, secretary of that council. Another funeral took place in the metropolitan cathedral of Saint Patrick, Melbourne, presided by Archbishop Thomas Francis Little of Melbourne and concelebrated by some thirty prelates from Australia and New Zealand; among the concelebrants were Cardinal James Darcy Freeman, former archbishop of Sydney; Luigi Barbarito, titular archbishop of Fiorentino, apostolic nuncio in Australia; Cardinal Thomas Stafford Williams, archbishop of Wellington; and Edward Bede Clancy, archbishop of Sidney; Archbishop Little pronounced the homily. Buried on July 6, 1983, in the crypt of that metropolitan cathedral.
Birth. September 29, 1902, Shkodrë, Albania. Son of Mark Koliqi and Age Simoni. In 1911, due to the country's situation, he was sent to study in Italy.
Education. Initial studies at Kolegjin Saverian, 1911; Jesuit Collegio Arici, Brescia (elementary education); he then went to Collegio Vilorez, Monza, 1919-1924; and later, to Bergamo, Florence and Bari, where he passed the final exams in the Technical Institute; started studying in the Polytechnical Institute, Milan, and while he was there, he felt the vocation to the priesthood and started to study theology at the Seminary of Milan, Venegono; and later in Milan, where he finished. He then returned to Albania.
Priesthood. Ordained, May 30, 1931, church of the Jesuit fathers, Shkodrë, by Lazër Mjeda, archbishop of Shkodrë. Vice-pastor of the cathedral of Shkodrë, 1931-1936; founder of the cathedral's schola cantorum in 1932; pastor, 1936- 1945; vicar general, 1936-1991; in charge of the diocesan press; editor of Veprimin Katolik Shqiptar; and director of the cultural review Kumona e së djelës, 1938-1944. Arrested by the Communist authorities, February 3, 1945 and sentenced to 2 years in prison. Freed and again arrested and sentenced to 5 years in 1946. Freed in 1951 and later arrested and sentenced to forced labor in camps in Lsunie, Gradishta, Gjas, Valona and others. In total, 21 years of forced labor and 21 of imprisonment for having listened to foreign radio stations and organized Catholic youth. Freed in 1986 because of advanced age. Given the title "Pishtar i demokracise" (Torchbearer of democracy) by the People's Assembly. Honorary prelate of His Holiness, January 31, 1992. His melodramas Rozafa (Rozafa), Rrethimi i Shkodër (The siege of Shkodër) and Ruba e kuqe (The red scarf), which were written and performed between 1936 and 1938, are considered to be the precursors of the Albanian operatic movement. On his 90th birthday, he received a special greeting from Pope John Paul II which delivered by the apostolic nuncio, Ivan Dias, titular archbishop of Rusubisir, at a special mass in his house chapel; and the Torch of Democracy award from Albanian President Sali Berisha.
Episcopate. Declined to receive the episcopal consecration because of age.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received red biretta and deaconry of Ognissanti in Via Apia Nuova, November 26, 1994. Promoted to the cardinalate when he was over 80 years old, and thus, he did not have the right to participate in the conclave. He was the first cardinal from Albania. He lived out his last years with his niece and her family in a small apartment near the cathedral of Shkodrë.
Death. January 28, 1997, Shkodrë. Buried in the crypt of the metropolitan cathedral of Shkodrë.
Links. Biography, in Albanian; his image in Albanian postal stamps, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. December 23, 1903, Radlin, diocese of Wrocław (or Breslau, now archdiocese of Katowice), Poland, German Empire. Eldest of the ten children of Franciszek Kominek, a miner, and Katarzyna z Kozielskich. His uncle Jan Kominek (1877-1943) was a missionary in Brazil, as a chaplain for Poles who lived in that country.
Education. Catholic University of Kraków, Kraków; Institut Catholique, Paris, France. Received the subdiaconate in 1926 from August Hlond, S.D.B., archbishop of Gniezno and Poznań; and the diaconate in 1926 from Arkadiusz Lisiecki, bishop of Katowice.
Priesthood. Ordained, September 11, 1927, Katowice, by Arkadiusz Lisiecki, bishop of Katowice. Further studies and pastoral ministry among Polish immigrants, Paris, 1927-1930. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Katowice, 1930-1939; with Polish fugitives during the Second World War, 1939-1945, in Lublin, Katowice, and Upper Silesia. Apostolic administrator of Opole, August 15, 1945; the administration was interrupted by the Communist regime, January 26, 1951.
Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Sofene, with residence in Wrocław, April 26, 1951. Prevented from residing in Wrocław and from being consecrated by the Communist regime. Clandestinely consecrated, October 10, 1954, episcopal palace of Przemyšl, by Franciszek Barda, bishop of Przemyšl of the Latins, assisted by Wojciech Tomaka, titular bishop of Elenopoli di Bitinia, auxiliary of Przemyšl of the Latins, and by Bishop Franciszek Jop; the consecration was kept secret until 1956. Resided in Wrocław from October 1956 onward. Transferred to the titular see of Vaga, December 1, 1956. Promoted to titular archbishop of Eucaita, March 19, 1962. Apostolic administrator ad nutum Sanctae Sedis, May 25, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Wrocław, June 28, 1972.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the title of S. Croce in via Flaminia, March 5, 1973.
Death. Sunday March 10, 1974, of a heart attack, Wrocław. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Wrocław.
Bibliography. Brom, Rudolf ; Śliwiok, Józef. Ksiądz kardynał Bolesław Kominek - twórca chrześcijańskich struktur życia społecznego : w 80-lecie powstania diecezji katowickiej. Katowice : Wszechnica Górnosłąskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk im. W. Roździeńskiego, 2005. Conference Author: Sesja Naukowa nt.: "Ksiądz Kardynał Bolesław Kominek - Twórca Chrześcijańskich Struktur Źycia Społecznego" ; (2004 ; Katowice). Note: Mater. sesji nauk., która odbyła się 10 grudnia 2004 r. w Katowicach ; Wszechnica Górnośląskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk im. W. Roździeńskiego w Katowicach; Krucina, Jan. Dei Virtus : Kardynałowi Bolesławowi Kominkowi w hołdzie. Wrocław : Wrocławska Ksiłgarnia Archidiecezjalna, 1974; Krucina, Jan ; Kominek, Bolesław. Szkice do portretu : Kardynał Bolesław Kominek. Wrocław : "Tum" - Wydawnictwo Wrocławskiej Księgarni Archidiecezjalnej, 2005 Note(s): Zawiera równieź artykuły, przemówienia, listy kard. Bolesława Kominka. Other titles: Kardynał Bolesław Kominek; Szkice do portretu ; Kard. Kominek; Nitecki, Piotr. Biskupi Kościoła w Polsce w latach 965-1999. Słownik biograficzny. Przedmowa Henryk Gulbinowicz. Warszawa : Instytut Wydawniczy "Pax", Warszawa 2000, col. 208-209; Pater, Józef. "Rola kardynała Bolesława Kominka w przygotowaniu orędzia biskupów polskich do biskupów niemieckich." Wrocławski Przegląd Teologiczny. [Wrocław]. 15 (2007), no 1, p. 65-78; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 301-312; Strauchold, Grzegorz. "Ordynariusz wrocławski kard. Bolesław Kominek w polu zainteresowania służb państwowych." [Wrocław]. Dolny Śląsk,: 11 (2005), p. 95-103.
Link. His portrait, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. August 3, 1905, Warth, small village near Rabenstein, diocese of Sankt Pölten, Austria (the Austrian Empire). Of a family of odest farmers. Eldest child of Franz and Maria König; the other siblings were two boys and two girls. He was baptized a few days later. His father died suddenly when he was six years old later, the mother married again; Franz's relations with Mr. Kaiser, his stepfather, were not happy ones and this made the boy want to get away from home. The parish priest of Kirchberg fomented his priestly vocation and at fourteen, he entered the seminary.
Education. In 1919, he entered the diocesan Seminary of Sankt Pölten, which was the high school of the Benedictine abbey of Melk, where he studied ancient and modern languages, literature, philosophy and humanities; he drew and painted and wrote poetry and drama; at the end of his high scholl studies, he decided definitively to entered the priesthood; in 1927, after his graduation, he was invited to spend his vacation in England; then, he obtained a grant to continue his studies in Rome at the Pontifical Gregorian University, where he obtained a doctorate in philosophy, summa cum laude, on July 9, 1930; and later, a doctorate in theology, also summa cum laude, on January 21, 1936; while at the university, he heard lectures on experimental psychology, biology, mineralogy, physics, chemistry and languages; then, he studied at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome (old-Persian religion and languages); while studying in Rome, he resided at the Pontifical Collegio Germanico-Hungarico; in 1936, he obtained a fellowship for two semesters at the Faculty of Sociology of the Catholic University of Lille, France, where he obtained a diploma. He spoke German, English, Italian, French, Spanish, Russian and Latin, and could understand Syriac, ancient Persian and Hebrew. This proved to be an invaluable skill during the diplomatic missions he embarked on. While studying in Rome, he met Fr. Alojzije Stepinac, future cardinal.
Priesthood. Ordained, October 29, 1933, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Marchetti Selvaggiani, vicar general of Rome and its district, archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica. Further studies, 1933-1937. In 1937, he was recalled home by his bishop and appointed curate at Sankt Valenti; and later at Scheibbs. In 1939, he was named assistant pastor at the cathedral of Sankt Pölten; and professor of religion at the city's high school; when the Nazi regime prohibited religion in state schools, he gathered the Catholic youth of the city for religious instruction in the cathedral, right under the nose of the Gestapo. Twice the Gestapo tried to entrap him but the attempts were unsuccessful. In 1945, when the University of Vienna reopened, he registered and heard lectures in law, finance and economics, statistics, political science, linguistics, Syriac texts, ancient and modern history, modern philosophy, comparative anatomy, methodology of botany, morphology of plants, bases of animal physiology, and others. Professor of religion at the College of Krems, 1945-1948. In 1947, he became a lecturer on the Old Testament and on comparative theology at the University of Vienna. He spent a few months at the University of Innsbruck, where he became acquainted with world renowned Jesuit theologians Karl and Hugo Rahner. He was a lecturer on moral theology at the University of Salzburg, from 1948 until 1952; he lived in the Benedictine monastery on the Nonnberg.
Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Liviade and appointed coadjutor of Sankt Pölten, with right of succession, July 3, 1952. Consecrated, August 31, 1952, St. Pölten, by Michael Memelauer, bishop of St. Pölten, assisted by Leo Pietsch, titular bishop of Narona, auxiliary bishop of Seckau, and by Franz Zauner, titular bishop of Fata, coadjutor of Linz. His episcopal moto was Veritate in Caritate. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Vienna, May 10, 1956; when he was offered the see, he had traveled to Rome to explain the reasons why he should remain in Sankt Pölten, but the pope insisted on the promotion.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of S. Eusebio, December 18, 1958. Military vicar of Austria, February 21, 1959; resigned, 1969. Granted a visa by the Communist authorities of Yugoslavia to attend the funeral of Cardinal Alozije Stepinac, archbishop of Zagreb (whom he had befriended during his studies in Rome), in February 1961; on his way to the funeral, he was involved in a serious car accident which kept him near death for several days; it took him almost a year to resume normal activities. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Sent by Pope John XXIII in April 1963, he became the first Catholic prelate to visit Cardinal Jozsef Mindszenty, archbishop of Esztergom, Hungary, at the U.S. embassy in Budapest where he had sought refuge after the U.S.S.R. crushed the 1956 uprising; afterwards, he visited the cardinal several times until the cardinal's departure for Rome in 1971. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. President of the Austrian Episcopal Conference. He also visited Poland and Romania and later the Orthodox Church of Serbia. Participated in a conference with delegates of three non-Christian religions in Bombay, India, 1964. President of the Secretariat for Non-Believers, April 6, 1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; he was one of its three presidents delegate. In 1975, he visited the Coptic Christian patriarch Shenouda III in Egypt. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. In 1978, he visited the Orthodox patriarch of Syria in Damascus. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5-9, 1979. Resigned the presidency of the secretariat for Non-Believers, June 27, 1980. In 1980, he met in Moscow with the patriarch of the Armenian Apostolic Church. Special papal envoy to the Croatian National Eucharistic Congress, Marija Bistrica, Zagreb, Yugoslavia, September 8 to 9, 1984. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, August 3, 1985. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, September 16, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; special guest. Cardinal protopriest, May 2, 1989. In 2003, while on a holiday, he had a bad fall and fractured his hip. However, after being operated on, he made a speedy recovery and a few months later celebrated mass again, only supported by his bishop's staff.
Death. March 13, 2004, near 3 a.m. in his sleep, in the convent of the Sisters of Mercy of Vienna, where he resided. Buried on March 27, 2004, in the vault of the bishops, metropolitan cathedral of Vienna. Last surviving cardinal of Bl. Pope John XXIII.
Bibliography. Barta, Richard. Francis Cardinal Koenig. Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press, 1964. (The Men who make the Council, 12); Barta, Richard. Kardinal Franz König. Mahner seines Volkes, Partner des Gespräches. Rufer über die Grenzen. Wien ; Freiburg i. Br. ; Basel : Herder, 1965; Feichtlbauer, Hubert. Franz König : der Jahrhundert-Kardinal. Wien : Holzhausen Verlag, 2003; Fenzl, Annemarie ; Tambour, Evelyn. Kardinal König. Wien : Herold, 1985; König, Franz and Licheri, Gianni. Chiesa dove vai? : Gianni Licheri interroga il cardinale Franz Koenig. Roma : Borla, 1985. (Concilio aperto).
Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. January 22, 1924, Bošany, diocese of Nitra, Czechoslovakia (now Slovakia). Third child of Jan Korec, a tannery worker, and Mária Drábic.
Education. Initial studies at the public school of Bošany and town school of Chyronary, a nearby village. In his youth he was an active Boy Scout. Decided to become a priest and entered the Society of Jesus on September 15, 1939. Jesuit center in Ružomberok (high school); graduated from high school in 1944 in Kláštor pod Znievom; went to Trnava to study philosophy; a year later, he went to Brno to continue his philosophical studies; after two years, he returned to Trnava to study theology; besides studying, he assisted in the publication of books and the religious magazines "Posol" and "Katolícke misie". He and other older Jesuits prepared a miscellany entitled "Veobecná Cirkev - šstúium viery, vedy a umenia" (The Universal Church - Studies in Religion, Science, and the Arts); in the miscellany, two of his works would be published (one of them, "The Philosophical Principles of Dialectic Materialism", was his licentiate thesis in 1947); after the Communist coup in Czechoslovakia in 1948, his works were removed from the miscellany and his thesis had to be published elsewhere. On April 13, 1950, "Barbarian Night", raids against monasteries and religious houses took place and all were closed; he had to interrupt his theological studies when the religious orders were suppressed; he had been exempted from military conscription because of a heart defect and, therefore, he was not forced to join the labor division "PTP" (forced hard labor); instead, he was confined in Jasov; and later in Pezinok; after five months, he was released.
Priesthood. Ordained, in secret, October 1, 1950, Roznava, by Robert Pobozný, titular bishop of Neila, vicar capitular of Roznava. In his civilian life, he worked as a manual laborer in Mototechna in Nitra and conducted his pastoral ministry in secret; he then went to Bratislava, where he ministered in Priemstav and Tatrachema. By 1951, most of the bishops of the country had been jailed and sentenced to long prison terms. In view of this situation, the Holy See decided to consecrate bishops in secret to assure the existence of the Church.
Episcopate. Named bishop (no formal election because he was secretly appointed and consecrated). Consecrated, August 24, 1951, Bratislava, secretly, by Pavol Hnilica, S.J., also a clandestine bishop, without co-consecrators. At 27, he was the youngest bishop in the world. His episcopal motto is Ut omnes unum sint. While performing his episcopal ministry, he worked in a chemical factory; and later, in 1954, he was a laboratory technician at the Institute of Labor Hygiene, where he later became the librarian; an inspectional raid forced him out of that position; the authorities found him "not good enough" to work; finally, he was allowed to work as a night security guard at Prefa; one year later, he was moved to the chemical complex of Dimitrovka. On January 21, 1960, the tB police searched his house; shortly after, he was removed from his job and taken to the police headquarters "Februárka"; and later, arrested. In May 1960, he was convicted of treason and tried with other Jesuits; he was sentenced to 12 years in prison. Freed and rehabilitated on February 28, 1968, during the period of renewal, the Prague Spring, initiated by Alexander Dubček; he returned to Bratislava and assumed a public and religious life trying to restore broken ties; he tried to go to Pezinok to work as a spiritual leader in the Charity house but the authorities did not allow him; he had to accept a job in the Cooperative of the Disabled; later, he worked as a laborer in the Recreational Services of Bratislava, specifically, gardening. Because of pulmonary tuberculosis, diagnosed at the Medical Faculty, he had to leave his job; on July 15, 1968, he began treatment at the hospital of Podunajské Biskupice; and in February 1969, in the High Tatras. While he was in the hospital, the forces of the Warsaw Pact entered Czechoslovakia and put an end to the process of renewal. Nevertheless, on June 24, 1969, Bishop Korec was judicially rehabilitated. When his health improved, he was allowed to go to Rome. On July 9, 1969, he had a private audience with Pope Paul VI; this constituted an unforgettable experience in his life; the pope bestowed on him an episcopal ring and a pectoral cross as well as a crosier and two mitres, which the pontiff had used as archbishop of Milan. Hard times had begun again for his country after the Soviet occupation and especially for him because he was no longer a secret bishop. He was not allowed to perform his episcopal ministry and had to stay at the Children's Hospital in Bratislava, which was staffed by the Sisters of the Most Holy Savior. He was constantly under the vigilance of the tB. On November 5, 1974, the state consented that he needed to to assist the sisters spiritually and he had to go again to work at the chemical factory Tatrachema. His rehabilitation was annulled in that same year and he was sent to prison for 4 years to complete his sentence; freed for poor health, he lost the job that he had held before as street sweeper and went back to work at Tatrachema. On July 1, 1979, because of serious health problems, he left the chemical factory and went to work as an elevator serviceman. From May 1980, he was forced to work in a carpenter's workroom and kept under strict supervision. Two years later, in 1982, at 58 years of age, he retired because of his health condition. The tB followed his every move and even broke into his apartment; as he was not a secret bishop, his popularity and following grew considerably, which made the police machinery increase its vigilance; the police wiretapped and tried to defame him but he continued his ministry and writing. On May 18, 1986, he received an honorary doctor of law degree from Notre Dame University, Indiana, United States of America. During the Marian Year, 1987-1987, pilgrimages of thousands of faithful took place throughout Slovakia; at Nitra Calvary, 150,000 pilgrims gathered and Bishop Korec was with them until summoned to an interrogation by the tB. On March 25, 1988, during the "Good Friday of Bratislava", a gathering of faithfuls who prayed for religious freedom and human rights, the security forces attacked them, injured and imprisoned them; Bishop Korec was called to an interrogation and thus prevented from taking part in the meeting. On the following September 17, the bishop was prevented from participating in the pilgrimage in aštin. On April 27, 1989, Bishop Korec responded in writing to an antirreligious film series presented on national TV, "The Cross in the Toils of Power"; the tB summoned him to an interrogation and tried to break into his apartment. In November 1989, the Communist regime was finally toppled in Czechoslovakia. He was rector of the seminary at the Cyril and Methodius Theological Faculty of Comenius University in Bratislava from January 2 to February 6, 1990. He was nominated bishop of Nitra on February 6, 1990. President of the Regional Episcopal Conference of Slovakia from April 23, 1990 to May 4, 1993.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1991; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Fabiano e Venanzio a Villa Fiorelli, June 28, 1991. He received a doctorate of Humane Letters, honoris causa from the Sacred Heart University, Connecticut, United States of America, on February 22, 1992. President François Mitterand of France bestowed on him the badge of the Legion d'Honneur on July 3, 1993. On November 12, 1993, The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C., United States of America, granted him an honorary doctorate of Humane Letters. On December 6, 1994, Matica Slovenská, Martin, awarded him the "tefan Moyses Award". On August 31, 1995, President Michal Kováč of the Slovak Republic granted him the badge of L'udovít túr. On October 24, 1997, he was awarded the Commemorative Medal of tefan Moyzes (200th anniversary) by Matica Slovenská, Martin. On December 10, 1997, the Slovak National Center for Human Rights, Bratislava, awarded him the "Saver Medal for the Development and Defense of Human Rights". On March 12, 1998, the University of Constantine the Philosopher, Nitra, awarded him a doctorate honoris causa. In 1998, he was invited to conduct the Lent Spiritual Exercises for the pope and the Roman Curia at the Vatican. The National Literary Center, Bratislava, awarded the cardinal the "Medal of Cyril and Methodius" on September 3, 1998. On October 26, 1998, he received from the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic "The Great Medal of St. Gorazd"; it was presented by the secretary of Education Milan Ftfienik, in Nitra, at the University of Constantine the Philosopher on January 27, 1999, at the seminar "The Life and Works of Jan Chrysostom Korec". Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. On October 3, 2000, the cardinal received the Literary Weekly Award of 2000 for "Dialogues Under Zobor". Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, January 22, 2004. Resigned the pastoral government of the diocese on June 9, 2005, in conformity to canon 401 §1 of the Code of Canon Law. Apostolic administrator of Nitra, June 15 to July 16, 2005. He is the author of more than sixty books with a contemplative message for the contemporary man (1).
Bibliography. Khelemendik, Sergei. Kardinál Ján Chryzostom Korec: Krestanstvo nás robí ludmi : kniha dialóg. Bratislava : Slovanský dom, 2004. (Edmcia Homo sapiens); Korec, Ján Chryzostom. The night of the barbarians : memoirs of the Communist persecution of the Slovak cardinal. Editor Emil Vontorcíčk ; Gaughran, Richard ; Reguli, Ivan. Wauconda, IL : Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 2002. Uniform Title: Od barbarskej noci. Contributors, forewords: John Paul II, Vaclav Havel, and Theodore Cardinal McCarrick; preface, Peter-Paul Siska ; introduction, Viliam Judak ; epilogue : Peter Liba ; footnotes : Emil Vontorcik and Peter-Paul Siska; translators, Peter-Paul Siska with Richard Gaughran and Jeff Schmitz ; editors, Richard Gaughran, Emil Vontorcik, and Ivan Reguli.
Links. Photograph, arms and biographical information, in Slovak, Oficiálna Stránka Katolíckej Cirkvi na Slovensku (Official website of the Catholic Church in Slovakia); his photograph, arms and biography, in Slovak, diocese of Nitra; his photograph, arms and biography, in Slovak, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; photograph and biography, in French, Wikipedia; photograph, arms and biography, in Italian, Cathopedia, l'enciclopedia cattolica; photograph and biographical information, in Slovak, Občianske združ enie Osobnosti.sk (Civic Association Osobnosti.sk); Czech Jesuits During the Communist Oppression. On the Way to Jesus! by Jan Pavlík, S.J., website of Dr. Tomáš Svoboda; and another image of his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Postmarks in honor of Cardinal Ján Chryzostom Korec, SJ (1924 - ), from his native town of Bošany, Nitra, in English, Manresa Retreat House; Conservare la viva memoria dei perseguitati e dei martiri di Sua Eminenza il Card. Jan Chryzostom Korec, in Italian, Regina Mundi; Kárdinal Korec stale s nami (Cardinal Korec still with us) by Viliam Judák, Július Paštéka, and Lucia Lendelová, in English, (Bartislava : LÚČ, 2006); Kardinál Korec si pripomenie 60. výročie biskupskej vysviacky (Cardinal Korec to celebrate 60th Anniversary of Episcopal Ordination), in Slovak, actuality.sk; Kardinál Ján Chryzostom Korec a Sociálna náuka Cirkvi (Cardinal Jan Chryzostom Korec and The Social Teaching of the Church) by tefan Vojtek, in Slovak; A bishop at 27 serving in factories and prisons. Cardinal Korec celebrates his 60th episcopal ordination. by Giampaolo Mattei, L'Osservatore Romano, August 25, 2011.
(1) These are some of his works: O pôvode človeka, 1949; Nad vznikom a vývojom ž ivota, 1971; O kompetencii vied, 1971; Záchrana v Kristovi, 1982; Vo svetle blahozvesti, 1985; Úvahy o človeku, 1986; Kristov kňaz, 1987; O poslanm kňaza, 1987; Cirkev uprostred problémov, 1987; Cirkev v rozvoji, 1987.
Birth. April 1, 1911, Huta Komorowska, diocese of Przemyšl, Poland, Austrian Empire. Of noble parents. Son of Adam Kozłowiecki, and Maria Janochów. He had two brothers, Czesław and Jerzy.
Education. Jesuit school in Chyrów (now in Ukraine); because of young Adam's interest in the Society of Jesus, his parents sent him to a private school in Poznan; after he finished school, he renounced his title and heritage and entered the order in Stara Wies, on July 30, 1929; Novitiate of Brzozów, Brzozów; Jesuit Faculty of Philosophy, Kraków; magisterium in Chyrów; Bobolanum Theological Faculty, Lublin; third probation, Lviv. Took the final vows, August 15, 1945, Rome.
Priesthood. Ordained, June 24, 1937, Lublin, by Karol Niemira, titular bishop of Tavio, auxiliary of Pinsk. Arrested by the Gestapo, November 10, 1939, incarcerated in Kraków; interned in the Auschwitz concentration camp, June-December, 1940; in the Dachau concentration camp, December, 1940 to April 29, 1945, freed by the U.S. army troops. Taught at the Jesuit School, Pullach. Volunteered as a missionary to the Jesuit mission in North Rhodesia, now Zambia. Pastoral ministry, especially in education, Kasisi, 1946-1950. Apostolic administrator of the apostolic vicariate of Lusaka, 1950.
Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Diospoli inferiori and appointed apostolic vicar of Lusaka, Zambia, June 4, 1955. Consecrated, September 11, 1955, by James Robert Knox, titular archbishop of Melitene, apostolic delegate in British Africa, assisted by Aston Sebastian Joseph Chichester, S.J., archbishop of Salisbury, and by Joseph van den Biesen, M. Afr., titular bishop of Tullia, vicar apostolic of Abercorn. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lusaka, April 25, 1959. Participated in the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. He resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese so that an African prelate could be named archbishop; transferred to the titular see of Potenza Picena, May 29, 1969. After his retirement and until 1989, he was director of the Pontifical Missionary Society of Zambia; he then resigned his post to hand it over to the young up coming priests; despite his advanced age, he worked in Chikuni, Chingombe, Mulungushi, Lusaka missions and others. In 1987 he was made a companion of the Order of Freedom of the Republic of Zambia. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994. He was decorated with the Commenda of Merit of the Republic of Poland in 1995 by Lech Walesa, president of that republic.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of S. Andrea al Quirinale, February 21, 1998. Promoted to the cardinalate when he was over 80 years old, and thus, he did not have the right to participate in the conclave. He continued living in Lusaka after his promotion to the cardinalate. On December 21, 2006, he was decorated with the Legion d'honneur of France.
Death. September 28, 2007, at 8:30 a.m., in a hospital in Lusaka. He was buried on Friday October 5, 2007, in the grounds of the metropolitan cathedral of the Child Jesus, Lusaka.
Bibliography. Cieślak, Stanisław. Kardynał Adam Kozłowiecki. Kraków: Wydawnictwo WAM 2008; Kozłowiecki, Adam. Ucisk i strapienie. Kraków: Wydawnictwo WAM 2008; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 371-381.
Links. Photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; and Misjonarz Kardynałem, in Polish, by Ks. Czesław Drążek S.J., Fundacja "Opoka".
Birth. October 26, 1910, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America. He was the fourth of the eight children of John Krol and Anna Pietruzka, who were Polish immigrants, originally from the Tatra Mountains. His father held various occupations, working as a machinist, barber, carpenter, plumber and electrician; his mother worked as a maid in a hotel in Cleveland. At age two, he and his family went back to Poland, but returned to Cleveland within a year. His last name in Polish means king.
Education. Initial education at the parochial school of St. Hyacinth church; he later studied at St. Mary's College, Orchard Lake, Mich.; at St. Mary's Seminary, Cleveland, where he operated a small tobacco business, receiving shipments of defective cigars and then selling them to his fellow seminarians; and the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; and at The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C. He spoke eleven languages.
Early life. At age nine, he went to work part-time as a butcher's helper. He later worked as a maker of wooden boxes; and then took a job as a butcher at a Kroger grocery store in Cleveland, where he became manager of the meat department at age eighteen. Religious questions from a Lutheran co-worker prompted him to more deeply study Catholic theology and eventually decide to enter the priesthood.
Priesthood. Ordained, February 20, 1937, St. John the Evangelist cathedral, Cleveland, by Joseph Schrembs, bishop of Cleveland. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Cleveland, 1937-1938. Further studies, 1938-1942. Faculty member of St. Mary's Seminary, Cleveland, 1942-1943. Vice-chancellor of the diocese of Cleveland, 1943-1951; chancellor, 1951-1954. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, July 19, 1945. President of the Canon Law Society of America.
Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Cadi and appointed auxiliary of Cleveland, July 11, 1953. Consecrated, September 2, 1953, at the cathedral of Saint John the Evangelist, Cleveland, by Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, titular archbishop of Laodicea in Frigia, apostolic delegate in the United States of America, assisted by Edward Francis Hoban, archbishop-bishop of Cleveland, and by Floyd Lawrence Begin, titular bishop of Sala, auxiliary of Cleveland. His episcopal motto was Deus rex meus. Vicar general of diocese of Cleveland, June 4, 1954. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Philadelphia, February 11, 1961. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 26, 1967; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria della Mercede e S. Adriano, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, June 28, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; elected member of the Board of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, November 6, 1971. President of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops/U.S. Catholic Conference, 1971-1974. Attended the Thrid Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, May 31, 1981. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; one of its three presidents delegate. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, February 11, 1988. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 26, 1990.
Death. March 3, 1996, shortly after having recovered from complications from fluid in his lungs, attributed to diabetes related to kidney problems, in Philadelphia. A mass of Christian burial took place on Friday, March 8, in the metropolitan cathedral of Sts. Peter and Paul in Philadelphia. Cardinal Anthony Bevilacqua, archbishop of Philadelphia, delivered the homily. The late cardinal was buried in that cathedral (1).
Bibliography. Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 158; Jones, E. Michael. John Cardinal Krol and the cultural revolution. South Bend, IN : Fidelity Press, 1995.
Link. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography, in English (Britannica); photograph and biography, in English, Polish American Cultural Center; The Krol Era, in English, Time Magazine, Monday, Nov. 29, 1971; photographs and biography, in English, Find a Grave; his statue at the National Shrine of Our Lady of Czestochowa, Poland, flickr; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) This is the text of the inscription in his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:
Birth. April 15, 1919, Pribić, near Krašić, archdiocese of Zagreb, Yugoslavia (then Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes; now Croatia).
Education. Classic Lyceum, Zagreb; Theological Faculty, University of Zagreb, Zagreb.
Priesthood. Ordained, July 15, 1945, Zagreb, by Alojzije Stepinac, archbishop of Zagreb, future blessed. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Zagreb, 1945-1964.
Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Meta and appointed auxiliary of Zagreb, February 15, 1964. Consecrated, May 3, 1964, metropolitan cathedral of Zagreb, by Franjo eper, archbishop of Zagreb, assisted by Dragutin Nežić, bishop of Poreć i Pula, and by Josip Lach, titular bishop of Dodona, auxiliary of Zagreb. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1964-1965. Apostolic administrator of Zagreb, 1969-1970. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Zagreb, June 16, 1970. President of the Episcopal Conference of Yugoslavia, 1970-1993. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the title of S. Girolamo dei Croati, February 2, 1983. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. President of the Croatian Episcopal Conference, 1993-1997. Honorary member of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, 1994. Special papal envoy to the beginning of the celebration of 4th centennial of the Union of Brest-Litovsk and the 350th anniversary of the Union of Uzhgorod, Marian shrine of Zarvanycia, Ukraine, May 18-21, 1995. Resigned the pastoral government of archdiocese, July 5, 1997. Special papal envoy to the closing celebrations of the 850th anniversary of the establishment of the diocese of Hvar, Croatia, September 14, 1997; to the 7th centennial celebrations of the establishment of the diocese of Sibenik, Croatia, September 29, 1998. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, April 15, 1999. He was called the "Rock of Croatia".
Death. March 11, 2002, Zagreb. Buried in the crypt of the metropolitan cathedral of Zagreb.
Bibliography. Pavicic, Darko. Tajna kardinala vozaca, ili, Kako sam u noci vidio dugu. Zagreb : ITD, 1997. Biographies of Cardinals Stepinac, Alojzije, 1898-1960; Kuharic, Franjo, 1919-2002; and Seper, Franjo, 1905-1981. Other title: Tajna kardinala vozaca; Kako sam u noci vidio dugu; Stankovic, Vladimir. Kardinal Kuharic u hrvatskom iseljenistvu : Juzna Afrika.Zagreb : Krscanska sadasnjost : Glas koncila, 2003. (Likovi ; 20; Variation: Likovi (Zagreb, Croatia) ; 20); Stankovic, Vladimir. Kardinal Kuharic u hrvatskom iseljenistvu-- Sjeverna Amerika. Zagreb : Krscanska sadasnjost : Glas Koncila, 2005.
Link. His effigy on a medal.
Birth. August 2, 1901, P'ou-tong, diocese of Shanghai, China. He belonged to a five generation Catholic family. His last name is also listed as Gong Pin-mei; and as Gong Pinmei.
Education. At 12, he was taught Chinese classics and religious instruction by his aunt Martha, a homebound nun, who encouraged him to join the priesthood. He later attended St. Ignatius High School in Shanghai and entered the Seminary of Shanghai at 19.
Priesthood. Ordained, May 28, 1930. From 1930 to 1949, pastoral ministry in diocese of Shanghai; although a diocesan priest, he was appointed headmaster of Aurora High School and later of Gonzaga High School, both run by the Society of Jesus.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Soochow (Suzhou), August 9, 1949. Consecrated, October 7, 1949, Shanghai, Zikawei, church of Saint Joseph, by Antonio Riberi, titular archbishop of Dara, nuncio in China, assisted by James Edward Walsh, M.M., titular bishop of Sata, and by Simon Chu Kai Min, bishop of Haimen. Transferred to Shanghai and also appointed apostolic administrator of Soochow and Nanking, July 15, 1950. When persecution against church started, arrested September 8, 1955; sentenced to life in prison, March 16, 1960. Released from jail and placed under house arrest, 1985; political rights granted by Shanghai tribunal, January 6, 1988. Exercised pastoral ministry during his years in jail. Resided in United States since 1988.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest and reserved in pectore, June 30, 1979; published, June 28, 1991; received the red biretta and the title of S. Sisto, June 30, 1991. By the time his creation was published he had already turned 80 years of age, August 2, 1981, and lost the right to participate in the conclave.
Death. March 12, 2000, at 3:05 a.m., from stomach cancer, at the home of his nephew Joseph Kung in Stamford, Connecticut, United States of America. Following his death, he was laid out in state at St. John the Evangelist church, Stamford, where the funeral mass was also said on Saturday, March 18, at 11 am., with some 1,700 mourners in attendance. Cardinal James Francis Stafford, president of the Pontifical Council for the Laity, was the personal representative of Pope John Paul II for the occasion and principal celebrant; while Cardinal Paul Shan Kuo-hsi, bishop of Kaohsiung, Taiwan, delivered the homily. The diocese of Hong Kong celebrated a requiem mass for the late cardinal on the evening of March 15 in the cathedral of the Immaculate Conception. Another requiem mass was celebrated, in Latin Tridentine Rite, on Monday, March 20, at 11 am., at the church of the Five Wounds, San Jose, California, followed by interment. Buried near the vault of Archbishop Dominic Tang Yee-Ming SJ., of Canton, who died of pneumonia while visiting Cardinal Kung in 1995, in Santa Clara Mission cemetery, Santa Clara, California (1). At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.Bibliography. Brender, Andreas ; Kierein-Kuenring, Mandred D. Catholic Hierarchy in China since 1307. Cluj-Napoca, 2012, pp. 101 and 269.
Links. Biography, in English; highlights from his Life and Work, in English; his arms; photo gallery (all these links are from The Cardinal Kung Foundation); photograph, arms and biographical information, in Chinese and English, Hong Kong Catholic Diocesan Archives.
(1) This is the inscription in his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:
©1998-2013 Salvador Miranda.