The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
(1903-2011)
L

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LA FONTAINE, Pietro
(1860-1935)

Birth. November 29, 1860, Viterbo, Papal State. Son of Francesco La Fontaine, a watchmaker of Genevan origin that had been a soldier in the papal guard, and Maria Bianchini, who was the daughter of the administrator general of the properties of the princes Doria Pamphili Landi.

Education. After an initial period of private studies, he attended the Seminary of Viterbo.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 22, 1883, Viterbo, by Giovanni Battista Paolucci, archbishop-bishop of Viterbo. Successively, 1883-1905, pastoral ministry in the diocese of Viterbo; professor of literature and later of Sacred Scripture, law and ecclesiastical history of its seminary, 1882-1905; its spiritual director, 1893; its rector, 1896; apostolic missionary; and canon of the cathedral chapter from January 22, 1906. The Ministry of the Interior named him chaplain and teacher at the jail of Gradi on July 8, 1906.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cassano all'Ionio, with dispensation of degree, December 6, 1906. Consecrated, December 23, 1906, chapel of Collegio Capranica, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Respighi, vicar general of Rome, assisted by Antonio Maria Grasselli, O.F.M.Conv., archbishop-bishop of Viterbo e Tuscania, and by Raffaele Virili, titular bishop of Troas. Apostolic visitor to the seminaries of the regions of Benevento and Liguria; and to the seminaries of Massa Marittima, Pisa, Volterra, Malta and Gozo, from 1907 to 1909; he emphasized, in the fight against the innovators, a measured attitude, free from the emphasis that characterized Pope Pius X and the staff of the Curia ideologically closer to him. Vicar of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, 1908. Consultor of the Commission for the Codification of the Code of Canon Law. Apostolic administrator of S. Marco e Brisignano, January 16, 1909. Transferred to the titular see of Caristo, April 1, 1910. Secretary of the S.C. of Rites and vicar of the archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, April 2, 1910. Participated in the liturgical reform desired by Pope Pius X and especially in the reform of the Breviary. Promoted to patriarchate of Venice, March 5, 1915.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 4, 1916; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, December 7, 1916. Opted for the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, March 7, 1921. Member of the Congregation of the Oriental Church. Papal legate to the centennial celebrations of Dante, Ravenna, September 13, 1921. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Papal legate to the Provincial Council of Venice, July 15, 1923; to the Eucharistic Congress of Chioggia, September 15, 1923; to the Regional Eucharistic Congress, Ancona, May 4, 1927; to the National Eucharistic Congress, Vienna, Austria, August 30, l933.

Death. July 9, 1935, Villa Fietta, see of the Minor Seminary of Venice, Paderno del Grappa, Treviso. The funeral took place on the following July 12 in the metropolitan cathedral basilica of S. Marco in Venice with the attendance of four archbishops, twelve bishops, the prefect, the major, senators and deputies of the province. Buried, crypt of the Votive Temple of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Lido, Venice. The chapel, built by him, is amid the tombs of the Italian soldiers killed in Piave. The tomb had the inscription Petrus cardinalis La Fontaine, Venetiarum Patriarca, ad pedes Dominae Suae written by him. Transferred to the patriarchal cathedral of Venice and buried on July 8, 1959 in the sarcophagus once intended for the remains of Cardinal Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, who had by then become Pope John XXIII.

Beatification. The diocesan informative process for the cause of beatification was opened by Cardinal Giovanni Urbani, patriarch of Venice (1958-1969).

Bibliography. Camozzo, Ugo. Il cardinale Pietro La Fontaine, patriarca di Venezia. 4a ed. riveduta. Venezia : Studium cattolico veneziano, 1961. (Collana biografica, 2); "Em. La Fontaine (Pierre), patr. de Venise" in "Nècrologe, Cardinaux", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1936. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1936, p. 930; La Fontaine, Pietro. Il servo di Dio, Card. Pietro la Fontaine, patriarca di Venezia, e il suo seminario: lettere ai superiori; ai seminaristi, al popolo. Venezia : Studium cattolico veneziano, 1963. (Studium cattolico veneziano. Collana storica, n.5 ; Variation: Studium cattolico veneziano; Collana storica, n.5); Musolino, Giovanni. Pietro La Fontaine : patriarca di Venezia; (1915 - 1935). Venezia : Ed. Studium Cattolico Veneziano, 1988; Niero, A. I patriarchi di Venezia. Da Lorenzo Giustiniani ai nostri giorni. Venice : Studium Cattolico Veneziano, 1961. (Collana Storica, 3), pp. 207-213; Sparpaglione, Domenico. Il Cardinale Pietro La Fontaine, patriarca di Venezia. Alba : Edizioni Paoline, 1951.

Links. Biography by Giovanni Vian, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 63 (2004), Treccani; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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LAGHI, Pio
(1922-2009)

Birth. May 21, 1922, Castiglione, diocese of Forlì (now Forlì-Bertinoro), Italy. He was the youngest of the five children of Antonio Laghi, a laborer, and Laura Conti, a poor family from the countryside. In 1926, the family moved to Villanova di Forli; and in 1928 to Faenza. They lived in the parish of S. Stefano, where the pastors, Father Barisani and later Monsignor Domenico Balbi, helped the family economically and young Pio to continue his studies. In addition to studying, Pio worked as an attendant in the shop of Archimede, in piazza Faenza.

Education. After finishing his elementary studies in the school of via Castellani 25, he entered in 1933 the Salesian Institute, Faenza (secondary studies); then he entered the Seminary of Forlì (philosophy); and then, he studied at the Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome; and later, at the Theological Faculty, Pontifical Lateran University, Rome (licentiate in theology, June 30, 1946; doctorates in theology, 1942, thesis: "San Guido abate di Pomposa", under the direction of Monsignor Pio Paschini; and canon law, 1950, thesis: "La competenza del vescovo diocesano e l'equa distribuzione dei beni ecclesiastici", under the guidance of Professor Giacomo Violardo, future cardinal); finally, he also attended the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, from October 1950 (diplomacy, 1952).

Priesthood. Ordained, Saturday April 20, 1946, chapel of the bishop of Faenza, by Giuseppe Battaglia, bishop of Faenza. He celebrated his first mass on the following day in the church of S. Stefano, assisted by Monsignor Balbi, Father Pietro Costa and Monsignor Giuseppe Lanzoni. Further studies, Rome, 1947-1952. Entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See, March 1952. After six months working in the Secretariat of State, he was named attaché of the nunciature in Nicaragua, March 1, 1952-1955. Secretary and later auditor in the apostolic delegation in the United States of America, November 3, 1954-1961. Auditor in the nunciature in India, August 1961-1964. Official in the Council of Affairs of the Church, February 1964-1969. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, December 21, 1965. In May 1968, he formed part of the delegation of the Holy See to the conference of the United Nations on human rights in Teheran, Iran.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Mauriana and appointed apostolic delegate in Jerusalem and Palestine, May 24, 1969. Consecrated, June 22, 1969, cathedral of S. Pietro, Faenza, by Cardinal Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, bishop of title of suburbicarian see of Frascati, secretary of State emeritus, assisted by Agostino Casaroli, titular archbishop of Cartago, and by Giuseppe Battaglia, bishop of Faenza. His episcopal motto was In Verbo tuo. Pro-nuncio in Cyprus, May 28, 1973; and also, apostolic visitor to Greece. Nuncio in Argentina, April 27, 1974. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopal Council, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979. Apostolic delegate in the United States of America and permanent observer to the Organization of American States, with title of nuncio ad personam, December 10, 1980; pro-nuncio in the United States of America, when diplomatic relations were established, March 26, 1984. Pro-prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education, April 6, 1990. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 28, 1991; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Maria Ausiliatrice in Via Tuscolana, June 28, 1991. Prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education and grand chancellor of the Pontifical Gregorian University, July 1, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Named president of the Pontifical Oratory of St. Peter on December 5, 1992. Patronus of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, May 8, 1993. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; the Special Assembly for Lebanon of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 26 to December 14, 1995. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998; the Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998. Cardinal protodeacon, January 9, 1999. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Resigned the prefecture, November 15, 1999. Special papal envoy to Israel and the Palestinian Authority to deliver a personal message from Pope John Paul II promoting a cease fire and the resumption of peace talks, May 30, 2001. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, February 26, 2002. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, May 21, 2002. Named special papal envoy to the president of the United States of America to carry a message from Pope John Paul II and to illustrate the position and the initiatives undertaken by the Holy See to contribute to the disarmament and peace in the Middle East, March 1, 2003.

Death. Sunday January 11, 2009, in the early hours of the morning, at San Carlo di Nancy Hospital, Rome, where he was recovering from a cardio-vascular insufficiency caused by a hematologic disease. The viewing took place at the hospital on that same day. On Monday, the body of the late cardinal was transferred to the Vatican. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Benedict XVI prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to his nieces and nephews. A Capella Papale took place for the exequies of the late cardinal. The mass, celebrated by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian sees of Ostia and Albano, and the other cardinals present, took place on Tuesday January 13, at 11 a.m., in the papal Vatican basilica. At the end of the Eucharistic celebration, Pope Benedict XVI addressed those in attendance and presided the rites of Ultima Commendatio and Valedictio. The cardinals that concelebrated were Roger Etchegaray, Giovanni Battista Re, Francis Arinze, Jozef Tomko, Paul Poupard, Bernard Francis Law, Eduardo Martínez Somalo, Achille Silvestrini, Giovanni Canestri, Camillo Ruini, Salvatore De Giorgi, Ivan Dias, Antonio Cañizares Llovera, Estanislao Esteban Karlic, Darío Castrillón Hoyos, Giovanni Cheli, Agostino Cacciavillan, Sergio Sebastiani, Zenon Grocholewski, José Saraiva Martins, Jorge María Mejía, Walter Kasper, Jean Louis Tauran, Renato Raffaele Martino, Francesco Marchisano, Julián Herranz, Attilio Nicora, Georges Marie Martin Cottier, Franc Rodé, Andrea Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo, Leonardo Sandri, John Patrick Foley, Angelo Comastri, Raffaele Farina, Giovanni Coppa, Urbano Navarrete. Among the present were Cardinals Ignace Moussa I Daoud, Paul Augustin Mayer, O.S.B., José Sánchez, Virgilio Noè, and Carlo Furno; Archbishops Fernando Filoni, substitute of the Secretariat of State; Dominique Mamberti, secretary for the Relations with the States; Msgr. Fortunatus Nwachukwu; the grand master of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, Fra' Matthew Festing, with a delegation. In the first row were the nieces and nephews of the late cardinal. A representation of the Pontifical Oratory of San Pietro, led by Monsignor Bruno Guiotto, also participated. At the altar served members of the Pontifical Roman Seminary. Italian president Giorgio Napolitano sent his condolences to the Vatican, "paying homage to (Cardinal Laghi's) passion for great international issues". The body of the late cardinal was buried in the cathedral basilica of Faenza, at the end of the eucharistic liturgy that was celebrated on Wednesday January 14, 2009, at 10 a.m.

Bibliography. Bedeschi, Lorenzo. Il Cardinale Pio Laghi : cittadino onorario di Betlemme, nel suo settantesimo anno di età. Roma : Istituto Grafico Editoriale Romano, 1992; Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 208; Casaretto, Jorge."El paso de Pio Laghi entre nosotros." In: Criterio: actualidad, fe y cultura, año 82, no. 2346 (mar. 2009), p. 93-94; Gordini, Gian Domenico. Due vite per la chiesa : i cardinali Pio Laghi e Achille Silvestrini celebrano quest'anno il giubileo sacerdotale. Faenza : Diocesi di Faenza-Modigliana, 1996; Mejía, Jorge Mario. "El ejemplo del cardenal Laghi." In: Criterio: actualidad, fe y cultura, año 82, no. 2346 (mar. 2009), p. 90-92; Passarelli, Bruno; Elenberg, Fernando. Il cardinale e i desaparecidos : l'opera del nunzio apostolico Pio Laghi in Argentina. [s.l.] : EDI 2000, Grafiche Mari, 1999.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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LANDÁZURI RICKETTS, O.F.M., Juan
(1913-1997)

Birth. December 19, 1913, Arequipa, Perú. Son of Gustavo Landázuri and María Rosa Ricketts. Baptized with the names Guillermo Eduardo; took the name Juan when he joined the Order of the Friars Minor.

Education. Initial studies at Colegio de los Sagrados Corazones, Arequipa; Colegio Arévalo, Arequipa (middle studies) where he had as professor of church history Fr. Juan Gualberto Guevara, future first Peruvian cardinal; National College, Arequipa; Faculty of Letters and Philosophy, University of San Agustín, Arequipa; in his third year, he decided to become a friar. Joined the Order of Friars Minor, missionary province of San Francisco Solano, April 28, 1933; Franciscan house of study in Ocopa (philosophy and theology); Pontifical Athenaeum Antonianum, Rome, 1946-1949 (doctorate in canon law thesis: "De aleniatione bonorum Religiosorum").

Priesthood. Ordained, April 6, 1939, Ocopa, by Francisco Irazola, O.F.M., titular bishop of Flaviade, apostolic vicar of Ucayalí. From 1939 to 1943, professor of canon law and pastoral theology in the Franciscan schools of his province, as well as popular preacher in different cities and towns of the region. Secretary to the General Delegation of his order, constituted because of the Second World War, 1943-1946. In 1943, he was named by Archbishop Juan Gualberto Guevara of Lima ecclesiastical assistant of the Union Nacional de Estudiantes Católico: (UNEC); because of his post, he traveled to the United States of America, Spain, Switzerland, Italy, France, Belgium, England, Holland and Germany. Further studies, 1946-1949. Faculty member of the Franciscan Theological Seminary, Ocopa, and master of novices, 1949-1950. Minister and provincial of the St. Francisco Solano missionary province, 1950-1951. In the general chapter of the order, celebrated in Assisi in 1951, he was elected general definitor for Latin America; he went to reside in Rome; named member of the commission for the redaction of the actas of the general chapter; of the commission for the redaction of the general constitutions of the order; and of the commission for the redaction of "Acta Ordinis Fratrum Minorum"; occupied the post until 1952.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Roina and appointed coadjutor sedi datus of Lima, May 18, 1952. Consecrated, August 24, 1952, metropolitan cathedral, Lima, by Cardinal Juan Gualberto Guevara, archbishop of Lima, assisted by Leonardo Rodríguez Ballón, O.F.M., archbishop of Arequipa, and by León Uriarte Bengoa, O.F.M., titular bishop of Madaura. His episcopal motto was Ambulate in dilectione. Named vicar general of the archdiocese. Elected vicar capitular at the death of Cardinal Guevara, which occurred on November 27, 1954. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lima, May 2, 1955.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 19, 1962; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Aracoeli, March 22, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Papal legate to the 6th National Eucharistic Congress, León, Spain, June 15, 1964; and to the Seventh National Eucharistic Congress, Huancayo, Perú, June 25, 1965. President of the Peruvian Episcopal Conference. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; one of its three president delegates; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the Third General Conference of Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, December 30, 1989. Following his retirement, he resided at Calle Luis Espejo 1064, Distrito de La Victoria, Lima. Today this residence houses the Archdiocesan Archive of Lima. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, December 19, 1993. In 1996, the Episcopal Commission for Social Communications of the Peruvian Conference of Bishops renamed the "Premio Nacional de Periodismo Kukulí", established in 1978, as Premio Nacional de Periodismo y Comunicación Social Cardinal Juan Landázuri Ricketts. He was the last cardinal elector created by Pope John XXIII.

Death. January 16, 1997, from advanced stages of cancer, Lima. Buried in the chapel of Santo Toribio de Mogrovejo, second archbishop of Lima, in the metropolitan cathedral of Lima. The centennial of his birth was celebrated with a solemn mass presided by Cardinal Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne, archbishop of Lima, in the metropolitan cathedral of that see on December 19, 2013.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B., André and Charles N. Bransom. "Franciscan bishops." Franciscan Studies, XLVIII (1988), 300.

Link. Photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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LA PUMA, Vincenzo
(1874-1943)

Birth. January 22, 1874, Palermo, Sicily, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Palermo; and at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 13, 1896, Rome. Faculty member of the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare" and auditor of the S.C. for Bishops and Regulars, 1896-1908. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, July 8, 1907; reappointed, September 8, 1914. Undersecretary of the S.C. for Religious, February 16, 1916. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, November 20, 1917. Secretary of the S.C. for Religious, April 7, 1925. Protonotary apostolic in 1925.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 16, 1935; received red hat and deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, December 19, 1935. His cardinalitial motto was In labore requies. Pro-prefect of the S.C. for Religious, December 22, 1935; prefect, December 31, 1935. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII.

Death. November 4, 1943, Rome. Buried, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Link. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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LARDONE, Francesco Giuseppe
(1887-1980)

Birth. January 12, 1887, Moretta, Cuneo, archdiocese of Turin, Italy. Son of Emanuele Lardone and Placida Minardi.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical School of Theology, Turin; the Royal University of Turin; and the Pontifical School of Canon Law, Turin.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1910, Turin, by Cardinal Agostino Richelmy, archbishop of Turin. Engaged in pastoral ministry in the parish of Caselle, archdiocese of Turin, 1913-1915. Served as Red Cross chaplain, 1915-1920, He was assistant editor of L'Osservatore Romano, the Vatican newspaper, from 1920 to 1923. In 1924, he was named professor of canon law at The Catholic University of America, in Washington, D.C.; dean of the faculty of canon law; he remained in the post until 1949; during his stay in the United States, he became an American citizen. He also was confessor to the apostolic delegation in Washington, D.C., where he became friend of Archbishop Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, the apostolic delegate and future cardinal secretary of State. Professor emeritus of The Catholic University of America.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Rizeo and appointed apostolic nuncio in Haiti and Dominican Republic, May 21, 1949. Consecrated, June 30, 1949, Washington, by Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, titular archbishop of Laodicea, apostolic delegate in the United States of America, assisted by Patrick Aloysius O'Boyle, archbishop of Washington, and by Egidio Vagnozzi, titular archbishop of Mira, apostolic delegate in the Philippines. Named nuncio in Perû, November 21, 1953. Named apostolic delegate to Turkey, June 30, 1959. Appointed apostolic internuncio to Turkey and apostolic administrator of the apostolic vicariate of Istanbul, February 20, 1960. He was charged with evaluating the possibility of resolving the hostility between the Soviet government and the Catholic Church. He was the first ambassador of the Catholic Church, 507 years after Cardinal Isidoro of Kiev, to cross the threshold of the walls of the Turkish city of Istanbul (1).

Cardinalate. In an interview in June 2007, Archbishop Loris Francesco Capovilla, who in 1960 was personal secretary to Pope John XXIII, revealed that Internuncio Lardone was one of the cardinals reserved in pectore in the consistory of March 28, 1960, because of the delicate position occupied by Archbishop Lardone at that time; he preferred not to give up the post of internuncio to Turkey, with the clear intent to help allow the bishops of the countries beyond the Iron Curtain to participate in the Second Vatican Council; if his promotion to the cardinalate had been published, he would not have been able to remain in Istanbul, which was not a cardinalitial diplomatic post, and he would have been moved to another post, thus interrupting his diplomatic mediation with the governments behind the Iron Curtain (2). He remained in his post until his retirement in 1966.

Death. January 30, 1980, at home, Moretta. The funeral took place on Saturday February 2, 1980, at 10 a.m., in the parish church of Moretta, dedicated to S. Giovanni Battista and the Vergine Maria. Buried, according to his will, in the tomb of the clergy in Moretta. He left his house to the parish of Moretta and it became a catechetical center and a place for parochial meetings.

Bibliography. Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 162; Hebblethwaite, Peter. Pope John XXIII, shepherd of the modern world. Garden City, N.J.; New York: Doubleday, 1985, p. 406-407; Filippazi, Antonio G. Rappresentaze e rappresentanti pontifici dalla seconda metà del XX secolo. Cità del Vaticano : Libreria editrice Vaticana, 2006, p. 124, 185 and 311; L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, CXX, n. 27 (February 2, 1980), p. 2; Tuninetti, Giuseppe. Monsignor Francesco Lardone : (1887 - 1980). Il Nunzio Apostolico precursore della Ostpolitik. Savigliano : L'Artistica, 1997; Zizola, Giancarlo. The utopia of Pope John XXIII. Translated by Helen Barolini. Maryknoll, New York : Orbis Books, 1978, p. 181-185. Originally published as L'utopia di Papa Giovanni XXIII. 2nd ed. rev. Assisi : Citadella Editrice, 1974.

Links. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; John XXIII: Pope of the Century by Peter Hebblethwaite, p. 209, Google Books; Esclusivo -- Era Monsignor Francesco Lardone uno dei tre Cardinali "in pectore" di Giovanni XXIII, PETRUS, Il quotidiano online sull'Apostolato di Benedetto XVI, June 6, 2007; Il Cardinale "in pectore" di Giovanni XXIII -- Monsignor Capovilla: "Fu Lardone a rifiutare la porpora per aiutare i Vescovi dell'Est a partecipare al Concilio", PETRUS, Il quotidiano online sull'Apostolato di Benedetto XVI, June 11, 2007.

(1) This is how Time, "Turkey: Unfinished Business", Monday, Mar. 14, 1960, reported the news: "When Mohammed II in 1453 wrested Constantinople from the last of the Caesars, Constantine XI Palaeologus, he barely missed capturing the papal ambassador, Cardinal Isidore of Russia, as an extra prize. But Isidore put his distinctive cardinal's hat and robes on a corpse, and in plebeian rags scuttled through a gap in the wall even as Mohammed's followers were mistakenly displaying the severed head of the corpse as Isidore's. Although his undignified escape embarrassed the Vatican, Isidore had good reason for disappearing. Sent by Pope Nicholas V to show Western support for the Eastern Empire and to consummate the reunion of the Latin and Greek churches that had been uneasily agreed upon at the Council of Florence 14 years earlier, Isidore said Mass in St. Sophia as the Turks were gathering to batter down the walls. But disputatious followers of the monk Gennadius boycotted the church. After the fall of the city, Mohammed rewarded Gennadius by appointing him the first Ecumenical Patriarch of the Greek church under Islam. And one of Gennadius' first acts was to repudiate the Council of Florence's attempt to heal the 400-year-old East-West schism. Last week, 507 years after Cardinal Isidore went through the wall, the Vatican again had an accredited ambassador in Istanbul. It named as apostolic internuncio (equivalent to minister plenipotentiary, and one step below apostolic nuncio or full ambassador) Francesco Lardone, 73, longtime (1924-49) professor of canon law at Catholic University of America in Washington, who last served the Vatican as nuncio to Peru. Last fall the Vatican switched Italian-born Archbishop Lardone to Istanbul as apostolic delegate to Turkey's 200,000 Catholics, mostly Eastern Rite Christians in communion with Rome. Turkey in turn has sent its first ambassador to the Vatican, veteran diplomat Nurettin Vergin. Archbishop Lardone was finding conditions considerably improved since Cardinal Isidore's hasty departure. Turkey, since Ataturk, is a secular state. And Gennadius' successor, the Ecumenical Patriarch Athenagoras I, who once made his headquarters in Manhattan as Greek Orthodox primate for North and South America, is a lot more approachable on church reunion than was Gennadius. Both Athenagoras and Lardone became American citizens during their U.S. stay; though the Treaty of Lausanne required Athenagoras to become a Turk again on his election as Patriarch in 1948. Athenagoras has said he will call an Orthodox synod this fall to consider whether Greek Orthodox churches should accept Pope John's invitation to participate in a new ecumenical council to pick up the unfinished business of the Council of Florence."
(2) According to Zizola, The utopia of Pope John XXIII, p. 182, certain sectors of the Vatican Secretariat of State were unhappy with the personal diplomacy that Pope John XXIII was conducting outside the regular diplomatic channels. Zizola says: "The organs of Vatican diplomacy had sniffed out something. Just at time, in fact, the Secretariat of State offered Lardone a much more prestigious seat than Ankara in the apostolic nunicature of Brussels, as if to tempt him to leave the post in which this "private" ambassador of Pope John had woven a personal network of contacts which were extremely important for the papal policy of thaw. But Lardone refused, for the reason that he was "attracted" by the responsibility of bringing to port the dealings with the Communists. He spoke of it to Pope John, who agreed with him, consenting to his staying on in Turkey."


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LARRAONA, C.M.F., Arcadio María
(1887-1973)

Birth. November 12, 1887, Oteiza de la Solana, diocese of Pamplona, Spain. He was baptized on the following day, November 13 (1). He was the second of the five children of Patricio Larraona and Bartolina Saralegui. The other children were Luis, Digna, Amaprito (who died in infancy), and Amparo. Since his childhood he went to live in Estella with his aunt and godmother Catalina Eyzaguirre, a widow who assisted her uncle, a priest of the parish of San Juan. His last name is also listed as Larraona y Saralegui.

Education. Until he was seven, he attended the school of the Religiosas Anas in Estella; then received his elementary education at the school of the Piarists, receiving excellent grades; he was known as a child who asked many questions; after finishing his elementary studies, he joined the Congregation of Missionary Sons of Immaculate Heart of Mary (Claretians) in the Postulantship of Alagón, province of Zaragoza on October 12, 1900; received the religious habit, July 28, 1902, Vich; novitiate, Vich, province of Barcelona, 1902-1903; took the perpetual vows, December 8, 1903, Vich, in a solemn mass celebrated at 8 a.m. by Father Clemente Serrat, superior general of the congregation; studied three years of philosophy and three of theology in Cervera, province of Lérida, and then the last two years of the ecclesiastical career, according to the plan of studies of the Claretians, in Alagón; received the subdiaconate on May 21, 1910, in Algón, from Juan Soldevilla y Romero, archbishop of Zaragoza; and the diaconate on October 9, 1910, in Zaragoza, from the same archbishop; later, on October 3, 1911, he was sent to Rome to study at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law; he also frequented the Royal University of Rome and the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; and made special studies on the founder of his congregation, Saint Antonio María Claret y Clará, and the constitutions he gave to the institute.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 10, 1911, Zaragoza, by Juan Soldevilla y Romero, archbishop of Zaragoza. Left for Rome, October 24, 1911. Further studies and pastoral ministry in his congregation, 1911-1918. In 1916, he worked with Father Felipe Maroto in the preparation of the Code of Canon Law, which was promulgated by Pope Benedict XV the following year. When the faculties of canon and civil law were reestablished in the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare" in the academic year 1919-1920, he was named professor of Institutions and History of Civil Law; later, he was professor of Roman law for forty years; also taught at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide"; and at the "Scuola Pratica" of the S.C. of Religious, Rome. He participated in the general chapter of his congregation inaugurated in Vich on August 14, 1922; with assistance of other participants, he prepared the Codex Iuris Addititii, particular law of the congregation. Named director of the journal Commentarium pro Religiosis on January 28, 1923, which he had founded with Father Maroto in 1920. In his congregation he held the posts of counselor of the Italian province; visitor to Germany; general assistant to Italy, Central Europe, and China. Apostolic visitor to several religious orders and congregations. Consultor of the S.C. of the Oriental Church, October 8, 1929. Consultor of the S. C. of Religious, December 3, 1929. Member of the Pontifical Commission for the Codification of the Oriental Canon Law, April 1, 1933. Named undersecretary of the S.C. for Religious on November 27, 1943; named secretary on December 11, 1949. Member of the General Council of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, September 6, 1944. Decorated with the grand cross of the Order of Alfonso X el Sabio of Spain on November 8, 1946. Collaborated in the preparation of the apostolic constitutions "Provida Mater Ecclesia" of February 2, 1947; "Sponsa Christi" of November 21, 1950; and "Sedes Sapientiæ of May 31, 1956. Meber of the board of directors of Studia et Documenta Historiae et Iuris from 1935 until 1949, when he was named director; he occupied the post until his promotion to the cardinalate. Member of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre on January 22, 1950. He actively participated in the organization and proceedings of the international congresses of religious in Rome (1950 and 1957); and the national congresses in the United States of America (1952); Chile, Brazil, Argentina, Canada and Australia (1954); Philippines (1955); England; Brazil and Spain (1956); Portugal (1958); and México (1960). He created centers of superior studies in Rome such as "Regina Mundi" and "Mater Divinæ Gratiæ" for the cultural development of women religious; and "Jesus Magister", for lay religious. Named bailif knight Grand Cross of Honor and Devotion of Malta, June 21, 1956.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 14, 1959; received the red hat and the deaconry of Ss. Biagio e Carlo ai Catinari, December 17, 1959. Named grand penitentiary, August 13, 1961. On November 10, 1961, he was decorated with the grand cross of the Order of Isabel la Católica of Spain. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites and president of the Pontifical Commission of the Sacred Liturgy, in preparation for the Second Vatican Council, February 12, 1962; resigned and was named prefect emeritus, January 9, 1968.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Diocesarea di Isauria, April 5, 1962. Consecrated, April 19, 1962, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Cardinal Giuseppe Pizzardo and by Cardinal Benedetto Aloisi Masella. His episcopal motto was Dilexit tradidit. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinals Joaquín Anselmo María Albareda, O.S.B., Antonio Bacci, Augustin Bea, S.J., Francesco Bracci, Michael Browne, O.P., William Theodore Heard, Alberto di Jorio, André Jullien, P.S.S., Francesco Morano, Alfredo Ottaviani and Francesco Roberti. Decorated with the Order El Sol del Perú on May 7, 1962; with the Order of Infante D. Henrique of Portugal on the following May 17; with the Order Vasco Núñez de Balboa of Panamá on the following June 5. Named "Bearer of the Masterkey of the Panama Canal" on June 9, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965; he was a member of the ante-preparatory and central commissions. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Named knight grand cross of the Order of Santa Agata of the Republic of San Marino on August 30, 1963. Named "Predilect Son of Navarra" on January 26, 1965. Received in the Order of San Raimundo de Peñafort, Spain, on November 6, 1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of Sacro Cuore di Maria, April 28, 1969. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971. On June 20, 1971, he went to reside at the Claretianum. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 5, 1973 until his death. He was the first Claretian cardinal in history.

Death. May 7, 1973, at 10:10 a.m., after a six-day bronchopulmonary infection, in the general headquarters of the Claretians congregation, Rome, after receiving the Holy Sacraments and the Papal Blessing. Exposed in the chapel of Collegio Claretianum, Via Aurelia, from May 7 to 9; the pope, Roman cardinals, numerous prelates of the Roman Curia, diplomats accredited before the Holy See, among them the ambassador of Spain, the marquis of Vellisca, D. Juan Pablo de Lojendio, and numerous priests and men and women religious, mostly Spanish, visited the chapel. The funeral liturgy took place in the transept of Ss. Proceso e Martiniano of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. The casket was placed on the floor, with the Gospel on top of it and the Paschal candle at its side. Participating in the funeral were the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, thirty-one other cardinals, and a large number of archbishops and bishops, priests, and a multitude of men and women religious. Several superior generals of religious orders and congregations were also present, among them Father Antonio Leghisa, of the Congregation of Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, to which the late cardinal belonged. The mass was celebrated by the secretary of the S.C. for Divine Worship, Annibale Bugnini, C.M., titular archbishop of Diocleziana, assisted by the seminarians of the Claretianum. After the mass, Cardinal Luigi Traglia, sub-dean of the Sacred College, imparted the final absolution in the name of the pope. The late cardinal was buried in the chapel of S. Giuseppe in the basilica of Sacro Cuore di Maria, Rome, according to his will.

Bibliography. Alberti, Ottorino. "Card. Arcadio Larraona" in La Pontificia Università lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, p. 240-241; Frisón, Basilio. Cardenal Larraona. Madrid : Instituto Teológico de Vida Religiosa, 1979; Frisón, Basilio. Cardenal Larraona. Madrid : Editorial Publicaciones Claretianas, 1979; Frisón, Basilio. "Larraona, Arcadio." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), Supp., 425-426; "Los funerales del Cardenal Larraona." L'Osservatore Romano, Spanish edition, V, no. 20, May 20, 1973, p. 5; Mesa, Carlos E. Galería de prelados claretianos. Medellín : Editorial Zuluaga, 1985, p. 523-562.

Link. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; The First Claretian Cardinal. Arcadio Marma Larraona Saralegi by Josu M. Alday, CMF, in Spanish; same biography, in English; his portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Mesa, Galería de prelados claretianos, p. 526. Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 1973. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglota Vaticana, 1973, p. *54; and Alberti, "Card. Arcadio Larraona" in La Pontificia Università lateranense, p. 240, say that he was born on November 13, 1887.


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LAURENTI, Camillo
(1861-1938)

Birth. November 20 (1), 1861, Monte Porzio Catone, diocese of Frascati, Papal State. Son of Luigi Laurenti and Adelaide Lovatti, a noble woman.

Education. Resided at Almo Collegio Capranica, Rome, from November 1, 1872 until July 31, 1884; studied at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, where he earned doctorates in philosophy and theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 7, 1884, Rome. Staff member of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, September 1, 1884; first minutant, December 1, 1887. Privy chamberlain supranumerarius, August 3, 1889; reappointed, August 16, 1903. Professor of philosophy at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," 1892-1908. Undersecretary of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, October 20, 1908. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 12, 1909. Secretary of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, August 12, 1911. Consultor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, March 4, 1912. Consultor of the S.C. of the Oriental Church, November 29, 1917.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 13, 1921; received red hat and deaconry of S. Maria della Scala, June 16, 1921. His cardinalitial motto was Stella matutina. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Papal legate to the centennial celebrations of Our Lady of Larmes, Treviglio, Milan, February 1922. Prefect of the S.C. for Religious, July 5, 1922. Papal legate to the Eucharistic Congress of Sassari, August 15, 1923; to the Eucharistic Congress of Sora, September 14, 1924; and to the Congress of Christ the King, Milan, May 15, 1926. Pro-prefect of the S.C. of Rites, December 17, 1928; prefect, March 12, 1929. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, December 16, 1935.

Death September 6, 1938, of a heart attack, Rome. Buried, family's tomb, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. His remains were later transferred to the church of Ricovero S. Giuseppe at Monte Porzio Catone, province of Rome.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1938, p. 85; Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 681; "Liste des cardinaux par ordre alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1936, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1937, p. 100; L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, LXI, n. 140 (June 13-14, 1926), p. 1; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 19 and 26.

Link. Photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted except Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 681, which says that he was born on September 1, 1861; and L'Osservatore Romano, LXI, n. 140 (June 13-14, 1926), p. 1, which says that he was born on November 24, 1862.


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LAURI, Lorenzo
(1864-1941)

Birth. October 15, 1864, Rome, Italy.

Education. Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 4, 1887, Rome. Faculty member of the Pontifical Roman Seminary and the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," 1887-1910. Official of the Vicariate of Rome, 1895-1910. Canon of the chapter of the basilica of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, 1901. Substitute of the regent of the Sacred Apostolic Penitentiary, February 5, 1910. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, April 5, 1910.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Efeso and appointed internuncio in Perú, January 5, 1917. Consecrated, January 21, 1917, chapel of the Pontifical Pio Latin American College, Rome, by Cardinal Donato Sbarretti, assisted by Vincenzo Sardi di Rivisondoli, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, assessor of the S.C. Consistorial, and by Americo Bevilacqua, titular bishop of Retimo, consultor of the S.C. Consistorial. Nuncio in Perú at establishment of full diplomatic relations, July 20, 1917. Nuncio in Poland, May 25, 1921.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 20, 1926; received the red hat and the title of S. Pancrazio, June 23, 1927. Grand penitentiary, July 31, 1927. Papal legate to the International Eucharistic Congress, Dublin, Ireland, May 26, 1932. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, June 15, 1936 to December 13, 1937. Protector of the Pontifical North American College, Rome, 1937-1941. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, December 11, 1939. He was member of the SS.CC. of the Holy Office, Consistorial Sacraments, Council, Ecclesiastical Affairs and Seminaries and Universities of Study.

Death. October 8, 1941, Rome. Buried, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Link. His portrait, Araldica Vaticana.


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LAVITRANO, Luigi
(1874-1950)

Birth. March 7, 1874, Forio, diocese of Ischia, Italy. Son of Leonardo Lavitrano, a modest blacksmith, and Giuseppina Musella, an ambulant seller, originally from Ventotene. He had a sister, Francesca. The father died when Luigi was eight years old. The rest of his family died in the earthquake that wrecked the island of Ischia in 1883.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome; at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome; at the Royal University, Rome; and at the Pontifical Leonine Institute, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 21, 1898, Rome. Faculty member of the Pontifical Leonine Institute, 1898-1910; its rector, 1910-1914. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, March 8, 1904.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cava e Sarno, May 25, 1914. Consecrated, June 21, 1914, Rome, by Cardinal Basilio Pompilj, vicar general of Rome, assisted by Giovanni Regine, bishop of Nicastro, and by Giovanni Scotti, bishop of Cariati. His episcopal motto was Per crucem ad astra. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Benevento, July 16, 1924. Apostolic administrator of Castellmare di Stabia, 1924-1925. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Palermo, September 29, 1928.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1929; received the red hat and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, December 19, 1929. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. He was severely injured during a bombing raid on Palermo, which he had refused to abandon while his flock was subject to the violence of war. He also welcomed the Allied conquerors, which included a vast contingent of Italian-Americans, many of whom were the children of people who had left Sicily only a generation ago. He resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese in December 1944 and left Palermo on August 6, 1945. Named prefect of the S.C. for Religious on May 14, 1945. He once scolded Italian Catholics for their religious negligence.

Death. August 2, 1950, Villini, Marino, Alban Hills. Buried in the basilica of S. Maria di Loreto, Foro d'lschia (1). There is a street, via Cardinale Luigi Lavitrano, named after him in Palermo.

Bibliography. Miller, Frederic P. Luigi Lavitrano. Edited by Agnes F. Vandome and John McBrewster. Saarbr|cken : VDM Verlag Dr. Mueller e.K., 2010.

Links. Biography by Alessandro Marra, in Italian, EWriters, 18 agosto 2005; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana; L'Ideatore del "Sinodo Intereparchiale" celebrato a Grottaferrata nel 1940 by Stefano Parenti, in Italian, Blog della Cattedrale di Piana degli Albanesi.

(1) This is the text of the simple inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

LABOR ET DOLOR VITA MEA FUIT


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LAW, Bernard Francis
(1931-

Birth. November 4, 1931, Torreón, México. Son of U.S. Army Air Corps Col. Bernard A. Law, and Helen Stubblefield, a concert painist. His father was assigned to a base in that Mexican city when Bernard was born.

Education. He attended high school in the U.S. Virgin Islands; then, he studied at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, where he obtained a B.A. in Medieval history; later, he attended St. Joseph Seminary, St. Benedict, Louisiana; and finally, the Pontifical Josephinum College, Worthington, Ohio.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 21, 1961, at the Pontifical College Josephinum, Worthington, Ohio, by Egidio Vagnozzi, titular archbishop of Mira, apostolic delegate to the United States. Incardinated in the diocese of Natchez-Jackson. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Natchez-Jackson, 1961-1973; director of the diocesan newspaper, 1961-1966; an active supporter of civil rights, he received death threats for his views expressed during the time he served as editor of the weekly diocesan newspaper. In 1968, he was named executive director of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops Committee on Ecumenical and Interreligious Affairs. He was also executive director of the conference's council for economic affairs, 1968-1971. Chaplain of His Holiness, December 5, 1968.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Springfield-Cape Girardeau, October 22, 1973. Consecrated, December 5, 1973, cathedral of St. Agnes, Springfield, by Joseph Bernard Brunini, bishop of Natchez-Jackson, assisted by William Wakefield Baum, archbishop of Washington, and by Joseph Louis Bernardin, archbishop of Cincinnati. His episcopal motto is To live is Christ. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Boston, January 11, 1984.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of S. Susanna, May 25, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Special papal envoy to the Eucharistic Congress for the countries of the Caribbean region, Port of Spain, Trinidad Tobago, April 17-20, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. He was instrumental in helping to arrange the pope's visit to Cuba in January 1998. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, March 6, 2000. Special papal envoy to the Peruvian National Eucharistic Congress, Lima, August 30 to September 3, 2000. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese and apologized for his delay and mistakes in response to allegations of sexual misconduct against priests, December 13, 2002. Resident chaplain at the convent of the Sisters of Mercy of Alma, Clinton, Maryland, 2003. Named archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, May 27, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when he turned eighty years old on November 4, 2011. Ceased as archpriest of the papal Liberian basilica on November 21, 2011.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1790-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 167; Clark, Douglas K. "Law, Bernard Francis." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyła years. Detroit, MI : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, p. 337.

Links. Biography, in English (Britannica); and his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Former Boston archbishop Bernard Law reportedly behind Vatican crackdown on US nuns by Dara Kelly, IrishCentral, Sunday, May 6, 2012, 9:11 AM.


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LEBRÚN MORATINOS, José Alí
(1919-2001)

Birth. March 19, 1919, Puerto Cabello, diocese of Valencia en Venezuela, Venezuela. Eldest of the five children of Enrique Lebrún and Josefina Moratinos. Baptized in the parish church of Puerto Cabello. Confirmed in his native city by Felipe Rincón González, archbishop of Caracas. He was prepared for his first communion by Brother Juan, of the Brothers of the Christian Schools.

Education. Colegio San José, of the Brothers of the Christian Schools, Puerto Cabello; Interdiocesan Seminary, Caracas, July 4, 1934-1937; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (licentiate in philosophy, 1941; started studying theology but had to leave Italy because of the Second World War); resided in Collegio Pio Latino Americano, Rome; Pontifical University Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia. Besides his native Spanish, he spoke Italian, Latin and French.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 19, 1943, cathedral of Valencia, by Gregorio Adam Dalmau, bishop of Valencia. Successively, 1943-1956, in Valencia, faculty member, spiritual director and rector of its seminary; chaplain and faculty member, School "Our Lady of Lourus"; pastoral ministry in several parishes; chaplain of the local jail; diocesan assessor of the Feminine Catholic Youth; director of Cultura Católica and of the newspaper El Carabobeño; assessor of the Venezuelan Catholic Education Association, sectional of Valencia; master of ceremonies, defensor of the matrimonial bond, and pro-vicar general.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Arado and auxiliary of Maracaibo, August 2, 1956. Consecrated, September 2, 1956, Valencia, by Raffaele Forni, titular archbishop of Egina, nuncio in Venezuela, assisted by Acacio Chacón Guerra, archbishop of Mérida, and by Gregorio Adam Dalmau, bishop of Valencia en Venezuela. Apostolic administrator of the see Maracaibo, October 23, 1957. Transferred to see of Maracay, June 21, 1958. Transferred to see of Valencia en Venezuela, March 19, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Attended the Second General Assembly of the Latin American Episcopate, Medellín, Colombia, August 24 to September 6, 1968. Promoted to titular archbishop of Voncaria and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, and apostolic administrator, sede plena, of Caracas, September 16, 1972. Vice-president of the Venezuelan Episcopal Conference. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, January 27 to February 13, 1979, Puebla, México. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Caracas, May 24, 1980.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the title of S. Pancrazio, February 2, 1983. President of the Episcopal Conference of Venezuela, 1984-1990. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, May 27, 1995. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, March 19, 1999.

Death. February 21, 2001, in a clinic in Caracas after suffering a heart attack. Buried in the chapel of Our Lady of El Pilar, which is in the right nave of that cathedral. All the bishops and archbishops of Caracas, including Cardinals José Humberto Quintero Parra and Antonio Ignacio Velasco García, S.D.B., are buried there.

Bibliography. Vinke, Ramón. El Cardenal José Alí Lebrún. Caracas : [s.n.], 1994.


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LEFÈBVRE, Joseph-Charles
(1892-1973)

Birth. April 15, 1892, Tourcoing, diocese of Lille, France. Son of Georges Jules Joseph Lefébvre and Marie Agnès Lucie Joseph Decaestecker. Cousin of Marcel Lefèbvre, apostolic delegate to French Africa and archbishop of Dakar, who was excommunicated in 1988 for consecrating four bishops with no mandate from Pope John Paul II.

Education. Studied at the Catholic University of Lille; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; and at the Pontifical French Seminary, Rome. He served in the French Army during the First World War; he was wounded and captured in Belgium in 1914; and liberated in prisoner exchange in Switzerland in 1918.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 17, 1921, Rome. Diocesan missions, 1921-1923. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Poitiers, 1924-1938. Director of Works and honorary canon of Poitiers, 1926-1936. Vicar general of Poitiers, 1936-1938. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, December 28, 1936.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Troyes, July 27, 1938. Consecrated, October 11, 1938, cathedral of Poitiers, by Edouard-Gabriel Mesguen, bishop of Poitiers, assisted by Joseph Heintz, bishop of Metz, and by Louis Liagre, bishop of La Rochelle. His episcopal motto was Veritatem facientes in caritate. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Bourges, June 17, 1943.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 28, 1960; received the red hat and the title of S. Giovanni dei Fiorentini, March 31, 1960. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. President of the French Episcopal Conference, 1965-1969. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Resigned pastoral government of archdiocese, October 10, 1969. Lost right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, April 15, 1972.

Death. April 2, 1973, Bourges. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Bourges.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 381-382.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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LEGA, Michele
(1860-1935)

Birth. January 1, 1860, Brisighella, diocese of Faenza, Papal State.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Faenza; at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome, where he earned doctorates in theology, philosophy and utroque iure in 1888; and where he was auxiliary to Father Benedetto Lorenzelli, future cardinal.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 13, 1883, Faenza. Further studies, 1883-1887. Faculty member of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, 1887-1889; professor of philosophy, 1887-1890; substitute professor of canon law, 1888-1889; ordinary professor, 1889-1890. Faculty member of the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum S. Apollinare, 1889-1893. Auditor of the S.C. of the Council, 1894-1903. Privy chamberlain, August 11, 1897. Undersecretary of the S.C. of Council, August 11, 1903. Member of the Pontifical Commission for the Codification of Canon Law, April 2, 1904. Domestic prelate, May 17, 1905. Dean of the Sacred Roman Rota, October 24, 1908. Counselor of the S.C. Consistorial, November 4, 1908. Counselor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, January 4, 1911.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 25, 1914; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Eustachio, May 28, 1914. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of Apostolic Signature, December 15, 1914. One of the three cardinal presidents of the Pontifical Academy "S. Tommaso", Rome, together with Cardinals Benedetto Lorenzelli and Louis Billot, S.J., February 24, 1915. Member of the Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law, October 15, 1917. Visitor of the Hospice of Cathechumenorum, May 3, 1919. Prefect of the S.C. for Discipline of Sacraments, March 20, 1920. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, December 18, 1924. Papal legate to the Eucharistic Congress, Faenza, August 22, 1923; to the Regional Eucharistic Congress of Pistoia, Vicenza, and Ravenna, August 23, 1924.

Episcopate. Opted for order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, June 21, 1926. Consecrated, July 11, 1926, Sistine Chapel, at the Vatican, by Pope Pius XI, assisted by Carlo Cremonesi, titular archbishop of Nicomedia, privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Agostino Zampini, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, sacristan of His Holiness. The cardinal's brother, Antonio Lega, archbishop of Ravenna and bishop of Cervia, attended the ceremony. Papal legate to the Regional Eucharistic Congress, Ravenna, May 3, 1930. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, May 5, 1931. Papal legate to the Antoniana Solemnia, Padua, May 27, 1932. During his episcopate in Frascati, he restored the cathedral and its sacristy; the rectory of Monte Porzio Catone; had a steeple erected for the parish church of Montecompatri; restored the façade of the parish church of Rocca Priora for which he had a steeple and a rectory built; restored the episcopal residence of Frascati; and had a new church and rectory built in Colle di Fuori.

Death. December 16, 1935, Rome. The funeral took place on December 20, 1935, in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome; the final absolution was imparted by Cardinal Gennaro Granito Pignatelli di Belmonte, bishop of Ostia and Albano, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. On that same day, the body was transferred to Brisighella and buried on December 21, 1935 in his family's tomb in the collegiate church of Brisighella.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1938, p. 83; Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1935, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1936, p. 96.

Link. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; and photographs, Araldica Vaticana.


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LÉGER, P.S.S., Paul Émile
(1904-1991)

Birth. April 26, 1904, Saint-Anicet, a small village near the city of Valleyfield, Canada. Son of Ernest Léger, a general merchant, and Alda Beauvais. His younger brother Jules was a Canadian diplomat and Governor-General of Canada,1974-1979.

Education. Initial studies at Saint-Anicet; then he entered the Minor Seminary of Sainte-Thérèse, Valleyfield, 1916-1925 (classics); had to interrupt his studies for four years because of illness; he worked as mechanic, as railroad worker, and as butcher; he spent a few months at the novitiate of the Society of Jesus at Sault-au-Récollet but was considered too emotional to continue in the order; he entered the Gran Seminary of Montréal in 1925; and obtained a licentiate in theology in 1929; in 1930, he attended the Catholic Institut, Paris, where he obtained a doctorate in canon law in 1931.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 25, 1929, Montréal, by George Gauthier, titular archbishop of Taron, coadjutor of Montréal. Shortly after, he left for France to enter the Society of Priests of Saint-Sulpice; did the novitiate in Issy-les-Moulineaux, Paris (1929-1930). Further studies, Paris, 1930-1931. Professor of theology at Saint-Sulpice Seminary, Paris, 1931-1932; and assistant master of novices, 1932-1933. Returned to Canada and was sent in September 1933 to found Seminary of Fukuoka, Japan, for the formation of the autochthonous clergy; because of the speed with which he learned Japanese, he did pastoral ministry in the parish of Omuta and taught philosophy at the seminary until 1939. Returned to Canada in 1939 because of the Second World War. Professor of sociology at the Theological Seminary, Montréal; and apologetics at Institute Pius XI, 1939-1940. Left the Society provisionally and became vicar general of the diocese of Valleyfield in 1940; also, cathedral pastor; and member of the cathedral chapter from 1941 to 1947. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, September 29, 1942. Reentered the Society and was named rector of the Pontifical Canadian College, Rome, in 1947; occupied the post until his promotion to the episcopate in 1950.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Montréal, March 25, 1950. Consecrated, April 26, 1950, church of S. Maria degli Angeli, Rome, by Cardinal Adeodato Giovanni Piazza, O.C.D, bishop of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, assisted by Maurice Roy, archbishop of Québec, and by Jean-Julien Weber, P.S.S., bishop of Strasbourg. His episcopal motto was Apostolvs Jesv Christi.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria degli Angeli, January 15, 1953. Papal legate to the closing of the Marian Holy Year, Lourdes, France, November 21, 1954; to the coronation of the image of Saint-Joseph, Montréal, July 21, 1955; to the centennial celebrations of the Shrine of Saint-Anne de Beaupré, Canada, June 24, 1958. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, April 20, 1968, to serve as a missionary in a leprosory in Yaoundé, Cameroun, Africa. Appointed Companion of the Order of Canada for his humanitarian work, June 28, 1968; investiture, October 28, 1969. Returned to Montréal in 1974 due to his frail health; worked in parishes and in Fame pereo, a humanitarian work that he had founded, which contributes 12 million dollars yearly to the Third World. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, April 26, 1984. After suffering from an asthmatic attack on November 7, 1991, he was admitted at the Hôtel-de-Dieu Hospital, Montréal.

Death. November 13, 1991, of respiratory problems complicated with pneumonia, at Hôtel-de-Dieu, Montréal. The funeral was celebrated on November 16, 1991, by Cardinal Jean-Claude Turcotte, archbishop of Montréal. He was buried in the Bishop's Chapel, Mary Queen of the World metropolitan cathedral, Montréal. He was the last surviving cardinal created by Pope Pius XII.

Bibliography. Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 1958. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1958, pp. 65 and 337; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2202. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 608-612; Higgins, Michael W. "Léger, Paul-Emile." New Catholic Encyclopedia. Palatine, IL. ; Washington, DC : Jack Heraty & Associates ; The Catholic University of America, 1967-1996, vol. XIX, Supplement 1989-1995, p. 242; Murchland, Bernard. Paul-Emile Cardinal Leger. Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press, 1964. (The Men who make the Council, 8); Thompson, Donald. Le cardinal Léger, c'etat un saint : un aperçu de la vie et de l'ouevre du cardinal Paul-Emile Léger. Montreal : Edimag, 1992.

Link. Photograph, coat of arms and biography, in French, archdiocese of Montréal; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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LEHMANN, Karl
(1936-

Birth. May 16, 1936, Sigmaringen, archdiocese of Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany. Son of Karl Lehmann, a teacher, and Margarete Waldner.

Education. Seminary of Freiburg, Freiburg, 1957-1964 (theology and philosophy); Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in philosophy, summa cum laude, 1962, thesis: "Vom Ursprung und Sinn der Seinsfrage im Denken Martin Heideggers"; doctorate in theology, summa cum laude, 1967, thesis: "'Auferweckt am dritten Tag nach der Schrift'  Exegetische und fundamentaltheologische Studien zu 1 Kor 15,3b-5"; he resided in the Pontifical Collegium Germanicum-Hungaricum, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 10, 1963, Rome, by Cardinal Julius Döpfner. Assistant of Fr. Karl Rahner, S.J., Münich at the Institute of Christian Thought and Religious Philosophy, 1964-1967; 1967-1968. Instructor of dogmatics and history of dogma at the University of Münich in 1967. Further studies, Rome, 1967. Obtained the Habilitationsstipendium of the German Research Council (DFG) in 1968. Professor of dogmatic theology, Mainz, 1968-1971; of dogmatic and ecumenical theology, Freiburg, 1971-1983. Member of of the Ecumenical Working Group of Evangelical and Catholic Theologians in 1969; scientific leader, 1976; and chairman, 1988. Declined professorships in Münich in 1971; and in Tübingen in 1981. From 1971, co-editor of the international journal Communio. Member of the board of the Synod of the Dioceses of the Federal Republic of Germany, 1971-1975. Member of the International Theological Commission, 1974-1984. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, March 26, 1979.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Mainz by its cathedral chapter; confirmed by the pope, June 21, 1983. Consecrated, October 2, 1983, cathedral of Sankt Martin, Mainz, by Cardinal Hermann Volk, bishop emeritus of Mainz, assisted by Oskar Saier, archbishop of Freiburg im Breisgau, and by Wolfgang Rolly, titular bishop of Taborenta, auxiliary of Mainz. His episcopal motto is State in fide. Honorary professor of the Catholic Theological Faculty of Freiburg in 1983; and of the Catholic Theological Faculty of Mainz in 1984. Elected vice-chairman of the German Episcopal Conference, 1985; its president, 1987-2008. Since 1987, corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences and Literature of Mainz. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the First Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; its extraordinary secretary. In 1991, he received honorary doctorates in theology from the University of Innsbruck; and from The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C., United States of America. Elected first vice-president of the European Episcopal Conference, 1993. Received an honorary doctorate in theology from St. Patrick's College, Maynooth, Ireland, 1993. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Received the 1994 Karl Barth Prize of the Union of Evangelical Churches (EKU). Received the 1996 Cardinal Döpfner Prize of the Catholic Academy of Bavaria, Munich. Received an honorary degree in human sciences from the Catholic Theological Academy of Warsaw (ATK) in 1997. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Elected member of the senate of the Max-Planck Society in 1999. Received an honorary degree in theology from the University of Graz, Austria, in 2000.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of S. Leone I, February 21, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reelected president of the German Episcopal Conference for another six-year term, September 20, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. On January 15, 2008, he announced that he was resigning the chairmanship of the Conference of German Bishops due to serious cardio-circulatory problems, during the meeting of the conference, February 11-15, 2008, in Würzburg; on February 12, the new president, Archbishop Robert Zollitsch of Friburg, of the Institute of the Fathers of Schönstatt, was elected. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis.

Bibliography. Deckers, Daniel. Der Kardinal Karl Lehmann. Eine Biographie. München : Pattloch, 2002; Jürgensmeie, Friedhelm. "Lehmann, Karl (* 1936)." Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1945 2001 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Unter Mitwirkung von Franz Xaver Bischof ... [et al.] ; herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 2002, pp. 361-362.

Links. Photograph, arms and biography, in German, diocese of Mainz; and another image of his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Verhandlungen ja, Streit nein. Kardinal gegen politischen Schlagabtausch |ber Staatsleistungen, domradio.de, 5.7.2012.


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LÉKAI, László
(1910-1986)

Birth. March 12, 1910, Zalalövo, diocese of Veszprém, Austro-Hungarian Empire (now Hungary). His father was a stovemaster, glazing tile stones in the village. His first name is also listed as Lung László.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Veszprém; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 28, 1934. Faculty member, Seminary of Veszprém and pastoral ministry in the diocese of Veszprém, 1934-1944. Episcopal counselor, 1943. Secretary to Jószef Mindszenty, bishop of Veszprém, 1944. In a Nazi prison, November 1944 to February 1945. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, January 22, 1946; confirmed, January 14, 1959. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Veszprém, 1946-1972. Diocesan synodal examiner, 1963-1972.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Giro di Tarasio and appointed apostolic administrator, ad nutum Sanctæ Sedis, of Veszprém February 8, 1972. Consecrated, March 16, 1972, St. Stephen's basilica, Budapest, by József Ijjas, archbishop of Kalocsa, assisted by József Cserháti, bishop of Pécs, and by József Bánk, bishop of Vác. His episcopal motto was A megnyesett pa kizöldul. Apostolic administrator, ad nutum Sanctæ Sedis, of Esztergom, February 5, 1974. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of Esztergom, February 12, 1976.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 24, 1976; received the red biretta and the title of S. Teresa al Corso d'Italia, May 24, 1976. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985.

Death. June 30, 1986, he had been in poor health for several months because of a heart attack, in Esztergom. Buried in the metropolitan and primatial cathedral of Esztergom (1). A bust of the cardinal was erected in the Millenium Park of Zalalövo, his natal village.

Bibliography. Tusor, Péter. Purpura Pannonica : az esztergomi "bíborosi szék" kialakulásának elozminyei a 17. században = Purpura Pannonica : the "Cardinalitial See" of Strigonium and its Antecedens in the 17th Century. Budapest : Róma : Research Institute of Church History at Péter Pázmány Catholic University, 2005. (Collectanea Vaticana Hungariae, Classis I, vol. 3), pp. 210 and 330.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana; hotograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in Hungarian, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in Hungarian, Szent Vér Búcsújáróhelye; Szentmise Lékai Lászls bíboros, prmmás, érsek emlékére, Erdö Péter bíboros szentbeszéde, Metanoia, 2013. július 1.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

+
LÁSZLÓ LÉKAI
1976 - 1986
SUCCISA VIRESCIT


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LEME DA SILVEIRA CINTRA, Sebastião
(1882-1942)

Birth. January 20, 1882, Espirito Santo do Pinhal, diocese of Ribeirão Preto (now diocese of São João da Boa Vista), Brazil. Son of Professor Francisco Furquim de Leme and Ana Pio da Silveira Cintra.

Education. Studied at the Episcopal Seminary of São Paulo from September 1, 1894; received the ecclesiastical tonsure on August 28, 1895; sent to Rome, he resided at Pontificio Colegio Pio Latino-Americano and studied humanities from October 3, 1896; and studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University from November 4, 1897; he earned doctorates in philosophy and theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 28, 1904, Rome, by Francisco do Rêgo Maia, bishop of Belém do Pará. Returned to Brazil immediately after his priestly ordination. Celebrated his first mass in Brazil on December 15, 1904, in the Mother Church of Espmrito Santo do Pinhal, where he had been baptized and had received the first communion. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of São Paulo; on March 7, 1905, he was named coadjutor of the parish of Santa Cecilia; professor of philosophy of its seminary, fiscal promoter of the diocese; director of the archdiocesan newspaper A Gazeta do Povo; cathedral canon, February 11, 1907; and president of the Confederation of Catholic Associations. Named pro-vicar general of São Paulo with ordinary powers of vicar general in January 1910.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Ortosia di Fenicia and appointed auxiliary of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, March 24, 1911. Consecrated, June 24, 1911, chapel of the Pontificio Colegio Pio Latino Americano, Rome, by Cardinal Joaquim Arcoverde de Albuquerque Cavalcanti, archbishop of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, assisted by Francisco do Rego Maia, titular archbishop of Nicopoli al Nesto, and by Juan Nepomuceno Terrero y Escalada, bishop of La Plata. His episcopal motto was Cor unum et anima una. Took possession of his post the following November 4. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Olinda, April 29, 1916. Took possession of the see the following August 16. He received the pallium from Archbishop Adauto Aurélio de Miranda Henriques of Paraíba on June 22, 1917, at the church do Carmo in Paraíba. Became also archbishop of Recife when the see was united to Olinda, April 29, 1918. During his episcopate, he rebuilt the cathedral and purchased the Palace of São José de Manguinhos; suported and promoted the weekly A Tribuna; founded a Curso Superior de Religião to improved the religious formation of the academic youth of Recife; promoted the priestly vocations and the Catholic confederations as well as the Eucharistic Weeks. Named titular archbishop of Farsala and appointed coadjutor of Rio de Janeiro, with right of succession, March 15, 1921. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, April 18, 1930.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1930; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Bonifacio ed Alesio, July 3, 1930. Returned to Brazil the following October 19, just a few day before the Revolution of 1930 led by Getúlio Vargas, during which he was a conciliatory figure, convincing President Washington Luís to leave the government to avoid a possible bloodshed. Papal legate to the dedication of the monument of Christ the Redeemer, Rio de Janeiro, September 14, 1931; to the National Eucharistic Congress, Bahia, June 15, 1933; to the National Eucharistic Congress, Belo Horizonte, July 27, 1936. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Papal legate to the Plenary Council of Brazil and the National Eucharistic Congress, Recife, July 21, 1939. Founder of the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro in 1941.The university dedicated its first buildin in the campus of Gávea to the cardinal. During the Vargas government, the cardinal sought to remain neutral in the political field, although he cooperated with the leaders and sought their support for his religious works. He created the Catholic Electoral League (LEC), the Brazilian Catholic Action (CBA) and implemented the teaching of religion in the then Federal District; he also promoted the opening of the Faculties of Law and Philosophy established officially in 1941, and that would be the embryo of the Pontifical Catholic University (PUC) in Rio de Janeiro.

Death. October 17, 1942, in his room in Palácio São Joaquim, Rio de Janeiro. Buried in the Shrine of the Eucharistic Heart of Jesus, Rio de Janeiro.

Bibliography. Andrade Ramos, Mario de. S. Eminencia Cardeal Arcebispo D. Sebastião Leme da Silveira Cintra. Rio : [s.n.], 1943; Gabaglia, Laurita Pessõa Raja. O cardeal Leme (1882-1942). Rio de Janeiro, J. Olympio, 1962. (Colegão Documentos brasileiros, 113). Responsibility: [por] Irmã Maria Regina do Santo Rosário (Laurita Pessõa Raja Gabaglia). Prefácio de Manoel Pedro da Cunha Cintra; Lima, Alceu Amoroso. O cardeal Leme, um depoimento. Rio de Janeiro, J. Olympio, 1943. Responsibility: [por] Alceu Amoroso Lima (Tristão de Athayde); Mendes, Raymundo Teixeira. A attitude do Revm. Sr. D. Sebastião Leme, arcebispo metropolitano de Olinda em relação à religão da humanidade : a proposito da carta pastoral de D. Sebastião Leme, arcebispo metropolitano de Olinda saudando aos seus diocesanos. Rio de Janeiro : Igreja e Apostolado Positivista do Brasil, 1916. (Igreja e Apostolado Positivista do Brasil, n. 403); "Sebastião Leme da Silveira Cintra" in "Terceira parte, Bispos do Brasil-Republica, II, A" in "Diocesis e bispos do Brasil" by Apolônio Nóbrega, Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro, volume 222 (Janeiro-Março 1954), 202-204.

Links. His photograph and biography, in Portuguese, Wikipedia; his photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Série de Arcebispos de Olina e Recife: 2º Arcebispo - Dom Sebastião Leme da Silveira Cintra, Opinion, organizador Washington Vieira; his genealogy, in Portuguese, GeneAll; his bust in the Monument of Christ the Redeemer, Rion de Janeiro, Wikimedia..


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LÉPICIER, O.S.M., Alexis-Henri-Marie
(1863-1936)

Birth. February 28, 1863, in a modest house on Passage Saint-Esprit, Vaucouleurs, diocese of Verdun, France (1). He was the sixth of the eight children of François-Henri Lépicier and Marie-Claire Hette. Some days later, he was baptized with the name Henri. He received first communion on July 5, 1874.

Education. School of the religious of Saint-Charles, Vaucouleurs, 1866-1869; Institution Saint-Joseph, 1874-1877 (Latin and sciences); joined the Order of Servants of Mary at the priory of Saint Mary, Fulham Road, London; received the religious habit, March 1, 1878; received the subdiaconate on March 2, 1884, from Bishop Robert Coffin, C.SS.R. of Southwork; went to Paris on the following day and remained there for four months; spent a short time at the convent of Bognor and returned to London to study theology and teach philosophy to the Servite students in that house; on March 21, 1885, he received the diaconate; Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome (doctorates in philosophy and theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, September 19, 1885, London, by William Weathers, titular bishop of Amyclae, auxiliary of Westminster. Further studies, November 1885-1890; resided at the church of S. Maria in Via, which was cared for by his order. Master of novices, 1890-1892, Bognor. Professor of dogmatic theology at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, 1892-1913. Rector of the Servite International College of Saint-Alexis Falconiéri, Rome, 1895-1913. Named one of the four consultors general of his order, 1895. General procurator of his order, 1901. In mission to England for the establishment of the metropolitan provinces of Westminster, Liverpool and Birmingham, May 1911. Apostolic visitor and delegate to Scotland, 1912-1913. Elected 94th prior general of his order, May 13, 1913, Florence; occupied the post until May 27, 1920.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tarso, May 22, 1924. Consecrated, May 29, 1924, Ascension Thursday, chapel of the College of Propaganda Fide, Rome, by Cardinal Willem Marinus van Rossum, C.SS.R., prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of Faith, assisted by Francesco Marchetti Selvaggiani, titular archbishop of Seleucia, and by Carlo Raffaele Rossi, O.C.D., titular archbishop of Tessalonica. Apostolic visitor to the Eastern Indies dioceses dependent on the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, June 11, 1924. Apostolic visitor to Abyssinia and Eritrea, April 15, 1927.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1927; received the red hat and the title of S. Susanna, December 22, 1927. Prefect of the S.C. for Religious, December 17, 1928. Papal legate to the celebrations in honor of Sainte-Joan d'Arc, Orléans, France, April 22, 1929; to the National Eucharistic Congress, Carthage, April 25, 1930; to the Plenary Council of Malta, May 8, 1935, through which it was decreed that the Catholic Action should be established in every parish. Resigned the prefecture of the S.C. for Religious, December 31, 1935. Gravely ill, he requested the last sacraments, which were adminstered by the prior general of the Servites, Father Raffaele M. Baldini, on Wednesday May 20, 1936, the same day he died (2). He was a prolific writer whose works include Sacred Scriptures, theology, philosophy, apologetics, ascetics and several opuscules (3).

Death. Wednesday May 20, 1936, at 8:30 pm., of pernicious anemia complicated by bronchial trouble, in his residence in via Mercadante 34, Rome. The funeral took place at the church of S. Andrea della Valle, Rome, on May 25, 1936; the funeral mass was celebrated by Pietro Pisani, titular archbishop of Constantia in Scythia; Msgr. Lorenzo Perosi directed the choir of the Pontifical Chapel; Cardinal Gennaro Granito Pignatelli di Belmonte, bishop of Ostia and Albano, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, imparted the final absolution. He was buried in the crypt of his order in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 385-386; Lépicier, Augustine M. Le Cardinal Lépicier des Servites de Marie. 2 vols. Paris, 1946.

(1) In May 1936, the city of Vaucouleurs placed a marble plaque in the house where he was born to perpetuate his memory. This the text of the inscription on the plaque, taken from Lépicier, Le Cardinal Lépicier des Servites de Marie, II, 208:

MAISON NATALE
DE SON ÉMINENCE
LE CARDINAL LÉPICIER
LÉGAT PONTIFICAL
AUX FÊTES CENTENAIRES DE JAEANNE D'ARC
EN 1929
NÉ LE 28 FÉVRIER 1863
DÉCÉDÉ A ROME LE 20 MAI 1936.

(2) This is the text of his spiritual testament, which he wrote at Mont Sénario on July 14, 1931, taken from Lépicier, Le Cardinal Lépicier des Servites de Marie, II, 203-204:

In nomine, Domini Nostri Jesu Christi, Amen. Comme le jour où il me faudra rendre compte à Dieu des acttions de ma vie approche de plus en plus, je sens qu'il est de mon devoir de Le remercier d'abord de tant de faveurs et grâces reçues de sa main paternelle et surtout de m'avoir fait naître de parents chrétiens, de m'avoir procuré les avantages d'une bonne éducation et de m'avoir appelé à l'état religieux et sacerdotal. Ne considirant que son infinie bonté, Dieu a même voulu m'élever en outre à la dignité épiscopale et cardinalice. Oh ! qu'il me soit donni de chanter éternellement les miséricordes du Seigneur !

Je lui demande, en même temps, humblement pardon pour tous mes péchés et pour mes infinies négligences dans son service. En compensation et pour me conformer davantage à Jésus-Christ, Notre-Seigneur, j'accepte, dès maintenant, avec une résignation entière, le genre de mort qu'Il lui plaira de m'imposer avec toutes les angoisses et les douleurs qui l'accompagneront. J'accepte aussi, en esprit de pénitence, les peines du Purgatoire décrétées par Lui.

Après Dieu, je dois tout à notre Mère, la Très Sainte Vierge Marie, qui m' toujours conduit par la main et qui ne m'a jamais abandonné aux moments les plus douloureux de ma vie: Elle a été l'inspiratrice du peu de bien que j'ai pu accomplir. Qu'Elle daigne m'introduire au Paradis pour la contempler éternellement, Elle et son divin Fils.

Je dois encore remercier mon S. Ange Gardien et mes Saints Protecteurs, parmi lesquels le glorieux S. Joseph et nos Saints Fondateurs occupent la première place.

Comme j'ai été longtemps Supérieur de l'Ordre, je demande humblement pardon si, d'une manière quelconque, pendant mon généralat, j'ai fait de la peine à l'un ou à l'autre de mes confrères. J'ai cependant la conviction d'avoir eu pour l'Ordre un amour intense; d'avoir travaillé et souffert pour lui; d'avoir désiré et cherché son expansion. Ma dernière recommandation c'est qu'on inspire à nos jeunes religieux, un amour semblable et un profond attachement à nos traditions, surtout pour ce qui concerne la dévotion à Notre-Dame des Douleurs. Dans cet Ordre je désire mourir, en me recommandant aux prières de mes confrères.

(3) This is a list of his works, taken from Lépicier, Le Cardinal Lépicier des Servites de Marie, II, 218-222:
In Sacred Scriptures: Diatessaron seu Concordia Quatuor Evangeliorum : Concordance des quatre Evangiles, in four volumes; Commentaire des Actes des Apôtres, in two volumes; Commentaires des Psaumes, in two volumes; Commentaire de l'Epître de S. Paul aux Hébreux, in one volume; Commentaire du Cantique des Cantiques, in one volume; and Commentaire de l'Epître de S. Paul aux Rornains, unfinished because of his death.
In dogmatic theology: Tractatus de Sacra Doctrina, seu de stabilitate et progressu dogmatis, 3d ed.; Tractatus de Deo uno. Pars I: De Pertinentibus ad divinam essentiam, new ed. Pars II: De Pertinentibus ad divinam operationem; Tractatus de SS. Trinitatem, new ed.; Tractatus de Angelis. Pars I: De substantiis spirituaIibus in se consideratis. Pars II: De substantiis spiritualibus relate ad mundi regimen consideratis; Tractatus de opere sex dierum; Tractatus de prima hominis formatione, nova ed.; Tractatus de gubernatione rerum, cum append. de Theosophia; Tractatus de habitibus et virtutibus; Tractatus de peccato originali, new ed.; Tractatus de gratia, new ed.; Tractatus de incarnatione verbi. Pars I : De ipso Incarnatione mysterio, new ed.; Pars II: De consequentibus unionem et de his quae Christus egit et passus est, new ed.; Tractatus de Beatissima Virgine Maria, Mater Dei. 5th ed, notabiliter aucta.; Tractatus de S. Joseph, Sponso Beatissimae Virginis Mariae, new ed.; Tractatus de sacramentis in communi; Tractatus de sacram. Baptismi et Confirmationis; Tractatus de Sanctissima Eucharistia. Pars I: De Eucharistia ut est Sacramentum, 2d ed. Pars II: De Sacrosanto Sacrificio Eucharistiae, 2d ed.; Tractatus de Sacramento Poenitentiae, de Excommunicatione et de Indulgentiis; Tractatus de Extrema Unctione et de Ordine; Tractatus de Sacramento Matrimonii; Tractatus de Novissimis; Index generalis operis theologici; Traité de S. Joseph, Epoux de la Sainte Vierge (also in Italian); Studia Sacra; Tractatus de Ecclesia Christi; and Compendium totius cursus institutionem theologicarum speculativarum ad textum S. Thomas Aquinatis concinnatarum, 3 vol. In philosophy: L'opera dei sei giorni, secondo la tradizione e la scienza: Parte I: Il mondo, opera di Dio; Parte II: I viventi corporei; Dell' anima umana separata dal corpo, suo stato, sua operazione, 3d ed.; Del Miracolo, sua natura, sua leggi, sua relazioni con l'ordine soprannaturale, 3d ed. (also in French); Institutionum logicalium, P. I., auctore Fr. Mag. Gherardo Baldi, O.S.M., editit et notis locupletavit Emus Alexius H. M. Car. Lépicier, O.S.M.; De maraviglie Eucaristiche alla luce della filosofia cristiana; De anima humana tanquam forma substantiali corporis. In apologetics: Les InduIgences, leur origine, nature et développement, in two volumes (editions in English, French and Italian); The Unseen World: Le monde invisible. Exposé de la théologie catholique dans ses rapports avec le spiritisme, (editions in French, English, Italian and Dutch). In ascetics: Jésus-Christ, Roi de nos coeurs (editions in French, Italian and German); The mistery of Love. Thirty considerations on the blessed Eucharist, with examples (in Italian: Il mistero d'amore); Sacerdos alter Christus; L'Eucharistia. centre di vita e di attivita sacerdotale (also in English: The Eucharistic priest; published also in Spanish); La plus belle fleur du Paradis. Considirations sur les litanies de la Trhs Sainte Vierge, avec des exemples pour chaque jour, 2d ed. (also in Italian, 3d ed., in German, in Spanish and in English, 2d ed.); L'Immacolata, Corredentrice e Mediatrice; L'Immacolata Mère de Dieu, Corédemptrice du genre humain (also in German); Relations de la Très Sainte Vierge avec Ie Très Saint Sacrement (also in Italian and in German); La protection de Marie à l'heure de la mort (also in Italian); Maria, vita dulcedo et spes nostra... in morte; Le Lys d'Israraël. Considirations sur la vie de S. Joseph, ipoux de Marie, avec exemples, 2d ed. (also in Italian, 3d ed.; and in English: Go to Joseph, 2d ed.). An these opuscules: De spiritus sancti a filio processione. Historica disquisitio circa Graecorum a Latinis in hac re dissensum et particulam Filloque in Symbolo additam; S. Tommaso dottore universale della chiesa, Spiegazione e giustificazione di questo titolo; Il purgatorio di Dante, alta scola di cultura letteraria, filosofica, religiosa e morale; Maria mediatrice tra Dio e gli uomini nel Purgatorio di Dante; Sacrae doctrinae thomisticae studii utilitas demonstrata; Gli studi sacri, nell' Ordine dei Servi di Maria; La divina protezione sull' Ordine dei Servi di Maria; De devotione fovenda erga perdolentem Virginem Dei Matrem; Discorso per il conferimento dei gradi nell' apertura delle scuole; Elogium beatorum Ubaldi de Adimariis Andreae Dotti et Bonaventure Bonaccorsi, Ord. Serv.; Lettera ai religiosi dell' Ordine dei Servi di Maria reduci dalla mlizia (also in English); Lettera ai Religiosi dei Servi di Maria, doppo la celebrazione dei Capitoli provinciali (also in English); Elogio funebro del P. Sostegno M. Fassini dei Servi di Maria; Le Ascensioni del Giusto, panegirico di S. Giuseppe, Patrono delle Chiesa Universale; Panegirico dl Santa Genoveffa; Per Crucem ad Lucem Maria desolata, incoronata. Discorsi per la pia pratica della Desolata, nel Venerdn santo; Il circolo cattolico; Pro Papa et Sacerdotio. Orazione panegirica dei Martiri Inglesi. - For Pope and priesthood. A panegyric of the English Martyrs; Ut Christiani ita et romani sitis. A sermon on St Patrick; and Omelia su S. Paolino di Nola.


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LERCARO, Giacomo
(1891-1976)

Birth. October 28, 1891, Quinto al Mare, archdiocese of Genoa, Italy. He was the eighth of the nine children of a very modest family of seamen. His mother's name was Aurelia and she died at 102, in May 1954, in Bologna, where she lived with her son the cardinal. Two of his brothers, Amedeo and Attilio, were also priests.

Education. He studied, with a scholarship given by the archbishop, at the Archiepiscopal Seminary of Genoa, from 1902-1914 (philosophy and theology); he attended the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, from November 1914 to 1915.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 25, 1914, chapel of the Archiepiscopal Seminary of Genoa, by Ildefonso Vincenzo Pisani, C.R.L., titular bishop of Tebe, former bishop of Anglona-Tursi. Further studies in Rome, 1914-1915. Recalled to Genoa when Italy entered the First World War in 1915; military chaplain in the hospital of Galliera, Fort S. Martino; in the hospital of Torri di Quartesolo; and in Villabella di S. Bonifazio. Prefect of the Seminary of Genoa, 1918-1923; his brother Amedeo was the rector of the seminary; substitute professor of theology, 1921-1923; professor of Sacred Scripture and Patrology, 1923-1927. Professor of religion in middle schools, 1927-1937; founder of "Liceo Classico Cristoforo Colombo", student movement for apostolic-social activities such as "Apostolato del Mare", of which he was the first national chaplain; and activities in the poorest suburbs of Genoa. Pastor-provost of the basilica of S. Maria Immacolata, Genoa, 1937-1947; founder of Didascaleion, a study center for the encounter of the theological thought with modern culture. During the Second World War he protected all those in peril, giving refuge in his own house, especially the Jews; due to the grave danger for his life, he had to go into hiding under the name of "Father Lorenzo Gusmini"; at the end of the war, he received a grateful and affectionate testimony from the entire city of Genoa. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, November 23, 1946.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Ravenna, January 31, 1947. Consecrated, March 19, 1947, basilica of S. Maria Immacolata, Genoa, by Giuseppe Siri, archbishop of Genoa, assisted by Angelo Rossini, archbishop of Amalfi, and by Francesco Canessa, titular bishop of Sarepta. His episcopal motto was Mater mea fiducia mea. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Bologna, April 19, 1952.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Traspontina, January 15, 1953. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965; member of its Board of Presidency, 1963-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. President of "Consilium" for the liturgical reform, 1966-1968. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, February 12, 1968. Papal legate to the 39th International Eucharistic Congress, Bogotá, Colombia, August 27, 1968. After his retirement as archbishop of Bologna, he resided at "Villa San Giacomo", Particella di San Lazzaro di Savena, school for the youth that he had founded. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 28, 1971.

Death. October 18, 1976, at 3 p.m., of a cardiac crisis, "Villa San Giacomo", Bologna. He was assisted by his brother Fr. Attilio Lercaro. Cardinal Sergio Pignedoli, president of the Secretariat for Non-Christians, represented the pope, and Cardinal Antonio Poma, archbishop of Bologna, was the principal concelebrant of the funeral mass in which another eight cardinals also participated, together with numerous archbishops, bishops and priests. The late cardinal was buried in S. Pietro metropolitan cathedral, Bologna (1). On May 16, 2003, the Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna "Giacomo Lercaro", organized by the Fondazione "Cardinale Giacomo Lercaro", next to the Galleria "Giacomo Lercaro", in via Riva di Reno 57, Bologna, was inaugurated. It is one of the principal collections of modern art in Italy.

Bibliography. Bedeschi, Lorenzo. Il cardinale destituito. Documenti sul caso Lercaro. Torino : P. Gribaudi, 1968. (Intervento); Fraccaroli, Arnaldo. Il cardinale che io ho conosciuto : Giacomo Lercaro. Prefazione di Giacomo Biffi. Cinisello Balsamo (Milano): Paoline, 1992. (I Protagonisti, 11.); Huber, Georges. My door is always open. Translated by Thomas Finlay. Notre Dame : Fides, 1959; Lesourd, Paul. Giacomo Cardinal Lercaro. Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press, 1964. (The Men who make the Council, 3); Meluzzi, Luciano. I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna. Bologna : Grafica Emiliana, 1975, (Collana storico-ecclesiastica, 3), pp. 590-604; Tonacini, Marco. Il cardinale Giacomo Lercaro già arcivescovo di Bologna 1952-1968. Agno : Edizioni L.E.M.A, 1977.

Link. His picture and biography, in Italian, Fondazione Cardinale Giacomo Lercaro; bibliography, Fondazione Cardinale Giacomo Lercaro; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) In the south side of the metropolitan cathedral of Bologna, on the wall between the chapel of S. Rocco and the chapel of S. Apollinare, there is a memorial tablet with bronze depiction of the cardinal's activities by Enzo Pasqualini. The text of the inscription was provided by Mr. Mark West, London, England:

QUI RIPOSA IN CRISTO
IL CARDINALE
GIACOMO LERCARO
ARCHIVESCOVO DI BOLOGNA DAL 1952 AL 1968
GIA ARCHIVESCOVO DI RAVENNA
DAL 1947 AL 1952
MODERATORE DEL CONCILIO VATICANO II
GUIDA SAPIENTE DEL RINNOVAMENTO LITURGICO
PROMOTORE DELL' ASCESA DEI PICCOLI E DEI POVERI
28.10.1891          18.10.76


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LIÈNART, Achille
(1884-1973)

Birth. February 7, 1884, Lille, France. Of a bourgeois family. Second of the four children of Achille Philippe Hyacinthe Liénart and Louise Delesalle; the other siblings were Anna, Marie-Thérèse and Maurice.

Education. Initial studies at the school of the Dames de la Sainte-Union, Lille, 1889-1891; Jesuit Collège Saint-Joseph, Lille, 1891-1901 (baccalaureate in philosophy, July 1901); Seminary of Issy-les-Moulineaux, Paris, 1901-1903; military service at the 43rd Infantry Regiment, October 1903-October 1904; Seminary of Saint-Sulpice, Paris, 1905-1907; Catholic Institute, Paris, 1907-1909; University of La Sorbonne, Paris; Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, 1909-1910. Received the diaconate on Saturday December 21, 1906, at the church of Saint-Maurice, Lille, from François-Marie-Joseph Delamaire, titular archbishop of Methymna, coadjutor, c.i.s., of Cambrai.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1907, Paris, by Léon-Adolphe Amette, archbishop of Paris. Faculty member of the Seminary of Cambrai, October 1910-1914. Military chaplain (voluntary) in the 201st - 1st Infantry Division of the French Army, during the First World War, March 23, 1915-1919; decorated with the grand cross of the Order of Legion d'honneur, August 13, 1917; demobilized in March 1919. Professor of Holy Scriptures, Major Seminary of Lille, 1919-1926; pastoral ministry in the diocese of Lille, 1919-1928: pastor of Saint-Christophe de Tourcoing, 1926-1928. He strongly supported trade unions, social reform and worker priests.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Lille, October 6, 1928. Consecrated, December 8, 1928, church of Saint-Christophe, Tourcoing, by Charles-Albert-Joseph Lecomte, bishop of Amiens, assisted by Palmyre Jasoone, titular bishop of Nilopoli, and by Maurice Feltin, bishop of Troyes. His episcopal motto was Miles Christi Jesu.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1930; received the red hat and the title of S. Sisto, July 3, 1930. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Lille, July 15, 1931; and to the National Marian Congress, Boulogne-sur-Mer, July 11, 1938. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. During the Second World War, he opposed Nazism and protested the round up of Jews at the Velodrome d'hiver in Paris. President of the French Episcopal Conference, 1948-1964. Prelate nullius of the Mission of France, November 13, 1954 until 1964. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965; member of the Board of Presidency, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Resigned the pastoral government of the prelature, November 1964. Resigned the pastoral government of the diocese, March 14, 1968. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971. He and Cardinals Manuel Gonçalves Cerejeira and Eugène Tisserant were the last cardinal electors created by Pope Pius XI.

Death. February 15, 1973, Lille. The funeral, concelebrated by Cardinals Paul Gouyon, archbishop of Rennes, and Alexander-Charles Renard, archbishop of Lyon, Nuncio Egano Righi Lambertini and several other French and Belgian bishops, took place on February 19 in the cathedral of Notre-Dame-de-la-Treille, Lille; in attendance were 250 priests, the relatives of the late cardinal and over 3,000 faithful. The homily was delivered by Cardinal François Marty, archbishop of Paris. The French government was represented by M. Maurice Schumann, minister of Foreign Affairs. Also present were delegations of other Christian denominations and members of the 201st Infantry Division, to which the cardinal belonged during the First World War. After the funeral, the body was buried in the crypt of the cathedral.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 391-392; Lessourd, Pal ; Ramiz, Jean-Marie. Achille Cardinal Lienart. Notre Dame, Indiana : University of Notre Dame Press, 1965. (The men who make the council, 14); Masson, Catherine ; Hilaire, Yves Marie. Le Cardinal Liènart, évêque de Lille, 1928-1968. Paris : Cerf, 2001. (Histoire); Vinatier. Jean. Le Cardinal Liénart et la Mission de France. Paris: Centurion, 1978; Vinatier, Jean. Les Prêtres ouvriers, le cardinal Liénart et Rome. Paris : Éd. ouvrièères, 1985.

Link. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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LOCATELLI, Achille
(1856-1935)

Birth. March 15, 1856, Seregno, archdiocese of Milan, Austrian Empire (now Italy).

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Monza, Milan; at the Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome, where he obtained doctorates in theology and utroque iure, both canon and civil law); and at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, from 1880 until 1886, where he studied diplomacy.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 20, 1879, Milan. Further studies, 1880-1883, Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, January 14, 1884. Auditor of the nunciature in Bavaria, 1886-1887; in Brussels, 1887-1891; in Paris, 1891-1893; in Vienna, 1893-1899. Member of the papal delegation to the celebration of the millenium of Hungary, 1896. Ablegato to present the red biretta to the new Cardinal Antonio Agliardi in Vienna, 1896. Staff member of the Secretariat of State for extraordinary ecclesiastical affairs, 1899-1904. Commander of the Orders of Belgium, Spain, Holy Sepulchre, Iron Crown, and S. Luigi of Parma. Officer of the Légion d'Honor of France. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, August 20, 1902. Charge d'affaires in the nunciature of Holland and Luxemburg, 1905. Special papal envoy to consign the wedding present to King Alfonso XIII of Spain, 1905. Apostolic internuncio in Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay, November 22, 1906.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tessalonica, December 6, 1906. Consecrated, December 27, 1906, chapel of Collegio Pio-Latino Americano, Rome, by Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val, secretary of State, assisted by Pietro Gasparri, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Charles Stanley-Algernon, titular bishop of Emmaus, auxiliary of Westminster. Nuncio in Belgium, July 7 (1), 1916. Internuncio in Luxemburg, March 17, 1917 (2). Acting internuncio in Holland, July 30, 1916. Nuncio in Portugal, July 13, 1918.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 11, 1922; received the red hat and the title of S. Bernardo alle Terme, May 25, 1923. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, July 15, 1929 until June 30, 1930; and October 16, 1933 until April 1, 1935.

Death. April 5, 1935, of pneumonia, Rome; the funeral took place on April 19, 1935, at the church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, with the participation of sixteen cardinals; the final absolution was imparted by Cardinal Gennaro Granito Pignatelli di Belmonte, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Buried in the crypt built by him in the provostial church of Seregno.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1938, p. 83; Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 684; De Marchi, Giuseppe. Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956. Pref. di Antonio Samoré. Roma : Edizioni di Storia e letteratura, 1957, pp. 41, 66, 170, 187 and 216; "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1935, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1936, pp. 98-99.

(1) This is according to De Marchi, Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956, pp. 41 and 66; "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1935, p. 98, says that he was named on July 8, 1916.
(2) This is according to De Marchi, Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956, p. 170; "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1935, p. 98, says that he was named in May 1917.

Link. His photograph, Araldica Vaticana.


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LÓPEZ RODRÍGUEZ, Nicolás de Jesús
(1936-

Birth. October 31, 1936, Barrancas, archdiocese of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Son of Perfecto Ramón López Salcedo and Delia Ramona Rodríguez de López.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Seminary "Santo Tomás de Aquino", Santo Domngo; at the International Center for the Sociological Formation of the Clergy, Rome; at the Pontifical S. Tommaso d'Aquino University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in social sciences; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome. Besides his native Spanish, he speaks Italian, English, German, Portuguese and Latin.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 18, 1961, La Vega, by Francisco Panal Ramírez, O.F.M., bishop of La Vega. Vicar cooperator of the cathedral of La Vega, 1961-1963. Further studies, Rome, 1963-1965. Chancellor and secretary of the diocesan curia of La Vega, 1966-1968. Further studies, Rome, 1968-1969. In the diocese of La Vega, 1969-1978, diocesan assessor for the pastoral of the youth and pastor of the cathedral, 1969-1970. Vicar for the pastoral and pro-vicar general, 1970-1976. Vicar general, 1976-1978.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of San Francisco de Macorís, January 16, 1978. Consecrated, February 25, 1978, by Cardinal Octavio Antonio Beras Rojas, archbishop of Santo Domingo, assisted by Juan Antonio Flores Santana, bishop of La Vega, and by Jesús María De Jesús Moya, titular bishop of Massita, auxiliary of Santiago de los Caballeros. His episcopal motto is Fortes in fide. Rector of the University o San Francisco de Macorís, 1979-1984. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of Santo Domingo, November 15, 1981. Grand chancellor of the Catholic University of Santo Domingo. Military ordinary for the Dominican Republic, April 4, 1982. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Elected president of the Conference of the Dominican Episcopate, July 1984. President of the Latin American Episcopal Council, April 25, 1991 to 1994.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1991; received the red biretta and the title of S. Pio X alla Balduina, June 28, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, October 12 to 28, 1992; one of the three presidents delegate. Papal legate to the 45th International Eucharistic Congress, Seville, Spain, June 7 to 13, 1993. Special papal envoy to the 4th National Marian Congress, Loja, Ecuador, August 20 to 25, 1994. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the National Eucharistic Congress of Uruguay, Colonia del Sacramento, October 15, 2000. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the 5th centennial of the first mass celebrated in Honduras, Bahía de Trujillo, August 14, 2002. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Special papal envoy to the celebrations for the Fourth Centennial of the death of Santo Toribio de Mogrovejo, patron saint of the Latin American episcopate, Lima, Perù, April 24 to 29, 2006. Participated in the 5th General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. On January 12, 2008, he was named by the pope member of the Special Council for America of the Synod of Bishops. Special papal envoy to the Third American Missionary Congress (CAM3) and the Eighth Latin American Missionary Congress (COMLA8), which took place in Quito, Ecuador, on August 12 to 17, 2008. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On November 29, 2013, he was named special papal envoy to the closing celebrations of the first centennial of the establishment of the ecclesiastical province of Managua, Nicaragua, which took place on December 2, 2013. The pope had named Cardinal Jorge Liberato Urosa Sabino, archbishop of Caracas, Venezuela, his special envoy to the celebrations but he was unable to attend due to illness. Confirmed as member of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America on January 15, 2014. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life on March 29, 2014.

Bibliography. López Rodríguez, Nicolás de Jesús. Mi vida pastoral : ministerio episcopal en San Francisco de Macorís 1978-1981 y 25 años pastoreando la Arquidiócesis de Santo Domingo 1981-2006. Santo Domingo, Repzblica Dominicana : Arzobispado de Santo Domingo, 2006.

Links. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in Spanish, ACI Prensa; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; JESUITAS: Santo Domingo: El Cardenal Nicolás de Jesús López Rodríguez arremete contra cura jesuita. ver videos, CVXChile, viernes, 7 de febrero de 2014; Dominican Cardinal slams Jesuits over Haitian offspring row, Dominican Today, 7 February 2014, 3:01 PM; Rep. Dominicana: Sacerdotes apoyan a Cardenal López Rodríguez tras enérgica amonestación a jesuita, ACI Prensa, 13 Feb. 14 / 04:10 pm.


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LÓPEZ TRUJILLO, Alfonso
(1935-2008)

Birth. November 8, 1935, Villahermosa, diocese of Ibagué (now diocese of Líbano-Honda), Colombia, of a prominent family from Antioquia. His father was in charge of the General Accounting Office of the State, one of his brothers was a Minister of State and a relative was Bishop of Socorro and San Gil until 1975.

Education. Studied at the National University, Bogotá; at the Seminary of Bogotá; at the Pontifical International Institute Angelicum, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in philosophy; and at the Pontifical Theological Faculty and Pontifical Institute of Spirituality Teresianum, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained November 13, 1960. Further studies in Europe, 1960-1962. Faculty member, Seminary of Bogotá 1962-1966. Coordinator of pastoral, XXXIX International Eucharistic Congress, Bogotá, August 1968. Attended II General Assembly of the Latin American Episcopal Council, Medellín, August 24 to September 6, 1968, as expert. Started the new archdiocesan department of pastoral, 1968. Successively, 1970-1972, in Bogotá, vicar general; pastor; counselor and faculty member at the National University.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Boseta and appointed auxiliary of Bogotá, February 25, 1971. Consecrated, March 25, 1971, Bogotá, by Aníbal Muñoz Duque, titular archbishop of Cariana, coadjutor with right of succession and apostolic administrator sede plena of Bogotá, assisted by Eduardo Francisco Pironio, titular bishop of Ceciri, auxiliary of Mar del Plata, and by Pablo Correa León, bishop emeritus of Cúcuta. His episcopal motto was Veritas et caritate. Elected secretary general of the Latin American Episcopal Council, Sucre, Bolivia, November 22, 1972; confirmed, Rome, November 1, 1974. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Promoted to the rank of archbishop and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Medellín, May 22, 1978. Attended the Third General Assembly of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; secretary general. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Medellín, June 2, 1979. President of the Latin American Episcopal Council, 1979-1982. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the title of S. Prisca, February 2, 1983. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; member of the general secretariat, 1983-1986; membership extended until 1987 in the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. President of the Episcopal Conference of Colombia, 1987-1990. President of the Pontifical Council for the Family, November 8, 1990. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, January 9, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998; the Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998; the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Named bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, November 17, 2001. Papal legate to the celebrations of the Fourth World Encounter of the Family, January 22 to 26, 2002, Manila, Philippines. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reappointed as president of the Pontifical Council for the Family, April 21, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Participated in the 5th General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil.

Death. April 19, 2008, of respiratory problems and diabetes, at 8:30 p.m., local time, in the Clinic "Pio XI", Rome, where he had been interned for a month. At the moment of his death, Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals; his brother, a nephew as well as other relatives and members of the Roman Curia, were in his room. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Benedict XVI, who was at St. Joseph's Seminary, New York, during his apostolic visit to the United States of America, prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent the cardinal's brother a telegram of condolence. In the morning of April 21, 2008, after the signing of the notary's act (rogito), the casket of the cardinal was taken to the church of Santo Stefano degli Abissini, in the Vatican. The funeral took place on Wednesday April 23, 2008, at 11 a.m., in the Altar of the Chair of the patriarchal Vatican Basilica. The Holy Mass was celebrated by Cardinal Sodano, together with the other cardinals present. At the end of the eucharistic liturgy, the exequial liturgy was presided by Pope Benedict XVI, who had the homily and the rite of the Ultima Commendatio and the Valedictio. The late cardinal was buried in the crypt under the church of Sant'Anna dei Palafrenieri, in Via di Porta Angelica, which is the official cemetery of the Vatican; it is the parish church of the Vatican and it is served by the Augustinian friars (1).

Bibliography. Gómez Orozco, Horacio. El Cardenal Alfonso López Trujillo. Santafé de Bogotá: Plaza & Janes, 1997; López Trujillo, Alfonso. Testimonios : Cardenal Alfonso Lopez Trujillo. Conversaciones con José Luis Gutiérrez García. Santafe de Bogota, D.C., Colombia : Plaza & Janés, 1997.

Links. Biography , in Italian, diocese of Frascati; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Murió el Cardenal Alfonso López Trujillo , video, You Tube.

(1) This is the inscription in his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

S. EM. REV. MA
CARDINALE
Alfonso López Trujillo
PRESIDENTE
DEL PONTIFICIO CONSIGLIO PER LA FAMIGLIA
9 NOVEMBRE 1935 - 19 APRILE 2008


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LORENZELLI, Benedetto
(1853-1915)

Birth. May 11, 1853, Badi di Castel di Casio, archdiocese of Bologna, Papal State. Of a family that was originally from Lombardy.

Education. Seminary of Bologna, Bologna (philosophy); Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome (doctorates in philosophy, theology, civil and canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained, April 1, 1876, Bologna. Further studies and professor of philosophy at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, 1876-1884. Professor of dogmatic theology at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome, 1884-1889. First rector of the Pontifical Bohemian College, Rome, November 1884-1889. Member of the Pontifical Academy "S. Tommaso", Rome, recently reorganized by Pope Leo XIII. Ablegato to bring the red biretta to Cardinal Franziskus von Paula Schönborn, archbishop of Prague, Bohemia, Austria-Hungary, April 3, 1884. Received an honorary doctorate in philosophy from the University of Laval, Canada. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, 1889. Attaché in the nunciature in Austria, April 3, 1889. Referendary prelate of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, June 18, 1890. Internuncio in Holland and Luxembourg, May 30, 1893. Protonotary apostolic, June 10, 1893. Nuncio in Bavaria, October 1, 1896 (1).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop af Sardes, November 30, 1896. Consecrated, December 8, 1896, church of the Oblates in Tor de' Specchi, Rome, by Cardinal Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro, secretary of State, assisted by Ernesto Respighi, archbishop of Ferrara, and by Lorenzo Passerini, titular archbishop of Tolemaide di Tebaide, vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church. Nuncio in France, May 10, 1899 until July 31, 1904, when relations with the Holy See were broken because of the repudiation of the concordat and the separation of Church and State (2). Transferred to the archiepiscopal see of Lucca, November 14, 1904; entered the see on March 25, 1905.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 15, 1907; received the red hat and the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, April 18, 1907. Resigned the pastoral government of the archiepiscopal see, March 26, 1910 (3). Prefect of the S.C. of Studies, February 13, 1914. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. One of the three cardinal presidents of the Pontifical Academy "S. Tommaso", Rome, together with Cardinals Louis Billot, S.J. and Michele Lega, February 24, 1915.

Death. September 15, 1915, at 11:50 p.m., in his villa in Bucciano, San Miniato. The funeral mass, in private, was celebrated by Carlo Falcini, bishop of S. Miniato, assisted by the clergy of the diocese, in the church of Bucciano, in the morning of September 17, in the presence of the cardinal's family, a representation of the clergy of Lucca, and the mayor of S. Miniato with some of his assessors. By express will of the late cardinal, the burial took place in the chapel of Our Lady of Sorrows, in the cathedral of San Miniato.

Bibliography. Bianchi, G. "Il Cardinale Benedetto Lorenzelli arcivescovo di Lucca." La Provincia di Luca, XI (1971) nn. 2, 3, 4; XII (1972), n. 1; "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1922, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1921, p. 64, no. 9; Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 685; De Marchi, Giuseppe. Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956. Pref. di Antonio Samoré. Roma : Edizioni di Storia e letteratura, 1957, pp. 58, 129 and 169; "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1909, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1910, pp. 142-143; Lenzi, Lenzo. Lotta al modernismo e attivit` pastorali : il card. Lorenzelli arcivescovo a Lucca : 1905-1910. Pisa : ETS, 2002; Nicolai, Umberto. I vescovi di Lucca. Lucca : Tipografia Ricchielli, 1966, 31, no. 107; L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, LV, n. 267 (September 17, 1915), p. 2; and LV, n. 58 (September 19, 1915), p. 3; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 9, 22 and 230; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, p. 501; Nicolai, Umberto. I vescovi di Lucca. Lucca : Bicchielli, 1966.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 501; and Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 685; De Marchi, Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956, pp. 58 and 169, says that he was named on October 10, 1896.
(2) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 501; De Marchi, Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956, p. 129, says that he was named on May 8, 1899.
(3) This is according to Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, p. 230. Nicolai, I vescovi di Lucca, p. 31, says that he resigned on April 6, 1910,

Link. Photographs, Araldica Vaticana.


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LORSCHEIDER, O.F.M., Aloísio
(1924-2007)

Birth. October 8, 1924, Estrela, archdiocese of Porto Alegre, Brazil. His baptismal name is Aloísio Leo Arlindo.

Education. Joined Order of Saint Francis, February 1, 1942. Franciscan Novitiate, Divinópolis; Pontifical Antonianum Athenaeum, Rome; solemn profession, March 13, 1946.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 22, 1948, Divinópolis. Faculty member, Minor Seminary of Taguari, 1948-1950. Further studies, 1950-1952, Rome. Faculty member of the Franciscan Seminary, Divinópolis, 1952-1958; commissary of the Third Franciscan Order, definitor and master of novices of the Franciscan province of Divinópolis, 1952-1958. Faculty member, Pontifical Antonianum Athenaeum, Rome; pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, general visitor of the Franciscan province of Portugal, 1958-1962.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Santo Angelo, February 3, 1962. Consecrated, May 20, 1962, Porto Alegre, by Alfredo Vicente Scherer, archbishop of Porto Alegre, assisted by Benito Zorzi, bishop of Caxias, and by Luis de Nadal, bishop of Uruguaiana. is episcopal motto was In Cruce salus et vita. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. President of the Brazilian Episcopal Conference, 1971-. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Vice-president of the Latin American Episcopal Conference (CELAM), 1972-1975. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Fortaleza, March 26, 1973. Attended the III Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Elected president of the Latin American Episcopal Council, December 5, 1976.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 24, 1976; received the red biretta and the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, May 24, 1976. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; relator of the assembly; member of the general secretariat, 1977-1980. President of Caritas Internationalis. Appointed a president of the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, February 2, 1978; assembly scheduled for October 12 to 28, 1978, Puebla, México; suspended because of the death of the pope. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Confirmed as a president delegate of the Third General Assembly of the Latin American Episcopate, August 30, 1978. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopal Council, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; as one of its three presidents delegate. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; member of the general secretariat, 1980-1983. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; member of the general secretariat, 1983-1986. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; member of the general secretariat until 1987. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1985; the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Aparecida, July, 12, 1995. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese upon having reached the age limit, January 28, 2004. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 8, 2004.

Death. December 23, 2007, at 5:20 a.m., of cardiac arrest complications and renal failure, in the Unit of Intensive Therapy, Hospital "São Francisco", center specializing in cardiology, Santa Casa de Misericórdia, Porto Alegre. The viewing started at 4 p.m., December 23, in the metropolitan cathedral of Porto Alegre. On December 26, 2007, at 9:30 a.m., Aloísio Dilli, O.F.M., bishop of Uruguaiana, presided the mass of the Franciscan family in the same cathedral; and at 6 p.m., Cardinal Odilo Pedro Scherer, archbishop of São Paulo and representative of Pope Benedict XVI, presided the exequial mass there. The apostolic nuncio in Brazil, Lorenzo Baldisseri, titular archbishop of Diocleziana; the president of the National Conference of Bishops of Brazil and archbishop of Mariana, Geraldo Lyrio Rocha; and the president of the Latin American Episcopal Conference (CELAM) and archbishop of Aparecida, Raymundo Damasceno Assis, as well as numerous other bishops and authorities, participated in the funeral mass. Later on that day, the body was transferred to the Franciscan convent of Daltro Filho, municipality of Imigrante, 130 km from Porto Alegre; a viewing took place in the church of the Franciscan community and the burial was in that convent on December 27, 2007, at 5 p.m., marked with a mass presided by the bishop of Caxias do Sul, Paulo Moretto. Notes on the death of the cardinal were published by the National Conference of Catholic Bishops of Brazil; the archdiocese of Aparecida; and the Franciscan province of Rio Grande do Sul. Upon learning the news of the death, Pope Benedict XVI prayed for the eternal repose of the soul of the cardinal and sent telegrams of condolence to the archbishop of Porto Alegre, Dadeus Grings; and to Rev. Fr. José Rodríguez Carballo, minister general of the Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans).

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B., André and Charles N. Bransom. "Franciscan bishops." Franciscan Studies, XLVIII (1988), 307.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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LOURDUSAMY, Duraisamy Simon
(1924-2014)

Birth. February 5, 1924, Kallery, near Gingee, in Villupuram district, archdiocese of Pondicherry, India. He was the seventh of twelve children of Simon Duraisamy, who was a just man and the villagers used to get his guidance to settle disputes, and his wife Anna Marie Amma, known as Matharasi. His younger brother, Duraisamy Simon Amalorpavadass, was a renowned priest and theologian; he died in an automobile accident on his way to Bangalore from Mysore. He is also listed as Simon D. Lourdusami; and as D. Simon Lourdusami.

Education. He received his early education from Father Gavan Duffy, M.E.P., in Tindivanam; then studied at Saint Ann's High School, Tindivanam; later, he entered Saint Agnes's Minor Seminary in Cuddalore; and finished his high school studies at Saint Joseph's Higher School of Cuddalore from 1937 to 1939; then, studied at Saint Peter's Seminary in Bangalore from1945 to 1951; the, he attended Loyola College in Chennai (1952-1953) for higher studies; and finally, he studied at the Pontifical Urbanian University, Rome from 1953 to 1956, where he earned a doctorate in canon law in 1956; he obtained 100% in all of his exams in canon law studies, something which had never occurred in other Roman universities before. He also studied music and is an avid piano player.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1951, Seven Sorrows church, Tindivanam, Pondicherry, by Auguste Siméon Colas, S.P.M.E., archbishop of Pondicherry and Cuddalore. Assistant parish priest at Athipakkam parish in 1952; at that time, he was instrumental in arranging the archives of the Archdiocese of Pondicherry and Cuddalore. Then, he served as a secretary to the archbishop of Pondicherry and Cuddalore, Ambrose Rayappan, for two months in 1952, before continuing his studies at Loyola College. He served as the secretary, chancellor and choirmaster of the Immaculate Conception Cathedral, Pondicherry, in 1956; during that time, he edited a religious magazine "Sarva Viabi" in Tamil language. Further studies in Rome, 1953-1956. Director of the Catholic Doctors' Guild; director of the Catholic Medical Students' Guild; director of the Newman Association; director of the Catholic University Students Union.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Sozusa di Libia and appointed auxiliary of Bangalore, July 2, 1962. Consecrated, August 22, 1962, cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Pondicherry, by Ambrose Rayappan, archbishop of Pondicherry and Cuddalore, assisted by Rajarethinam Sundaram, bishop of Tanjore, and by Daniel Paul Arulswami, bishop of Kumbakonam. His episcopal motto was Aedificare domum Dei. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to titular archbishop of Filippi, and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession of Bangalore, November 9, 1964. Attended, the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Vice-president of the Pan Asiatic Catechetic-Liturgical Conference, Manila, 1967. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Bangalore, January 11, 1968. Secretary adjunct of the S.C. for the Evangelization of Peoples, March 2, 1971. Resigned the pastoral government of archdiocese, April 30, 1971. Secretary of the S.C. for the Evangelization of Peoples, president of the Pontifical Missionary Work and vice-grand chancellor of the Pontifical Urbanian University, February 26, 1973.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Maria delle Grazie alle Fornaci fuori Porta Cavalleggeri, May 25, 1985. He was member of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints; pf the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature; of the Pontifical Council for the Family; and of the Pontifical Commission for the Internationa Eucharistic Congress. Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, October 30, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. In December 1987, the archdiocese of Pondicherry and Cuddalore celebrated his episcopal silver jubilee in Puducherry. Special papal envoy to the closing ceremonies of the Year of St. Willibrord, Luxembourg, June 3 to 5, 1990. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Resigned the prefecture, May 24, 1991, after suffering an ictus. Cardinal protodeacon, April 5, 1993. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, January 29, 1996. Special papal legate to the funeral of Mother Teresa, Calcutta, India, September 13, 1997. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, February 5, 2004. The archdiocese of Pondicherry and Cuddalore celebrated the diamond jubilee of his sacerdotal ordination December 21, 2011. He visited 110 countries, receiving numerous distinctions in appreciation of his work.

Death. June 2, 2014, at 1:35 am CEST, at Casa di Cura Pio XI, via Aurelia, Rome. Upon learning the news of the death of Cardinal Lourdusamy, Pope Francis sent a telegram of condolence (1) to Archbishop Anthony Anandarayar of Pondicherry and Cuddalore, India. On Thursday June 5, 2014, at 11:30 a.m., at the Altar of the Cathedra of the papal Vatican basilica, took place the exequies of the late cardinal, which was celebrated by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, together with other cardinals, archbishops and bishops. At the end of the eucharistic ceremony, Pope Francis presided the rite of the Ultima Commendatio and of the Valedictio. In accordance with his wishes, his body was transported to India for burial in the Immaculate Conception Cathedral of Pondicherry. The mortal remains of the cardinal were taken to Puducherry on June 7. His body was kept for public view at the Escande Hall in Petit Seminaire higher secondary school on June 7 and 8. The funeral took place at the Immaculate Conception Cathedral at 10 a.m. on June 9, celebrated by Salvatore Penacchio, apostolic nuncio to India and Nepal. Cardinal Oswald Gracias, archbishop of Bombay, represented the pope. In attendace, among others, were Cardinal George Alencherry, archbishop major of Ernakulam-Angamaly of the Syro-Malabars; Cardinal Telesphore Placidus Toppo, archbishop of Ranchi; Bernard Blasius Moras, archbishop of Bangalore; Filipe Neri Antonio Sebastião do Rosário Ferrão, archbishop of Goa e Damão, vice-president of the Catholic Bishops Conference of India; and Antony Anandarayar, archbishop of Pondicherry and Cuddalore. Chief Minister N. Rangasamy, other political leaders, and French Consul General Philippe Janvier-Kamiyama were also present.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph, arms and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Cardinal Lourdusamy, Plays Piano For Tamil song (Rome), video, You Tube Feb 9, 2012; H. E. Cardinal Lourdusamy, RIP, Silent Voice, June 2, 2014 at 4:18 pm; Indian Cardinal Simon Lourdusamy passes away at 90, video, Rome Reports, 2014-06-03; El Santo Padre preside las exequias del cardenal Lourdusamy by H. Sergio Mora, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 05 de junio de 2014; Agradecen en funeral labor evangelizadora de Cardenal Lourdusamy, ACI/EWTN Noticias, 05 Jun. 14, 11:05 am.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Holy See Press Office:

The Most Reverend Anthony Anandarayar
Archbishop of Pondicherry and Cuddalore
Saddened to learn of the death of Cardinal D. Simon Lourdusamy, Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, and Archbishop Emeritus of Bangalore, I offer my deepest condolences and the assurance of my prayers to you, the clergy, religious and lay faithful who mourn his passing. I recall with gratitude to Almighty God the Cardinal's priestly life spent in spreading the Gospel first in India and subsequently in service to the Universal Church in numerous capacities, finally as Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches. I pray that God the Father of mercies may grant him the reward of his labours and welcome his noble soul into the peace and joy of heaven. To all assembled for the solemn funeral Mass, I cordially impart my Apostolic Blessing as a pledge of strength and consolation in the Lord.

FRANCISCUS PP.


Analogous telegram was sent by Cardinal Pietro Parolin, secretary of State.


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LOZANO BARRAGÁN, Javier
(1933-

Birth. January 26, 1933, Toluca, México. He received his first communion in the basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe, México City.

Education. Studied at the Seminario of Zamora; and, from 1954 until 1958, at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned a licentiate in philosophy and a doctorate in dogmatictheology. Besides his native Spanish, he also speaks English and Italian.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 30, 1955, chapel of Collegio Pio-Latinoamericano, Rome, by Carlo Confalonieri, titular archbishop of Nicopoli al Nesto, secretary of the S.C. of Seminaries and Universities. In the diocese of Zamora, professor and prefect of studies of its seminary; charged with the permanent formation of the diocesan clergy. President of the Mexican Theological Society. Director of the Institute of Pastoral Theology of the Episcopal Conference of Latin America (CELAM), Medellín, Colombia. Member of the team of theological reflexion of CELAM. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979, as an expert.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tinisia di Numidia and appointed auxiliary of México, June 5, 1979. Consecrated, August 15, 1979, basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe, México City, by Cardinal Ernesto Corripio Ahumada, archbishop of México, assisted by Cardinal Miguel Darío Miranda Gómez, archbishop emeritus of México, and by José Esaúl Robles Jiménez, bishop of Zamora. His episcopal motto is Testi resurrectionis. Transferred to see of Zacatecas, October 28, 1984. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. President of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral of the Health Care Workers, October 31, 1996. Resigned the pastoral government of the diocese and was given the title of archbishop ad personam, January 7, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Special papal envoy to the Tenth World Day of the Sick, February 11, 2002, Vailankanni, India.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Michele Arcangelo, October 21, 2003. Member of the Congregations for Bishops, for the Evangelization of Peoples, and for the Causes of the Saints, of the Pontifical Council for Culture, and of the Pontifical Commission for International Eucharistic Congresses. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the Twelfth World Day of the Sick, Lourdes, France, February 11, 2004. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the Thirteenth World Day of the Sick that took place in Yaoundé, Cameroun, on February 9 to 11, 2005. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reappointed as president of Pontifical Council for the Pastoral of the Health Care Workers, April 21, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the Fourteenth World Day of the Sick, Adelaide, Australia, February 11, 2006. Special papal envoy to the Fifteenth World Day of the Sick, Seoul, South Korea, February 11, 2007. Participated in the Fifth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". On April 18, 2009, Pope Benedict XVI accepted his resignation presented for reasons of age from the post of president of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral of the Health Care Workers. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on January 26, 2013. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the new title of S. Dorotea on June 12, 2014.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photgraphs and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Card. Barragan: next Pope needs at least same qualities as Benedict XVI, Rome Reports, 2013-02-16 11:18:04 .


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LUALDI, Alessandro
(1858-1927)

Birth. August 12, 1858, Milan, Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia, under Austrian rule (now Italy). Fom a middle class family.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Milan; at the Theological Academy of S. Tommaso d'Aquino, Rome; and at the Seminary Lombardo, Rome (doctorates in theology, philosophy and canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained, October 30, 1880, Milan. Pastoral ministry in Milan, 1884-1890. Faculty member of the Seminary of Milan, 1890-1894 . Faculty member of the Vatican Seminary and of Collegio Leonino, Rome. Rector of Collegio Lombardo, Rome, 1894-1904. Privy chamberlain, September 14, 1899. Socius of the Roman Academy of Saint Thomas Aquinas and of the Theological Academy of Milan. Domestic prelate, January 7, 1904.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Palermo, November 14, 1904. Consecrated, December 4, 1904, church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco di Paola Cassetta, protector of Collegio Lombardo, assisted by Nicolò Audino, bishop of Mazzara del Valle, and by Mario Sturzo, bishop of Piazza Armerina.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 15, 1907; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Andrea e Gregorio al Monte Celio, April 18, 1907. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Papal legate to the 8th centennial celebrations of Sant'Agata, Catania, July 27, 1926.

Death. November 12, 1927, Palermo. Buried under the pavement of the chapel of S. Rosalia, in the metropolitan cathedral of Palermo (1).

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; photographs and biography by Eman Bonnici, in English, Finda Grave; His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait by Onofrio Tomaselli, Sala Azzurra, Museo Diocesano di Palermo.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on the tiles beneath which he is buried, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

ALEXANDRO PRESB. CARD. LVALDI
HIC IN PACE CHRISTI QUIESCIT

A funeral monument erected upon his vault has the following inscription:

ALEXANDRO CAR. ARCHIEP. LVALDI
QUI D. URBIS PATRONAE
ENIXE CULTUM PROVEXIT
PRUDENTIA CARITATE TH. DISCIPLINIS
PRAESTITIT
PANORMITANA DIOCESIS
AN. REP. SAL. MCXXXVII


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LUBAC, S.J., Henri de
(1896-1991)

Birth. February 20, 1896, Cambrai, France. He was the seventh child of Augustin Maurice Sonier de Lubac, officer of the Légion d'Honneur, and Marie Josephine Aglaé Gabrielle de Beaurepaire. His baptismal name was Henri Marie Joseph. Although he is always listed as Henri de Lubac, his father's last name was Sonier de Lubac. He spent his childhood in Bourg-en-Bresse and Lyons. He received first communion from Cardinal Pierre-Hector Coullié, archbishop of Lyon; and from the same cardinal he received the sacrament of confirmation.

Education. Jesuit school of Saint-Joseph, Lyon, 1905-1912 (baccaulareate or high school); in 1909 he studied at the Jesuit school of Mongré, Villefrance; Catholic Faculty of Lyon (law), 1912-1913; joined the Society of Jesus, novitiate of Lyon, October 9, 1913; for political reasons in France, the novitiate was moved to Saint Leonard-on-Sea, England; in 1914, he was mobilized in the French Army; in 1916, he was sent to Verdun; he participated in combat in Éparges; on November 1, 1917, he was seriously wounded (he suffered the rest of his life the consequences of the wounds); he was demobilized and returned to England to continue his studies; Saint Mary's College, Canterbury (letters), 1919-1920; Jesuit House of study at Jersey (philosophy), 1920-1923; and at Ore Place, Hastings, 1924, 1926 (theology); when the Jesuit house at Lyon-Fourvière reopened, he finished there his theological studies from 1926 to 1927; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1927-1929 (doctorate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, August 22, 1927, Lyon. Further studies, Rome, 1927-1929. Instructor of fundamental theology, Theological Faculty of Lyon, 1929-1934. Professed the solemn vows in the Society of Jesus on February 2, 1931. Transferred to Lyon-Fourvière, 1934. Professor of fundamental theology, Theological Faculty of Lyon, 1938-1939. Professor of the history of religion, Theological Faculty of Lyon, 1939. Founder, with Jean Daniélou, future cardinal, of the collection Sources chrétiennes, 1941. Forced to leave Lyon during the Second World War because of his activities with the Resistance during the Nazi occupation; sought refuge in Vals, near Puy. Suspected of being an adherent of the Nouvelle théologie in 1946, he was forbidden by his religious superiors to teach or publish. Obligated by the Vatican to stop publication of his works because of the doctrinal objections raised against his book Surnaturel (1946). Transferred from Lyon to the Jesuit house in Paris on rue de Sèvres, June 1950. Returned to Lyon (rue Sala), 1953. Named honorary professor, Theological Faculty of Lyon, in 1961. Director of the journal Recherches de science religieuse. Member of the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences, 1958. Permiited again to teach and to publish theological works, 1958. Faculty member at the Catholic Institute of Paris, 1959. Returned to Lyon-Fourvièere in 1960. He was among the theologians named by Pope John XXIII consultors to the preparatory commission of the Second Vatican Council in 1960. Expert at the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Defended Fr. Teilhard de Chardin, S.J. Member of the International Theological Commission, 1969-1974. After the closing of Lyons-Fourvière, he moved to Paris in 1974. Pope Paul VI wrote him a letter of thanks on the occasion of his eightieth birthday, February 20, 1976.

Episcopate. Requested to be dispensed from the requirement of episcopal ordination and the dispensation was granted by Pope John Paul II. He was the first cardinal not to be consecrated bishop since the regulation issued by Pope John XXIII in 1962, which ordered that all cardinals should be bishops (1).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, February 2, 1983. Promoted to the cardinalate when he was over 80 years old, and thus, he did not have the right to participate in the conclave. He lived in "Résidence Saint-Germain", a Jesuit house in Paris, at 42 rue de Grenelle. He was a prolific writer in theological matters (2).

Death. Wednesday September 4, 1991, at 7:45 a.m., in "'Ma Maison", a house of the Little Sisters of the Poor, congregation founded by St. Jeanne Jugan, situated at 62 avenue de Breteuil, in Paris; he had suffered a stroke that had left him unable to speak; he had been under the care of the Little Sisters of the Poor. His funeral took place at Notre-Dame metropolitan cathedral, Paris. Cardinal Paul Poupard represented Pope John Paul II at the funeral; and Cardinal Jean-Marie Lustiger, archbishop of Paris, delivered the homily. Buried in the tomb of the Society of Jesus, Vaugirard cemetery, Paris; in the same vault is buried Cardinal Jean Daniélou, S.J. (1969) (3). At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Bibliography. Balthasar, Urs von and G. Chantraine. Le Cardinal Henri de Lubac, l'homme et son oeuvre avec una letter de Paul VI. Paris: Lethielleux, 1983; Balthasar, Hans Urs von. The theology of Henri de Lubac : an overview. San Francisco : Ignatius Press, 1991. (Communio books). Note: Translation of: Henri de Lubac; Chantraine, Georges. Henri de Lubac. Paris : Éditions du Cerf, 2007-. (Études lubaciennes, 6). Contents: t. 1. De la naissance à la dèmobilisation. 1896-1919); Chantraine, Georges. "Henri de Lubac. Pourquoi ses oevres nous parlent." Nouvelle Revue Théologique, 121, (1999), 612-629; "Colloque Henri de Lubac à l'occasion du centenaire de sa naissance (1896-1996)". Gregorianum LXXVII (1997), 611-774; Durand, Jean-Dominique. Henri de Lubac : la rencontre au coeur de l'Église. Paris : Cerf, 2006; Gomes, Vitor Franco. Le paradoxe du désir de Dieu : étude sur le rapport de l'homme à Dieu selon Henri de Lubac. Paris : Cerf, 2005. (Études lubaciennes ; 4); Henri de Lubac et le mystère de l'Église : actes du colloque du 12 octobre 1996 à l'Institut de France. Paris : Cerf, 1999. (Etudes lubaciennes ; 1). Note: Responsibility of Jean-Marie Lustiger and Association internationale Cardinal Henri de Lubac; Résistance chrétienne au nazisme. Paris : les Éd. du Cerf, Normandie roto impr., 2006. (Oeuvres complètes / cardinal Henri de Lubac ; 34). Responsibility: cardinal Henri de Lubac ; sous la direction de Jacques Prévotat ; préface, introductions et notes de Renée Bédarida; Sprizzi, Marco; Henri de Lubac : la rencontre au coeur de l'église. Études réunies par Jean-Dominique Durand. Paris : Cerf, 2006; Fisichella, Rino. De Lubac : l'identitá ecclesiale del cristiano. Milano : Paoline, 2004. (Saggistica paoline ; 25): Voderholzer, Rudolf. Meet Henri de Lubac. Translated by Michael J. Miller. San Francisco : Ignatius Press, 2008; Wagner, Jean-Pierre. Henri de Lubac. Paris : Cerf, 2001. (Initiations aux théologiens).

(1) It is believed that in 1969, Pope Paul VI, an admirer of de Father de Lubac's works, had proposed making him a cardinal, but that Father de Lubac demurred, believing that Pope John XXIII's 1962 requirement that all cardinals be bishops was "an abuse of an apostolic office". Paul VI instead elevated Father de Lubac's junior colleague Father Jean Daniélou, S.J., in that consistory, having committed to grant the cardinalate to a Jesuit theologian. In 1983 Pope John Paul II offered Father de Lubac the cardinalate, this time with a dispensation from being consecrated a bishop. At 87, de Lubac accepted.
(2) This is a list of his works in chronological order taken from Wagner, Henri de Lubac, p. 245-249:
"Apologétique et théologie ", Nouvelle Revue théologique, I. 57, Louvain, 1930.
"Sur la philosophie chrétienne ", Nouvelle Revue théologique, I. 63, Louvain, 1936.
"Méditation sur le principe de la vie morale ", Revue apologétique, I. 65, 33e année, Paris, 1937.
Catholicisme, les aspects sociaux du dogme, coll. " Unam sanctam", Paris, Ed. du Cerf, 1938.
"Le motif de la création dans l'"Ëtre et les êtres" de M. Blondel", Nouvelle Revue théologique, I. 65, Louvain, 1938.
La Lumière du Christ, coll. "Le témoignage chrétien", Le Puy, Mappus, 1941.
Vocation de la France, coll. "Le témoignage chrétien ", Le Puy, Mappus, 1941.
"Un nouveau "front" religieux", in Chaine, Richard, Bonsirven, Israël et la foi chrétienne, Fribourg (Switzerland), Librairie l'Université, 1942.
Corpus mysticum, l'Eucharistie et l'Église au Moyen Âge, étude historique, coll. "Théologie ", 3, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1944.
Le Drame de l'humanisme athée, Paris, Ed. Spes, 1944.
Proudhon et le christianisme, coll. " La condition humaine ", Paris, Éd. du Seuil, 1945.
Surnaturel, Études historiques, coll. " Théologie ", 8, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1946.
Le Fondement théologique des missions, coll. "La sphère et la croix ", Paris, Éd. du Seuil, 1946.
"Sur un vieux distique. La doctrine du "quadruple" sens de l'Écriture ", dans Mélanges offerts au R. P Fernand Cavallera, Toulouse, Institut catholique, 1948.
" Le problème du développement du dogme ", Recherches de science religieuse, t. 35, Paris, 1948.
" Duplex hominis beatitudo (S. Thomas Ia, IIae q. 62, a, 1)", Recherches de science religieuse t. 35, Paris, 1948.
" Le mysthre du surnaturel ", Recherches de science religieuse, t. 36,Paris, 1949.
Histoire et Ésprit. L'intelligence de l'Écriture d'après Origène, coll. "Théologie ", 16, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1950.
Affrontements mystiques, Paris, Ed. du Témoignage chrétien, 1950.
Aspects du bouddhisme, coll. "La sphère et la croix", Paris, Éd. du Seuil, 1951.
La Rencontre du bouddhisme et de l'Occident, coll. " Théologie ", 24, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1952.
Catholicisme, 5e éd., Paris, Éd. du Cerf, 1952.
Méditation sur l'Église, coll. "Théologie", 27, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1953.
Amida. Aspects du bouddhisme lI, Paris, Éd. du Seuil, 1955.
Sur les chemins de Dieu, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1956 (édition considérablement au, gmentée du volume: De la connaissance de Dieu, publié aux Éd. du Témgignage chrétien en 1945).
Exégèse médiévale, Les quatre sens de l'Écriture, Ire partie, livres I-II, coll. "Théologie", 42, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1959.
Paradoxes, suivi de Nouveaux Paradoxes, Paris, Éd. du Seuil, 1959 (reprise augmentée de volumes publiés sous les mêmes titres en 1946 et 1955).
"Sur le chapitre XIVe du Proslogion", dans Spicilegium Beccense I (Congrès international du IXe centenaire de l'arrivée d'Anselme au Bec), Le Bec-Paris, Vrin, 1959.
Exégèse médiévale, Les quatre sens de l'Écriture, IIe partie, livre I, coll. " Théologie ", 42, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1961.
La Pensée religieuse du père Teilhard de Chardin, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1962.
Exégèse médiévale, Les quatre sens de l'Écriture, IIe partie, livre II, coll. "Théologie", 59, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1964.
La Prière du père Teilhard de Chardin, coll. "Le signe", Paris, Fayard, 1964.
Augustinisme et théologie moderne, coll. " Théologie ", 63, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1965.
Le Mystère du surnaturel, coll. " Théologie ", 64, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1965.
Teilhard, missionnaire et apologiste, Toulouse, Prière et vie, 1966.
L'Écriture dans la tradition, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1966.
Images de l'abbé Monchanin, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1967.
Paradoxe et Mystère de l'Église, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1967.
L'Eternel féminin, étude sur un texte de Teilhard de Chardin, suivi de Teilhard et notre temps, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1968.
Athéisme et sens de l'homme, une double requête de "Gaudium et Spes, coll. "Foi vivante", 67, Paris, Ed. du Cerf, 1968.
"Commentaire du Priambule et du chapitre I de la constitution dogmatique Dei Verbum" in La Révélation divine, coll. "Unam sanctam", 70, Paris, Éd. du Cerf, 1968; texte réédité séparément sous le titre La Révélation divine, coll. "Traditions chritiennes", Paris, Éd. du Cerf, 1983.
La Foi chrétienne, Essai sur la structure du symbole des Apôtres, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1969.
L'Église dans la crise actuelle, Paris, Éd. du Cerf, 1969.
"L'apport de Teilhard à la connaissance de Dieu", in Teilhard de Chardin, coll. "Génies et réalités", Paris, Hachette, 1969.
Les Églises particulihres dans l'Église universelle, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1971.
Claudel et Péguy (in collaboration with J. Bastaire), Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1974.
Pic de La Mirandole. Études et discussions, Paris, Aubier-Montaigne, 1974.
"Hommage à Hans Urs von Balthasar pour ses soixante-dix ans", Communio, I, i Paris, 1975.
Teilhard posthume, réflexions et souvenirs, Paris, Fayard, 1977.
La Postérité spirituelle de Joachim de Flore, t. I, Paris-Namur, Lethielleux, 1979.
Recherches dans la foi. Trois études sur Origène, saint Anselme et la philosophie chrétienne, Paris, Beauchesne, 1979.
Petite catéchèse sur nature et grâce, Paris, Fayard, 1980.
La Postérité spirituelle de Joachim de Flore, t. II, Paris-Namur, Lethielleux, 1981.
Thiologies d'occasion, Paris, Desclée de Brouwer, 1984.
Entretien autour de Vatican II. Souvenirs et riflexions, Paris, France-Catholique, Éd. du Cerf, 1985.
Résistance chrétienne à l'antisémitisme. Souvenirs (1940-1944), préface par M. Sales, Paris, Fayard, 1988.
Mémoire sur l'occasion de mes écrits, Namur, Culture et vérité, 1989.
"Témoignage", in H. Bouillard, Vérité du christianisme, Paris, Desclée de Brouwer, 1989. Théologie dans l'histoire, t. I: La Lumière du Christ, Avant-propos de M. Sales, Paris, Desclée de Brouwer, 1990; t. II: Questions disputées et résistance au nazisme, Avertissement de M. Sales, Paris, Desclée de Brouwer, 1990.
Surnaturel, Paris, Desclée de Brouwer; 1991, 2e éd., préparée et préfacée par M. Sales.
"La foi chrétienne: petite introduction au symbole des Apôtres", Communio, t. 16, 5-6, Paris, 1991.
(3) This is the text of the simple inscription in their tomb kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici from Malta:

Cardinal Jean
DANIELOU
1905 - 1974
Cardinal Henri
DE LUBAC
1896 - 1991


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LUBACHIVSKY, Myroslav Ivan
(1914-2000)

Birth. June 24, 1914, Dolyna, eparchy of Ivano-Frankisvk of the Ukrainians, Ukraine, Russia.

Education. Seminary of Lviv, Lviv; Innsbruck University, Innsbruck, Austria; Theological Faculty, Sion, Switzerland; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome (doctorate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, September 28, 1938, Lviv. Pastoral ministry, Lviv, 1938-1942. Further studies, 1942-1947, Rome. In United States, 1947-1980, pastoral ministry among the Ukrainians in Michigan, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Wisconsin; secretary to the archbishop of Philadelphia of the Ukraines; secretary of Ukrainian section of National Catholic Welfare Conference; faculty member, Ukrainian Seminary of Stamford. Faculty member of the Pontifical Ukrainian College of St. Josafat, Rome, 1967-1968; collaborator of Vatican Radio. Spiritual director, Ukrainian seminaries in Washington and Stamford; faculty member in several schools and colleges, 1969-1979.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Philadelphia of the Ukraines, September 13, 1979. Consecrated, November 12, 1979, Sistine Chapel, the Vatican, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Cardinal Josyf Slipyj, archbishop major of Lviv, and by Maxim Hermaniuk, C.SS.R., archbishop of Winnipeg of the Ukrainians. It was the first time that Pope John Paul II celebrated in an Oriental rite. Named archbishop coadjutor, with right of succession, of the major archbishopric of Lviv of the Ukraines, Ukraine, March 27, 1980. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Succeeded to the see of Lviv of the Ukraines, September 7, 1984.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of S. Sofia a Via Boccea, May 25, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; one of its three president delegates. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, June 24, 1994. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994.

Death. December 14, 2000, of pneumonia, in Lviv. Buried in the crypt of St. George's cathedral, Lviv.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1790-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 181.

Link. Photograph and biography, in English, fifth on page.


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LUCIANI, Albino
(1912-1978)

Birth. October 17, 1912, Vicolo Rividella 8, Forno di Canale (currently Canale d'Argordo), diocese of Feltre e Belluno, Italy. Son of Giovanni Luciani and Bortola Tancon. He was baptized the same day at home, by the midwife, as he was in danger of death. Baptism was formalized in the church by the curate, Don Achille Ronzon, October 19, 1912. Received the sacrament of confirmation on September 26, 1919, from Bishop Giosuè Cattarossi of Feltre e Belluno.

Education. Initial studies, elementary school, Forno di Canale, from October 1918; then, he studied at the Seminary of Feltre; later, at the Gregorian Seminary of Belluno; and finally, at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in theology on February 27, 1947; with the thesis: The origin of the human soul according to Antonio Rosmini.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 7, 1935, church of S. Pietro, Belluno. Pastoral ministry in diocese of Belluno, faculty member and vice-rector of its seminary, 1937-1947. Secretary of the interdiocesan synod of Feltre e Belluno, 1948. Pro-vicar general of Belluno, 1948-1954; vicar general, 1954-1958.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Vittorio Veneto, December 15, 1958. Consecrated, December 27, 1958, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Girolamo Bartolomeo Bortignon, O.F.M.Cap., bishop of Padua, and by Gioacchino Muccin, bishop of Feltre e Belluno. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinal Domenico Tardini, secretary of State; and future Cardinals Carlo Grano, titular archbishop of Tessalonica, nuncio in Italy; Angelo Dell'Acqua, titular archbishop of Chalcedonia, substitute of the Secretariat of State; Giuseppe Ferretto, titular archbishop of Sardica, assessor of the S.C. Consistorial; and Mario Casariego y Acevedo, C.R.S., titular bishop of Pudenziana and auxiliary of Guatemala. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. His episcopal motto was Humilitas. Promoted to the patriarchal see of Venice, December 15, 1969. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Host to Pope Paul VI during the papal visit to Venice, September 15, 1972.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the title of S. Marco, March 5, 1973. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on August 26, 1978. Took the name John Paul I. Inauguration of the pontificate, September 3, 1978; received pallium from Cardinal Pericle Felici, protodeacon of S. Apollinare (1).

Death. September 28, 1978, of a heart attack, Vatican City. Buried on October 4, 1978 in the grotto of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Beatification. On June 17, 2003, Pope John Paul II authorized the opening, at diocesan level, of the process for his beatification. Rev. Pasquale Liberatore, S.D.B., general postulator of the Salesians, announced that the cause of beatification would start on November 23, 2003, feast of Christ the King, in the cathedral of Belluno, diocese of origin of the pope. Fr. Liberatore was charged to follow the cause by Vincenzo Savio, S.D.B., bishop of Belluno-Feltre. The diocesan phase of the cause of beatification of John Paul I opened Sunday, November 23, 2003, in the cathedral of Belluno, in the presence of Cardinal José Saraiva Martins, prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints. On November 10, 2006, the diocesan phase was concluded in the same cathedral, presided by Giuseppe Andrich, bishop of Belluno, and in the presence of the postulator, don Enrico Dal Covolo, and the vice postulator, Msgr. Giorgio Lise. One hundred and ninety testimonies were gathered between Belluno, Vittorio Veneto and Venice.

Bibliography. Falasca, Stefania. Mio fratello Albino. Ricordi e memorie della sorella di Papa Luciani. Reportage fotografico di Massimo Quattrucci. Con le prefazioni del cardinale Aloísio Lorscheider e presentazione di Giulio Andreotti. Italy : Trenta Giorni Soc. Coop, 2003; John Paul I, Pope, 1912-1978. Illustrissimi. Letters from Pope John Paul I. Translated from the Italian by William Weaver. Boston ; Toronto : Little, Brown and Company, © 1976, 1978; Roncalli, Marco. Giovanni Paolo I. Albino Luciani. Cinisello Balsamo, San Paolo Edizioni, 2012. (Tempi e figure); Vian. Giovanni. "Giovanni Paolo I." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 674-681.

Links. Biography, in English, The Vatican; same biography, in Italian; biography, in English (Britannica); biography by Giovanni Vian, in Italian, Enciclopedia dei papi, Treccani; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; photo, arms and documents, The Vatican; photograp and arms as cardinal and as pope, Araldica Varicana; Centro di Spiritualità e Cultura Papa Luciani, in Italian; 33 years since the election of John Paul I as pope, Rome Reports; «Papa Luciani beato entro quest'anno», Corriere delle Alpi, 24 giugno 2012; Giovanni Paolo I presto beato La svolta? Un miracolo 'pugliese' by Antonino D'Anna, Martedì, Affaritaliani.it, 3 luglio 2012 - 12:54:00; Juan Pablo I y Pablo VI podrman subir a los altares durante Aqo de la Fe, ACIPrensa, 10 Jul. 12 / 06:09 am; Cardinal Saraiva Martins optimistic about the beatification of Paul VI and John Paul I, Rome Reports, 2012-07-20 19:09:47; Juan Pablo I: Papa de la verdad desde la sencillez, del amor desde la humildad, de la frescura evangilica en migajas by Jesús de las Heras Muela, Ecclesia, posted 7 agosto, 2012; The Second Vatican Council according to Albino Luciani by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 08/ 6/2012.08/ 6/2012; En el primer centenario del nacimiento del Papa Luciani by Marma Fernanda Bernasconi  RV, Vatican Radio, news.va, 2012-08-20; Albino Luciani inédito. Entrevista a Marco Roncalli, biógrafo de Juan Pablo I (parte 1). By Renzo Allegri, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 23-08-2012; Albino Luciani inédito: Entrevista a Marco Roncalli, biógrafo de Juan Pablo I by Renzo Allegri, parte segunda y final, Revista Ecclesia, 24 agosto, 2012Pellegrini sulle orme di papa Luciani by Giuseppe Bratti , Chiesa, Avvenire, 25 agosto 2012; 34 yrs have passed since the election of John Paul I, one of the shortest papacies in history, Rome Reports, 2012-08-26 08:00:00; The heritage of Albino Luciani on the centenary of his birth, L'Osservatore Romano, news.va, 2012-08-26; John Paul I: no coronation, no tiara, no fanfare..., Also featured are a series of comments by some of those who personally knew him. Among them three cardinals: the late Cardinal John Patrick Foley, Cardinal William Wakefield Baum and Cardinal Prosper Grech, O.S.A., Vatican Radio, news.va, 2012-08-27; «Giovanni Paolo I: innamorato di Dio, dono per la Chiesa» by Vincenzo Bertolone, arcivescovo di Catanzaro-Squillance, in Italian, Chiesa, Avvenire, 15 dicembre 2012; Papa Luciani, sacerdote che si è lasciato guidare da Dio by Marco Roncalli, Chiesa, Avvenire, 24 agosto 2013; «Luciani, immagine viva del Buon Pastore» by Pietro Parolin apostolic nuncio to Venezuela, Avvenire, 3 settembre 2013.

(1) Pope John Paul I abolished the ceremony of the papal coronation, which had been in use for centuries, and replaced it with the imposition of the pallium, symbol of his jurisdiction and pastoral care over the Universal Church.


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LUCIDI, Evaristo
(1866-1929)

Birth. October 4, 1866, Montefranco, archdiocese of Spoleto, Papa; State (now Italy).

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome; at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome; and at the University of Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained (no date found). Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome and director of the Institute of "S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni," for twenty years. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, July 4, 1900; reappointed, December 29, 1903. Consultor adjunct for Provincial Councils, September 19, 1902. Secretary of the Commission for the Revision of Provincial Councils, April 15, 1904. Assessor of the S.C. of Council, 1905. Papal prelate, March 20, 1906. Pro-secretary of the financial section of the S.C. for Propagation of the Faith, October 20, 1908. Secretary of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, papal auditor, and palatine prelate, December 8, 1916. Protonotary apostolic, December 13, 1917.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 20, 1923; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Adriano al Foro, December 23, 1923. Papal legate to the Emilian Eucharistic Congress, Parma, 1924.

Death. March 31, 1929, in Rome; he had fallen ill from heart disease and died after a bout of severe influenza a week later. Buried, in the Chapel of Propaganda Fide, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. His body was transferred on June 21, 1929 and buried in the church of Montefranco, which he helped to restore.


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LUÇON, Louis-Henri-Joseph
(1842-1930)

Birth. October 28, 1842, Maulévrier, diocese of Angers, France.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Angers; and later in Rome, where he obtained doctorates in theology and canon law in 1875.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 23, 1865, Angers. Vicar in the parish of Saint-Lambert, Angers. Chaplain of the church of Saint-Louis-des-Français, Rome, 1873-1875. Further studies in Rome, 1874-1875. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Angers, 1875-1887; pastor of Jubaudière; and archpriest of Cholet, 1883 to 1887.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Belley, November 25, 1887. Consecrated, February 8, 1888, church of Notre Dame, Cholet, by Charles-Émile Freppel, bishop of Angers, assisted by François Grolleau, bishop of Évreaux, and by Jules Le Coq, bishop of Nantes. His episcopal motto was In fide et lenitate. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Reims, February 21, 1906.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1907; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria Nuova e Santa Francesca Romana, December 19, 1907. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. A hero of the First World War, while in Rome in 1914, hearing of the bombardment of Reims, he hastened home to be with his endangered parishioners. Forbidden to enter in Reims from Paris, he went by car; slept in a cellar; tended the wounded; celebrated mass wherever he could, sometimes underground; and remained there until forced by military authority to retreat from the city in April 1918. He symbolized the the victims of the German attack when, in spite of the destruction of his cathedral, he remained in Reims until forced to retreat. Knight of the Légion d'honneur in 1917; promoted to officer in 1922. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Papal legate to the 50th anniversary celebration of the Catholic Institute, Paris, 1925. In 1927, he consecrated his rebuilt cathedral.

Death. May 28, 1930, of bronchial pneumonia, at 9, rue du Cardinal-de-Lorraine, Reims. To announce his death, the cathedral's chimes tolled the number of his years. Buried in the crypt of the archbishop, under the main altar of the metropolitan cathedral of Reims.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 395-396; Luçon, Louis Henri Joseph. Journal de la guerre : 1914 - 1918. Reims : Éd. de l'Académie Nationale de Reims, 1998. (Travaux de l'Académie Nationale de Reims; 173). Note: Einzelaufnahme eines Zeitschr.-Bandes; Lyautey, Pierre. Le cardinal Luçon, archevêque de Reims (1842-1930), avec 9 gravures hors texte. Paris : Impr.-libr. Plon, 8, rue Garancière, 1934.

Links. Biography by Hartmut Lohmann, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; and photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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LUGARI, Giovanni Battista
(1846-1914)

Birth. February 18, 1846, Rome, Papal State (now Italy).

Education. Studied at the Royal University, Rome; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, January 15, 1896, Rome. Assessor and sub-promoter of the faith of the S.C. of Rites, February 3, 1896. Privy chamberlain supernumerario, February 6, 1896. Promotor of the faith, June 4, 1897. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 4, 1897. Canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, March 28, 1900. Canon of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, June 10, 1900. Auditor of His Holiness, April 22, 1901. Promotor of the faith in the canonization process of Joan of Arc, 1901. Assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, January 11, 1902. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, February 1, 1902. Protonotary apostolic supernumerarium, February 2, 1902. Consultor of the S.C. of Rites, April 18, 1902.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 27, 1911; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Portico Campitelli, November 30, 1911.

Death. July 31, 1914, Rome. Buried in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 682; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 11 and 26.

Link. Photograph and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.


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LUQUE SÁNCHEZ, Crisanto
(1889-1959)

Birth. February 1, 1889, Tenjo, archdiocese of Bogotá, Colombia. His parents were Heliodoro Luque and Natalia Sánchez.

Education. Initial studies in Tabio; them, attended the Conciliar Seminary of Bogotá, where one of his classmates was Luis Concha Córdoba, future archbishop of Bogotá and cardinal.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 28, 1916, Bogotá, by Bernardo Herrera Restrepo, archbishop of Bogota. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Bogotá, 1916-1931, as chaplain of "Clínica de Marley", vicar of the parish of "Nuestra Señora de las Nieves", and pastor of Guachetá.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Croe and appointed auxiliary of Tunja, January 16, 1931. Consecrated, May 3, 1931, metropolitan cathedral of Bogotá, by Paolo Giobbe, titular archbishop of Tolemaide di Tebaide, nuncio in Colombia, assisted by José Ignacio López Umana, bishop of Garzón, and by Luis Adriano Díaz, bishop of Cali. His episcopal motto was Omnia et in omnibus Christus. Vicar general of of the diocese of Tunja, 1931-1932. Apostolic administrator of the diocese of Tunja, 1932. Transferred to the see of Tunja, September 9, 1932. He had a transcendental role in the civil and political crisis that affected the country from 1949 to 1958. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Bogotá, July 14, 1950. Military vicar of Colombia, July 14, 1950.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, January 15, 1953. Papal legate to the 3rd National Marian Congress, Bogotá, November 16, 1954. Attended the First General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 25 to August 4, 1955. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. He was the first Colombian cardinal.

Death. May 7, 1959, of lung hemorrhage, Bogotá. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Bogotá.

Bibliography. Agudelo Giraldo, Guillermo. Los arzobispos de Bogotá que he conocido : medio siglo en la historia eclesiástica colombiana, 1928-1984. Bogotá : s.n., 1987. Notes: "Ensayo sobre los cuatro arzobispos que han dejado huella profunda en la agitada historia contemporánea de Colombia: monseñor Ismael Perdomo, cardenal Crisanto Luque, cardenal Luis Concha, cardenal Aníbal Muñoz Duque." Originally presented by the author on entering the Academia Colombiana de Historia Eclesiástica on Nov. 15, 1986. Cover title: Cuatro arzobispos que han marcado nuestra historia, 1928-1984. "Ediciones Verdad y Vida", volumen 14, nos. 24-25 y 26, diciembre de 1986"; Anuario de la Iglesia Católica en Colombia, 1957. Bogotá : Editorial Pio X, Ltda., 1958.

Link. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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LUSTIGER, Jean-Marie
(1926-2007)

Birth. September 17, 1926, Hospital Rothschild, Paris, France. Of a Polish Jewish family that migrated earlier in the century. His parents were Karl and Gissèl Léa Lustiger. He lived with a Christian family in Orléans, 1940-1942; converted to Catholicism and was baptized, together with his sister Arlette, on August 25, 1940, in the episcopal chapel of Orléans by Jules-Marie Courcoux, bishop of that diocese; changed his name Aron to Jean-Marie; the god-parents were Suzanne Combes and Jean Bathellier; his parents attended the ceremony; he received confirmation shortly after from the same bishop. His mother was arrested by the Gestapo in Paris and sent to a concentration camp in Drancy in 1941; and later to Auschwitz, where she died; her name appears in the "Mémorial des Juifs de France" with number 48 and the date of February 13, 1943. After the liberation of France from the Nazis in 1945, his father tried to obtain the annulment of Jean-Marie's baptism.

Education. Primary studies in schools in Paris; secondary studies at Lycée Montaigne, Paris, 1936-1939; and Lycée Pothier, Orléans, 1940-1942; Minor Seminary of Coflans, 1942-1943 (obtained a bachelor's in June 1943); La Sorbonne University, Paris, 1945-1946 (lettres); Seminary des Carmes, Institut Catholique de Paris, 1946-1954 (philosophy and theology); military service.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 17, 1954, chapel of the Seminary des Carmes, Institut Catholique de Paris, by Émile-Arsène Blanchet, titular bishop of Lero, rector of Institut Catholique de Paris. From 1954 to 1959, chaplain of the Paris university parish, chaplain to students of letters and sciences, La Sorbonne University; chaplain to students of Grandes Ecoles (E.N.S. de Saint-Cloud, Fontenay). From 1959 to 1969, director of Centre Richelieu; responsible for the chaplains of the new universities of the Parisian region. Pastor of Sainte-Jeanne-de-Chantal, Paris, 1969-1979.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Orléans, November 10, 1979. Consecrated, December 8, 1979, cathedral of Orléans, by Cardinal François Marty, archbishop of Paris, assisted by Eugène Ernoult, archbishop of Sens, and by Daniel Pézeril, titular bishop of Reperi, auxiliary of Paris. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Paris, January 31, 1981. Ordinary of the faithful of Oriental rite residing in France without their own ordinary, March 12, 1981.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, February 2, 1983. Attended the VI Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; to the II Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; to the VIII Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; member of the general secretariat, 1990-1994. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; president delegate. By papal bull, transferred to the title of S. Luigi dei Francesi, November 26, 1994. Elected member of the Académie Française, June 15, 1995; reception, March 14, 1996. Special papal envoy to the closing celebrations of the First Centennial of the Evangelization of Burundi, Gitega, November 22, 1998; to the third centenary commemorative celebrations of the cathedral of Nice, France, May 2, 1999. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Special papal envoy to the celebrations for the 150th anniversary of the diocese of Basse-Terre e Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe, held in that ecclesiastical circumscription, November 19, 2000. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 60th anniversary of the liberation of the concentration camp of Auschwitz-Birkenau, Poland, on January 27, 2005. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, February 11, 2005. Apostolic administrator of Paris, February 11 to March 5, 2005. Resigned the office of ordinary for Catholics of Oriental rite resident in France and without an ordinary of their own, March 14, 2005. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, September 17, 2006. On May 31, 2007, in a wheelchair, he made an emotionally charged appearance at the Académie Française to say goodbye to his fellow "immortals", as the 40 members of the prestigious academy are known (1). He resided at 14ème arrondissement, 277 boulevard Raspail, Paris.

Death. August 5, 2007, at 7:20 p.m., of cancer, at Maison médicale Jeanne-Garnier, 106, avenue Émile Zola, Paris; his death certificate mentions him as Aron Lustiger. The body was exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Notre-Dame of Paris on August 9, 2007, from 9 a.m. to 10 p.m. On August 10, 2007, at 10 a.m., in the cathedral of Notre-Dame of Paris, took place the funeral of the cardinal. The mass was presided by Archbishop André Vingt-Trois of Paris. President Nicolas Sarkozy, who returned from his vacation in the United States of America to be present at the funeral, Prime Minister François Fillon, as well as several members of the government, attended the ceremony, together with sixteen cardinals, fifty bishops, 500 priests and 3000 faithful, who filled the cathedral. The family of the late cardinal; Bernadette Chirac, former first lady of France; Lech Walesa, former president of Poland; representatives of other religions and the Jewish community, in which the cardinal was born, were also present. Cardinal Paul Poupard, president of the Pontifical Commission for Culture, read a message from Pope Benedict XVI. At the end of the ceremony, the body of the cardinal was buried in the crypt of the cathedral, which is inaccessible to the public and situated below the choir of Notre-Dame; the archbishops of Paris after the 17th century repose in the crypt (2). On October 23, 2013, in the Benedictine monastery of Abu Gosh, near Jerusalem, a memorial was inaugurated in his honor.

Bibliography. Jore, Alexander. Épiscopologe Français de 1592 à 1973. Mis à jour et continué jusqu'en 2004. Complément de l'article "France" du Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie Ecclésiastiques t. XVIII, colonnes 161 à 532. Pro-Manuscripto, 25 - III- 2004, no. 3244; Serrou, Robert, Olivier Néri and Bruno Serrou. Lustiger : "cardinal, juif et fils d'immigri". Ed. rev. et augm. Paris : Perrin, 2001; Tincq, Henri. Aron Jean-Marie Lustiger. Le cardinal prophète. Paris : Éditions Grasset, 2012.

Links. Photograph and bibliography, in French, archdiocese of Paris (the menu is on the left side of page); photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; Cardinal Lustiger's funeral ceremony begins with reading of Kaddish, in English, European Jewish Press, August 10, 2007; Jean-Marie Lustiger, une lecture spirituelle de l'histoire. Portraits de cardinaux français du XVIe au XXe siècle, le-Croix.com Institut Jean-Marie Lustiger, in French, The Institut; Les parents du cardinal Lustiger avaient été baptisés by Jean-Marie Guénois, Le Figaro, 03/04/2012 ` 20:32.

(1) These are his works, taken from the site of the Académie Française, linked above: Sermons d'un curé de Paris (Fayard) (1978); Pain de vie et peuple de Dieu (Critérion) (1981); Osez croire (Le Centurion) (1985); Osez vivre (Le Centurion) (1985); Premiers pas dans la prière (Nouvelle Citi) (1986); Prenez place au cœur de l'Église (Office chrétien des handicapés) (1986); Six sermons aux élus de la Nation, 1981-1986 (Le Cerf) (1987); Le Choix de Dieu. Entretiens avec Jean-Louis Missika et Dominique Wolton (Le Fallois) (1987); La Messe (Bayard) (1988); Dieu merci, les droits de l'homme (Critérion) (1990); Le Sacrement de l'onction des malades (Le Cerf) (1990); Le Saint-Ayoul de Jeanclos (en collaboration avec Alain Peyrefitte) (Fayard) (1990); Nous avons rendez-vous avec lEurope (Mame) (1991); Dare to rejoice (Compilation américaine) (Our Sunday visitor) (1991); Petites paroles de nuit de Noël (Le Fallois) (1992); Devenez dignes de la condition humaine (Flammarion) (1995); Le Baptême de votre enfant (Fleurus) (1997); Soyez heureux (Éd. Nil) (1997); Pour l'Europe, un nouvel art de vivre (PUF) (1999); Les prêtres que Dieu donne (Desclée de Brouwer) (2000); Comme Dieu vous aime. Un pèlerinage ` Jérusalem, Rome et Lourdes (Parole et silence) (2001); La Promesse (Parole et Silence) (2002); Comment Dieu ouvre la porte de la foi (Desclée de Brouwer) (2004); Contempler l'Apocalypse (Parole et Silence) (2005).
(2) A commemorative plaque will be installed in the cathedral with the following message from the late cardinal:

Je suis né juif.
J'ai reçu le nom
de mon grand-père paternel, Aron.
Devenu chrétien
par la foi et le baptême, je suis demeuré juif
comme le demeuraient les Apôtres.
J'ai pour saints patrons
Aron le Grand Prêtre,
saint Jean l'Apôtre,
sainte Marie pleine de grâce.
Nommé 139e archevêque de Paris
par Sa Sainteté le pape Jean-Paul II,
j'ai été intronisé dans cette cathédrale
le 27 février 1981,
puis j'y ai exercé tout mon ministère.
Passants, priez pour moi.
+ Aron Jean-Marie cardinal Lustiger
Archevêque de Paris

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