The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary


KASPER, Walter

Birth. March 5, 1933, Heidenheim/Brenz, diocese of Rottenburg (now Rottenburg-Stuttgart), Germany. Besides his native German, he speaks English and Italian.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Tübingen (philosophy and doctorate in theology); and at the Seminary of Münich (theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, April 6, 1957, Rotteburg, by Carl Joseph Leiprecht, bishop of Rottenburg. Vicar, parish of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, Stuttgart, 1957-1958. Faculty member, Theological Seminary of Tübingen, 1958-1961; further studies, 1961. Assistant of Professor Dr. Leo Scheffczyk (created cardinal in the same consistory) and of Professor Dr. Hans Küng, in Tübingen. Professor of dogmatic theology in Münster, 1961-1969. Dean of the Faculty of Theology in Münster, 1969. Professor of dogmatic theology and dean of the Theological Faculty, Tübingen, 1970. Visiting professor, Washington, United States, 1983. Member of the International Theological Commission. Member of the Heidelberger Academy of Science, 1985. Attended the II the Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8,1985; special secretary.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Rottenberg-Stuttgart, April 4, 1989; confirmed by Pope John Paul II, April 17, 1989. Consecrated, June 17, 1989, cathedral of Sankt Martin, Rottenburg, by Oskar Saier, archbishop of Freiburg im Brisgau, assisted by Karl Lehmann, bishop of Mainz, and by Franz Josef Kuhnle, titular bishop of Sorres, auxiliary of Rottenberg-Stuttgart. His episcopal motto is Veritatem in caritate. Co-president of the Lutheran-Roman Catholic Commission on Unity, 1994. Secretary of the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity, March 16, 1999. Resigned the pastoral government of the diocese, May 31, 1999.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ognissanti in Via Appia Nuova, February 21, 2001. President of the Pontifical Secretariat for the Promotion of Christian Unity, March 3, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reappointed as president of the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity, April 21, 2005. Attended the XI General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Represented Pope Benedict XVI at the International Conference on Peace and Tolerance - Dialog and Understanding in South East Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia, celebrated in Istanbul, November 7 to 9, 2005. Headed the papal delegation to the funeral of Orthodox Patriarch Teoctist of Rumania, which was celebrated on Friday August 3, 2007, at 11 a.m., in the patriarchal cathedral of Bucarest, Rumania. Special papal envoy to the solemn celebrations of the 8th centennial of the translation of the relics of the Apostle Saint Andrew to Amalfi, Italy, which took place on May 8, 2008. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church"; elected member of the Twelfth Council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, October 22, 2008. Member of the delegation of the Holy See to the funeral of His Holiness Alexis II, patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, December 9, 2008. Led a papal delegation to the enthronement of His Holiness Kyrill, new patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, which took place in the cathedral of Christ the Savior, Moscow, on February 1, 2009. Special papal envoy to the conclusive ceremonies of the Pauline Year observed on June 29, 2009, in the Holy Land. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World". Resigned the presidency of the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity for reasons of limit of age, July 1, 2010. On July 14, 2010, he was granted the Cardinal Bea award for services to Jewish-Christian relations, established by the Sisters of Notre Dame de Sion, for the cardinal's activities as head of the Commission for the Religious Relations with Judaism during the last ten years. The ceremony took place in the order's general house in Rome. On January 11, 2011, he was awarded an honorary doctoral degree in Sacred Theology from Saint Joseph's University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in a ceremony at the Vatican. On January 25, 2011, he was honored by the Anglican archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, with a dinner and the award of the Cross of Lambeth. On February 4, 2011, during the celebration of the National Day of the Catholic University of Portugal, in Lisbon, he received a doctorate honoris causa from that university. Opted for the order of cardinal priests in the consistory of February 21, 2011 and at his request his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title; in his absence, his request was presented by the secretary of the College of Cardinals Manuel Monteiro de Castro, titular archbishop of Benevento. On September 27, 2011, he was named special papal envoy to the celebrations marking the 950th anniversary of the dedication of the cathedral of Speyer in Germany, programmed for October 2, 2011. Turned eighty years old on March 5, 2013, after the Apostolic See had become vacant on February 28, 2013; according to the regulation in the seventh paragraph of the introduction of the apostolic constitution Universi Dominici Gregis, the cardinals lose the right to participate in the conclave if the birthday occurs before the vacancy of the Holy See, therefore, he remained eligible to participate in the March 2013 conclave but not in subsequent elections. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis.

Bibliography. Kasper, Walter. Chiesa Cattolica, essenza, realtà, missione. Brescia : Editrice Queriniana, 2012. (Biblioteca di teologia contemporanea, 157); Kasper, Walter. Harvesting the Fruits. Basic Aspects of Christian Faith in Ecumenical Dialogue. Ecumenical Consensus, Convergences and Differences. London : Continuum, 2009.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana; Cardinal Kasper to give speech on family to College of Cardinals,, Tuesday, 18 February 2014; Kasper: «Alla Chiesa serve il genio femminile» by Stefania Falasca, Avvenire, 1 marzo 2014; Kasper proposes appointing women as heads of pontifical councils by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 03/1/2014.


KEELER, William Henry

Birth. March 4, 1931, San Antonio, Texas, United States. Son of Thomas L. Keeler and Margaret T. Conway. Soon after his birth, the family moved to Lebanon, Pennsylvania.

Education. Studied at Catholic elementary and high schools in Lebanon, Pennsylvania; at Saint Charles Seminary, Overbrook, Philadelphia, obtaining a bachelor's in arts in 1952; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, obtaining a licentiate in theology in 1956; and a doctorate in canon law in 1961.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 17, 1955, church of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. From 1955 to 1979, pastoral ministry in Harrisburg; secretary of the diocesan tribunal; further studies in Rome; defensor of the matrimonial bond; expert at the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965; vice-chancellor, 1965, and later chancellor. Chaplain of His Holiness, November 9, 1965. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, May 8, 1970.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Dulcigno and appointed auxiliary of Harrisburg, July 24, 1979. Consecrated, September 21, 1979, St. Patrick's cathedral, Harrisburg, by Joseph Thomas Daly, bishop of Harrisburg, assisted by Francis Joseph Gossman, bishop of Raleigh, and Martin Nicholas Lohmuller, titular bishop of Ramsbiria, auxiliary of Philadelphia. His episcopal motto is Opus fac evangelistae. Apostolic administrator of Harrisburg, September 3, 1983. Transferred to see of Harrisburg, November 10, 1983. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Baltimore, April 6, 1989. Vice-president of the National Conference of Catholic Bishops/U.S. Catholic Conference, 1989-1992; president, 1992-1995. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria degli Angeli, November 26, 1994. Member, by papal appointment, of the council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, January 11, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Special papal envoy to the National Congress on the Holy Spirit, Manila, Philippines, January 22 to 25, 1998. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. On July 12, 2007, Pope Benedict XVI accepted his resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Baltimore, United States of America, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. Apostolic administrator of the archdiocese until the installation of his successor on October 1, 2007. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on March 4, 2011. An Eagle Scout, he is the recipient of the Silver Beaver, Silver Antelope and Distingushed Eagle Scout of the Boy Scouts of America.

Bibliography. Branson, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic Bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 180; Kauffman, C. J. "Keeler, William Henry." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyła years. Detroit, MI : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, p. 237-238.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of Baltimore; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.



Birth. September 29, 1902, Shkodrë, Albania. Son of Mark Koliqi and Age Simoni. In 1911, due to the country's situation, he was sent to study in Italy.

Education. Initial studies at Kolegjin Saverian, 1911; then, attended the Jesuit Collegio Arici, Brescia, Italy (elementary education); he then went to Collegio Vilorez, Monza, 1919-1924; and later, to Bergamo, Florence and Bari, where he passed the final exams in the Technical Institute; started studying in the Polytechnical Institute, Milan, and while he was there, he felt the vocation to the priesthood and started to study theology at the Seminary of Milan, Venegono; and later in Milan, where he finished. He then returned to Albania.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 30, 1931, church of the Jesuit fathers, Shkodrë, by Lazër Mjeda, archbishop of Shkodrë. Vice-pastor of the cathedral of Shkodrë, 1931-1936; founder of the cathedral's schola cantorum in 1932; pastor, 1936- 1945; vicar general, 1936-1991; in charge of the diocesan press; editor of Veprimin Katolik Shqiptar; and director of the cultural review Kumona e së djelës, 1938-1944. Arrested by the Communist authorities, February 3, 1945 and sentenced to 2 years in prison. Freed and again arrested and sentenced to 5 years in 1946. Freed in 1951 and later arrested and sentenced to forced labor in camps in Lsunie, Gradishta, Gjas, Valona and others. In total, 21 years of forced labor and 21 of imprisonment for having listened to foreign radio stations and organized Catholic youth. Freed in 1986 because of advanced age. Given the title "Pishtar i demokracise" (Torchbearer of democracy) by the People's Assembly. Honorary prelate of His Holiness, January 31, 1992. His melodramas Rozafa (Rozafa), Rrethimi i Shkodër (The siege of Shkodër) and Ruba e kuqe (The red scarf), which were written and performed between 1936 and 1938, are considered to be the precursors of the Albanian operatic movement. On his 90th birthday, he received a special greeting from Pope John Paul II which was delivered by the apostolic nuncio, Ivan Dias, titular archbishop of Rusubisir, at a special mass in his house chapel; and the Torch of Democracy award from Albanian President Sali Berisha.

Episcopate. Declined to receive the episcopal consecration because of age.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received red biretta and deaconry of Ognissanti in Via Apia Nuova, November 26, 1994. Promoted to the cardinalate when he was over 80 years old, and thus, he did not have the right to participate in the conclave. He was the first cardinal from Albania. He lived out his last years with his niece and her family in a small apartment near the cathedral of Shkodrë.

Death. January 28, 1997, Shkodrë. Buried in the crypt of the metropolitan cathedral of Shkodrë (1).

Links. Biography, in Albanian; his image in Albanian postal stamps, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the simple inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr Lambert Klinke, from Gießen, Germany:

Kardinal      Mikel Koliqi
* 29. 09. 1902    + 28. 01. 1997


KOREC, S.J., Ján Chryzostom

Birth. January 22, 1924, Bošany, diocese of Nitra, Czechoslovakia (now Slovakia). Third child of Jan Korec, a tannery worker, and Mária Drábic.

Education. Initial studies at the public school of Bošany and town school of Chyronary, a nearby village. In his youth he was an active Boy Scout. Decided to become a priest and entered the Society of Jesus on September 15, 1939. Jesuit center in Ružomberok (high school); graduated from high school in 1944 in Kláštor pod Znievom; went to Trnava to study philosophy; a year later, he went to Brno to continue his philosophical studies; after two years, he returned to Trnava to study theology; besides studying, he assisted in the publication of books and the religious magazines "Posol" and "Katolícke misie". He and other older Jesuits prepared a miscellany entitled "Veobecná Cirkev - šstúium viery, vedy a umenia" (The Universal Church - Studies in Religion, Science, and the Arts); in the miscellany, two of his works would be published (one of them, "The Philosophical Principles of Dialectic Materialism", was his licentiate thesis in 1947); after the Communist coup in Czechoslovakia in 1948, his works were removed from the miscellany and his thesis had to be published elsewhere. On April 13, 1950, "Barbarian Night", raids against monasteries and religious houses took place and all were closed; he had to interrupt his theological studies when the religious orders were suppressed; he had been exempted from military conscription because of a heart defect and, therefore, he was not forced to join the labor division "PTP" (forced hard labor); instead, he was confined in Jasov; and later in Pezinok; after five months, he was released.

Priesthood. Ordained, in secret, October 1, 1950, Roznava, by Robert Pobozný, titular bishop of Neila, vicar capitular of Roznava. In his civilian life, he worked as a manual laborer in Mototechna in Nitra and conducted his pastoral ministry in secret; he then went to Bratislava, where he ministered in Priemstav and Tatrachema. By 1951, most of the bishops of the country had been jailed and sentenced to long prison terms. In view of this situation, the Holy See decided to consecrate bishops in secret to assure the existence of the Church.

Episcopate. Named bishop (no formal election because he was secretly appointed and consecrated). Consecrated, August 24, 1951, Bratislava, secretly, by Pavol Hnilica, S.J., also a clandestine bishop, without co-consecrators. At 27, he was the youngest bishop in the world. His episcopal motto is Ut omnes unum sint. While performing his episcopal ministry, he worked in a chemical factory; and later, in 1954, he was a laboratory technician at the Institute of Labor Hygiene, where he later became the librarian; an inspectional raid forced him out of that position; the authorities found him "not good enough" to work; finally, he was allowed to work as a night security guard at Prefa; one year later, he was moved to the chemical complex of Dimitrovka. On January 21, 1960, the ŠtB police searched his house; shortly after, he was removed from his job and taken to the police headquarters "Februárka"; and later, arrested. In May 1960, he was convicted of treason and tried with other Jesuits; he was sentenced to 12 years in prison. Freed and rehabilitated on February 28, 1968, during the period of renewal, the Prague Spring, initiated by Alexander Dubček; he returned to Bratislava and assumed a public and religious life trying to restore broken ties; he tried to go to Pezinok to work as a spiritual leader in the Charity house but the authorities did not allow him; he had to accept a job in the Cooperative of the Disabled; later, he worked as a laborer in the Recreational Services of Bratislava, specifically, gardening. Because of pulmonary tuberculosis, diagnosed at the Medical Faculty, he had to leave his job; on July 15, 1968, he began treatment at the hospital of Podunajské Biskupice; and in February 1969, in the High Tatras. While he was in the hospital, the forces of the Warsaw Pact entered Czechoslovakia and put an end to the process of renewal. Nevertheless, on June 24, 1969, Bishop Korec was judicially rehabilitated. When his health improved, he was allowed to go to Rome. On July 9, 1969, he had a private audience with Pope Paul VI; this constituted an unforgettable experience in his life; the pope bestowed on him an episcopal ring and a pectoral cross as well as a crosier and two mitres, which the pontiff had used as archbishop of Milan. Hard times had begun again for his country after the Soviet occupation and especially for him because he was no longer a secret bishop. He was not allowed to perform his episcopal ministry and had to stay at the Children's Hospital in Bratislava, which was staffed by the Sisters of the Most Holy Savior. He was constantly under the vigilance of the ŠtB. On November 5, 1974, the state consented that he needed to to assist the sisters spiritually and he had to go again to work at the chemical factory Tatrachema. His rehabilitation was annulled in that same year and he was sent to prison for 4 years to complete his sentence; freed for poor health, he lost the job that he had held before as street sweeper and went back to work at Tatrachema. On July 1, 1979, because of serious health problems, he left the chemical factory and went to work as an elevator serviceman. From May 1980, he was forced to work in a carpenter's workroom and kept under strict supervision. Two years later, in 1982, at 58 years of age, he retired because of his health condition. The ŠtB followed his every move and even broke into his apartment; as he was not a secret bishop, his popularity and following grew considerably, which made the police machinery increase its vigilance; the police wiretapped and tried to defame him but he continued his ministry and writing. On May 18, 1986, he received an honorary doctor of law degree from Notre Dame University, Indiana, United States of America. During the Marian Year, 1987-1987, pilgrimages of thousands of faithful took place throughout Slovakia; at Nitra Calvary, 150,000 pilgrims gathered and Bishop Korec was with them until summoned to an interrogation by the ŠtB. On March 25, 1988, during the "Good Friday of Bratislava", a gathering of faithfuls who prayed for religious freedom and human rights, the security forces attacked them, injured and imprisoned them; Bishop Korec was called to an interrogation and thus prevented from taking part in the meeting. On the following September 17, the bishop was prevented from participating in the pilgrimage in Šaštin. On April 27, 1989, Bishop Korec responded in writing to an antirreligious film series presented on national TV, "The Cross in the Toils of Power"; the ŠtB summoned him to an interrogation and tried to break into his apartment. In November 1989, the Communist regime was finally toppled in Czechoslovakia. He was rector of the seminary at the Cyril and Methodius Theological Faculty of Comenius University in Bratislava from January 2 to February 6, 1990. He was nominated bishop of Nitra on February 6, 1990. President of the Regional Episcopal Conference of Slovakia from April 23, 1990 to May 4, 1993.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1991; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Fabiano e Venanzio a Villa Fiorelli, June 28, 1991. He received a doctorate of Humane Letters, honoris causa from the Sacred Heart University, Connecticut, United States of America, on February 22, 1992. President François Mitterand of France bestowed on him the badge of the Legion d'Honneur on July 3, 1993. On November 12, 1993, The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C., United States of America, granted him an honorary doctorate of Humane Letters. On December 6, 1994, Matica Slovenská, Martin, awarded him the "Štefan Moyses Award". On August 31, 1995, President Michal Kováč of the Slovak Republic granted him the badge of L'udovít Štúr. On October 24, 1997, he was awarded the Commemorative Medal of Štefan Moyzes (200th anniversary) by Matica Slovenská, Martin. On December 10, 1997, the Slovak National Center for Human Rights, Bratislava, awarded him the "Saver Medal for the Development and Defense of Human Rights". On March 12, 1998, the University of Constantine the Philosopher, Nitra, awarded him a doctorate honoris causa. In 1998, he was invited to conduct the Lent Spiritual Exercises for the pope and the Roman Curia at the Vatican. The National Literary Center, Bratislava, awarded the cardinal the "Medal of Cyril and Methodius" on September 3, 1998. On October 26, 1998, he received from the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic "The Great Medal of St. Gorazd"; it was presented by the secretary of Education Milan Ftfienik, in Nitra, at the University of Constantine the Philosopher on January 27, 1999, at the seminar "The Life and Works of Jan Chrysostom Korec". Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. On October 3, 2000, the cardinal received the Literary Weekly Award of 2000 for "Dialogues Under Zobor". Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, January 22, 2004. Resigned the pastoral government of the diocese on June 9, 2005, in conformity to canon 401 §1 of the Code of Canon Law. Apostolic administrator of Nitra, June 15 to July 16, 2005. He is the author of more than sixty books with a contemplative message for the contemporary man (1).

Bibliography. Khelemendik, Sergei. Kardinál Ján Chryzostom Korec: Krestanstvo nás robí ludmi : kniha dialóg. Bratislava : Slovanský dom, 2004. (Edmcia Homo sapiens); Korec, Ján Chryzostom. The night of the barbarians : memoirs of the Communist persecution of the Slovak cardinal. Editor Emil Vontorcíčk ; Gaughran, Richard ; Reguli, Ivan. Wauconda, IL : Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 2002. Uniform Title: Od barbarskej noci. Contributors, forewords: John Paul II, Vaclav Havel, and Theodore Cardinal McCarrick; preface, Peter-Paul Siska ; introduction, Viliam Judak ; epilogue : Peter Liba ; footnotes : Emil Vontorcik and Peter-Paul Siska; translators, Peter-Paul Siska with Richard Gaughran and Jeff Schmitz ; editors, Richard Gaughran, Emil Vontorcik, and Ivan Reguli.

Links. Photograph, arms and biographical information, in Slovak, Oficiálna Stránka Katolíckej Cirkvi na Slovensku (Official website of the Catholic Church in Slovakia); his photograph, arms and biography, in Slovak, diocese of Nitra; his photograph, arms and biography, in Slovak, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; photograph and biography, in French, Wikipedia; photograph, arms and biography, in Italian, Cathopedia, l'enciclopedia cattolica; photograph and biographical information, in Slovak, Občianske združ enie (Civic Association; Czech Jesuits During the Communist Oppression. On the Way to Jesus! by Jan Pavlík, S.J., website of Dr. Tomáš Svoboda; and another image of his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Postmarks in honor of Cardinal Ján Chryzostom Korec, SJ (1924 - ), from his native town of Bošany, Nitra, in English, Manresa Retreat House; Conservare la viva memoria dei perseguitati e dei martiri di Sua Eminenza il Card. Jan Chryzostom Korec, in Italian, Regina Mundi; Kárdinal Korec stale s nami (Cardinal Korec still with us) by Viliam Judák, Július Paštéka, and Lucia Lendelová, in English, (Bartislava : LÚČ, 2006); Kardinál Korec si pripomenie 60. výročie biskupskej vysviacky (Cardinal Korec to celebrate 60th Anniversary of Episcopal Ordination), in Slovak,; Kardinál Ján Chryzostom Korec a Sociálna náuka Cirkvi (Cardinal Jan Chryzostom Korec and The Social Teaching of the Church) by Štefan Vojtek, in Slovak; A bishop at 27 serving in factories and prisons. Cardinal Korec celebrates his 60th episcopal ordination. by Giampaolo Mattei, L'Osservatore Romano, August 25, 2011.

(1) These are some of his works: O pôvode človeka, 1949; Nad vznikom a vývojom ž ivota, 1971; O kompetencii vied, 1971; Záchrana v Kristovi, 1982; Vo svetle blahozvesti, 1985; Úvahy o človeku, 1986; Kristov kňaz, 1987; O poslanm kňaza, 1987; Cirkev uprostred problémov, 1987; Cirkev v rozvoji, 1987.



Birth. April 1, 1911, Huta Komorowska, diocese of Przemyšl, Poland, Austrian Empire. Of noble parents. Son of Adam Kozłowiecki, and Maria Janochów. He had two brothers, Czesław and Jerzy.

Education. Studied at the Jesuit school in Chyrów (now in Ukraine); because of young Adam's interest in the Society of Jesus, his parents sent him to a private school in Poznan; after he finished school, he renounced his title and heritage and entered the order in Stara Wies, on July 30, 1929; Novitiate of Brzozów, Brzozów; Jesuit Faculty of Philosophy, Kraków; magisterium in Chyrów; Bobolanum Theological Faculty, Lublin; third probation, Lviv. Took the final vows, August 15, 1945, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 24, 1937, Lublin, by Karol Niemira, titular bishop of Tavio, auxiliary of Pinsk. Arrested by the Gestapo, November 10, 1939, incarcerated in Kraków; interned in the Auschwitz concentration camp, June-December, 1940; in the Dachau concentration camp, December, 1940 to April 29, 1945, freed by the U.S. army troops. Taught at the Jesuit School, Pullach. Volunteered as a missionary to the Jesuit mission in North Rhodesia, now Zambia. Pastoral ministry, especially in education, Kasisi, 1946-1950. Apostolic administrator of the apostolic vicariate of Lusaka, 1950.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Diospoli inferiori and appointed apostolic vicar of Lusaka, Zambia, June 4, 1955. Consecrated, September 11, 1955, by James Robert Knox, titular archbishop of Melitene, apostolic delegate in British Africa, assisted by Aston Sebastian Joseph Chichester, S.J., archbishop of Salisbury, and by Joseph van den Biesen, M. Afr., titular bishop of Tullia, vicar apostolic of Abercorn. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lusaka, April 25, 1959. Participated in the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. He resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese so that an African prelate could be named archbishop; transferred to the titular see of Potenza Picena, May 29, 1969. After his retirement and until 1989, he was director of the Pontifical Missionary Society of Zambia; he then resigned his post to hand it over to the young up coming priests; despite his advanced age, he worked in Chikuni, Chingombe, Mulungushi, Lusaka missions and others. In 1987 he was made a companion of the Order of Freedom of the Republic of Zambia. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994. He was decorated with the Commenda of Merit of the Republic of Poland in 1995 by Lech Walesa, president of that republic.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of S. Andrea al Quirinale, February 21, 1998. Promoted to the cardinalate when he was over 80 years old, and thus, he did not have the right to participate in the conclave. He continued living in Lusaka after his promotion to the cardinalate. On December 21, 2006, he was decorated with the Legion d'honneur of France.

Death. September 28, 2007, at 8:30 a.m., in a hospital in Lusaka. He was buried on Friday October 5, 2007, in the grounds of the metropolitan cathedral of the Child Jesus, Lusaka.

Bibliography. Cieślak, Stanisław. Kardynał Adam Kozłowiecki. Kraków: Wydawnictwo WAM 2008; Kozłowiecki, Adam. Ucisk i strapienie. Kraków: Wydawnictwo WAM 2008; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 371-381.

Links. Photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; and Misjonarz Kardynałem, in Polish, by Ks. Czesław Drążek S.J., Fundacja "Opoka".

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