The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
(1903-2011)

M

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MCCANN, Owen
(1907-1994)

Birth. June 26, 1907, Woodstock, apostolic vicariate of Cape of Good Hope, South Africa (1). His father was Irish and his mother Australian.

Education. Initial education in Woodstock, at the school of the Irish Dominican Sisters; and at the Academy of Saint Joseph, of the Marist Brothers; then, attended Saint Joseph College, Rodenbosch, Cape Town; in 1924, he started studying economics and finance at the University of Cape Town, where he obtained a doctorate in 1929; in 1930, after entering the Seminary of CapeTown, he was sent to Rome to study at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1935, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome. Returned to South Africa and exercised his pastoral ministry at the parishes of Holy Cross and Saint Patrick of Mowbray. In 1940, he was named secretary to Francis Hennermann, S.A.C., titular bishop of Copto, apostolic vicar of Cape Town. Editor of the Catholic weekly The Southern Cross, 1942-1948. Pastor of the cathedral of Saint Mary, 1948-1950.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Stettorio and appointed apostolic vicar of Cape Town, March 12, 1950. Consecrated May 18, 1950, St. Mary's cathedral, Cape Town, by Archbishop Martinus Lucas, S.V.D., titular archbishop of Aduli, apostolic delegate in South Africa, assisted by John Colburn Garner, titular bishop of Tracula, apostolic vicar of Pretoria, and by Bernard Cornelius O'Riley, titular bishop of Foba. His episcopal motto was "Nisi Dominus in Vanum". Promoted to the metropolitan see of Cape Town, January 11, 1951. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, October 4, 1960. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965; he was a member of the preparatory commission for lay apostolate. During his episcopate, the number of Catholics almost doubled. He established a minor seminary for the young colored students for the priesthood. President of the Southern Africa Episcopal Conference from 1960 until 1974.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of S. Prassede, February 25, 1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, October 20, 1984. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, June 29, 1987. On February 22, 1990, in the chapel of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, together with Cardinal Agnelo Rossi, dean of the College of Cardinals, he celebrated the twenty-fifth anniversary of his elevation to the cardinalate. He always strongly manifested himself and decidedly worked against any form of discrimination and racial segregation and was an outspoken opponent of Apartheid. He was the first cardinal from South Africa.

Death. March 26, 1994, at his home in Wynberg, a suburb of Cape Town, of a heart attack. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope John Paul II rayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to Archbishop Lawrence Patrick Henry of Cape Town. President Nelson Mandela of South Africa in an official condolence statement on the following March 28, described Cardinal McCann as "one of South Africa's great sons" and "a man of great ability and wisdom". The body of the late cardinal was buried in Our Lady of the Flight into Egypt chapel in the metropolitan cathedral of Cape Town (2).

Links. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Annuario Pontificio (Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana) listed his date of birth as June 26, 1907 until 1968; then, beginning with the issue of 1969 until his death, the date given was June 29, 1907. His great-nephew, Mr. Charlton Owen Sumption, from London, England, born on the same day as the cardinal (in a different year), confirmed the June 26 date.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

Beneath this stone
lie the remains
of South Africa's first Cardinal
Owen Cardinal McCann
Born 26 June 1907
Consecrated 18 May 1950
Died 26 March 1994.
May He Rest In Peace


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MCCARRICK, Theodore Edgar
(1930-

Birth. July 7, 1930, New York, United States of America. Son of Theodore Egan McCarrick, a ship captain who died of tuberculosis when he was three years old, and Margaret McLaughlin.

Education. Seminary "Saint Joseph", Dunwoodie, New York; Catholic University of America, Washington (master in history and doctorate in sociology). Besides his native English, he also speaks French, German, Italian and Spanish.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 31, 1958, New York, by Cardinal Francis Joseph Spellman, archbishop of New York. Further studies, Washington, 1958-1963; during his vacations, directed the Institute for Spanish Studies, Catholic University of Puerto Rico, Ponce, established to propagate the knowledge of Spanish language and Puerto Rican culture among the priests and religious of the New York area. From 1961-1963, dean of students, Catholic University of America and faculty member of the Graduate School and the College of Arts and Sciences; assistant to the president and first Director of Development. President of the Catholic University of Puerto Rico, October 1965 to 1969; had an active participation in several educational institutions of Puerto Rico. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, November 10, 1965 (title changed to Prelate of Honor, 1968). Secretary adjunct for Education in the archdiocese of New York and pastoral ministry at the Most Blessed Sacrament parish, 1969-1971; founded the Cardinal's Committee for Education and the Inner City Scholarship Fund, to promote the education of the poor particularly among minorities. Secretary to Cardinal Terence James Cooke, archbishop of New York, 1971-1977.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Rusubisir and appointed auxiliary of New York, May 24, 1977. Consecrated, June 29, 1977, New York, by Cardinal Terence James Cooke, archbishop of New York, assisted by John Joseph Maguire, titular archbishop of Tabalta, coadjutor of the archbishop of New York, and by Patrick Vincent Ahern, titular bishop of Naiera, auxiliary of New York. In the same ceremony were consecrated Austin Bernard Vaughan, titular bishop of Cluain Iraird, auxiliary of New York; and Francisco Garmendia, titular bishop of Limisa, auxiliary of New York. His episcopal motto is Come Lord Jesus. Named Episcopal vicar for Education and vicar of East Manhattan and the Harlems. Transferred to newly established see of Metuchen, New Jersey, November 19, 1981. Promoted to metropolitan see of Newark, May 30, 1986. Attended Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16-December 12, 1997; president of the Commission for the message; elected member of the post-synodal council. Superior of the sui iuris mission of Turks and Caicos. Member of the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom, 1999-2001. Transferred to metropolitan see of Washington, November 21, 2000.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received red biretta and title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, February 21, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese was accepted on May 16, 2006, in conformity to canon 401§ 1 of the Code of Canon Law. Apostolic administrator of the metropolitan see of Washington, May 16 to June 22, 2006. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age on July 7, 2010.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of Washington; his arms, archdiocese of Washington; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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MCGUIGAN, James Charles
(1894-1974)

Birth. November 26, 1894, Hunter River, diocese of Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada. Son of George Hugh McGuigan and Anne Monaghan. He was baptized at St. Augustine's church, South Rustico by Rev. Ronald MacDonald. Received first communion from Monsignor Jean Chaisson; and yje sacrament of confirmed at St. Augustine's Church from James Charles MacDonald, bishop of Charlottetown.

Education. Studied at Prince of Wales College, Charlottetown; Saint Dunstan's University, Charlottetown; University of Laval, Québec, where he earned a bachelor's in arts, in 1914; later, at the Grand Seminary of Québec, Québec, obtaining doctorates in philosophy and theology, in 1918; and at The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 26, 1918, in his native parish of St Augustine's, by Louis James O'Leary, bishop of Charlottetown. Faculty member of Saint Dunstan's University and secretary to the bishop of Charlottetown, 1918-1920; secretary to the archbishop of Edmonton, 1920-1922. Chancellor of the archdiocese of Edmonton, 1922-1923; vicar general, 1923-1930. Protonotary apostolic, September 13, 1927. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Edmonton, 1925-1927. Rector of Saint Joseph's Seminary, Edmonton, 1927-1930.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Regina, January 30, 1930. Consecrated, May 15, 1930, cathedral of Saint Joseph, Edmonton, by Henry Joseph O'Leary, archbishop of Edmonton, assisted by Arthur Béliveau, archbishop of Saint Boniface, and by John Thomas Kidd, bishop of Calgary. His episcopal motto was Ambulate in dilectione. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Toronto, December 22, 1934. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, August 20, 1943.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria del Popolo, February 22, 1946. First English speaking cardinal from Canada. Papal legate to the National Marian Congress, Ottawa, March 25, 1947. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 30, 1971.

Death. April 6, 1974, from a heart attack, Toronto. Buried, April 15, 1974, in the priest's plot, south of Saint Augustine's Seminary, Toronto.

Bibliography. Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 441; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 650-652.

Link. Photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of Toronto; and his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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MACHARSKI, Franciszek
(1927-

Birth. May 20, 1927, Kraków, Poland. The youngest of the three children of Leopold Macharski, a lawyer, and Zofia Pec. The other siblings were Władysław, member of the Polish Association of the Knights of Malta (died on June 10, 2010); and, Janina. Baptized on June 26, 1927, in St. Stefan parish in Kraków. He received the sacrament of confirmation in 1944 from Stanisław Rospond, titular bishop of Dardano, auxiliary of Kraków.

Education. Studied at the Major Metropolitan Seminary of Kraków; at the Jegellonican Catholic University, Kraków; and at the University of Fribourg, Switzerland.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 2, 1950, basilica of Święty Franciszek, Kraków, by Cardinal Adam Stefan Sapieha, archbishop of Kraków. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Kraków, 1950-1956. Further studies, 1956-1960. Faculty member, Major Metropolitan Seminary of Kraków, 1960-1970; rector, 1970-1978. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; auditor priest. Canon of the metropolitan chapter of Kraków, 1977-1978.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Kraków, December 29, 1978. Consecrated, January 6, 1979, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Julian Groblicki, titular bishop of Filadelfia di Arabia, auxiliary of Kraków and by Stanisław Smoleński, titular bishop of Alava, auxiliary of Kraków.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979, Vatican City. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1983. Papal legate to the 17th International Marian Congress and 10th Mariological Congress, Kevelaer, Germany, September 17 to 20, 1987. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; president delegate. Special papal envoy to the Slovakian National Eucharistic Congress, Bratislava, Slovakia, September 23 to 24, 2000. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 50th anniversary of the consecration of the Basilica of Lisieux, France, July 11, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law, was accepted by the pope on June 3, 2005. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old on May 20, 2007.

Bibliography. Nitecki, Piotr. Biskupi Kościoła w Polsce w latach 965-1999. Słownik biograficzny. Przedmowa Henryk Gulbinowicz. Warszawa : Instytut Wydawniczy "Pax", Warszawa 2000, col. 271; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 325-333.

Links. Arms, photograph and biographical data, in Polish, archdiocese of Kraków; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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MCINTYRE, James Francis
(1886-1979)

Birth. June 25, 1886, New York, N.Y., United States of America. Son of James Francis McIntyre and Mary Pelley. His baptismal name was James Francis Louis.

Education. Studied at Cathedral College, New York; and at Saint Joseph's Seminary, Dunwoodie, Yonkers, New York.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 21, 1921, New York, by Patrick Joseph Hayes, archbishop of New York. Pastoral ministry in archdiocese of New York, 1921-1923. Vice-chancellor of archdiocese of New York, 1923-1934; chancellor, 1934-1944. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, December 27, 1934. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, November 12, 1936.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Cirene and appointed auxiliary of New York, November 16, 1940. Consecrated, January 8, 1941, St. Patrick's cathedral, New York, by Francis Joseph Spellman, archbishop of New York, assisted by Stephen Joseph Donahue, titular bishop of Medea and auxiliary of New York, and by John Francis O'Hara, C.S.C., titular bishop of Milasa and delegate of the military vicar of the United States Armed Forces. His episcopal motto was Miserere mei Deus. Vicar general of archdiocese of New York, January 27, 1945. Promoted to titular archbishop of Palto and appointed coadjutor of New York, July 20, 1946. Transferred to metropolitan see of Los Angeles, February 7, 1948.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Anastasia, January 15, 1953. Papal legate to the National Marian Congress, Lagos, Nigeria, December 8, 1954. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Papal legate to the Patrician Year, Armagh, Ireland, March 17, 1960. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, January 21, 1970. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971. Following his retirement, he served as a parish priest at St. Basil's church, in downtown Los Angeles, where he only celebrated the Tridentine mass.

Death. July 16, 1979, St. Vincent Medical Center, Los Angeles. Buried, bishops' mausoleum, Calvary Cemetery, East Los Angeles. His remains were transferred to a mausoleum in the crypt of the new metropolitan cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, Los Angeles, in 2003 (1).

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 99; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 194; Weber, Francis. His Eminence of Los Angeles: James Francis Cardinal McIntyre. 2 vols. Mission Hills, Calif. : St. Francis Historical Society, 1997.

Links. His tomb and biography, in English, Wikipedia; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

His Eminence
Cardinal
James Francis A.
Mc Intyre
1886 - 1979


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MCKEEFRY, Thomas Peter
(1899-1973)

Birth. July 3, 1899, Greymouth, diocese of Christchurch, New Zealand. He was the fifth of seven children of Michael McKeefry, a police constable, and Mary McAlary; they both were born in County Londonderry, Ireland. His baptismal name was Peter Thomas Bertram. After living in Christchurch for a short time, the family moved to Dunedin.

Education. Initial studies at Christian Brothers' Boys' School, Dunedin; then, he entered the Holy Cross Seminary, Mosgiel, where he studied from 1916 to 1922; and finally, he attended the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, from 1922 to 1926.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 3, 1926, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome. Returned to New Zealand in November 1926. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Auckland; secretary to the bishop of Auckland; administrator and director of the diocesan newspaper, 1926-1947. Special news reporter in Spain during the Civil War, 1936-1939.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Derco and appointed coadjutor of Wellington, with right of succession, June 12, 1947. Consecrated, October 19, 1947, St. Patrick's cathedral, Auckland, by Cardinal Norman Thomas Gilroy, archbishop of Sydney, Australia, assisted by Thomas O`Shea, S.M., archbishop of Wellington, and by James Michael Liston, bishop of Auckland. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Wellington, May 9, 1954; he was the first native of New Zealand to occupy the see; and the first who was not a member of a religious order. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. President of the Episcopal Conference of New Zealand.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received red biretta and title of Immacolata al Tiburtino, April 30, 1969. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. He was the first cardinal from New Zealand.

Death. Sunday November 18, 1973, Wellington; a life long chain smoker, he died suddenly, while making arrangements by telephone at the presbytery for the accommodation of a convalescent priest whom he had just visited; he had a cigarette burning between his fingers. Buried in the priests' plot at Karori Cemetery, outside Wellington (1). In the same plot is buried Cardinal Reginald John Delargey, archbishop of Wellington, second cardinal from New Zealand. The Cardinal McKeefry School of Wilton, Wellington, was named after him.

Bibliography. Kennedy, John Patrick. Peter Cardinal McKeefry, 1899-1973. Dunedin : New Zealand Tablet, 1974. Note: Includes Bishop Snedden's panegyric at the Requiem Mass for the Cardinal; van der Krogt, Christopher. "McKeefry, Peter Thomas Bertram 1899-1973". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, updated 7 April 2006. URL: http://www.dnzb.govt.nz. The original version of this biography was published in the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, Volume Five (1941-1960), 2000, 319-321.

(1) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici from Malta:

PRAY FOR HIS EMINENCE
Peter Cardinal McKeefry
BORN JULY 3, 1899 - ORDAINED PRIEST APRIL 3, 1926
COADJUTOR ARCHBISHOP OCTOBER 19, 1947
ARCHBISHOP OF WELLINGTON MAY 9, 1954
METROPOLITAN OF NEW ZEALAND NOVEMBER 10, 1954
CARDINAL PRIEST OF MARIA IMMACULATA APRIL 28, 1969
DIED NOVEMBER 18, 1973
R.I.P.


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MAC RORY, Joseph
(1861-1945)

Birth. March 19, 1861, Ballygowley, archdiocese of Armagh, Ireland . Son of Francis MacRory, a small farmer, and Rose Montague. He had nine brothers and sisters. His last name is also lisred as MacRory; and as McRory.

Education. Studied at Saint Patrick's College, Armagh; and at St. Patrick's College, Maynooth.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 13, 1885, Maynooth. First president of St. Patrick's Boys Academy, Dungannon, 1886-1887. Professor of Sacred Scripture and Modern Theology at the Birmingham Diocesan Seminary at Olton College, 1887-1889. Sacred Scripture and Oriental Languages at St. Patrick's College, Maynooth, 1889-1915; vice-president, 1912-1915. One of the founders of The Irish Theological Quarterly in 1906.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Down and Connors, August 9, 1915. Consecrated, at Saint Patrick's church, Belfast, November 14, 1915, by Cardinal Michael Logue, archbishop of Armagh, assisted by Patrick Joseph ODonnell, bishop of Raphoe, and by Joseph Hoare, bishop of Ardagh and Clonmacnois. His episcopal motto was Res non verba. Member of the Irish Convention, 1917-1918. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of Armagh, June 22, 1928.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1929; received the red hat and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, December 19, 1929. Papal legate at the laying of the foundation stone of Liverpool's cathedral, May 25, 1933; to the National Eucharistic Congress, Melbourne, Australia, October 18, 1934. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. He strongly opposed social injustice, National Socialism, Protestantism and the partition of Ireland.

Death. October 13, 1945, at 7 am, of a heart attack after a brief illness, in Armagh. Buried in the primates' plot of St. Patrick's cemetery, Armagh.

Bibliography. Murphy, John J. The people's primate: a memoir of Joseph Cardinal Mac Rory. Dublin: Priory Press, 1945.

Links. Photograph and biography by Tomas O'Riordan, in English, MultiText Project in History, University College Cork; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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MAFFI, Pietro
(1858-1931)

Birth. October 12, 1858, Corteolona, diocese of Pavia, Lombardy, Austrian Empire (now Italy). Son of Luigi Maffi and Clementina Manenti, who died in 1864; his aunt Carolina cared for Pietro.

Education. Initial studies in Corteolona and Pavia; later, entered the Seminary of Pavia, where he earned a doctorate in theology. In Pavia, he received the tonsure on May 30, 1874; the minor orders of ostiary and lector, May 22, 1875; the other minor orders of exorcist and acolyte, June 10, 1876; the subdiaconate, December 20, 1879; and the diaconate, December 18, 1880.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 16, 1881, Pavia. Professor of philosophy and sciences and rector of Seminary of Pavia. Founder of the meteorological observatory and the museum of natural history of Pavia. Member of the Italian Meteorological Association, May 3, 1892. Editor of Rivista di scienze fisiche e matematiche, 1900; and its director until 1912. Pro-vicar general of Pavia and prosynodal examiner. Doctor honoris causa of theological college of Parma and member supernumerary of its scientific academy. Vicar general of Ravenna and prefect of studies of its seminary, 1901. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, 1881-1902. Apostolic administrator of Ravenna, April 26, 1902.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Cesarea di Mauritania and appointed auxiliary of Ravenna, June 9, 1902. Consecrated, June 11, 1902, basilica of S. Paolo fuori le mura, Rome, by Cardinal Lucido Maria Parocchi, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, vicar general of Rome and vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, assisted by Felix-Marie de Neckere, titular archbishop of Melitene, and by Diomede Panici, titular archbishop of Laodicea, secretary of the S.C. of Rites. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Pisa, June 22, 1903. Director and administrator of the Vatican observatory, November 30, 1904.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 15, 1907; received the red hat and the title of S. Crisogono, April 18, 1908. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Papal legate to the Eucharistic Congress, Milan, September 10, 1922; to the Eucharistic Congress, Fano, April 4, 1925. Celebrated the marriage ceremony of Crown Prince Umberto of Italy to Princess Marie-Joseph of Belgium, 1930. Named knight of the Ordine Suprema della Santissima Annunziata; knight grand cross of the Ordine dei Santi Maurizio e Lazzaro; and knight grand cross of the Ordine della Corona d'Italia. Authored numerous works of high scientific level in astronomy although the best known of them, Nei cieli: pagine di astronomia popolare, published in 1896, with nine editions and numerous reprints, was of a more popular level.

Death. March 17, 1931, Pisa. Buried in the presbytery of the metropolitan cathedral, Pisa. The Fondazione Casa Cardinale Maffi Onlus, founded in Pisa in the 1970's by Monsignor Pietro Parducci was named after him.

Bibliography. Andreazza, Mario. Alle origini del movimento cattolico pisano : il card. Pietro Maffi e il prof. Giuseppe Toniolo. Pisa : Giardini, 1991; Andreazza, Mario. Pagine di storia pisana. (Il cardinal Maffi e Galileo Galilei). Pisa : Benedinelli, 1969; Il Cardinale Pietro Maffi, arcivescovo di Pisa : primi contributi di ricerca: (tavola rotonda, 18-3-1982). Mario Andreazza ... et al. Pisa: Pacini, 1984, ©1983. (Biblioteca del "Bolletino storico pisano". Collana storica; 26.); Righi, Lorenzo. Una porpora prestigiosa. Fiesole : Tip. A. Sbolci, 1978; Stefanini, Pasquale. Il Cardinale Maffi. Pisa: Giardini Editore, 1958: Togni, Giuseppe. Pietro Maffi. Pisa : Opera della Primaziale di Pisa, 1959; Vaussard, Maurice. L'intelligence catholique dans l'Italie du XXe siecle. Preface par Georges Goyau. Paris : V. Lecoffre, 1921. (Toniolo, Giuseppe, 1845-1918. Meda, Filippo, 1869-1959. Sturzo, Luigi, 1871-1959. Gemelli, Agostino, 1878-1959. Ferrini, Contardo, 1859-1902. Maffi, Pietro, 1858-1931. Borsi, Giosue, 1888-1915. Papini, Giovanni, 1881-1956).

Links. Biography by Filippo Sani, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 67 (2007), Treccani; his photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and portrait, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait, diocese of San Miniato; plaque and bust place in the house where he was born on via Maffi, Corteolona, Chi era Costui; his effigy on a ceramic medallion, Specola di Sapri, via Verdi di fronte n.2 - Sapri, Chi era Costui; Pietro Maffi e la sua biblioteca , Biblioteca Arcivescovile "Cardinale Pietro Maffi" di Pisa; his photograph, taken at Collegio Sant'Arcangelo (Fano) in the occasion of the Eucharistic Congress, before 1931, Wikipedia; his photograph, before 1931, Wikipedia; Via Cardinale Pietro Maffi, Pisa, Toscana, Italia, flickr; Fondazione Casa Cardinale Maffi Onlus, Residenze Socio-Sanitarie, Sanitarie, Riabilitative.


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MAGLIONE, Luigi
(1877-1944)

Birth. March 2, 1877, Casoria, archdiocese of Naples, Italy. Son of Nicola Maglione and Maria Gaetana Cortese. His brother Domenico was provost curate of the parish of S. Mauro Abate in Casoria.

Education. Resided at Collegio Capranica, Rome, while studying at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained doctorates in philosophy in 1898 and in theology in 1902; and later, in 1904, obtained a doctorate in canon law at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare"; finally, from 1905 to 1907, he attended the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, where he studied diplomacy.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 25, 1901, church of S. Apollinare, Rome, by Giuseppe Ceppetelli, titular patriarch of Costantinople, vice-gerent of Rome. Pastoral ministry in Casoria, from 1901 until 1905, next to his brother Domenico, who was provost curate of the parish of S. Mauro. On May 5, 1905, he returned to Rome as vice-pastor of the Testaccio area, collaborating also in the Roman countryside with the spiritual assistance to the local population. Further studies in Rome from 1905 to 1907. Entered the service of the Secretariat of State in 1908 as addetto in the Congregation for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs; he became minutante on January 21, 1909. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, June 17, 1910; reappointed, September 7, 1914. In those years he also taught diplomacy at the Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, from 1908 to 1918; and was repeater of theology in Collegio Leonino from 1910 to 1913. From 1912 to 1918, he was also spiritual director at Collegio Capranica. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, February 22, 1918. Provisional papal representative to the League of Nations in 1918. Named papal representative before the Swiss Confederation on February 25, 1918. The activities carried out by the representatives of Holy See, in particular, the collaboration of Catholic institutions with Switzerland in the fields of health care and charity work during the war and after the war, helped to promote official resumption of diplomatic relations between the Holy See and Switzerland, which had been interrupted since 1873. In June 1920, the Swiss Federal Council decided on the resumption of diplomatic relations with the Holy See. One month later, the Holy See decreed the restoration of the nunciature and proceeded to the appointment of Monsignor Maglione as apostolic nuncio in Berne.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina and appointed nuncio before the Swiss Confederation, September 1, 1920. Consecrated, September 26, 1920, basilica of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, secretary of State, assisted by Bonaventura Cerretti, titular archbishop of Corinto, secretary of the S C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Lorenzo Schioppa, titular archbishop of Mocisso, nuncio in Hungary. In the same ceremony was consecrated Francesco Marmaggi, titular archbishop of Adrianopoli di Emimonto and nuncio in Rumania, future cardinal. Named nuncio in France, June 23, 1926; he arrived in Paris on the following November 3. He devoted himself especially to the renewal of the French episcopate; most of the French bishops, appointed by Pope Pius X after the rupture of the Concordat between France and Holy See, were characterized by a conservative and monarchist orientation, and some had sometimes shown sympathy for the reactionary movement Action Française. The nuncio suggested to Rome the choice of authoritative personalities with advanced social ideas and sensitive to the democratic values; this new direction was welcomed by democratic circles in France. During the period of his nunciature in Paris, he had to contend with the differences between the Holy See and Action Française. On December 20 1926, Pope Pius XI, in his consistorial address, deplored the movement Action Française and on December 29 was published the decree of condemnation by the S. C. of the Holy Office. For its firm position against the movement of Charles Maurras, Nuncio Maglione was severely attacked by the Action Française; in 1932, the organ of the movement accused him of being a spy in the service of Germany when he was in Switzerland during the war and challenged him hard in Marseille during a conference of students. Because of the disagreement between Rome and the movement, Cardinal Louis Billot, S.J., resigned his cardinalate. In January 1932, in his address of congratulations to Paul Doumer, president of France, the nuncio pointed out the problems that invested the international economy in the context of the Great Depression that followed the collapse of Wall Street, denouncing the "economic malaise" which hardly affected all nations, and calling on governments to "take special measures in favor of the working class". In October 1935, he tried, without success, a diplomatic mediation with Foreign Minister Pierre Laval, in order to resolve peacefully the dispute between Italy and Ethiopia. Promoted to the cardinalate, he left Paris in July 1936.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1935; received the red hat and the title of S. Pudenziana, June 18, 1936. Member of the SS. CC. of the Holy Office, Consistorial, Oriental Church, Sacraments, Council, Religious, Propaganda Fide, Ceremonial, Seminaries and Universities of Study, and of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature. Member of the commissions for biblical studies, for the preparation of the Code of Oriental Canon Law; of the oversight committee of cardinals for the papal Shrine of Pompeii and of the commission of cardinals for the administration of the goods of the Holy See, of which he was president. Prefect of the S.C. of the Council, July 22, 1938 to March 10, 1939. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. At the strong request of the French bishops, he was named secretary of State on March 10, 1939; occupied the post until his death (1). His appointment found wide acceptance, especially in international democratic circles, which saw him as a skilled diplomat, personally sensitive to democratic values and hostile to totalitarianism. In his new charge, he availed himself extensively of the collaboration of the secretary for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, Monsignor Domenico Tardini; and the substitute for Ordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, Monsignor Giovanni Battista Montini, future Pope Paul VI. They carried the government of the Church in the difficult and troubled years of World War II, making every effort to keep the Holy See on a level of neutrality and impartiality, trying, especially at the beginning of the war, to achieve a diplomatic mediation with the aim of arriving at a peaceful settlement of the conflict. Named grand chancellor of the Pontifical Institute of Christian Archeology on May 5, 1939. On December 29, 1939, he was decorated by King Vittorio Emanuele III with the knightly Order of the Annunziata. He realized a particularly intense diplomatic effort, with the objective of removing the risk of a European war. He completed the last attempt on August 31, 1939, on the eve of the German attack on Poland, summoning the ambassadors of Germany, France, Italy, Poland, Spain and England. He tried to prevent the entry of Italy in the war; and after the fall of France, he tried, without success, a new diplomatic mediation. The diplomatic initiatives of the Holy See in favor of peace were never able to find concrete chance of success, which Cardinal Maglione realized. He paid a particular attention to the Polish question, especially in the face of the sudden persecution of Catholics after the Nazi occupation. He also faced the problem of the anti-Semitic persecution carried out by the Nazis. Cardinal Maglione, in the name of the pope, took steps to mitigate the racial laws, especially in favor of the "Jewish converts," to secure the release of the interned Jews, improve prison conditions, pay financial aid to families, encourage the formation of national committees for aid to refugees, obtain immigration visas for North and South America. Cardinal Maglione expressed several times the impression that the Nazis were taking repressive initiatives that went beyond "the necessities of war", in front of which the Holy See could not long remain silent. After the raid carried out by the Germans in the ghetto of Rome on the night between October 15 and 16, 1943, the cardinal summoned the German ambassador, Ernst von Weizsdcker, and asked him to intervene "in the name of humanity, of Christian charity." He added that the pope was "painful beyond words that it was in Rome, under the eyes of the common Father, that so many people were made to suffer, only because they belonged to a particular race. Notable was also the commitment of the cardinal to ward off the raids on Italian cities, trying in vain to get the declaration of Rome as an "open city." After the fall of Fascism and the birth of the Italian Social Republic (RSI), Cardinal Maglione specified that the Holy See could not recognize the new state, as it was established norm not to recognize "de jure" governments that were formed during the war because of the war, when there was already a legal government. He went to Casoria to take thermal bath treatments, almost immediately after the Allies occupied Rome, and until his death, he was kept under the supervision of American doctors.

Death. August 22, 1944, at 4 a.m., of a heart attack from neuritis and circulatory ailments (he was a heavy smoker), in his birthplace, Casoria, near Naples. Buried in the chapel of S. Mauro Abate of the parish-collegiate church of S. Mauro Abate, Casoria (2). After his death, Pope Pius XII decided not to appoint a new secretary of State for the rest of his pontificate.

Bibliography. Re, Niccolò del. "I cardinali prefetti della Sacra Congregazione del Concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 145.

Links. Biography by Francesco Malgeri, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 67 (2007), Treccani; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Succeeding his schoolmate Eugenio Pacelli as secretary of State when the latter became Pope Pius XII, he was so close to him that Italians punned: whenever the pope went out without his maglione (Italian for large sweater), he caught cold.
(2) This is the text of the inscription on his marble funeral monument, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

SVB VMBRA ILLIVS QVEM DESIDERAVERAT DORMIT
ALOYSIVS MAGLIONE
S.R.E. TITVLI SANCTAE PUDENTIANAE PRESBYTER CARDINALIS
SACRA HVIVS MAXIMI CASORIANI TEMPLI RESPERSVS VNDA
SEXTO NONAS MARTIAS A.D. MDCCCLXXVII
EPISCOPATV PLENVS ET APOSTOLICVS NVNTIVS APVD HELVETIOS ET GALLOS
ANIMI VIRTVTE HVMILITATE INGENIO ROMANA PVURPVRA HONESTATVS
PRAEFECTVS SACRAE CONGREGATIONIS CONCILII
A PVBLICIS ECCLESIAE NEGOTIIS S.S.D.N. PII PAPAE XII
IN GESTIENDIS MVNIBVS RARISSIMVS TETERRIMO VBIQVE FLAGRANTI BELLO
ET CARITATE IN MISEROS QVAM QVI MAXIME SVCCENSVS
VLTIMO FRACTVS LABORE AERVMNISQVE PRO DEO ECCLESIA PRINCIPE
ADVOLANS IN SVAE GENTIS SINVM LEVAMEN QVAESITVM INFIRMAE VALETVDINI
HEIC PIO SEPVULCHRO OPTATA REQVIE DONATVS
VNDECIMO KALENDAS SEPTEMBRES A.D. MDCCCCXLIV


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MAHONY, Roger Michael
(1936-

Birth. February 27, 1936, Hollywood, archdiocese of Los Angeles, United States of America. Son of Victor James Mahony, owner of a poultry processing plant, and Loretta Baron. He has a twin brother, Louis James, and an older brother, Neil Anthony.

Education. Our Lady of Los Angeles Preseminary, Los Angeles; Our Lady of Angels Seminary, Mission Hill. Incardinated in the diocese of Monterey-Fresno. Catholic University of America, Washington (doctorate in social work). He is fluent in Spanish.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 1, 1962, St. John's cathedral, Fresno, by Aloysius J. Willinger, C.Ss.R., bishop of Monterey-Fresno. Successively, 1962-1963, pastoral ministry in the diocese of Monterey-Fresno. As a young priest, he celebrated mass with Mexican fieldworkers and worked with César Chávez to fight for better farmworker conditions. He served on the Mexican-American Council for Better Housing and led the California Agricultural Labor Relations Board, where he oversaw the implementation of sweeping labor reforms for farmworkers. When the diocese of Monterey-Fresno was split into the dioceses of of Montery and Fresno on October 6, 1967, Father Mahony was incardinated in the diocese of Fresno. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Fresno, 1967-1973. Further studies, Washington. Diocesan director of Catholic Charities and Social Services, 1964-1970. Diocesan chancellor, 1970-1980. Diocesan consultor and pastor of St. John's cathedral, 1973-1975.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tamascani and appointed auxiliary of Fresno, January 2, 1975. Consecrated, March 19, 1975, Fresno Convention Center, by Hugh A. Donohoe, bishop of Fresno, assisted by William Robert Johnson, titular bishop of Blera, auxiliary of Los Angeles, and by John Stephen Cummins, titular bishop of Lambesi, auxiliary of Sacramento. His episcopal motto is To reconcile God's people. Transferred to the see of Stockton, February 15, 1980. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Los Angeles, July 12, 1985. In 1986, he founded The Catholic Education Foundation, which has given away more than $108 million in scholarships to disadvantaged children. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1991; received red biretta and title of Ss. Quattro Coronati, June 28, 1991. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, July 15, 1991. Attended Special Assembly for America of Synod of Bishops, November 16 to December 12, 1997, Vatican City; president delegate. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Participated in the Special Assembly for the Middle East of the Synod of Bishops, October 10 to 24, 2010, at Vatican City. The cardinal has acknowledged mistakes in how he handled the clergy abuse scandal. He announced his retirement plans on January 16, 2011. Retired as archbishop of Los Angeles when he turned seventy five years old on February 27, 2011, and was succeeded by Archbishop coadjutor José Horacio Gómez, of the personal prelature of Opus Dei. On March 1, 2011, Pope Benedict XVI accepted his resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. On January 31, 2013, he was removed by his successor, Archbishop José Horacio Gómez, from any administrative or public duties because of the way he handled allegations of priest sexual abuse. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1790-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 169-170; Schippe, C. "Mahony, Roger Michael." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyła years. Detroit, MI : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, p. 350-351.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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MAIDA, Adam Joseph
(1930-

Birth. March 18, 1930, East Vandergrift, diocese of Pittsburgh (now diocese of Greensburg), United States of America. Of a Polish American family, he was the first of three sons of Adam Maida, who came from a rural area near Warsaw, and Sophie Cieslak, born in the United States. One of his brothers, Thaddeus, is a priest incardinated in the diocese of Pittsburgh.

Education. St. Vincent's College, Latrobe; St. Mary's University, Baltimore; Pontifical Lateran University, Rome (licentiates in theology and canon law); Duquesne University, Pittsburgh (doctorate in civil law).

Priesthood. Ordained, May 26, 1956, St. Paul Cathedral, Pittsburgh, by John Dearden, bishop of Pittsburgh. Further studies, Rome, 1956-1960. From 1960 to 1983, in the diocese of Pittsburgh, pastoral ministry; further studies; assistant chancellor; vice-chancellor; diocesan general consultor in the diocesan tribunal; faculty member, La Roche College; chaplain of the St. Thomas More's Society; faculty member, Duquesne University, 1971-1983.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Green Bay, November 7, 1983. Consecrated, January 25, 1984, St. Francis Xavier cathedral, Green Bay, by Pio Laghi, titular archbishop of Mauriana, apostolic delegate to the United States of America, assisted by Aloysius John Wycislo, bishop emeritus of Green Bay, and by Vincent Martin Leonard, bishop emeritus of Pittsburgh. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Detroit, April 28, 1990.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Vitale, Valeria, Gervasio e Protasio, November 26, 1994. Papal legate to the 19th International Marian Congress, Czestochowa, Poland, August 24-26, 1996. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; II Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Superior of the Mission sui iuris of the Cayman Islands, July 14, 2000. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. On January 5, 2009, the pope accepted his resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. He was apostolic administrator of the archdiocese until the installation of his successor on January 28, 2009. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age on March 18, 2010.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1790-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 191; Bugarini, G. Michael. "Maida, Adam." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyła years. Detroit, MI : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, p. 351-352.

Links. Photographs, arms, and biography, in English; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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MALULA, Joseph
(1917-1989)

Birth. December 12, 1917, Léopoldville, Congo (later Zaïre; now Democratic Republic of the Congo). Son of Remacle Ngalula and Jeanne Bolumbu. His baptismal name was Joseph-Albert.

Education. Primary school "Sainte-Anne", Lépoldoville, directed by Fr. Raphaël de la Kétuhulle (Tata Raphaël); Minor Seminary, Mbata Kiela, 1931-1934; there he met Joseph Kasavubu, future first president of the Democratic Republic of Congo; Minor Seminary of Bolongo, Lisala, 1934-1937; Major Seminary of Christ-Roi, Kabwe, apostolic vicariate of Luluabourg, 1937-1944 (philosophy, 1937-1940; and theology, 1940-1944); professor at the Minor Seminary of Bokoro, 1944-1946.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 9, 1946, stadium Reine Astrid, Léopoldville, by Georges Six, C.I.C.M., titular bishop of Baliana, vicar apostolic of Léopoldville. Successively, 1946-1959, faculty member, Minor Seminary, Bokoro; vicar, parish of Saint-Pierre, Léopoldville; vicar, and later pastor, parish of Christ-Roi, Léopoldville; pastor, parish of Saint-Pierre, Léopoldville. In 1953, he visited Algiers, Tunisia, Malta, Rome, and Belgium.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Attanaso and appointed auxiliary of Léopoldville, July 18, 1959. Consecrated, September 20, 1959, stadium Tata Raphaël, Léopoldville, by Felix Scalais, C.C.I.M., archbishop of Léopoldville, assisted by Pierre Kimbondo, bishop of Kisantu, and by Joseph Nkongolo, titular bishop of Lebedo, vicar apostolic of Luebo. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Léopoldville, July 7, 1964; name of the see changed to Kinshasa, May 30, 1966. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Protomartiri a via Aurelia Antica, April 30, 1969. Attended the III Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; one of its three presidents delegate. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. He was the first cardinal from Zaïre.

Death. June 14, 1989, after a long illness, Saint-Luc Hospital, Louvain, Belgium. Buried in Notre Dame du Congo metropolitan cathedral, Kinshasa.

Bibliography. Luyeye Luboloko, François. Le Cardinal J. A. Malula. Un pasteur prophétique. Kinshasa : Editions Jean XXIII, 1999.


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MANNING, Timothy
(1909-1989)

Birth. November 15, 1909, Ballingeary, diocese of Cork, Ireland. Son of Cornelius Manning and Margaret Cronin.

Education. Mungret College, Limerick; Saint Patrick's Seminary, Menlo Park, Cal., United States of America; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 16, 1934, Los Angeles. Further studies, 1934-1936. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Los Angeles, 1936-1938; 1946-1967. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, April 15, 1943. Secretary to John Joseph Cantwell, archbishop of Los Angeles, 1938-1946. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, November 17, 1945. Chancellor of the archdiocese of Los Angeles, March 19, 1946.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Lesvi and appointed auxiliary of Los Angeles, August 3, 1946. Consecrated, October 15, 1946, Los Angeles, by Joseph Thomas McGucken, titular bishop of Sanavo, auxiliary of Los Angeles, assisted by James Edward Walsh, M.M., titular bishop of Sata, and by Thomas Arthur Connolly, titular bishop of Sila and auxiliary of Los Angeles. Vicar general of the archdiocese of Los Angeles, November 29, 1955. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Transferred to the diocese of Fresno, October 16, 1967. Promoted to titular archbishop of Carpi and appointed coadjutor of Los Angeles, with right of succession, May 26, 1969. Succeeded to the see of Los Angeles, January 21, 1970.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the title of S. Lucia a Piazza d'Armi, March 5, 1973. Attended the IV Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5-9, 1979. Special papal envoy to the celebration of 3rd centennial of St. Oliver Plunkett's martyrdom, Drogheda, Ireland, July 5, 1981. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; president delegate. Resigned the pastoral government of archdiocese, July 12, 1985. After his retirement, he resided at Holy Family parish, South Pasadena. During his tenure, he managed to celebrate mass on every altar of his archdiocese.

Death. Friday June 23, 1989, at 2:20 p.m.; a life long heavy smoker, he died of lung cancer, which eventually spread to his chest and spine, at the Norris Cancer Hospital of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles. The funeral mass took place at the metropolitan cathedral of St. Vibiana, presided by his successor, Archbishop Roger Mahony of Los Angeles. In attendance were Cardinals John O'Connor, James Hickey and Edmund C. Szoka, together with thirty Protestant, Eastern Orthodox, Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist and Hindu leaders from the Los Angeles interfaith circles, which the late cardinal had helped to create. Eleven hundred people attended the funeral mass. His body was buried at Calvary Cemetery, East Los Angeles. Unlike those of Cardinal James Francis McIntyre, the remains of Cardinal Manning were not transferred to the new Our Lady of Los Angeles metropolitan cathedral mausoleum according to his personal request, as he wanted to be buried in a simple grave for priests.

Bibliography. Weber Francis. Magnificat : the life and times of Timothy Cardinal Manning. Mission Hills, Calif. : St. Francis Historical Society, 1999.


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MARCHETTI SELVAGGIANI, Francesco
(1871-1951)

Birth. October 1, 1871, Rome, Italy. Son of Vincenzo Marchetti-Selvaggiani and Valeria Caretti.

Education. Almo Collegio Capranica, Rome (philosophy and theology); Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he was a classmate of Eugenio Pacelli, future cardinal and Pope Pius XII.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 4, 1896, Rome, by Francesco di Paola Cassetta, titular Latin patriarch of Antioch, vice gerent of Rome. Minutante in the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, 1896-1900 (1). Auditor of the apostolic delegation in the United States of America, 1900-1906. Attached to the secretariat of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, 1906-1907. Auditor of the nunciature in Bavaria, 1907. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, December 25, 1914. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, July 7, 1915. He engaged in conversations with Bernhard, prince von Bulow, former German imperial chancellor, in Lucerne, in November 1915, in order to draw peace proposals for the pope to present to the Entente Powers. Confidential representative of the Holy See in Berne, Switzerland, 1915-1918, for the assistance to the wounded and the prisoners of war during the First World War. Protonotary apostolic, September 26, 1917.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Seleucia di Isauria and appointed internuncio in Venezuela, February 16, 1918. Consecrated, April 14, 1918, chapel of Pontificio Collegio Pio Latino Americano, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, secretary of State, assisted by Carlo Pietropaoli, titular archbishop of Calcide, and by Bonaventura Cerretti, titular archbishop of Corinto, secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. Named nuncio in Venezuela, May 21, 1920. Nuncio in Austria, December 4, 1920. Secretary of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, December 15, 1922. President of the Pontifical Work for the Propagation of the Faith, February 5, 1923. In 1925, he was charged with the organization of the Vatican Missionary Exposition, planned as a special event to celebrate the Holy Year. Extraordinary papal envoy to the coronation of the Negus of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie, 1929.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1930; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria Nuova, July 3, 1930. President of the Pontifical Commission of the Work for the Propagation of the Faith, 1930-1931. Vicar general of Rome and its district, May 9, 1931. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, May 26, 1931. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, June 15, 1936. Papal legate for the opening of the Holy Door at the patriarchal Lateran basilica, April 1, 1933. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, April 30, 1939 until his death. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, retaining the suburbicarian see of Frascati; and prefect of the S.C. Ceremonial, February 16, 1948.

Death. January 13, 1951, he had just celebrated mass in the private chapel of his apartment in the Palace of the Holy Office, Rome, and was entering his study when he collapsed with a cerebral thrombosis. Monsignor Alfredo Ottaviani, assessor of the Holy Office, reached him in time to administer the extreme unction. He then went to the Vatican to inform the pope. Buried in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 436; Finn, Nrendan A. Twenty-four American cardinals. Biographical sketches of those princes of the Catholic Church who either were born in America or served there at some time. With a foreword by Francis Cardinal Spellman. Boston : Bruce Humphires, 1947, p. 353-365; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 251-253.

Link. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; and his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) During the summer of 1896, he was appointed private chaplain of the wealthy Santovetta family for the vacation season and went with them to their villa outside of Rome. Besides his simple duties as chaplain of the family, he taught the Christian doctrine to the children of the poor families of the nearby district. He met a young student from the North American College, Peter E. Blessing from Providence, Rhode Island, who was to soon receive the priesthood. They became friends and Fr. Blessing gave Fr. Marchetti his first lessons in English, unknowingly grooming him for the post of auditor at the Apostolic Delegation in Washington that he would occupy four years later. Fr. Blessing later became vicar general of the diocese of Providence.


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MARCHISANO, Francesco
(1929-

Birth. June 25, 1929, Racconigi, archdiocese of Turin, Italy.

Education. Seminaries of Turin: ginnasio, Giaveno (1940-1945); philosophy, Chieri (1945-1948); theology, Turin (1948-1949) and Rivoli Torinese (1949-1952); Pontifical Lombard Seminary, Rome (1952-1956); Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome (licentiate in Sacred Scripture, 1954); Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in theology; thesis: L'interpretazione di "kekaritomene" Lc. 1,28 fino alla met` del secolo XII, 1957).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1952, Turin, by Cardinal Maurilio Fossati, archbishop of Turin. Sent to Rome temporarily to pursue studies in order to become a professor at the Seminary of Rivoli, 1956. The Roman temporarility became permanent when Cardinal Giuseppe Pizzardo called him to the S.C. of Seminaries and Universities of Studies appointing him aiutante di studio for the sections of "Seminaries" in 1956. He was charged first with the European countries and later with the Latin American ones; later with the nations of German and English language, the ones behind the Iron Curtain and the ecclesiastical colleges of Rome. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, May 4, 1961. Named head of the Office of Seminaries, May 7, 1968 . Undersecretary of the S.C. of Seminaries and Universities, June 3, 1969 until October 6, 1988. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, February 29, 1971. In 1971 he visited numerous nations fomenting the formation of the candidates to the priesthood and Catholic instruction. Taught catechism to deaf and mute children in Rome for thirty years.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Populonia and appointed secretary of the Pontifical Commission for the Preservation of the Artistic and Cultural Patrimony of the Church, October 6, 1988. Consecrated, January 6, 1989, Vatican City, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Edward Idris Cassidy, titular archbishop of Amanzia, substitute of the secretariat of State for General Affairs, and by José Tomás Sánchez, archbishop emeritus of Nueva Segovia, secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. President of the Foundation John XXIII, October 20, 1988. President of the Pontifical Commission of Sacred Archeology, September 4, 1991. Appointed president of the Pontifical Commission for the Cultural Patrimony of the Church, May 3, 1993; the commission had been established on March 25, 1993. Promoted to archbishop, July 9, 1994. President of the Artistic-Cultural Commission of the Grand Jubilee of the Year 2000, March 17, 1995. Attended the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998; by papal appointment. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; by papal appointment. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001; by papal appointment. Named archpriest of the Patriarchal Vatican Basilica, vicar general for the State of Vatican City, and president of the Fabric of St. Peter's basilica, April 24, 2002. President of the Permanent Commission for the Care of the Historical and Artistic Monuments of the Holy See, March 8, 2003. Resigned the presidency of the Pontifical Commission for the Cultural Patrimony of the Church, October 13, 2003.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Lucia del Gonfalone, October 21, 2003. Resigned the presidency of the Pontifical Commission of Sacred Archeology, August 28, 2004. President of the Office of Labor of the Apostolic See, February 5, 2005. Relieved from the posts of vicar general of the State of Vatican City and of president of the Fabric of St. Peter's, February 5, 2005. In a funeral mass for Pope John Paul II celebrated the day after his exequies, the cardinal revealed that he had been cured of a grave illness of the throat after the late pope had prayed and touched him. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reappointed as president of the Office of Labor of the Apostolic See, April 21, 2005. Attended the XI General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005; by papal appointment. Resigned the post of archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, October 31, 2006. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when he turned eighty years old on June 25, 2009. On July 3, 2009, he resigned, by reason of age, from the charges of president of the Permanent Commission for the Custody of the Historic and Artistic Monuments of the Holy See, and of president of the Office of Labor of the Apostolic See.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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MARELLA, Paolo
(1895-1984)

Birth. January 25, 1895, Rome, Italy. Born to a wealthy family, he was the son of Luigi Marella and Vincenza Baldoni.

Education. Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome; Royal University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, February 23, 1918, Rome, by Cardinal Basilio Pompilj, vicar general of Rome. Further studies and pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, 1918-1922. Staff member of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, 1922-1924. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, January 9, 1923. Auditor of the apostolic delegation in the United States of America, 1924-1933. Charge d'affaires of the apostolic delegation in the United States of America, February to September, 1933. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, April 5, 1933.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Doclea, September 15, 1933. Consecrated, October 29, 1933, chapel of Collegio de Propaganda Fide, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Fumasoni Biondi, prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, assisted by Carlo Salotti, titular archbishop of Filippopoli di Tracia, secretary of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, and by Domenico Spolverini, titular archbishop of Larissa. Appointed apostolic delegate to Japan, October 30, 1933. Apostolic delegate to Australia, New Zealand, and Oceania, October 27, 1948. Nuncio in France, April 15, 1953.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 14, 1959; received the red hat and the title of S. Andrea delle Fratte, March 31, 1960. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica and prefect of the S.C. of the Fabric of Saint Peter's basilica, August 14, 1961. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Papal legate to the inauguration of the Vatican pavilion at the World Fair, New York, February 20, 1964. President of the Secretariat for Non-Christians, May 19, 1964. Papal legate to the 8th centennial celebrations of Notre-Dame's cathedral, Paris, May 27, 1964; to the centennial celebrations for the arrival of the first Catholic missionaries in Japan, Tokyo, January 12, 1965; to the National Congress of the Confederation of the Christian Doctrine, Pittsburgh, United States of America, August 28, 1966. President "pro tempore" of the Administrative Commission of Saint Peter's basilica, January 1, 1968. Special papal representative to the World Fair, Osaka, Japan, June 8, 1970. Cardinal bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, March 15, 1972. Resigned the presidency, February 26, 1973. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, January 25, 1975. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, December 12, 1977. Archpriest emeritus of the patriarchal Vatican basilica and president emeritus of the Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's, February 8, 1983.

Death. October 15, 1984, in his Roman residence. Buried, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 436-437.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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MARGÉOT, Jean
(1916-2009)

Birth. February 3, 1916, Quatre-Bornes, diocese of Port-Louis, Mauritius. Son of Joseph Margéot and Marie Harel.

Education. Secondary education at Collège Père-Laval (later Collège du St. Esprit) and Collège Royal, Port-Louis; in 1933, he was admitted to the French Seminary, Rome; did his ecclesiastical studies at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (licentiate in philosophy and in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 17, 1938, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome. Returned to Mauritius on August 25, 1939. In 1939, he was named parochial vicar at La Visitation, in Vacoas, where he quickly organized the Catholic Youth Association. On April 28, 1940, he was named spiritual director of the Légion de Marie, which he promoted with great success throughout the country. Later, he was vicar at St.Pierre-ès-Liens, Moka; at Ste. Thérèse, Curepipe; at Notre Dame du Rosaire, Quare Bornes; at St. Sauveur; at Bambous; and at the cathedral of St. Louis. At the end of 1945, at the invitation of Bishop François Émile Marie Cléret de Langavant, C.S.Sp., of Saint-Denis, he went to La Réunion to establish the Légion de Marie. In 1947, he represented the diocese in Antananarivo, in the celebrations marking the canonization of Saint Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort. On December 29, 1947, he was named secretary of the Roman Catholic Education Authority, with residence in the presbytery of the cathedral; on June 20, 1952, he became its president. Founder of "Foyers de Notre Dame" in 1953. Founder of "Foyer Monsignor Murphy", for the formation of native clergy. He was administrator of the diocese during the illness of Bishop Daniel Liston, C.S.Sp. He became the first Mauritian vicar general of the diocese of Port Louis on April 1, 1956; occupied the post until June 1, 1968; vicar capitular, June 1, 1968, at the resignation of Bishop Liston; occupied the post until February 6, 1969. Domestic prelate of honor of His Holiness, September 19, 1956. On that same date, he was named prelate of the Maison du Pape. Pastor of the parish Notre-Dame-de-Lourdes, Rose-Hill, when that important parish of Plaines-Wilhems passed from the Jesuit Fathers to the diocesan clergy in October of 1957. Because of the long absences of Bishop Liston in Rome during the sessions of the Second Vatican Council, he was closely associated with the direction of the diocese. In 1963, he founded l'Action Familiale to face the problems created by the population increase. Named member of the Pontifical Commission for the Family, he participated in two of its sessions in Rome. At the beginning of 1968, when the country lived serious social disturbances related to its independence, he was the trusted pastor who accurately listened to Catholic community. In the same way, he ensured the successful progress of the Church within the new Mauritian state, recently created. In Lent 1969, he asked the clergy and the faithful to work for the development of the country.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Port-Louis, February 6, 1969. Consecrated, May 4, 1969, shrine of Marie-Reine-de-la-Paix, Port Louis, by Paolo Mosconi, titular archbishop of Leges, pro-nuncio in Madagascar, assisted by Angelo Innocent Fernandes, archbishop of Delhi, and by Georges-Henri Guibert, C.S.Sp., bishop of Saint-Denis-de-La Réunion; 80, 000 people attended the ceremony, which was considered the most important in the history of the city until then. Named assistant at the Pontifical Throne on October 10, 1972. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. President of the Episcopal Conference of Indian Ocean, 1985-1989.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Gabriele Arcangelo all'Acque Traversa, June 28, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Resigned the pastoral government of the diocese, February 15, 1993. He went to reside at the Convent of Bonne Terre, where he continued giving retreats and conferences; in October 2005, he was affected by a grave illness; after a period of convalescence, he resumed all his normal activities. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994. Special papal envoy to the celebration of 150th anniversary of the evangelization of New Caledonia, Numea, May 22, 1994. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, February 3, 1996. Grand Officer of the Order of the Star and Key, March 12, 1997. In February 1999, he played an important mediation role to calm the disorders that affected the country. He was the first bishop and the first cardinal from Mauritius.

Death. Friday July 17, 2009, at 9:40 a.m., local time, in his room in the pavillion situated in the convent of the Filles de Marie, Bonne-Terre, Vacoas. Although still mentally lucid, his health had deteriorated since the heart attack that he suffered back in 2005. He was a priest for over 70 years, a bishop for 40, and a cardinal for 21. His body was taken from his residence to the cathedral of St. Louis on Friday July 17, at 5 p.m., and there it laid in state from 6 p.m.; a book of condolences was available. The funeral mass was celebrated on Sunday, July 19, at noon, at the Shrine of Marie-Reine-de-la-Paix; the body of the cardinal was taken from the cathedral at 11 a.m., accompanied by members of the SMF and the orchestra of the police. A national day of mourning was decreed by the Republic of Mauritius for the occasion. Interment followed in the crypt of the cathedral; only relatives and priests were present. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Benedict XVI prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to Bishop Maurice Piat of Port-Louis; and the family of the late cardinal.

Bibliography. Margéot, Jean ; Nagapen, Amédée; Appassamy, Freddy ; Dinan, Jacques ; Foy, Joseph. Cardinal Jean Margéot, évêque de Port-Louis de 1969 ` 1993 : livre-souvenir publié à l'occasion de la messe d'action de grâce célébrée au Monument Marie, Reine de la Paix, le dimanche 16 mai 1993. Port Louis : Diocèse de Port-Louis, 1993; Margéot, Jean ; Le Gall, Robert. Le voyage intérieur : Dialogues sur la prière et la méditation. Paris : Presses de la renaissance, 2007; Tong, Franéçoise Yaw Kan ; Conchiano Mootoosamy. Cardinal Jean Margéot, premier Mauricien évêque et cardinal. Préface pour Cardinal Bernardin Gantin. Rose-Hill, Mauritius : Ile aux Trésors, 2006.

Links. Photographs, audios and biography, in French (site created to celebrate his 90th birthday on February 3, 2006); photograph and biography, in French; and the diocese of Port-Louis.


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MARIANI, Domenico
(1863-1939)

Birth. April 3, 1863, Posta, diocese of Rieti, Italy.

Education. Lyceum "Angelo Mai", Rome; Pontifical Vatican Seminary, Vatican; Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 18, 1886. Pastoral ministry in diocese of Rome, 1886-1900. Canon of the Vatican Basilica, secretary of apostolic almonery, 1900-1917. Privy chamberlain, September 30, 1914. Secretary of the Cardinalitial Commission for the Administration of the Properties of the Holy See, January 22, 1917. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, January 26, 1917. Vice-president of the Economat of the Ecclesiastical Dicasteries.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 16, 1935; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Cesareo in Palatio, December 19, 1935. President of the Administration of the Wealth of the Holy See, December 21, 1935. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII.

Death. April 23, 1939, of a heart attack, Vatican City. Buried in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Link. His photograph, Araldica Vaticana.

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MARINI, Niccolò
(1843-1923)

Birth. August 20, 1843, Rome, Papal States. Son of Emanuele Marini (descendent of an ancient family related to the Salviucci, who for several decades directed the typography of the Apostolic Chamber) and Adelaide Fabbroni. Probably nephew of Cardinal Pietro Marini (1846).

Education. Studied at Collegio Capranica, Rome, where he manifested a special predilection the Greek language and the study of the Classica; then, he attended Collegio Romano, obtaining doctorates in philosophy 1862; and in theology in 1866; after his priestly ordination, he attended La Sapienza University, Rome, obtaining a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on June 25, 1870.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 26, 1866, Rome. Further studies in Rome. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome; founder of the Catholic daily Il buon senso; work with the Catholic Action founding the feminine circle "Gaetana Agnesi". Vicar general of Cardinal Luigi Oreglia di Santo Stefano in the abbey of Ss. Vicenzo ed Anastasio alle Tre Fontane. Official of the S.C. Consistorial, 1878. Privy chamberlain de numero participante, July 20, 1881. Ablegato to deliver the red biretta to the new Cardinal Joaquín Lluch Garriga, archbishop of Sevilla, March 27, 1882. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Lateran basilica. Attaché in the nunciature in Spain, 1882-1889. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, July 11, 1889. Substitute of the Secretariat of Briefs, March 18, 1892. Domestic prelate of His Holiness and Apostolic protonotary ad instar participantium March 20, 1892. Very active in favor of the Christian Orient and the union with the Orthodox churches. Founder of the journals Il Bessarione, 1896 and Il Crisostomo, 1900. In pursuit of his effort toward the union with the Orthodox churches, traveled to the Holy Land, Egypt, Greece and North Africa. Consultor of the S.C. of Studies, October 10, 1902. Secretary of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, October 20, 1908. Consultor of the Biblical Commission, 1911. Consultor of the Commission for the Codification of Canon Law, March 9, 1912. Consultor of the liturgical section of the S.C. of Rites, March 26, 1914. Uditore Santissimo, June 28, 1915. Commander of the Order of Queen Isabel of Spain. Commander of the Order of the Crown of Prussia. Officer of Légion d'Honor, France; Commander of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre, with plaque.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 4, 1916; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, December 7, 1916. He was named member of the SS. CC. Propaganda Fide, Rites of Propaganda Fide for the Oriental Church and Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's basilica on December 7, 1916; and of the Oriental Curch on November 29, 1917. The journal II Bessarione published a special issue in homage to its founder and director for his promotion to the cardinalate. Member of the Cardinalitial Commission of Historical Studies on January 4, 1917. Secretary of the S.C. for the Oriental Church, November 29, 1917; resigned the secretariat because of advanced age and poor health, 1922. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Protector and visitor of all the Oriental Institutes of Rome, July 28, 1922.

Death. Friday July 27, 1923, at 1 a.m., of an acute enterocolitis, in his apartment in Palazzo Brancaccio, in Rome, after receiving the sacraments of the Church and pronouncing the name of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Shortly before his death, the pope had sent him his blessing. On the following Sunday July 29 at 6:15 p.m., the body was transferred privately to the Carmelite parish church of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti. The obsequies, celebrated in that church on Monday July 30, at 10 a.m., were presided by Giuseppe Palica, titular archbishop of Filippi, vice-gerent of Rome. The final absolution was imparted by Cardinal Vincenzo Vannutelli, bishop of Ostia and Palestrina, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Buried the tomb of the Salviucci family in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. A sua Eminenza Niccolò Marini creato cardinale ... riverente e affettuoso omaggio dei collaboratori de periodico Il Bessarione da lui fondato e diretto per facilitare l'unione delle chiese. Roma : Il Bessarione, 1916; "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1922, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1921, p. 75; Del Re, Niccolò. "Niccolò Marini" in La Sacra Congregazione per le Chiese Orientali. Nel cinquantesimo della fondazione (1917-1967). Grottaferrata, Roma : Tipografia Italo-Orientale "San Nilo", 1969, p. 82-83; "Em. MARINI (Niccolo) in "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1922. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1921, p. 94-95; "Em. MARINI (Nicolas), card.-diacre de Ste-Marie in Domnica" in "Necrologe", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1924, p. 834; Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 684; De Camillis, Mario. "Marini, Niccolò", Enciclopedia Cattolica. 12 vols. Vatican City: Ente per l'Enciclopedia Cattolica e per il Libro Cattolico, 1948-1952. Vol. VIII, col. 159-160; "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1919. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1918, p. 98; L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, LXIII, n. 172 (July 28, 1923), p. 3; LXIII, n. 173 (July 29, 1923), p. 3; and LXIII, n. 174 (July 30, 1923); Palmieri, A. "In memoriam Nicolai Marini S.R.E. cardinalis", Bessarione, publicazione periodica di studi orientali, XVII (1923), III-XXVII; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 17 and 26; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), V, 133.

Links. Biography by Carlo Fantappiè, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 70 (2007), Treccani; photographs amd arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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MARMAGGI, Francesco
(1876-1949)

Birth. August 31, 1876, Rome, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Roman Seminary, where he earned doctorates in philosophy and theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 14, 1900, Rome. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, faculty member of the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", and official in the Sacred Apostolic Penitentiary, 1900-1904. Staff member in the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, 1904-1917. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, November 15, 1907; reappointed, September 7, 1914. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 2, 1915. Undersecretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, January 27, 1917.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Adrianopoli di Emimonto and appointed first nuncio to the Kingdom of Rumania, September 1, 1920. Consecrated, September 26, 1920, church of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, secretary of State, assisted by Bonaventura Cerretti, titular archbishop of Corinto, secretary of the S C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Lorenzo Schioppa, titular archbishop of Mocisso, nuncio in Hungary. In the same ceremony was consecrated Lugi Maglione, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina and nuncio in Switzerland, future cardinal. His episcopal motto was Lux de luce. Named extraordinary envoy to Constantinople after the Greco-Turkish War, to upgrade the diplomatic relations between Turkey and the Holy See. Papal legate extraordinary to the coronation of King Ferdinand I of Rumania in Alba Julia. Nuncio in Czechoslovakia, May 30, 1923; returned to Rome in 1925 because of the difficulties between that country and the Holy See concerning the celebrations honoring Jan Huss, a 14th century priest, philosopher, reformer who influenced Protestant dogma and was burned at the stake as a heretic. Nuncio in Poland, February 13, 1928. Papal legate to the Eucharistic Congress, Poznań, Poland, June 15, 1930.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1935; received the red hat and the title of S. Cecilia, June 18, 1936. Papal legate to the Plenary Council of Polish Hierarchy, Czestochowa, August 1, 1936. In 1937, he was named member of a papal commission to study the situation created by the Spanish Civil War and the implications the conflict had on the Roman Catholic clergy in Spain. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Prefect of the S.C. of Council, March 14, 1939 to November 3, 1949. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 10, 1947 to June 21, 1948. He was member of the SS. CC. Consistorial, Oriental Church, Sacraments, Religious, Propaganda Fide, Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs,and Seminaries and Universities of Study; of the Pontifical Commission for the Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law, for the Redaction of the Code of Oriental Canon Law; of the Cardinalitial Commission oif vigilance over the Pontifical Shrine of Pompeii, and of the Cardinalitial Commission of vigilance over the Institute of Works of Religion.

Death. November 3, 1949, at 3:30 a.m., of a heart attack, in Rome. The funeral was celebrated on the following November 7, at 10:30 a.m., in the basilica of S. Cecilia in Trastevere. The pontifical mass was celebrated by Josef Gawlina, titular bishop of Marianme, assistant at the Pontifical Throne, in the presence of Cardinals Eugène Tisserant, Clemente Micara, Giuseppe Pizzardo, Benedetto Aloisi Masella, Adeodato Giovanni Piazza, O.C.D., Alessandro Verde, Luigi Lavitrano, Pietro Fumasoni Biondi, Federico Tedeschini, Massimo Massimi, Nicola Canali, Giovanni Mercati and Giuseppe Bruno. The sacred rite was directed by Monsignor Enrico Dante, future cardinal, prefect of Apostolic Ceremonies. At the end of the mass, Cardinal Tisserant, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinal, imparted the final absolution in the name of the pope. The Pontifical Cappella Musicale was directed by Monsignor Lorenzo Perosi, its perpetual director. Buried in the chapel of the Polish Resurrectionist Sisters in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome; later, his remains were transferred to the basilica of S. Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome. A street was named in his honor in Rome (Via Cardinale Marmaggi).

Bibliography. Re, Niccolò del. "I cardinali prefetti della Sacra Congregazione del Concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 146.

Links. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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MARTIN, Jacques
(1908-1992)

Birth. August 26, 1908, Amiens, France. His baptismal name was Jacques-Paul.

Education. University of Strassbourg, Strassbourg (licentiate in letters); French Seminary, Rome; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1929-1936 (doctorate in theology; thesis: "Le Louis XIV de Charteaux, Dom Innocent Le Masson"); Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, 1936-1938; Pontifical Lateran University, Rome (doctorate in canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained, October 14, 1934. Further studies, Rome, 1934-1938. Joined the Vatican Secretariat of State, 1938. Member of the papal delegation to the 34th International Eucharistic Congress, Budapest, Hungary, May 12, 1938. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, June 2, 1941. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 20, 1951. Special envoy to the celebration of the Silver Jubilee of coronation of Haile Selassie I, emperor of Ethiopia, 1954. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica and protonotary apostolic supernumerary, December 10, 1958. Accompanied Pope Paul VI in his pilgrimage to the Holy Land, January 1964.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Neapoli di Palestina, January 5, 1964. Consecrated, February 11, 1964, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Paolo Marella, archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica and prefect of the S.C. for St. Peter's basilica, assisted by Angelo Dell'Acqua, titular archbishop of Calcedonia, substitute of the Secretariat of State and secretary of the Cipher, and by Paul-Pierre Philippe, O.P., titular archbishop of Eraclea, secretary of the S.C. of Religious. Appointed prefect of the Papal Household, April 9, 1969. Promoted to archbishop and and appointed prefect emeritus, December 18, 1986.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Sacro Cuore di Cristo Re, June 28, 1988. Lost the right to participate in conclave when turned eighty years of age, August 26, 1988.

Death. September 27, 1992, in the early hours of the morning, after suffering a severe heart attack, in his residence in Vatican City. Pope John Paul II presided over the exequies celebrated in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, on the following Thursday October 1; the cardinals present in Rome concelebrated with the pope, who also pronounced the homily. Buried in the chapel of the canons of St. Peter's basilica, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. His body was transferred to "Reconciliazione" chapel, basilica of Sacro Cuore di Cristo Re, Rome, on December 2, 1997.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 405-406; Martin, Jacques. Oltre il portone di bronzo. (Appunti di un cardinale vissuto a fianco di 6 Papi). Milan: Edizioni Paoline, 1996.


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MARTIN, Joseph-Marie
(1891-1976)

Birth. August 9, 1891, Orlèans, France. His baptismal name was Joseph-Marie-Eugène.

Education. Seminary of Bordeaux, Bordeaux. In the French Army during the First World War, 1914-1918; he was seriously wounded.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 18, 1920, Bordeaux. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Bordeaux, 1921-1940; vicar general, 1937-1940.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Le-Puy-en-Velay, February 9, 1940. Consecrated, April 2, 1940, metropolitan cathedral of Bordeaux, by Maurice Feltin, archbishop of Bordeaux, assisted by Clément Mathieu, bishop of Aires, and by Louis Liagre, bishop of La Rochelle. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Rouen, October 11, 1948. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of S. Teresa al Corso d'Italia, February 25, 1965. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, May 29, 1968. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, August 9, 1971.

Death. January 21, 1976, Rouen. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Rouen.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 405-406.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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MARTÍNEZ SOMALO, Eduardo
(1927-

Birth. March 31, 1927, Baños de Río Tobía, diocese of Calahorra y La Calzada, Spain. He had five brothers and four sisters.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Logroño; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained licenciatures in theology and in canon law; at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy); and at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in canon law, with the thesis entitled Il Concordato spagnolo del 1953 alla luce dei suoi due primi articoli.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 19, 1950, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. Pastoral ministry; diocesan curia of Calahorra; faculty member, Institute Marco Fabio Quintiliano; further studies, in Rome. Joined Vatican Secretariat of State, August 1, 1956. Secretary of the nunciature and faculty member of the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, 1957-1970. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, April 14, 1960; June 21, 1963; responsible of the Spanish section of the Secretariat of State; accompanied Pope Paul VI to the XXXI International Eucharistic Congress, Bogotá, Colombia, August 22 to 25, 1968. Counselor at the apostolic delegation in Great Britain, 1970. Assessor of the Secretariat of State, 1970-1975; pastoral ministry in Roman hospitals. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, May 14, 1970.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tagora and appointed nuncio in Colombia, November 12, 1975. Consecrated, December 13, 1975, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Jean Villot, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, secretary of State, assisted by Giovanni Benelli, titular archbishop of Tusuro, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Francisco Álvarez Martínez, bishop of Tarazona and apostolic administrator, sede plena, of Calahorra y La Calzada-Logroño. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; by papal appointment. Substitute of the Secretariat of State, May 5, 1979.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the deaconry of SS. Nome di Gesù, June 28, 1988. Prefect of the Congregation for the Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, July 1, 1988. Special papal envoy to the 5th National Eucharistic Congress, Guayaquil, Ecuador, November 13 to 20, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Papal legate to the closing ceremony of Ignatian Year, Gesù church, Rome, July 31, 1991. Special papal envoy to the First National Eucharistic Congress, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, November 24, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; one of its three presidents delegate. Prefect of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life, January 21, 1992. Special papal envoy to the 9th International Mariological Congress and the 18th International Marian Congress, Huelva, Spain, September 18 to 27, 1992. Attended the 4th General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, April 5, 1993. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the IX Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; one of its three presidents delegate; member of its general secretariat, 1994-1998. Cardinal protodeacon, January 29, 1996 to January 9, 1999. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998; the Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, January 9, 1999. Attended the II Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Resigned the prefecture upon reaching the age limit, February 11, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age on March 31, 2007. The pope accepted his resignation from the post of camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church on April 4, 2007.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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MARTINI, S.J., Carlo Maria
(1927-2012)

Birth. February 15, 1927, Turin, Italy. Second child of Leonardo Martini, an engineer, and Olga Maggia. He was baptized on February 22, 1927 at Immacolata Concezione parish, Turin.

Education. Studied at the Jesuit "Istituto Sociale", Turin; then, he joined the Society of Jesus on September 25, 1944; studied at the Jesuit Novitiate, Cuneo; at the Faculty of Philosophy Aloisianum, Gallarate, Milan; at the Theological Faculty, Chieri, Turin; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in fundamental theology in 1959, with the thesis: "Il problema storico della Risurrezione negli studi recenti"; later, at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in Sacred Scriptures in 1966, with research on a group of codici of the Gospel of St. Luke; and the thesis "Il problema della recensionalità del Codice B alla luce del Papiro Bodmer XIV".

Priesthood. Ordained, July 13, 1952, Chieri, Turin, by Cardinal Maurilio Fossati, archbishop of Turin. Further studies, Rome, 1954-1958. Faculty member, Theological Faculty, Chieri; took final vows as a Jesuit on February 2, 1962. Further studies, Rome, 1962-1964. Pastoral ministry in Rome: ministry among incarcerated youngsters at Casal del Marmo, Nisidia, and Poggioreale; collaborated with the Community of Sant'Egidio. Faculty member, dean, and on September 29, 1969, rector of the Pontifical Biblical Institute. Rector of the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, July 18, 1978 until his election to the episcopate. Only Catholic member of the Ecumenical Committee for the preparation of the Greek edition of the New Testament. Director of the 1978 Lent spiritual exercises in the Vatican by invitation of Pope Paul VI.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Milan, December 29, 1979. Consecrated, January 6, 1980, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Ferdinando Maggioni, titular bishop of Subaugusta, auxiliary of Milan he took possession of the see on February 10, 1980. In the same ceremony was consecrated Christian Wiyghan Tumi, bishop of Yagoua, Cameroun, future cardinal. His episcopal moto was Pro veritate + adversa diligere. Member of the general secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, by papal appointment, 1980-1983.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the title of S. Cecilia, February 2, 1983. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; relator; member of its general secretariat, 1983-1986; membership extended until 1987 in the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. President of the Council of the European Catholic Episcopal Conferences from Easter 1987 until 1993. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; member of its general secretariat, 1987-1990. Received a doctorate honoris causa from the Pontifical Salesian University, Rome, January 17, 1989. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the first centennial of the evangelization of Zambia, August 29 to September 2, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; member of its general secretariat, 1994-1998. On November 4, 1993 he convoked the 47th diocesan synod of Milan, which lasted until February 1, 1995. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Awarded the prize "Príncipe de Asturias" in the Social Sciences, Oviedo, Spain, October 27, 2000. Named by the pope honorary member of the Pontifical Academy of Science, November 23, 2000. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the Ninth centennial of the death of St. Bruno, founder of the Carthusians, October 6, 2001, Serra San Bruno, Italy. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, July 11, 2002. He returned to his biblical studies in Jerusalem. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. On June 11, 2006, he received an honorary doctorate of philosophy from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on February 15, 2007. In 2008, for health reasons, he had to leave Jerusalem and return to Italy. As a new residence the cardinal chose the Aloisianum of Gallarate, in the province of Varese. In June 2012, on the occasion of the Eighth World Encounter of Families, celebrated in Milan, he had a brief colloquy with Pope Benedict XVI.

Death. August 31, 2012, in his sleep at 3.45 p.m., from Parkinson's disease, at the Aloisianum in Gallarate. The neurologist Gianni Pezzoli, who for years had treated the cardinal, said that after the last crisis, which began in mid-August , the cardinal was no longer able to swallow solid foods or liquids, but remained lucid to the end and refused any form of aggressive treatment. A mass was held at the church of the Aloisianum on August 31 at 8:30 pm. The cardinal celebrated his last mass on August 30 in morning. He requested that on his tomb be inscribed the words of Psalm 118: ''Lampada ai miei passi la tua Parola, luce al mio cammino''. Upon learning the news of the death of Cardinal Martini, Pope Benedict XVI sent a telegram of condolence to Cardinal Angelo Scola, archbishop of Milan (1). The body of the cardinal lay in state from Saturday September 1 at noon in the metropolitan cathedral of Milan. The cathedral remained open the whole day and night for members of the public to pay their respect. The Comune of Milan held a minute of silence at 4 p.m. on Monday, September 3, as the funeral mass was set to start. The funeral mass, presided over by Cardinal Scola, who also delivered the homily, took place in that cathedral on Monday September 3 at 4 p.m. Cardinal Angelo Comastri, archpriest of the papal Vatican basilica and vicar of the pope for Vatican City, represented Pope Benedict XVI at the funeral and delivered a message from the pope. Cardinal Dionigi Tettamanzi, archbishop emeritus of Milan, delivered his remembrance at the end of the mass. Concelebrating with Cardinal Scola were Cardinals Comastri, Tettamanzi, Angelo Bagnasco, archbishop of Genoa and president of the Italian Episcopal Conference; Silvano Piovanelli, archbishop emeritus of Florence; Paolo Romeo, archbishop of Palermo; and Gianfranco Ravasi, president of the Pontifical Council for Culture and of the Pontifical Commissions for the Patrimony of the Church and of Sacred Archeology. Tens of bishops and dozens of priests also concelebrated. Present were the sister of Cardinal Martini, Maris, his niece, Giulia, and his nephew, Giovanni. In attendance were Father Adolfo Nicolás, S.J., superior general of the Society of Jesus, and representatives of other Christian denominations, and of the Jewish and Muslim communities. The Italian government was represented by Prime Minister Mario Monti and his wife. Also present were the mayor of Milan; several ministers of the government friends of the late cardinal; as well as former Prime Minister Romano Prodi. Mario Enrico Delpini, titular bishop of Stefaniaco, auxiliary and vicar general of Milan, thanked, in the name of Cardinal Scola and the cathedral chapter, all those who had attended the wake and the funeral of Cardinal Martini as well as those who had assisted him during his illness. At the end of the mass, Cardinal Scola went to the square of the cathedral to greet and thank the thousands of people who had not been able to enter the cathedral. In a private ceremony, following the Ambrosian rite, the body of the late cardinal was buried in an empty tomb on the left side of the cathedral, facing the main altar at the foot of the altar of the Cross of San Carlo Borromeo (2). The funeral liturgy was broadcast live nationwide. Present at the interment were Cardinal Scola, bishops, relatives of the late cardinal and the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Milan. A park was named in his honor in Vimercate, Brianza, Milan. In his memory, the archdiocese of Milan established The Carlo Maria Martini International Award in 2013.

Bibliography. Cazzani, Eugenio. Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano. Nuova ed./ a cura di Angelo Majo, 2. ed. Milano : Massimo : NED, 1996. Note: Originally published 1955, now enlarged and updated, p. 299-301; Garzonio, Marco. Cardinale a Milano in un mondo che cambia : nella testimonianza di Carlo Maria Martini. Milano : Rizzoli, 1985; Garzonio, Marco. Il Cardinale : Il valore per la chiesa e per il mondo dell'episcopato di Carlo Maria Martini. Milan : Mondadori, 2002. (Uomini e religioni.; Saggi;); Garzonio, Marco. Carlo Maria Martini. Torino : Edizioni San Paolo, 1993. (Primo piano); Impalà, Enrico. Il bosco e il mendicante. Vita del cardinal Martini. Cinisello Balsamo : Edizioni San Paolo, 2013. (Tempi e figure); Majo, Angelo. Storia della chiesa ambrosiana. 5 vols. 2nd ed. Milano : NED, 1983-1986, V, 161, 163, 164, 166, 168-173 and 175n; Martini, Carlo Maria. Colti da stupore. Incontri con GesùMilano : Mondadori, 2012; Martini, Carlo Maria ; Sporschill, Georg. Conversazioni notturne a Gerusalemme : sul rischio della fede. Milano : Mondadori, 2008. (Saggi / [Mondadori]); Modena, Damiano. Carlo Maria Martini. Custode del mistero nel cuore della storia. Rome : Paoline, 2005. (Saggistica); Tornielli, Andrea. Carlo Maria Martini. Il profeta del dialogo. Milano : Piemme, 2012; Valentini, Giovanni. Un certo Carlo Maria Martini. Milano : Sperling & Kupfer, 1984. (Un Certo ; 3);.

Links. Photograph, arms, documents and bibliography, in Italian, archdiocese of Milan; photograph, arms and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Milano (III-XXI secolo), in Italian, archdiocese of Milan; Martini: «Io vescovo, dai libri alla gente», Intervista, Chiesa, Avvenire, 6 febbraio 2000; Arcivescovo emerito di Milano cardinale Carlo Maria Martini, You Tube, Apr 3, 2008; Martini: così vedo inferno e paradiso, Chiesa, Avvenire, 13 febbraio 2009; S.E. Cardinale Carlo Maria Martini parla di "Solo Libera l'Anima", You Tube, Nov 26, 2010.There are those who work for a more right society by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 12/23/2011; Carlo Maria Martini publishes his new work, "The Bishop" by Luca Rolandi, Vatican Insider, 02/23/2012; A special meeting between the theologian Pope and Cardinal Martini, Biblicist and pastor by Giacomo Galeazzi, Vatican Insider, 06/ 2/2012; Health worsens for Carlo Maria Martini, former Archbishop of Milan, Rome Reports, 2012-08-31 15:45:16; La scheda: il cardinale Carlo Maria Martini, Quotidiano.net, 30 agosto 2012; Card.Martini: p. Lombardi, grande evangelizzatore del nostro tempo, Agenzia Stampa Quotidiana Nazionale (ASCA), 31 Agosto 2012 - 16:43; Carlo Maria Martini: una vita per la Chiesa, IncrociNews, Settimanale della Diocesi Ambrosiana, 31.08.2012; Uomo del dialogo e della Parola di Dio by Antonio Airò, IncrociNews, Settimanale della Diocesi Ambrosiana, 31.08.2012; Il sogno di Gerusalemme, IncrociNews, Settimanale della Diocesi Ambrosiana, 31.08.2012; È deceduto il cardinale Martini, il cordoglio della Diocesi ambrosiana by Giuseppe Grampa, IncrociNews, Settimanale della Diocesi Ambrosiana, 31.08.2012; È morto il cardinale Carlo Maria Martini. Camera ardente in Duomo, lunedì i funerali, Corriere della Sera, 30 agosto 2012 (modifica il 31 agosto 2012); Milano, morto il cardinale Carlo Maria Martini. Napolitano: "È una grave perdita per l'Italia", Quotidiano.net, 31 agosto 2012; Il cardinal Martini racconta un aneddoto, video, Quotidiano.net, 31-08-2012; Fallece a los 85 aqos el cardenal jesuíta Carlo María Martini, arzobispo emérito de Milán, Revista Ecclesia, 31 agosto, 2012; Cardinal Carlo Maria Martini passes away at age of 85, Rome Reports, 2012-08-31 18:59:20 'Ha servido generosamente al Evangelio y a la Iglesia'. Telegrama de pésame de Benedicto XVI por la muerte del cardenal Martini, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 31-08-2012; El cardenal Carlo Maria Martini murió esta tarde. Oración del papa y del cardenal Scola, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 31-08-2012; Martini's death: The last lesson to the Church and to the world by Giacomo Galeazzi, Vatican Insider, 08/31/2012; Cardinal Martini's open and deeply felt Christianity that encouraged dialogue by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 08/31/2012; Catholic world mourns renowned biblical scholar Cardinal Martini by Cindy Wooden, CatholicHerald.co.uk, Friday, 31 August 2012; Renommierter Theologe und beinahe Papst. Zum Tod des Mailänder Alt-Erzbischofs Martini, domradio.de, 31.8.2012; Martini, leading liberal voice, dies, The Tablet, 31 August 2012; Cardinal Carlo Martini: «Une Eglise dont le regard est orienté vers un horizon lointain», la-Croix.com, 31/8/12 - 17 H 51La voix du cardinal Martini s'est éteinte by Frédéric Mounier, la-Croix.com, 31/8/12 - 18 H 21; Benedict XVI:Telegram on the death of Cardinal Martini, Vatican Radio, 2012-08-31; Cardinal Carlo Martini, Papal Contender, Dies at 85 by Gaia Pianigiani, The New York Times, August 31, 2012; Milan gathers around Cardinal Martini, Vatican Insider, 09/1/2012; Martini: vita e morte a Gerusalemme by Enrico Impalà, Cultura, Avvenire, 11 luglio 2013; Martini Pope. The Dream Come True by Sandro Magister, Chiesa, October 15, 2013; Martini e Bergoglio. Ecco dove non concordano, Settimo Cielo, 16 ottubro 2013.

(1) This is the text of the telegram published by the Press Office of the Holy See:

Signor Cardinale Angelo Scola
Arcivescovo di Milano
Piazza Fontana, 2 20122 Milano

Appresa con tristezza la notizia della morte del Cardinale Carlo Maria Martini dopo lunga infermità, vissuta con animo sereno e con fiducioso abbandono alla volontà del Signore, desidero esprimere a Lei ed all'intera comunit` diocesana come pure ai familiari del compianto Porporato la mia profonda partecipazione al loro dolore pensando con affetto a questo caro Fratello che ha servito generosamente il Vangelo e la Chiesa. Ricordo con gratitudine la sua intensa opera apostolica profusa quale zelante religioso figlio spirituale di sant'Ignazio, esperto docente, autorevole biblista e apprezzato Rettore della Pontificia Università Gregoriana e del Pontificio Istituto Biblico, e quindi come solerte e saggio Arcivescovo di codesta Arcidiocesi ambrosiana. Penso altresl al competente e fervido servizio da lui reso alla Parola di Dio, aprendo sempre più alla comunità ecclesiale i tesori della Sacra Scrittura, specialmente attraverso la promozione della Lectio divina. Elevo fervide preghiere al Signore affinché, per intercessione della Beata Vergine Maria, accolga questo suo fedele servitore e insigne pastore nella celeste Gerusalemme, e di cuore imparto a quanti ne piangono la scomparsa la confortatrice Benedizione Apostolica

BENEDICTUS PP. XVI

Analogous telegram was sent by Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., secretary of State.
(2) This is the text of the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

CARLO MARIA MARTINI
1927 - 2012
CARDINALE
ARCIVESCOVO DI MILANO
1980 - 2002
"LAMPADA PER I MIEI PASSI
E' LA TUA PAROLA,
LUCE SUL MIO CAMMINO"
SALMO, 119,105


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MARTINO, Renato Raffaele
(1932-

Birth. November 23, 1932, Salerno, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (philosophy and theology); at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome (civil and canon law); at the Pontifical Institute at the Lateran University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in canon law; at the Studio of the Sacred Roman Rota (postgraduate studies); and at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy). Besides his native Italian, he speaks English, French, Spanish and Portuguese.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 27, 1957, Salerno, by Demetrio Moscato, archbishop of Salerno. Entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See, July 1, 1962. Attaché in the nunciature in Nicaragua. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, title later changed to chaplain of His Holiness, July 8, 1963. Secretary in the nunciature in the Philippines. Secretary, and later auditor, in the nunciature in Lebanon. In the secretariat of State, auditor of nunciature, second class, 1970-1975. Counselor in the nunciature in Brazil from 1975 until 1980.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Segerme and appointed pro-nuncio in Thailand and apostolic delegate in Laos, Malaysia and Singapore, September 14, 1980. Consecrated, December 14, 1980, basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, by Cardinal Agostino Casaroli, secretary of State, assisted by Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy, archbishop emeritus of Bangalore, secretary of the S.C. for the Evangelization of Peoples, and by Gaetano Pollio, archbishop of Salerno and bishop of Campagna. His episcopal motto is Virtus ex alto. Permanent observer of the Holy See before the United Nations Organization in New York. President of the Pontifical Council Iustitia et Pax, October 1, 2002.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Francesco di Paola ai Monti, October 21, 2003. Member of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples; of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See; and of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reappointed as president of the Pontifical Council Iustitia et Pax, April 21, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Named president of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerants, post united to his other presidency, March 11, 2006. Special papal envoy to the celebrations that took place in Ariano Irpino, Italy, on May 20, 2006, for the 17th centennial of the martyrdom of S. Liberatore. Special papal envoy to the celebrations that took place in Singapore from June 21 to 23, 2006 for the 25th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Holy See. Received the prize "Pilgrim of Peace" of the International Center of Assisi for Peace among Peoples, in the church of the Immaculate Conception, Salerno, November 23, 2006. Received the special prize "Life" of the Aging society - Osservatorio della terza età, on January 12, 2007, in the Italian Chamber of Deputies, Rome. Special papal envoy to the solemn celebrations of the 5th centennial of the death of St. Francis of Paola that took place in Paola, Italy, from May 1 to 4, 2007. Participated in the 5th General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". On February 28, 2009, Pope Benedict XVI accepted his resignation for reason of age from the presidency of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral of Migrants and Itinerants; the pope named as new president Antonio Maria Vegliò, titular archbishop of Eclano, until then secretary of the Congregations for the Oriental Churches. Special papal envoy to the conclusive ceremonies of the Pauline Year observed on June 29, 2009, in Cyprus. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World". Resigned the post of president of the Pontifical Council Iustitia et Pax for reasons of age, October 24, 2009. On July 2, 2011, he was named special papal envoy to the celebration of the millennium of the Abbey of Santissima Trinità, in Cava, Italy, programmed for September 4, 2011. On October 8, 2011, he was named special papal envoy to the celebration of the centenary of the cathedral of Yangon, Myanmar, programmed for December 8, 2011. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on November 23, 2012.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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MARTY, François
(1904-1994)

Birth. May 16, 1904, Vaureilles, Pachins, diocese of Rodez, France. Of a family of farmers. Son of François Marty and his wife, and Zoé. His first baptismal name was Gabriel but he changed to the second one, François, to avoid confusion with a classmate also named Gabriel Marty.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Rodez; and at the Catholic Institute, Toulouse.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 28, 1930, Rodez. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rodez, 1930-1951; vicar general, 1951-1952.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Saint-Flour, February 1, 1952. Consecrated, May 1, 1952, cathedral of Rodez, by Marcel-Marie Dubois, bishop of Rodez, assisted by Aimédée-Alexis-Marie Maisonobe, bishop of Belley, and by Alfred Coudere, bishop of Viviers. Promoted titular archbishop of Emesa and appointed coadjutor of Reims, with right of succession, December 14, 1959. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Reims, May 9, 1960. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Prelate nullius of the Mission de France, February 22, 1965 to July 15, 1968; and May 6 to November 25, 1975. Vice-president of the Episcopal Conference of France, May 31, 1966 to May 26, 1969; president, May 26, 1969 to October 24, 1975. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Paris, March 26, 1968.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Luigi dei Francesi, April 30, 1969. President of the French Episcopal Conference, 1969-1975. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, January 31, 1981. Following his retirement, he resided at the Dominican house of Villefranche-de-Rouergue. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, May 16, 1984. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; special guest.

Death. Wednesday February 16, 1994, Villefranche-de-Rouergue, Aveyron, when his Citroen 2CV, trapped between the barriers of a grade crossing, was cut through by a passenger train; on July 31, 1974, he had been involved in another traffic accident. His funeral was celebrated on February 21, at the cathedral of Rodez, Aveyron. According to his wishes, he was buried in the cemetery of Pachins, Aveyron, Commune de Vareilles, beside his parents.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 407-408; Escoulen, Daniel. Il cardinal Marty : l'arcivescovo piú amato dai francesi. Prefazione del Cardinal Roger Etchegaray. Milan : Paoline, 1996. (Testimoni di ieri e di oggi ; 19). Translation of Fioretti du cardinal Marty; Escoulen, Daniel. François Marty, evêque en France. Rodez: Editions du Rouergue, 1991; Escoulen, Daniel. Petite vie du cardinal Marty. Paris : Desclée de Brouwer, 1996; Escoulen, Daniel.; Bousquet, Christian. Présence : Cardinal François Marty, témoin de l'espérance. Saint-Affrique : Fleurines, 1998; Jore, Alexander. Épiscopologe Français de 1592 à 1973. Mis à jour et continué jusqu'en 2004. Complément de l'article "France" du Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie Ecclésiastiques t. XVIII, colonnes 161 à 532. Pro-Manuscripto, 25 - III- 2004, no. 2136.

Link. Photograph and biography, in French, cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris.


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MASSIMI, Massimo
(1877-1954)

Birth. April 10, 1877, Rome, Italy. Son of Prospero Massimi, a lawyer, and Luisa Guerra. He was baptized in the church of S. Maria in Portico Campitelli.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Roman Seminary, where he earned doctorates in theology and canon law; one of his classmates was Eugenio Pacelli, future Pope Pius XII; later, attended the University of Rome, earning a doctorate in civil law.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 14, 1900, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Giuseppe Ceppetelli, titular archbishop of Mira, vice-gerent of Rome. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, 1900-1908. Named professor of "Institutions of Civil Law" at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare" on November 18, 1904. Promoter of justice at the reconstituted Tribunal of the Sacred Roman Rota, October 20, 1908. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, May 18, 1911. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, November 29, 1915; its pro-dean, February 19, 1924; and its dean, May 1, 1926. Consultor of the Pontifical Commission for the Codification of Canon Law, March 27, 1909. President of the commission for the redaction of a project of law on the judicial and procedural regulations of the tribunal of the State of Vatican City, September 21, 1932.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 16, 1935; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Portico Campitelli, December 19, 1935. His cardinalitial motto was Ipsa duce. President of the Pontifical Commission for the Codification of Oriental Canon Law, February 17, 1936. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. President of the Pontifical Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law, March 14, 1939. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, February 18, 1946. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, May 29, 1946. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 14, 1949 until March 16, 1950.

Death. Saturday March 6, 1954, at 5:20 a.m., after having received the holy viaticum at 3 a.m., in Rome. Buried, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. His remains were transferred to the church of S. Maria in Portico Campitelli in October 1976 (1).

Bibliography. Fabris, Rinaldo. "Card. Massimo Massimi." La Pontificia Università Lateranense. Profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri e dei suoi discepoli. Rome : Libreria Editrice della Pontificia Università Lateranense, 1963, p. 234-235.

Link. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; photographs and biography, in English, by Eman Bonnici, Find a Grave.

(1) This is the inscription in his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

MDCCCLXXVII - MAXIMVX S.R.E. CARD. MASSIMI - MCMLIV
EXAMPLAR VITAE - DOCTOR IVRIS - MAGISTER PIETATIS


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MAURER, C.SS.R., José Clemente
(1900-1990)

Birth. March 13, 1900, Püttlingen, diocese of Trier, Germany.

Education. Joined the Congregation of Most Holy Redeemer; took vows, September 10, 1921. Novitiate of Trois-Epis, Switzerland; Theological Faculty of Echternach, Luxemburg.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 19, 1925. Missionary work with the Bolivian Indians and superior of the Redemptorist residence in La Paz, 1926-1947. Vice-provincial of his congregation for South America, 1947-1950.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Cea and appointed auxiliary of La Paz, March 1, 1950. Consecrated, April 16, 1950, church of SS. Redentore e S. Alfonso in Via Merulana, Rome, by Cardinal Adeodato Giovanni Piazza, O.C.D., bishop of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, assisted by Francesco Beretti, titular archbishop of Leontopolis di Pamfilia, and by Augusto Sieffert, C.Ss.R., titular bishop of Poliboto, former bishop of La Paz. His episcopal motto was Dominus aedificatio mea. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Sucre, October 27, 1951. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 26, 1967; received red biretta and title of Ss. Redentore e S. Alfonso in via Merulana, June 29, 1967. President of the Episcopal Conference of Bolivia. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, March 13, 1980. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, November 30, 1983. He was the first cardinal from Bolivia.

Death. June 27, 1990, Sucre. Buried, metropolitan cathedral, Sucre.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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MAURIN, Louis-Joseph
(1859-1936)

Birth. February 15, 1859, La Ciotat, diocese of Marseille, France.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical French Seminary, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 8, 1882, Rome. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Marseille, 1882-1911: professor in the Institute Belzunce; pastor of de la Destrousse, 1885; vicar in the church of Saint-Vincent de Paul, 1887; almoner of the lyceum of Marseille, 1890; pastor of Saint'Anna, 1895; pastor of Sainte-Margot, 1899; pastor of Saint-Michel, 1905; pastor of Saint-Charles and vicar general, 1906; rector of the shrine of Notre-Dame de la Garde, 1909.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Grenoble, September 1, 1911. Consecrated, October 24, 1911, cathedral of Marseille, by Cardinal Pierre-Paulin Andrieu, archbishop of Bordeaux, assisted by Joseph Fabre, bishop of Marseille, and by Dominique Castellan, bishop of Digne. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lyon, December 1, 1916. Took possession of the see the following December 20; enthroned on January 25, 1917.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 4, 1916; received the red hat and the title of Ss.ma Trinità al Monte Pincio, December 7, 1916. Member of the SS. CC. of the Council, Propaganda Fide, Rites and Ceremonial, December 7, 1916. Received the pallium from the pope on December 12, 1916. Apostolic administrator of Langres, November 26, 1918 to April 27, 1919; took possession by procurator on December 10, 1918. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Papal legate to the consecration of Saint-Martin's basilica, Tours, July 4, 1925.

Death. November 16, 1936, he was found dead in his bead, in Lyon. His death came as a shock because the the day before he appeared in perfect health during a visit to Saint-Étienne. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Lyon.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 411-412; "Em. Maurin (Louis-Joseph) in "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1936. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1935, p. 104-105.

Link. Photographs, Araldica Vaticana.


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MAYER, O.S.B., Paul Augustin
(1911-2010)

Birth. May 23, 1911, Altötting, diocese of Passau, Germany. He was one of three children of Royal Bavarian General Ludwig Mayer and his wife, Meta Hoeness from Ulm. His uncle, Eugen Bolz, was a politician of the Center Party and resistance fighter of the Nazi Party, who was beheaded by the latter in 1945.

Education. Joined the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) at the abbey of Saint Michael, Metten, near Deggendorf, Bavaria, Germany; took the name of Augustin; professed the first monastic vows in that abbey on May 17, 1931. Studied at the University of Salzburg, Salzburg; Pontifical Roman Athenaeum of San Anselmo, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 25, 1935. Further studies, 1935-1937, Salzburg and Rome. Faculty member, abbey of Saint Michael, Metten, 1937-1939. Faculty member, Pontifical Roman Athenaeum of Sant'Anselmo, Rome, 1939-1966; rector, 1949-1966. Pastoral ministry in Rome, 1939-1966. Apostolic visitor to Swiss seminaries, 1957-1959. Secretary of the Preparatory Commission of the Second Vatican Council, 1960-1962; secretary of the conciliar and postconciliar commissions for Catholic schools and priestly formation. Ecclesiastical delegate of the Foscolari Movement, 1965. Elected abbot of St. Michael's Abbey, Metten, Bavaria, Germany, November 3, 1966. Received the abbatial blessing from Rudolf Graber, bishop of Regensburg, in Metten, on December 10, 1966. Secretary of the S.C. for Religious and Secular Institutes, September 8, 1971.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Satriano, January 6, 1972. Consecrated, February 13, 1972, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope Paul VI, assisted by Cardinal Bernardus Johannes Alfrink, archbishop of Utrecht, and by Cardinal William Conway, archbishop of Armagh. In the same ceremony was consecrated Giuseppe Casoria, titular archbishop of Vescovio, secretary of the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments, future cardinal. His episcopal motto was Congregavit nos in unum Christi amore. Named pro-prefect of the Congregation for the Sacraments and Congregation for Divine Worship, April 8, 1984.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Anselmo all'Aventino, May 25, 1985. Prefect of the Congregation for the Sacraments and of the Congregation for Divine Worship, May 27, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. The congregations were united in one, named Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of Sacraments, June 28, 1988. Resigned the prefecture, July 1, 1988. President of the Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei, July 2, 1988. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, May 23, 1991. Resigned the presidency, July 1, 1991. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, January 29, 1996.

Death. April 30, 2010, in the morning, in his residence in via Rusticucci 13, Rome. The cardinal had been getting weak over the last two weeks, but even the day before his death he celebrated Holy Mass. In the last 24 hours he declined rapidly and died very peacefully in his bed at home assisted by the Sisters who took care of his household. He laid in in the chapel of his residence until the celebration of the funeral. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Benedict XVI prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to Dom Notker Wolf, abbot primate of the Benedictine Confederation. The abbot of Metten gave a short overview about the last rites in the apartment of the late cardinal; in the presence of the papal ceremonieri and the papal protonotaries, before the open coffin, was recited the "Pater Noster" and the "Ave Maria". Then the vitae of Cardinal Mayer was read. All present participants signed a "bulle", which was placed inside the coffin. Then the coffin was closed and sealed. After this it was brought in a procession into the papal basilica of St. Peter. Via Rusticucci 13, where the cardinal resided, is at the end of Via della Conciliazione and at the beginning of St. Peter's Square. The funeral took place on Monday May 3, 2010, at 11.30 a.m., in the Altar of the Chair of the papal Vatican basilica. The mass was celebrated by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, with the other cardinals present. After the mass, the pope addressed those in attendance and presided over the rite of the Ultima Commendatio and the Valedictio. The coffin with his remains arrived in the abbey of Saint Michael, Metten, where he professed as a Benedictine, on May 6, 2010. Until May 12 the cardinal laid in the cloister of the abbey. The funeral took place in the church of the abbey. The main celebrant was Cardinal Friedrich Wetter, archbishop emeritus of München und Freising. Concelebrants were Archbishop Jean-Claude Perrisset, apostolic nuncio in Germany; Gerhard Müller, bishop of Regensburg; Gregor Maria Hanke, O.S.B., bishop of Eichstätt; and Wilhelm Schraml, bishop of Passau. Also nineteen abbots and four abbesses of the Benedictine Federation took part. After the pontifical requiem the body of the late cardinal was buried in front of the Altar of Mary in the abbey church. At the time of his death, he was the oldest living cardinal. He was commemorated by a special four sheet and one mint stamp along with Pope Benedict XVI by the Philatelic Office of the Republic of Guinea Bissau in 2010.

Links. His photograph and biographical entry, in English; photos of his funeral and burial in the Abbey of Saint Michael, Metten; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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MEDEIROS, Humberto Sousa
(1915-1983)

Birth. October 6, 1915, Arrifes, island of São Miguel, diocese of Angra, Azores Islands, Portugal. Son of Antonio Medeiros and Maria de Jesus Sousa Massa Flor. He was baptized in the parish of Nossa Senhora da Saúde, Arrifes on November 1, 1915. He emigrated to Massachusetts with his family in 1931 at age 15, and took a job sweeping floors in a local textile mill for $6.20 a day, studying English in his spare time. After graduating from high school in Fall River, Humberto decided to enter the priesthood.

Education. Primary education under Professor Maria Aura de Sousa Calouro, Escola do Jardim or Escola de D. Leonor Afonso; high school, Fall River; The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C. (doctorate in theology; dissertation: The De mysteriis and De sacramentis of St. Ambrose, 1952); Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 15, 1946, Fall River, by James Edwin Cassidy, bishop of Fall River. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Fall River, and further studies, 1946-1952. Chancellor of the diocese of Fall River and vicar for religious, 1952-1966.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Brownsville, April 14, 1966. Consecrated, June 9, 1966, cathedral of St. Mary of the Assumption, Fall River, by James Louis Connolly, bishop of Fall River, assisted by James Joseph Gerrard, titular bishop of Forma, auxiliary of Fall River, and by Gerald Vincent McDevitt, titular bishop of Tigias, auxiliary of Philadelphia. His episcopal motto was Adveniat regnum tuum. He often traveled with migrant farm workers and joined their battle for better wages. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Boston, September 8, 1970. He was the first non-Irish bishop of Boston in 124 years. He aligned himself with Boston's poor and assailed suburban Catholics for their failure to aid the inner city. He was a critic of the Viet Nam War.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received red biretta and title of S. Susanna, March 5, 1973. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the 60th anniversary of apparition of Our Lady, Fátima, Portugal, May 13, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II.

Death. September 17, 1983, of coronary arrest at St. Elizabeth's Hospital at 7.46 am., after undergoing an emergency open heart surgery. The funeral mass, presided by Archbishop Pio Laghi, nuncio to the United States of America, was celebrated at the Holy Cross cathedral of Boston, where lying in state also took place. Buried in his parents' plot, section 16, in Saint Patricks Cemetery, Fall River, Bristol County, Massachusetts (1). A monument in his honor was erected at his native hometown of Arrifes. The Cardinal Medeiros Trust fund was created in 1981 by the Texas Knights of Columbus State Council Charities, in his honor, to provide educational grants to families of Knights. Besides, Boston College named the freshman honors dormitory "Medeiros" in his honor. Known as a "servant of the poor", the Cardinal Medeiros Residence for the Retired in Fall River, Massachusetts, was named after him.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 149; Code, Bernard. American Bishops 1964-1970. St. Louis : Wexford Press, 1970, p. 11; Medeiros, Humberto Sousa. Thy kingdom come: Pastoral reflections on Christmas and Easter seasons. Boston : St. Paul Editions, 1980.

Link. Photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; and his tomb by T.S. Custadio, Find a Grave.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on their tombstone, taken from Find a Grave, linked above:

ANTONIO S. MEDEIROS
1887 - 1950
MARIA HIS WIFE
1894 - 1963
AND THEIR SON
HIS EMINENCE
HUMBERTO CARDINAL MEDEIROS
ARCHBISHOP OF BOSTON
OCT. 6, 1915 - SPET. 17, 1983


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MEDINA ESTÉVEZ, Jorge Arturo
(1926-

Birth. December 23, 1926, Santiago, Chile. His baptismal name is Jorge Arturo Agustín.

Education. Major Seminary of Santiago, Santiago; Pontifical Catholic University, Santiago (licentiate in letters and in biology; doctorates in theology and canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 12, 1954, Santiago, by Pio Alberto Fariña Fariña, titular bishop of Citarizo, auxiliary and vicar general of Santiago. Faculty member of the Major Seminary of Santiago and of the Theological Faculty of Santiago. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965; as an expert. Judge of the metropolitan tribunal of the archdiocese of Santiago; pro-grand chancellor of the Catholic University of Santiago; and canon penitentiary of the metropolitan cathedral. Consultant to several Vatican dicasteries.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tibili and appointed auxiliary of Rancagua, December 18, 1984. Consecrated, January 6, 1985, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy, archbishop emeritus of Bangalore, secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. His episcopal motto is Oportet illum crescere. Transferred to the see of Rancagua, November 25, 1987. Transferred to the see of Valparaíso, April 16, 1993. Pro-prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, June 21, 1996. Resigned the pastoral government of the diocese, June 21, 1996. Promoted to archbishop, September 19, 1996. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Saba, February 21, 1998. Prefect, February 23, 1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998; the Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998; the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Special papal envoy to the National Eucharistic Congress of México, México City, May 5-7, 2000. Special papal envoy to the 20th International Mariological-Marian Congress, Rome, September 15 to 24, 2000; to the opening celebrations of the Plenary Council of Venezuela, Caracas, November 26, 2000. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Resigned the prefecture, October 1, 2002. Cardinal protodeacon, February 24, 2005. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. As cardinal protodeacon, announced to the world the election of the new Pope Benedict XVI on April 19, 2005; and bestowed on him the Petrine pallium in the ceremony of the beginning of his pontificate, April 24, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005; by papal appointment. Special papal envoy to the closing of the Plenary Council of Venezuela that took place with the celebration of a mass officiated by the cardinal at "Parque Naciones Unidas", El Paraíso, Caracas, on October 7, 2006. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, December 23, 2006. Ceased as cardinal protodeacon, February 23, 2007. Participated in the 5th General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, March 1, 2008. He resides in Santiago, Chile.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Spanish, archdiocese of Santiago de Chile; his arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.


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MEISNER, Joachim
(1933-

Birth. December 25, 1933, in Breslau-Lissa, archdiocese of Breslau, Germany (1). He was the second of the four sons of Walter Meisner and his wife Hedwig. The father was killed in 1945 in the Second World War. The mother moved with her four sons to Körner, a small village in Thuringia, then German Democratic Republic, and worked in a canning shop in Mühlhausen.

Education. After finishing his school education in 1948, he did an apprenticeship as a bank clerk. From 1951, he studied at the Norbertinum in Magdeburg to obtain the Abitur. From 1956 until 1959 he studied theology and philosophy at the Theological Faculty in Erfurt. He obtained a doctorate in theology at the Pontificial Gregorian University in Rome in 1969 (thesis: Nachreformatorische katholische Frömmigkeit in Erfurt). Received the diaconate in the church St. Marien in Neuzelle on April 8, 1962 from Ferdinand Piontek, titular bishop of Barca and apostolic administrator of Görlitz.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 22, 1962, cathedral of Sankt Marien, Erfurt, by Josef Freusberg, titular bishop of Adrianopoli di Epiro, auxiliary of Fulda. Incardinated in the apostolic administration of the territory of Erfurt and Meiningen. From 1963 until 1966, he was chaplain at the parish of Sankt Aegidien in Heiligenstadt; and in 1966 at the parish Heilig-Kreuz in Erfurt. Spiritual counselor and director of Caritas, 1966-1975.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Vina, March 17, 1975, cathedral of Sankt Marien, Erfurt, and appointed auxiliary bishop to the apostolic administrator of the territory of Erfurt und Meiningen. Consecrated, May 17, 1975, by Hugo Aufderbeck, titular bishop of Arca di Fenicia, apostolic administrator of the territory of Erfurt und Meiningen, assisted by Hans-Georg Braun, titular bishop of Puzia di Bizacena, apostolic administrator of Magdeburg, and by Georg Weinhold, titular bishop of Idicra, auxiliary of Dresden-Meissen. His episcopal motto is Spes nostra firma est pro vobis. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Transferred to the see of Berlin, April 22, 1980. Took possession of this see May 17, 1980. Elected president of the Berliner Bischofskonferenz (Conference of the bishops of the German Democratic Republic) September 7, 1982.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the title of S. Pudenziana, February 2, 1983. He was ascribed to the Congregations for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments since 1983); for Catholic Education from 1983 until 1993; for the Clergy since 1991 and for Bishops from 1995 until 2013; to the Pontifical Councils for Interreligious Dialogue from 1990 until 2000, for Culture from 1993 until1998, and for Legislative Texts since 2002; the Pontificial Commissions Iustitia et Pax from 1984 until 1988, for Non-Believers from 1983 until 1993; and to the prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See since 1991. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Cologne, December 20, 1988. Took possession of the see on February 12, 1989. Received the pallium from Pope John Paul II on June 29, 1989, at the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Senator of honor of the Sophia University of Tokio, Japan, December 9, 1989. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Grand prior of the German Lieutenancy of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem since October 20, 1990. Received an honorary doctorate in theology from the Jesuit University Ateneo in Manila, Philippines, December 5, 1990. Honorary knight of the Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem, commonly known as the Teutonic Order (Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum) since 1990. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. Received the honorary citizenship of Miguel Pereira, Brazil, on August 28, 1992. Decorated with the Grand Decoration of Honor in Gold (Großes Goldenes Ehrenzeichen) of the Republic of Austria on November 30, 1992. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of Holy See, November 6, 1995. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the sixth centennial of St. John Nepomuceno's birth, Nepomok and Prague, Czech Republic, May 13 to 17, 1993. Attended Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; member of the general secretariat, 1994-1998. Received an honorary doctorate in theology from the Pontificial Theological Faculty of the University of Wrocław, Poland, in 1996; and from the Pontificial University of México in México City, México, on October 24, 1996. Decorated with the Order of the White Lion (Řád Bílého Iva), III Class, of the Czech Republic in 1998. Special papal envoy to the ceremony of consecration of the new parish church of Astana, Kazakhstan, June 27, 1999. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; president delegate. Received the honorary citizenship of Trzebnica, Poland, August 21, 2001; and of Serra San Bruno, Italy, November 27, 2001. Received an honorary doctorate in sociology from the Institute of Arts and Science of the Leibniz University of Santa Fe, United States of America, in May 2003. Decorated with the Grand Merit Cross with Star and Sash (Großes Verdienstkreuz mit Stern und Schulterband) of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, October 7, 2003. Honorary canon of the cathedral of Saint John Baptist in Wrocław, Poland, October 29, 2003. Decorated with the Jubilee Medal of The Order of Merit pro Merito Melitensi of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta in 2004. Special papal envoy to the solemn celebrations for the 850th anniversary of the arrival in Finland of Saint Henry, bishop, and the 50th anniversary of the erection of the diocese of Helsinki. The celebrations took place in Helsinki on February 27, 2005. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Received an honorary doctorate in theology from the University of Lublin, Poland, May 5, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005; by papal appointment. Received the honorary citizenship of Levoča, Slovakia, August 15, 2006. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 4th centennial of the apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Šiluva, Lithuania, which took place on September 13 to 14, 2008. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church"; by papal appointment. Special papal envoy to the celebrations marking the twelfth centennial of the death of Saint Ludger, first bishop of Münster and "Apostle of the Saxons and Frisons", which took place in Werden an der Ruhr, diocese of Essen, Germany, on September 6, 2009. Decorated with the chapter cross (Distinktorium) of the chapter of the cathedral of Saint Jacob in Olsztyn, Poland, in 2011. Received an honorary doctorate in theology from the Catholic University of Ruzomberok, Slovakia, September 28. 2011. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the eighth centenary of the birth of Saint Agnes of Bohemia, which took place in the cathedral of Prague, Czech Republic, on November 12, 2011. Received the grand decoration in gold of the Order of Saint Martin of the diocese of Eisenstadt, Austria, in 2012. On September 18, 2012, the pope appointed him synodal father of the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 7 to 28, 2012, on the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of the Christian faith". He is chairman of Renovabis, a charitable organization of the Catholic Church in Germany, established in 1993 to help people in Eastern and Central Europe. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. In 2013 he established the Cardinal Meisner Foundation for East- and South-Europe to assist priests and provide for the pastoral care in those countries. On August 17, 2013, he was named special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 750th anniversary of the placing of the first stone of the Duomo of Xanten, Germany, which took place on October 13, 2013. He lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on December 25, 2013. Decorated with the Grand Cross of the Order of Merit (Zasługi Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) of the Republic Poland, February 16, 2014. He has written and published numerous works (2). On February 28, 2014, the pope accepted his resignation from the office of metropolitan archbishop of Cologne for age reasons, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law.

Bibliography. Helbach, Ulrich. "Mesiner, Joachim." Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1945 2001 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Unter Mitwirkung von Franz Xaver Bischof ... [et al.] ; herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 2002, p. 295-297.

Links. Photograph, arms and biographical data, in German, archdiocese of Cologne; photograph and biography, in English, Press Office of the Holy See; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his portrait by Toni May, metropolitan cathedral of Cologne; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Gap left by retiring cardinal Joachim Meisner will be impossible to fill by Guido Horst, Vatican Insider, 23/12/2013; Meisner lobte immenses Lebenswerk by Joachim Röhrig, Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger, 08.12.2013.

(1) The city was assigned to Poland by the Potsdam Conference, 1945, and it now has the Polish name Wroclaw.
(2) They are: Das Auditorium Coelicum am Dom zu Erfurt. Ein Beitrag zur Universitätsgeschichte Erfurts (= Erfurter theologische Schriften, Bd. 6). St. Benno-Verlag, 1962; Nachreformatorische katholische Frömmigkeitsformen in Erfurt (= Erfurter theologische Studien, Bd. 26), 1971; Sein, wie Gott uns gemeint hat! Betrachtungen zu Maria. Bernward-Verlag, 1988; Unsere Hoffnung stärke euch. Styria Pichler, 1989; Wider die Entsinnlichung des Glaubens. Gedanken zur Re-Evangelisierung Europas. 2. Aufl., Styria, 1991; Die heilige Messe. Pattloch-Verlag, 1997; Spuren Gottes auf unseren Wegen. Der Alltag als Begegnungsfeld des Menschen mit Gott. Morus-Verlag, 1998; Von nun an preisen mich selig alle Geschlechter. Butzon & Bercker, 1999; Mit dem Herzen sehen. Chancen und Auftrag der Kirche zu Beginn des dritten Jahrtausends. MM-Verlag, 2000; Froh in der Gnade Gottes. Bachem, 2005; Geborgen in Gott. Tag- und Nachtgebete. 6. Aufl., Adamas-Verlag, 2005; Edith Stein - Teresia Benedicta a Cruce. Jüdische Christin und christliche Jüdin. Butzon & Bercker, 2006; Er war mein Freund. Ein Zeugnis aus der Nähe. Pattloch-Verlag, 2007; Bernhard Lichtenberg. Ich werde meinem Gewissen folgen. Topos plus Verlagsgemeinschaft, 2013.


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MEJÍA, Jorge María
(1923-

Birth. January 31, 1923, Buenos Aires, Argentina. From a very well known family. He was the second of five children. The family already had other religious members: a missionary in Japan; and from his generation two priests and a bishop, Jaime F. Mejía, S.D.B., of Nevares.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Villa Devoto, Buenos Aires; at the Pontifical University of S. Tommaso, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in theology; at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in biblical science; at the Biblical School of Jerusalem (advanced courses). Besides his native Spanish, he knows Italian, English, French, German, the Biblical languages, and some Oriental languages.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 22, 1945, with dispensation of age. Pastoral ministry, parish of Santa Rosa de Lima, Buenos Aires. Further studies, Rome. Professor of Sacred Scripture, and also of Biblical Greek, Hebrew and archeology, Theological Faculty, Catholic University of Argentina; professor of Sacred Scripture, "Instituto de Cultura Religiosa Superior" and in the Instituto de Ciencias Sagradas", Marist Brothers. Director of the Catholic journal Criterio, 1956-1977. Further studies, Jerusalem; guest professor in Ecumenical Institute of Higher Theological Studies, Tantur, Israel. Attended Second Vatican Council (1962-1965) as an expert. Director of the Commission on Ecumenism of the archdiocese of Buenos Aires, 1966. Secretary of the Department of Ecumenism of the Latin American Episcopal Council (CELAM), 1967. President of the executive committee of the World Catholic Federation for Biblical Apostolate, 1969-1972. After the military coup of 1976, a death threat made him leave Argentina for the Vatican. Secretary of the Pontifical Commission for the relations with Judaism in the Secretariat for Christian Unity, 1977. Chaplain of His Holiness, September 20, 1978.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Apollonia and appointed vice-president of Pontifical Commission Iustitia et Pax, March 8, 1986. Consecrated, April 12, 1986, church of S. Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, by Cardinal Roger Etchegaray, president of the Pontifical Commission Iustitia et Pax and of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Antonio María Javierre Ortas, S.D.B., titular archbishop of Meta, secretary of the S.C. for Catholic Education. His episcopal motto is Ipse est pax nostra. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Promoted to archbishop and appointed secretary of the Congregation for Bishops, March 5, 1994. Secretary of the College of Cardinals, March 10, 1994. Archivist and Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, March 7, 1998.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Girolamo della Carità, February 21, 2001. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, January 31, 2003. Resigned the post of Archivist and Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, November 24, 2003. Opted for the order of cardinal priests in the consistory of February 21, 2011 and at his request his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title.

Bibliography. Mejía, Jorge María. Una presencia en el Concilio.: crónicas y apuntes del Concilio Vaticano II. Buenos Aires : Agape Libros, 2009.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Press Office of the Holy See; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his photograph, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Card. Jorge María Mejía: El método antiguo by Gisela Manoni, Radio Cristiandad, Martes 25 septiembre 2007; Il cardinale Mejia: «Ho servito il Concilio» by Filippo Rizzi, Quelli del Concilio / 3, Avvenire, 9 maggio 2012.


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MELO Y ALCALDE, Prudencio
(1860-1945)

Birth. April 27, 1860, Burgos, Spain.

Education. He began his studies in Burgos; and later, he studied theology at the Major Seminary of Toledo; he obtained doctorates in theology (January 1884) and utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 21, 1883. Named vice-secretary of the archdiocese of Burgos, October 1883. Professor of canon law at the University of Valladolid in 1884; and at Universidad Central in 1886. From 1884 until 1891, he studied civil law obtaining a licentiate in June 1890; and doctorate on November 5, 1891 at Universidad Central. Professor of canon law and Sacred Scriptures at the Seminary of San Jerónimo of Burgos. Grand chaplain of the Sisters of the visitation. In 1896, he obtained the doctoral canonship of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Burgos; and two years later, he obtained the lectoral canonship of that cathedral chapter; he also was fiscal, judge, provisor and vicar general of the archdiocese.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Olimpo and appointed auxiliary bishop of Toledo, December 19, 1907. Consecrated, March 29, 1908, at the cathedral of Burgos, by Cardinal Gregorio María Aguirre y García, O.F.M., archbishop of Burgos, assisted by José María Escudero y Ubago, bishop of Osma, and by Antolín López Peláez, bishop of Jaca. At the death of Cardinal Ciriaco María Sancha y Hervás, archbishop of Toledo, on February 26, 1909, he was named general apostolic commisary of the Bula de la Cruzada. Transferred to the see of Vitoria on July 18, 1913. Took possession of the see on the following November 27; enthroned, the following December 7. In the Legislature of 1916-1917, he was senator for the archdiocese of Burgos; in the Legislature of 1921-1922, he was senator for the archdiocese of Toledo; and in the Legislature of 1923, he was senator for the archdiocese of Valencia. Transferred to the see of Madrid-Alcalá, December 4, 1916; took possession, March 29, 1917; enthroned, the following April 22. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Valencia, December 14, 1922. He took possession of the see on June 1, 1923; enthroned, the following July 8. As soon as he took possession of the archdiocese, he began a pastoral visit of the vast geography of his see, attending to all the needs of the faithful. He was concerned with the care of the priests, guiding them with his pastoral letters and circulars, about the behavior they observed in their pastoral ministry.

Cardinalate. According to an article by ecclesiastical historian Msgr. Vicente Cárcel y Ortí, in a letter written in 1928, King Alfonso XIII asked Pope Pius XI that Valencia would again be a cardinalitial see (its last cardinal, Archbishop Enrique Reig y Casanova, had been transferred in 1922 to the metropolitan and primatial see of Toledo) and to promote the current archbishop to the cardinalate. Msgr. Cárcel Ortí found the letter in the Secret Vatican Archive in the fund pertaining to that pontiff. The pope responded in writing saying that at the moment he could not make the promotion because Spain already had the habitual number of cardinals, four, two of them fixed, Toledo and Sevilla; and the other two variable. The pope recommended that the monarch wait for a future occasion but the time passed, and because of the circumstances, it was not possible. During his episcopate, an important liturgical movement took place, which had a beneficial impact on the renewal of the clergy and the parishes of the diocese. Realizing the importance of the lay apostolate in the Church and in society, he promoted the Catholic Action, ordering a census of the existing works for a more perfect organization. He celebrated a Diocesan Assembly of the Feminine Catholic Action and urged women to attend the National Congress. He also promoted a week for the training of chaplains in the Catholic Action movements. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, October 21, 1933. When the Spanish Civil War started in 1936, he was in Burgos, his hometown. With great pain he saw the churches of the archdiocese of Valencia being desecrated and the worship suppressed. After the death of the meritorious Rafael Ramón Llin, there were assassinated 352 diocesan priests, hundreds of religious and countless lay Catholics. When the Civil War ended in 1939, despite his advanced age, he began the restoration of the archdiocese, giving impetus to all diocesan structures, in need of renovation. Apostolic administrator of Segorbe, 1939 to 1944. In 1942, he made the arrangement of parishes and held in that year an open competition of parishes, thereby normalizing the abnormal situation in which many of them were. Realizing the need of a new seminary building, which would be in line with the times, he laid the first stone of the building in the town of Moncada on May 15, 1944.

Death. October 31, 1945, Valencia. Buried in the main altar of the metropolitan cathedral of Valencia, which he had restored.

Bibliography. Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1920. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1920, p. 248-249; Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 361; Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 70, no. 169; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 245, 279 and 392.

Link. Portrait and biography, in Spanish, archdiocese of Valencia.


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MEOUCHI, Paul Pierre
(1894-1975)

Birth. April 1, 1894, Djezzine, Maronite diocese of Saïda, Lebanon. Son of Assad Meouchi and Madeleine Maddoul. His first name is also listed as Boulos.

Education. College de la Sagesse, Beirut; Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 17, 1917, Rome, by Nematallah Abi Karam, titular bishop of Mindo. Secretary to Augustine Botani, bishop of Saïda of the Maronites, 1917-1920. Secretary to Chekrallah Koury, titular bishop of Tiro of the Maronites, during the latter's visitation to the Maronites in United States of America, 1920-1921. Pastoral ministry among the Maronites in United States of America, specifically in Indiana, Connecticut and California, 1922-1934.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tyr of Maronites, Lebonon, April 29, 1934. Consecrated, December 8, 1934, Bkerké, Lebanon, by Antoine-Pierre Arida, Maronite patriarch of Antioch, assisted by Augustine Bostani, bishop of Saïda of the Maronites, and by Peter Feghali, titular archbishop of Apamea di Bitinia. His episcopal motto was Gloria Libani data est ei. Elected patriarch of Antioch of the Maronites, May 25, 1955. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, May 25, 1955. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal patriarch, February 22, 1965; received the red biretta, February 25, 1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, l967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the II Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, April 1, 1974. Attended the III Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974.

Death. January 11, 1975, Beirut. Buried, patriarchal see of Bkerké, near Beirut.

Bibliography. Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 200-201.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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MERCATI, Giovanni
(1866-1957)

Birth. December 17, 1866, Villa Gaida, diocese of Reggio Emilia, Italy. He was the third of the seven children of Domenico Mercati, a veterinarian, and Giuseppina Montipò. His two older brothers were also priests, as was one of his uncles, Giuseppe Mercati, pastor of Roteglia. His father was a good friend of the Redemptorists of Madonna del''Olmo, Montecchio d'Emilia and after the closure of the convent in 1859, a good part of its library was placed in the Mercati home.

Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Marola from 1876 until 1882, obtaining the licence ginnasiale; at the Classic Lyceum Spallanzani from 1883; at the Seminary of Reggio Emilia; while studying in Rome, he resided in the Pontifical Lombardian Seminary, together with his brother Angelo; also studied at the Vatican Library, where he obtained a doctorate in the summer of 1891; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in theology in 1891); and at the Ambrosian Library, Milan, where he was elected doctor on November 9, 1893.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 21, 1889, at the cathedral of Reggio Emilia, by Bishop Vincenzo Manicardi of Reggio Emilia. Went to Rome for further studies, 1889-1891; frequented the public sessions of Accademia di Conferenze storico-giuridiche; admitted to the Vatican Library in February 1890; obligatory military service in Florence as soldato di sanità, 1891-1893. At the Ambrosian Library, Milan, 1893-1898. At the Vatican Library, 1898-1919; he was called by Pope Leo XIII in October 1898. Member of the Historical-liturgical Commission, established by the pope, November 28, 1902-1906. Consultor of the Pontifical Commission for Biblical Studies, January 31, 1903. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, August 2, 1904. Socio corrispondente of the Pontifical Roman Academy of Archeology, May 11, 1917. Prefect of the Vatican Library, October 23, 1919; in summer 1930, at his request for health reasons, he was relieved from the administrative functions of the library. Protonotary apostolic, January 12, 1936.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 15, 1936; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, June 18, 1936; he had declined the cardinalate several times in the past. His cardinaltial motto was Paratus semper doceri. Librarian and Archivist of the Holy Roman Church, June 18, 1936 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinal, May 28, 1951 until January 12, 1953. He was a prolific writer and a great humanist, who had himself protected and supported a number of émigré scholars from Germany during the early years of the Second World War. He was a scholar who understood Aramaic and the intricacies of racing cars and rocketry. He was considered by many as the "most learned prelate to be elevated to the sacred purple" in a century. He was also once quoted as saying, "I'm always ready to learn".

Death. August 23, 1957, of a heart attack, serenely, in his residence in Vatican City. The funeral mass was celebrated in the church of S. Ignazio a Campo Marzio, Rome. Buried in the the tomb he had built in the basilica of S. Giorgio in Velabro, Rome. His brother, Monsignor Angelo, who was prefect of the Vatican Archives, is also buried in that tomb (1).

Bibliography. Albareda, Anselm Maria. Gli scritti del Cardinale Mercati. Rome : Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 1957. Note : Articolo apparso su "L'Osservatore Romano" preceduto da "Appunti biografici"; Campana, Augusto. Bibliografia degli scritti del Cardinale Giovanni Mercati, 1890-1956. Città del Vaticano : Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 1957; Miscellanea Giovanni Mercati. Città del Vaticano, 1946. 6 vols. (Biblioteca apostolica vaticana. Studi e testi, 121-126 ; Variation: Studi e testi (Biblioteca apostolica vaticana) ; 121-126). Contents: v. 1. Bibbia. Letteratura cristiana antica.--v. 2. Letteratura medioevale.--v. 3. Letteratura e storia bizantina.--v. 4. Letteratura classica e umanistica.--v. 5. Storia ecclesiastica. Diritto.--v. 6. Paleografia. Bibliografia. Varia; Nel novantesimo anno del Cardinale Mercati, 1866-1956. Vatican City : Biblioteca apostolica vaticana, 1956. Note : "Bibliografia degli scritti (1890-1956) : p. 57-130; Scaduto, Mario. "Un dotto: il cardinale Giovanni Mercati (1866-1957)," La Civiltà Cattolica, CVIII (1957), 49-60; Studi e ricerche nella biblioteca e negli archivi vaticani in memoria del cardinale Giovanni Mercati (1866-1957). Edited by Lamberto Donati. Firenze, L.S. Olschki, 1959. Contents: Il vescovo di Barcellona Pietro Garsias, bibliotecario della Vaticana sotto Alessandro VI, di A. M. Albareda.--Due liste di libri per la Biblioteca vaicana, di L. Berra.--La lettera di Walone, abate di S. Arnolfo di Metz e di S. Remigio di Reims a Gregorio VII (1073) di G. B. Borino.--Per il "Textus Evangelii" donato da Enrico II a Montecassino (Vat. Ottobon. lat. 74) di A. Campana.--Le fonti iconografiche di alcuni manoscritti urbinati della Biblioteca vaticana, di L. Donati.--I registri vaticani e la loro continuazione, di m Giusti.--Der Amstantritt des Botarichters Bernardino Giraud (1762-63) di H. Hoberg.--Enea Silvio Piccolominis Fortsetzung zum Liber Augustalis von Benvenuto Rambaldi aus Imola und ein ähnlicher zeitgenhossischer Aufholversuch, di P. Künzle.--La traduction française du "Dizionario" de Gaetano Moroni (1844-1862) di M. H. Laurent.--I due manoscritti urbinati dei privilegi dei Montefeltro, di L. Michelini Tocci.--Il clero della cattedrale di Lucca nei secoli XV e XVI, di L. Nanni.--La riforma della segreteria di Stato di Gregorio XVI, di L. Pásztor..--Recherche des deux bibliothèques romaines Maffei des XVe et XVIe siècles, di J. Ruysschaert.--Disavventure e morte di Vincent Raymond, miniatore papale, di N. Vian; Tisserant, Eugène. Giovanni Mercati, 1866-1957 : commemorazione tenuta nella seduta a classi riunite dell'11 maggio 1963. Roma : Accademia nazionale dei Lincei, 1963. (Problemi attuali di scienza e di cultura ; quaderno ; n. 63; Variation: Accademia nazionale dei Lincei. ; Problemi attuali di scienze e di cultura ; quaderno n.63); Vian, Paolo ; Mercati, Giovanni. Carteggi del card. Giovanni Mercati. Città del Vaticano : Biblioteca apostolica vaticana, 2003- . (Studi e testi ; 413; Cataloghi sommari e inventari dei fondi manoscritti ; 7; Variation: Studi e testi (Biblioteca apostolica vaticana) ; 413). Contents: 1. 1889-1936; Vian, Paolo. "Per una biografia del Cardinale Giovanni Mercati." Rivista di storia della chiesa in Italia. LV (2001), 175-199.

Link. Biography by Paolo Vian, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 73 (2009), Treccani; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Il cardinale che non voleva la porpora by Paolo Vian, in Italian, K'Osservatore Romano, news.va, 2012-10-14.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on the tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

COME IN ATTO DI ADORAZIONE PERPETVA
A GESV NEL SANTISSIMO SACRAMENTO
QVM NEL TEMPIO DEL SVO TITOLO VOLLE GIACERE
FINO ALLA RESVRREZIONE DELLA CARNE
GIOVANNI CARDINALE DIACONO MERCATI
BIBLIOTECARIO E ARCHIVISTA
DELLA S. ROMANA CHIESA
NATO A GAIDA, REGGIO EMILIA, IL 17 DICEMBRE 1866
MORTO NELLA CITTA DEL VATICANO
IL 22 AGOSTO 1957 IN PACE

I FRATELLI SILVIO GIVSEPPE E MARIANNA
E I PADRI DELL'ORDINE DELLA SANTA CROCE
DA LVI ACCOLTI IN QVESTA VENERANDA BASILICA
AFFINCHI NE SALISSERS OGNI GIORNO
A DIO LE PVBBLICHE LODI
POSERO A MEMORIA


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MERCIER, Desiré
(1851-1926)

Birth. November 21, 1851, château du Castegier, Braine-l'Alleud, archdiocese of Mechelen, Belgium. Fifth of the seven children of Paul-Léon Mercier and Anne-Marie Barbe Croquet. His baptismal name was Desiré-Félicien-François-Joseph. Three of his sisters became nuns and a brother, Léon, a physician.

Education. Studied catechism and elementary Latin in Braine-l'Alleud under Abbé Oliviers; Collège Saint-Rombaut, Mechele November 1863-1868 (classical studies); Minor Seminary of Mechelen, Mechelen, October 1, 1868-1870; Grand Seminary of Mechelen, Mechelen, October 1, 1870-1874 (philosophy and theology); received the ecclesiastical tonsure in the chapel of the seminary on the Octave of Pentecost 1871, from Charles André Anthonis, titular bishop of Costantina, headmaster of the seminary and auxiliary of Mechelen; temporary dean at the minor seminary, January 19, 1873 to the end of that academic year; University of Louvain, Louvain (licentiate in theology, July 1877; doctorate in philosophy); Dr. J.C. Charcot Clinic, Paris (courses in psychology).

Priesthood. Ordained, Holy Saturday April 4, 1874, Brussels, chapel of the papal nunciature, by Giacomo Cattani, titular archbishop of Ancira, nuncio in Belgium, assisted by Msgr. Vincenzo Vannutelli, auditor of the nunciature, future cardinal; Cardinal Victor-Auguste-Isidore Dechamps, C.SS.R., archbishop of Mechelen, was not free on that day and was not able to confer the ordination. Further studies, 1874-1877. Professor of philosophy and spiritual director of the Minor Seminary of Mechelen, 1877-1882. He was granted the doctorate in theology by apostolic brief of Pope Leo XIII, September 26, 1882. Professor of philosophy at the University of Louvain, 1882-1905. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 6, 1887. Director of the Superior Institute of Theology, University of Louvain, November 8, 1889 until 1892. President of Leo XIII Seminary, Mechelen, July 27, 1892 until 1906. Honorary canon of the cathedral chapter of Mechelen, August 12, 1882. Founded Revue Néoscolastique in Mechelen in 1894; he was its editor until 1906.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Mechelen, February 7, 1906. Consecrated, March 25, 1906, metropolitan cathedral of Saint-Rombaut, Mechelen, by Antonio Vico, titular archbishop of Filippi, nuncio in Belgium.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 15, 1907; received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, April 18, 1907. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Because of the exile of King Albert I and his government during the First World War, he was Belgium's wartime resistance leader acting as the focal point of opposition to the German occupation. Founder of the International Union of Social Studies, 1920. Under his direction, the Social Code of Mechelen was published in 1920. Organized "Mechelen Conversations," ecumenical reunions with Anglican leaders, 1921-1926 (1). Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. He opposed the emancipation of the Flemish movement. Promoter of the Neo-Thomist philosophy. He suffered from persistent dyspepsia, and in early January 1926, underwent surgery for a lesion of the stomach. During surgery, the anaesthetized cardinal even held a conversation with his surgeon. During his final illness, he was visited by King Albert and Queen Elizabeth, as well as by Lord Halifax, other personalities, and family members.

Death. January 23, 1926, after the operation, he entered a deep coma, around 2:00 pm., and died an hour later, in Brussels. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Mechelen.

Bibliography. Aubert, Roger ; Hendrickx, Jean-Pierre ; Pirotte, Jean ; Courtois, Luc. Le Cardinal Mercier (1851-1926) : un prélat d'avant-garde : publications du professeur Roger Aubert rassemblées ` l'occasion de ses 80 ans. Louvain-la-Neuve : Academia : Presses universitaires de Louvain, 1994; Baeuduin, Edouard. Le Cardinal Mercier. Tournai : Castermon, 1966. Boileau, David A. Cardinal Mercier: a memoir. Leuven : Peeters, 1996; Gade, John. The life of Cardinal Mercier. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons, 1935; Goyau, Georges. Cardinal Mercier. London : Longmans, Green, and Co., Ltd., 1926; Hauke, Manfred. Maria, "Mittlerin aller Gnaden" : die universale Gnadenmittlerschaft Mariens im theologischen und seelsorglichen Schaffen von Kardinal Mercier (1851-1926). Regensburg : Friedrich Pustet, 2004. (Mariologische Studien ; Bd. 17). Contents: Die Aktualität des Themas -- Die "Initialzündung" der Bewegung für eine dogmatische Definition der universalen Gnadenmittlerschaft Mariens -- Die geistige Vorbereitung im Gefolge des Immaculata-Dogmas von 1854 -- Der geistliche Impuls von Mutter Magdalena (Palmyre Ryckaert) -- Der Lebensweg Merciers vor der Ernennung zum Erzbischof -- Die Bedeutung des Ersten Weltkriegs -- Die Spannung zum Ökumenismus der Mechelner Gespräche -- Die marianischen Initiativen Kardinal Merciers -- Der Ausgang der Initiativen Merciers -- Ergebnis; Mercier, Désiré. Mémorial jubilaire du Cardinal Mercier, 1874-1924. Anvers : V. Van Dieren, 1924. Note : "Essai de bibliographie des oeuvres du Cardinal Désiré-Joseph Mercier" (p. 117-130); Mercier, Desiré. The voice of Belgium; being the war utterances of Cardinal Mercier. London : Burns and Oates, [1977]; Meseberg-Haubold, Ilse. Der Widerstand Kardinal Merciers gegen die deutsche Besetzung Belgiens, 1914-1918 : ein Beitrag zur politischen Rolle des Katholizimus im ersten Weltkrieg. Frankfurt am Main : Peter Lang, 1982. (Europäische Hochschulschriften. Reihe III, Geschichte und ihre Hilfswissenschaften ; Bd. 176 ; Publications universitaires européennes. Série III, Histoire, sciences auxiliaires de l'histoire ; vol. 176 ; European university studies. Series III, History and allied studies ; vol. 176; Variation: Europäische Hochschulschriften.; Reihe III ; Geschichte und ihre Hilfswissenschaften ; Bd. 176); Simon, Alois. Position philosophique du Cardinal Mercier: esquisse psychologique. Bruxelles : Palais des Académies, 1962.

Links. Biography, in English (Britannica); biography, in German; brief biographical data, in French, fifth entry on page; his portrait, bust, statue and brief biographical data, in Flemish; his role in WWI, in English; biography in Spanish; his portrait by Cecilia Beaux, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.C., United States of America; his image on a postal stamp and brief biographical data, in French; his image in another postal stamp from Belgium; his image on a stained-glass window, Bapst Library Boston College, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America; his tomb in Saint-Rumbold's Cathedral, Mechelen, Belgium; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) A series of conversations between prominent Roman Catholic and Anglican figures. The conversations were held between 1921 and 1926 in Malines, Belgium, under the presidency of Cardinal Mercier, at the instigation of Charles Lindley Wood, second viscount Halifax. Wood published the results in 1928 and 1930. All the conversations after the first took place with the knowledge of the pope and the archbishop of Canterbury. A wide range of agreements was reached on papal primacy of honor, real presence, eucharistic sacrifice, episcopacy, etc., which foreshadow the current discussions of the Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission (ARCIC). The conversations were held in in the archiepiscopal palace of Malines in 1921, 1923, 1925 and 1926, and also took part, for the Catholic Church, Msgr. Joseph Ernest van Roey, future cardinal; Ferdinand Étienne Portal, president of the Mission; Hyppolite Hemmer; Msgr. Pierre-Henri Batiffol; and for the Anglican Church, Walter Howard Frere, R.C.; Charles Gore, bishop; and Benjamin Kidd.


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MERRY DEL VAL Y ZULUETA, Rafael
(1865-1930)

Birth. October 10, 1865, Spanish embassy in London, archdiocese of Westminster, England. Son of Rafael Merry del Val, Spanish diplomat, and Josefina de Zulueta. Of a Spanish family that resided in England until 1878.

Education. Initial studies, Bayliss House, Slough; Jesuit School Notre Dame de Namur, Belgium; College of Saint-Michele, Brussels; College of St. Cuthbert, Ushaw, Durham, 1883; Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, 1885; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in philosophy, 1886; doctorate in theology, 1891; licentiate in canon law, 1891 (1)). Privy chamberlain supernumerary, June 8, 1887. Member of the papal delegation to the celebration of the golden jubilee of the reign of Queen Victoria of Great Britain, June 1887. Received the diaconate on May 27, 1888, church of the Daughters of S. Anna, Rome, from Cardinal Lucido Maria Parocchi, vicar general of Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 30, 1888, church of the Daughters of S. Anna, Rome, by Cardinal Lucido Maria Parocchi, vicar general of Rome. Secretary of Archbishop Luigi Galimberti in the nunciatures in Germany and Austria-Hungary, 1888-1889. Further studies, 1889-1891. Privy chamberlain de numero participantium, December 31, 1891. Member of the pontifical family, 1891-1898. Returned to the pontifical mission in Vienna, 1893. Secretary of Pontifical Commission to study validity of the Anglican ordinations, 1896; participated in the redaction of the bull Apostolicæ curæ. Apostolic delegate to Canada, March 10, 1897 until July 1898, to solve the question of the schools of Manitoba (2); he left Rome March 15, 1897, embarked in Liverpool on the 20th and arrived in Québec on March 30; he remained there for a short time, and then stopped in Trois-Rivières and in Montréal; he established himself in Ottawa, making a short visit to Winnipeg from June 3 to 17, 1897. He met the French-speaking bishops in Montréal on April 8; and the Ontarian bishops on May 11 in Toronto (3). Domestic prelate of His Holiness, March 13, 1897. Consultor of the S.C. of the Index from 1898. President of Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, October 21, 1899 to 1903.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nicea, April 19, 1900. Consecrated, May 6, 1900, church of S. Maria in via Monserrato, Rome, by Cardinal Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro, secretary of State, assisted by Edmond Stonor, titular archbishop of Trebisonda, and by Guglielmo Pifferi, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, papal sacristan. Papal representative to the coronation of King Edward VII of England, 1901. Provisional secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, July 21, 1903. Secretary of conclave of 1903. Pro-secretary of State, August 4, 1903 until November 12, 1903.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 9, 1903; received the red hat and the title of S. Prassede, November 12, 1903. Named secretary of State, prefect of the S.C. of Loreto, and prefect of Apostolic Palace, November 12, 1903; occupied the Secretariat of State until August 20, 1914. President of the Pontifical Commission for Administration of Wealth of Holy See, 1904. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1907. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 27, 1911 to December 2, 1912. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica and prefect of the S.C. of the Fabric of Saint Peter's basilica, January 12, 1914. Participated in conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Prefect of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, October 14, 1914 until his death. President of the Academy of the Catholic Religion, Rome, December 7, 1915. Papal legate to the Catechetical Congress, Umbria, 1920. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, December 16, 1920 to December 11, 1922. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Papal legate to the 7th centennial celebration of the death of Saint Francis, Assisi, September 25, 1926. Protector of the Venerable English College, Rome, May 6, 1929.

Death. February 26, 1930, after an appendicitis attack, Vatican City. The funeral took place in the patriarchal Vatican basilica on March 3, 1930. Buried in the grotto of the same basilica. On July 31, 1931, a new tomb, gift of the Spanish government, was dedicated by Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli, secretary of State (4). The process for his beatification was opened on February 26, 1953.

Bibliography. Buehrle, Marie-Cecilia. Rafael Cardinal Merry del Val. London : Sands and Co., 1957; Cenci, Pio. Il Cardinale Raffaele Merry del Va. Rome : Roberto Berrutti, 1933; Dal Gal, Girolamo. Il cardinale Merry del Val, segretario di Stato del Beato Pio X. Roma : Edizioni Paoline ,1953; Dal Gal, Girolamo. The spiritual life of Cardinal Merry del Val. Translated by Joseph A. McMullin. New York : Benziger Brothers, 1959; Dalpiaz, Vigilio. Attraverso una porpora. Il cardinale Merry del Val. Torino : R. Berruti, 1935; Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 64; Figueroa Ortega, Rafael. Una gloria de la iglesia, el Cardenal Rafael Merry del Val. Con un prólogo de Pio Cenci. Puebla, México : La Enseñanza, 1937; Einsiedeln, Benziger & Co. 1937; Javierre, José M. Merry del Val. Barcelona : Juan Flors, 1956; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 242-245; Merry del Val, Raphael. The spiritual diary of Raphael Cardinal Merry del Val. New York : Exposition Press, 1964; Mitchell, Hary. Le cardinal R. Merry del Val : Secretaire d'Etat de Saint Pie X. Paris : Paris-Livres, 1956; Quinn, Mary Bernetta. Give me souls; a life of Raphael Cardinal Merry del Val. Westminster, Md.: Newman Press, 1958; Torre, Giuseppe dalla. The Cardinal of charity : memorial discourse on the work and virtues of the late Cardinal Raphael Merry del Val. New York : Paulist Press, 1932.

Links. Biography by Johannes Grohe, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; his photo in Canada, third on page, Peel Digital Library; photographs, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his photograph, Patrick Power Library, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, NS, Canada; A Profile of Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val, Secretary of State of Pius X by Gianpaolo Romanato, in Italian, CatholicCulture.org.

(1) LeBlanc, Dictionnaire bigraphique des évêques catholiques du Canada, p. 242, indicates that he obtained the doctorate at the Gregorian University, Rome, but Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 411, says that he obtained it at the University of Ottawa, Canada, to which Fr. Leblanc adds that the degree was honoris cause.
(2) According to LeBlanc, Dictionnaire bigraphique des évêques catholiques du Canada, p. 243, the Manitobaine laws of 1870 removed the school rights of the Catholic minority and abrogated the official status of French. In 1896, the federal government, directed by the Conservative Sir Charles Tupper, had been prevented, because of the systematic obstruction of the Liberal party, from adopting the law répatratrice, and had to call elections. They were won, on June 23, in spite of the intervention of the bishops Québécois, by the Liberals of Sir Wilfrid Laurier, who concluded, in November, the agreement called Laurier-Greenway, with the government of Manitoba. The agreement, while not restoring separate schools, authorized religious and bilingual teaching under restrictive conditions, but the nationalists were not satisfied and caused a division within the Church and, at the request of the federal government, an apostolic delegate was sent. The federal government specified its preference to the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith: an emissary of English culture who spoke French and knew the British institutions.
(3) According to LeBlanc, Dictionnaire bigraphique des évêques catholiques du Canada pp. 243-244, his nomination strongly displeased the Québécois episcopate, which saw in it a lack of confidence on the part of the Holy See. The Canadian-French bishops received him rather coldly and were far from eager to collaborate with him. The prospects for the two sides to reconcile were not very good. The delegate, imbued of the hope (and of the illusion) prevalent in the Roman Curia at the time, hoped to bring back the Anglo-Saxon world into the flock of the church; he judged that it was better to prevent raising protests of fanaticism and sacrificing a small minority of French language than run the risk of reprisals against the Catholic minorities in Ontario and in les Maritime, which were of English language. He believed that the problem was not about a conflict between two political parties, but between Catholics and Protestants; that the attitude of the Conservative Party had been hypocritical, electoralist and more guilty that the Liberal Party, leaving the problem to the courts, and being slow in adopting a reparation law. The bishops for their part, thought that the delegate was too reconciling and that he had been deceived by promises, which were to confirm the future, because no legislative measurement was introduced, but only administrative arrangements, and the temporary solution of Laurier would become permanent. They estimated that the delegate understood the historical context very badly, defended the constitutional rights, and argued that to yield on this question would possibly produce the disappearance of the rights of the minorities in North and the West, which indeed was carried out. Presented by the most radical as anglophile and even hostile to the French culture, even if he spoke French as well as English and Italian, he was completely surrounded by the Irish bishops and the governmental mediums, met First Minister Laurier, was received by Governor General Lord Aberdeen, was celebrated by the liberal government of Ontario, and concluded that the adversaries of the agreement Greenway-Laurier (Msgr. Langevin and the majority of the bishops Québécois) were too close to the Conservative Party and lacked political direction. The Vatican, by the encyclical Affari vos of December 8, 1897, disapproved the agreement as imperfect because it promoted the neutral schools, while recommending to the Catholics to accept these partial satisfactions. The Canadian-French bishops had finally to subject themselves. The majority of the historians recognize that the mission of Msgr. Merry del Val paved the way for the establishment of a permanent delegation in Canada, which he recommended as the best means of uniting the episcopate and of establishing harmonious relationships with the civil authorities.
(4) He had written "On my tomb is to be only my name and the words 'Da Mihi Animas Coetera Tolle', the aspiration of my entire life". According to his wishes, his sarcophagus has the following simple text :

RAPHAEL CARD. MERRY DEL VAL
DA MIHI ANIMAS COETERA TOLLE


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MEYER, Albert Gregory
(1903-1965)

Birth. March 9, 1903, Milwaukee, United States of America. Son of Peter James Meyer, for many years a foreman at the Chain Belt Company, and Mathilda Thelen, from a family of German immigrants. One of his sisters joined the School Sisters of Notre Dame taking the name of Mary Alberta. He was cousin of Dominic Meyer, O.F.M.Cap., who for many years served as English and German speaking secretary to Father Pio of Pietrelcina, O.F.M.Cap., future saint known as "Padre Pio".

Education. Initial studies at St. Mary's parochial school, Milwaukee, of the School Sisters of Notre Dame; afterward, he attended for a year the Jesuit Marquette Academy (later named Marquette University High School); in 1917 he entered Saint Francis Seminary, Milwaukee; then, he was sent to Rome to reside at the Pontifical North American College, and study at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," where he obtained a doctorate in theology. After going to Milwaukee in the summer of 1927, he returned to Rome in that same year to study at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, obtaining a licentiate in in Holy Scriptures in 1927 and the certificate of candidatus ad laurem in 1928; during this stay in Rome, he resided at Collegio Germanico di Santa Maria dell'Anima.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 11, 1926, church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, by Cardinal Basilio Pompilj, vicar of Rome. Returned to Milwaukee during the summer of 1927 and celebrated his first mass at home in the chapel of the School Sisters of Notre Dame, where he had been an acolyte during elementary school days. Further studies in Rome, 1927-1930. Pastoral ministry in St. Joseph parish, Waukesha, archdiocese of Milwaukee, 1930-1931. Faculty member of Saint Francis Seminary, Milwaukee, 1931-1937; taught religion, Greek, Latin, Christian archeology, dogmatic theology and Sacred Scriptures; its rector, 1937-1946; pastoral ministry among the Italian immigrants as well as chaplain of "Serra Club". Domestic prelate of His Holiness, February 14, 1938.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Superior, February 18, 1946. Consecrated, April 11, 1946, cathedral of Saint John, Milwaukee, by Moses Elias Kiley, archbishop of Milwaukee, assisted by Aloisius Joseph Muench, bishop of Fargo, and by William Patrick O'Connor, bishop of Madison. His episcopal motto was Adveniat regnum tuum. During his episcopate in Superior, he issued his "Programs of Instructions" designed to orient the priests of the diocese toward making the sermon a major part of their mission; he continued the programs in the archdiocese of Milwaukee. During those years, he became a skillful and enthusiastic fisherman. Promoted to metropolitan see of Milwaukee, July 21, 1953; he was installed in St. John's metropolitan cathedral on the following September 24. Transferred to metropolitan see of Chicago, September 19, 1958. His installation took place on November 16 at Holy Name cathedral.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 14, 1959; received the red hat and the title of S. Cecilia, December 17, 1959. Attended the first three sessions of the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1964; member of the board of presidency, 1963-1964. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI.

Death. April 9, 1965 (1), from a heart attack after an operation to remove a malignant brain tumor in Mercy Hospital, Chicago. Buried in the cemetery of Saint Mary of the Lake Seminary, Mundelein, archdiocese of Chicago.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, pp. 106-107; "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1966, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1966, p. 103*; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 202; Shuster, George Nauman. Albert Gregory Cardinal Meyer. Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press, 1964. (The Men who make the council, 11).

Link. Photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of Milwaukee; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted except "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1966, p. 103*, which indicates that he died on April 7, 1965.


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MICARA, Clemente
(1879-1965)

Birth. December 24, 1879, Frascati, Italy. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Ludovico Micara, O.F.M.Cap. (1824).

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome, while residing at Almo Collegio Capranica; then, at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; later, at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome; and finally, at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, where he studied diplomacy.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 20, 1902, Rome. Further studies, 1902-1904. Staff member of the Secretariat of State, 1904-1909. Secretary of the nunciature in Argentina, 1909-1915. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, January 5, 1910; reappointed, December 25, 1914. Auditor of the nunciature in Belgium, April 16, 1915; in the nunciature in Austria, 1916-1919. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, August 21, 1918. Special papal envoy to Czechoslovakia, 1919-1920.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Apamea di Siria, May 7, 1920. Named nuncio in Czechoslovakia, May 17, 1920. Consecrated, August 8, 1920, chapel of the Bohemian College, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, secretary of State, assisted by Antonio Valbonesi, titular bishop of Memfi, and by Karl Kašpar, titular bishop of Betsaida, auxiliary of Hradec-Králové. His episcopal motto was In Domino confido. Nuncio in Belgium and internuncio in Luxemburg, May 30, 1923. Extraordinary papal envoy to consign the Golden Rose to Queen Elizabeth of Belgium, December 10, 1925. A talented violoncello player, he used to participate in musical events organized by Queen Elizabeth at her royal castle. Resided in Rome during Belgium's occupation by the Nazi regime, 1940-1944. Resumed his nunciature in Belgium, 1944-1946.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, February 22, 1946. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Velletri, retaining in commendam ad nutum Summi Pontificis his title, June 13, 1946 (1). Prefect of the S.C. of Rites, 1947 (or 1948) to November 11, 1950. Papal legate to the 7th centennial celebration of Cologne's cathedral, July 25, 1948; to the Bolivarian Eucharistic Congress, Cali, Colombia, January 6, 1949. Prefect of the S.C. of Religious, November 11, 1950 to January 17, 1953. Pro-prefect of the S.C. of Rites, November 11, 1950 to January 26, 1953. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 13, 1951. Vicar general of Rome and its district, January 26, 1951. Papal legate to the 10th National Eucharistic Congress, Namur, Belgium, June 2, 1951; to the 15th National Eucharistic Congress, Nîmes, France, September 15, 1951. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 28, 1960 until January 16, 1961. Attended the first three sessions of the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1964. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. During his tenure as vicar general of Rome, he founded over one hundred new parishes and took care of the construction of several others.

Death. March 11, 1965, after a long illness, Rome. Buried in the basilica of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome.

Link. His photographs, portraits and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) The motu proprio Suburbicariis sedibus, issued by Pope John XXIII on April 11, 1962, established that the cardinal bishops would have no ordinary jurisdiction over their suburbicarian sees. These dioceses were to be ruled by bishops with complete and independent ordinary power; cardinal bishops would only retain the title of the see. The disposition applied only to the cardinal bishops appointed in 1961 and later. The others, Cardinals Eugène Tisserant, Clemente Micara, Benedetto Aloisi Masella and Giuseppe Pizzardo, retained the denomination of bishops of their sees. On November 17, 1966, they were listed as bishops of the title of their suburbicarian sees in Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 1967, except Cardinal Micara, who had died in 1965.


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MIMMI, Marcello
(1882-1961)

Birth. July 18, 1882, Poggio di Castel San Pietro, archdiocese of Bologna, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Bologna, Bologna.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 23, 1905, Bologna. Pastoral ministry and faculty member of the Seminary of Bologna, 1905-1930. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, November 19, 1919; reappointed, April 3, 1922. Rector of the Regional Seminary of Romagna.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Crema, June 30, 1930. Consecrated, July 25, 1930, metropolitan cathedral of Bologna, by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Nasalli Rocca di Corneliano, archbishop of Bologna, assisted by Ettore Lodi, titular bishop of Messene, auxiliary of Bologna, and by Giovanni Franzini, bishop of Carpi. Promoted to metropolitan see of Bari, July 31, 1933. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, December 6, 1936. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Naples, August 30, 1952; took possession of the see on the following December 7.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Callisto, January 15, 1953. Papal legate to the Regional Plenary Council of Salerno, August 15, 1955; to the 15th National Eucharistic Congress, Lecce, Italy, April 18, 1956. Named secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, December 15, 1957. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, June 9, 1958. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Papal legate to the 16th National Eucharistic Congress, Catania, Sicily, Italy, August 2, 1959. Papal legate to the First Interamerican Marian Congress, Buenos Aires, Argentina, October 21, 1960.

Death. March 6, 1961, of kidney complications following surgery for a perforated ulcer, in Rome. Buried in the cathedral of Sabina, Magliano Sabina.

Bibliography. Mimmi, Marcello. Marcello Mimmi e la svolta pastorale moderna della chiesa di Bari : 1933-1952. Bari : Edipuglia, 1995. (Per la storia della Chiesa di Bari, 12). Responsibility : a cura di Salvatore Palese, Francesco Sportelli.

Links. Biography, in Italian; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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MINDSZENTY, József
(1892-1975)

Birth. March 29, 1892, Csehimindsent, diocese of Szombathely, Hungary. Son of János Pehm and Borbála Kovács. He had five siblings, three of which died in infancy; two sisters survived. He took the name of his native town as his last name.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Szombathely.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 12, 1915, Szombathely, by János Mikesde Zabola, bishop of Szombathely. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Szombathely, 1915-1944. Arrested during the Communist revolt of Bela Kun, 1919.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Veszprém, March 3, 1944. Consecrated, March 25, 1944, metropolitan cathedral basilica of Esztergom, by Cardinal Jusztinian Séredi, O.S.B., archbishop of Esztergom, assisted by Lajos Shvoy, bishop of Székesfehérvár, and by József Pétery, bishop of Vác. His episcopal motto was Pannonia sacra. Imprisoned by the Nazi regime, 1944-1945. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of Esztergom, October 2, 1945.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, February 22, 1946. He continued to use the feudal title of prince-primate (hercegprímás) even after the use of nobility, peerage and royal titles were entirely outlawed by the 1946 Parliament. Condemned to life imprisonment by the Communist regime, March 1949. Freed by the Hungarian revolt, October 1956. In political asylum in the United States of America embassy, Budapest, 1956-1971. Did not participate in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Did not participate in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Left Hungary, September 28, 1971. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, March 29, 1972. Considering the pastoral problems of the archdiocese, Pope Paul VI asked him to resign its government; the see was declared vacant and an apostolic administrator ad nutum Sanctae Sedis appointed, February 2, 1974; the apostolic administrator named was László Lékai, titular bishop of Giro di Tarasio, until then apostolic administrator, ad nutum Sanctæ Sedis, of Veszprém.

Death. May 6, 1975, at 2:14 p.m., of heart failure, in a Vienna hospital, about four hours after undergoing prostate surgery. Buried, temporarily, Hungarian chapel, Shrine of Mariazell. His body was transferred to the metropolitan and primatial cathedral of Esztergom on May 4, 1991.

Beatification. Beatification process started by the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints, October 22, 1996.

Bibliography. Cardinal Mindszenty speaks ; authorized white book, pub. by order of Joseph Cardinal Mindszenty. Introduction by Akos Zombory. New York : Longmans, Green, 1949. Notes: A translation of papers selected from those sent out of Hungary by Cardinal Mindszenty. A similar publication in German was issued under the title: Weissbuch; vier Jahre Kirchenkampf in Ungarn; Fabian, Bela. Cardinal Mindszenty. New York : C. Scribner's Sons, 1949; Lesourd, Paul. Le cardinal Mindszenty; primat de Hongrie. Paris : France-Empire, 1972. Note: At head of title: Héros, confesseur, et martyr de la foi; Mindszenty, József. Memoirs. Translation of Erinnerungen. New York : Macmillan Publishing Co., 1974; Mindszenty, József. Mindszenty-Dokumentation. 2 vols. Bearbeitet und übersetzt von Josef Vecsey und Johann Schwendemann. [s.l] : Sonderausgabe im Selbstverlag der Verfasser, 1956- ; Pölten : Pressvereins-Druckerei. Contents: 1. Kardinal Mindszenty warnt -- 2. Ungarns Kirche im Kampf; Shuster, George N. In Silence I Speak. The Story of Cardinal Mindszenty. Today and of Hungary's "New Order". With the research assistance of Dr. Tibor Horanyi. New York : Farrar, Straus and Cudahy, 1956; Swift, Stephen. The cardinal's story. New York : Macmillan, 1949; Vecsey, Joseph. Mindszenty the man. St. Louis : Cardinal Mindszenty Foundation, 1972; Tusor, Péter. Purpura Pannonica : az esztergomi "bíborosi szék" kialakulásának elozminyei a 17. században = Purpura Pannonica : the "Cardinalitial See" of Strigonium and its Antecedens in the 17th Century. Budapest : Róma : Research Institute of Church History at Péter Pázmány Catholic University, 2005. (Collectanea Vaticana Hungariae, Classis I, vol. 3), pp. 210 and 330; Vecsey, József ; Varga, László; Mindszenty, József. Kardinal Mindszenty : Beiträge zu seinem siebzigsten Geburtstag. München : Donau Verlag, 1962.

Links. Biography, in English (Britannica); photographs and biography, in English, Wikipedia; The Life and "Crimes" of Cardinal Jozsef Mindszenty by Alice Rethinger Watson, in English, CatholicCulture.org; Cardinal Mindszenty Foundation, in English; and photographs, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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MINORETTI, Carlo Dalmazio
(1861-1938)

Birth. September 17, 1861, Cogliate San Dalmazio, archdiocese of Milan, Italy. Seventh of the elevn children of Fabio Minoretti and Giuseppina Camagni. He was baptized on the same day of his brith.

Education. Studied at Collegio di S. Martino in Mozzate, where his uncle, Don Antonio, was the vice-rector; then, at the Seminary of Pietro, in Seveso; later, at the Seminary of Monza, Milan; and finally, at the Pontifical Gregorian University, where he earned a doctorate in theology..

Priesthood. Ordained, December 22, 1883, Milan, by Luigi Nazari dei Conti di Calabiana, archbishop of Milan. Celebrated his first mass on Christmas Day 1883, in the old parish church of S. Giovanni Battista. Ascribed to the Congregation of the Oblates of S. Carlo of Milan. Further studies in Rome. Professor at the Seminary of Poleggio, Switzerland, for five years; and later, in 1888, professor of philosophy at the Episcopal Seminary of Lugano; and pastor of the parish of Gandria, also in Switzerland. Professor of philosophy at the Seminary of Monza, Milan, 1893-1907. Professor of theology and sociology at the Major Seminary of Milan, 1907-1909; and the Seminary of Lodi for three years. President of the Social Weeks of the Italian Catholics. Provost of the collegiate church of Seregno from 1909 until 1916. Synodal examiner of the archdiocese of Milan. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Milan, 1909-1915.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Crema, December 6, 1915. Consecrated, January 16, 1916, Seregno, by Cardinal Andrea Ferrari, archbishop of Milan, assisted by Pietro Viganò, titular bishop of Aezani, and by Giovanni Mauri, titular bishop of Famagusta, auxiliary of Milan. His episcopal motto was Per Jesum ad Mariam. Enthroned on the following April 23. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Genoa, January 16, 1925; enthroned on the following April 22. Apostolic administrator of Crema from May 1925 until January 1926.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1929; received the red hat and the title of S. Eusebio, December 19, 1929. Named member of the SS. CC. Consistorial, Discipline of the Sacraments and Rites on December 19, 1929. Took possession of his title on the following December 20. Papal legate to the centennial celebration of Our Lady of Mercy, Savona, Italy, March 1, 1936. He built the Minor Seminary in Chiappeto, Genoa. On February 11, 1938, while speaking about the Immaculate of Lourdes to the Associazione UNITALSI, he felt indisposed. For a month, he was ill and getting worse by the day. As soon as the pope heard of his illness, he asked that daily bulletins should be sent to him, and besides his telegraphed message, the pontiff sent Monsignor Carlo Confalonieri, of the Papal Household, to Genoa to convey orally his best wishes and sincerest prayers for the Cardinal's recovery. He published a number of studies on social and economic questions.

Death. March 13, 1938, from cardiac exhaustion and advanced arteriosclerosis, in Genoa; on March 5, he had received the Viaticum in the presence of his cathedral chapter, the rectors of seminaries, and his private secretary, Monsignor Francesco Marchesani. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Genoa. There is a street and an oratory named after him in his native town; and another one in Seregno.

Bibliography. Bonaventura da Dolcedo. Orazione funebre in commemorazione di s. em.za rev.ma il sig. card. Carlo Dalmazio Minoretti arcivescovo di Genova presidente dell'Opera pia. S.l. : s.n., 1938. Responsibility: pronunciata dal r.do p. Bonaventura da Dolcedo nel trigesimo della morte. Note: In testa al front.: Opera pia De Ferrari Brignole Sale in Genova, (Ospedali Galliera); De Simone, Lazzaro. "Nella Cattedra di san Siro : il cardinale arcivescovo Carlo Dalmazio Minoretti ; Il cardinale Pietro Boetto nuovo arcivescovo di Genova" in Rivista Municipale.di Genova, April 1938; "Em. Minoretti (Charles-Dalmace)" in "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1930, p. 114; Minoretti, Carlo Dalmazio. Appunti di economia sociale. Milano : Premiata libreria religiosa di Giuseppe Palma , 1902; Minoretti, Carlo Dalmazio. Ideali umani. A cura di Lorenzo Caboara. Brescia : Paideia , 1963; Per la messa d'oro di sua eminenza reverendissima il cardinale arcivescovo Carlo Dalmazio Minoretti. Genova : Archidiocesi Genovese, 1933; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, p. 145; Veneruso, Danilo. Azione pastorale e vita religiosa del laicato genovese durante l'episcopato del cardinale Carlo Dalmazio Minoretti (1925-1938). Genova : Nella sede della Società ligure di storia patria, 1990. (Atti della Societ` ligure di storia patria. Nuova serie).

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; Il Cardinale Minoretti. Come un vecchio scalatore di montangna, , unaquiesinveritate.blogspot.com; his portrait, arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.


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MIRANDA Y GOMEZ, Miguel Darío
(1895-1986)

Birth. December 19, 1895, León, México. Son of Cirpriano Miranda and María de las Nieves Gómez.

Education. Seminary of León, León; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 28, 1918, Rome. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of León and faculty member of its seminary, 1919-1925; 1929-1937. Director of the National Social Secretariat, 1925-1926. Imprisoned and exiled during the religious persecution, 1926-1929.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tulacingo, October 1, 1937. Consecrated, shrine of Guadalupe, December 8, 1937, by Leopoldo Ruíz Flores, archbishop of Morelia, assisted by José Ignacio Márquez Toriz, titular archbishop of Bosporo, coadjutor with right of succession of Puebla de los Ángeles, and by Maximino Ruiz y Flores, titular bishop of Derbe. Participated in the V Interamerican Congress of Catholic Education, Colegio de Belén, La Habana, Cuba, January 1954. Promoted to titular archbishop of Selimbria and appointed coadjutor of México, December 20, 1955. Transferred to the metropolitan see of México, June 28, 1956. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. President of the Latin American Episcopal Council (CELAM), 1958-1963. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria di Guadalupe a Monte Mario, April 30, 1969. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, December 19, 1975. Papal legate to the dedication of Our Lady of Guadalupe's basilica, México City, October 12, 1976. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, July 19, 1977.

Death. March 15, 1986, León, México. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of México.

Links. Biography, in Spanish; biography, in English; biography, in Spanish; El cardenal Miguel Darmo Miranda y la mzsica by Felipe Monroy G., in Desde la Fe, Semanario Católico de Información, Arquidiócesis Primada de México, 10.08.2008; and Instituto de Liturgia, Música y Arte "Cardenal Miranda", in Spanish.


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MISTRANGELO, Sch.P., Alfonso Maria
(1852-1930)

Birth. April 26, 1852, Savona, Italy. Received the sacrament of confirmation, May 17, 1859.

Education. Seminary of Savona, Savona. Joined the Congregation of the Clerics Poor Regular of the Mother of God of the Pious Schools (Piarists), province of Liguria, October 23, 1870; simple profession, 1871, province of Liguria; solemn profession, 1874. Piarist houses of study, 1870-1877. Received the insignias of the clerical character and the minor orders, February 28, 1875; subdiaconate, May 13, 1875; diaconate, July 18, 1875.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 17, 1877, Aquis. Faculty member in Piarist schools of Finalborgo, Carcare and Ovada; rector of the Piarist school in Ovada from 1880.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Pontremoli, January 16, 1893. Consecrated, January 22, 1893, church of S. Pantaleone, Rome, by Cardinal Lucido Maria Parocchi, bishop of Albano, vicar general of His Holiness for the City of Rome, assisted by Antonio Maria Grasselli, O.F.M. Conv., titular archbishop of Colosse, secretary of the S.C. of the Apostolic Visitation, and by Luigi Maria Canestrari, titular bishop of Terme, rector of Seminario Pio and canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Florence, June 19, 1899. Superior general of his congregation, 1900-1904.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 6, 1915; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria degli Angeli, December 9, 1915. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI.

Death. November 7, 1930, of gastric poisoning, Florence. Buried in cemetery of Trespiano (1), Florence.

Link. Photographs, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 16. Annuario Pontifico per l'anno 1930, p. 80, says that he was buried in the cemetery of Soffiano.


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MONDUZZI, Dino
(1922-2006)

Birth. April 2, 1922, Brisighella, diocese of Faenza (now Faenza-Modigliana), Italy. Son of Secondo Damiano Monduzzi and Ida Ragazzini.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Faenza (ginnasiale, liceale and theological studies); and at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome (licentiate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 22, 1945, Brisighella, by Giuseppe Battaglia, bishop of Faenza; celebrated his first mass on July 23, 1945 in archpresbyteral church of Brisighella. Further studies, Rome. Collaborator in the Catholic Action social missions in several Italian regions, especially, Calabria and Sardinia. Spiritual assistant to the agrarian reform zones of Fucino, 1954-1959. From May 1959 to 1967, entered the service of the Holy See as adjunct, and later, secretary for the audiences in the Office of the Master of the Papal Chamber. Privy chamberlain supernumerary of His Holiness, March 24, 1961; June 28, 1966; title changed to chaplain of His Holiness, March 28, 1968. From 1967-1986, secretary, and later regent of the Pontifical Household, Vatican City. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, June 6, 1970.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Capri and appointed prefect of the Pontifical Household, December 18, 1986. Consecrated, January 6, 1987, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by José Tomás Sánchez, archbishop emeritus of Nueva Segovia, secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. In the same ceremony was consecrated Gilberto Agustoni, titular archbishop of Caorle, secretary of the Congregation for the Clergy, another future cardinal. His episcopal motto was Patientiam praeficere caritati. As prefect of the Papal Household, he was in charge of, among other things, the pontifical ceremonies, excluding their liturgical aspect, and the private and public audiences of the pope. He participated in the preparation of 130 pastoral pilgrimages of Pope John Paul in Italy and 268 pastoral visits to Roman parishes. He occupied the post until his promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Sebastiano al Palatino, February 21, 1998. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, April 2, 2002. He was a chain smoker, known to rush out of papal audiences to light up a cigarette.

Death. October 13, 2006, at 1 a.m., after a long and painful illness, Vatican City. Exposed in the church of S. Stefano degli Abisini, Vatican City. On Monday October 16, at 5 p.m., in the altar of the Chair of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, took place the exequial liturgy presided by the pope. Cardinals Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, and Roger Etchegaray, sub-dean, were the main concelebrants. On Tuesday October 17, 2006, at 3 p.m., a funeral mass was celebrated in the collegiate church of Brisighella. His remains were buried in the tomb of his family in the cemetery of Brisighella.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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MONTINI, Giovanni Battista
(1897-1978)

Birth. September 26, 1897, Concesio, diocese of Brescia, Italy. Son of Giorgio Montini and Giuditta Alghisi. He was baptized in the parish church of S. Antonio in Concesio and received the names Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Brescia; at the Seminary of Milan; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome; and at the University of Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 29, 1920, Brescia, by Giacinto Gaggia, bishop of Brescia. Further studies, 1920-1923. Staff member of the nunciature in Poland, 1923. Staff member of the Secretariat of State, 1924-1937. National ecclesiastical assistant of the university section of the Italian Catholic Action, 1925-1933. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, October 19, 1925. Faculty member of the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, 1931-1937. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, July 8, 1931. Substitute of the Secretariat of State and secretary of ciphering, December 16, 1937. Referendary prelate of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, September 24, 1936. Protonotary apostolic, May 10, 1938. Pro-secretary of State for Ordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, November 29, 1952 until November 1, 1954. In the consistorial allocution of January 12, 1953, Pope Pius XII announced that his two most immediate collaborators (Monsignors Domenico Tardini and Giovanni Battista Montini) had declined the promotion to the cardinalate.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Milan, November 1, 1954. Consecrated, December 12, 1954, patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Eugène Tisserant, bishop of Ostia and Porto e Santa Rufina, dean of Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by Giacinto Tredici, bishop of Brescia, and by Domenico Bernareggi, titular bishop of Famagosta and vicar capitular of Milan. Pope Pius XII was going to consecrate him but could not do it because of ill health. His episcopal motto was In nomine Domini.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti, December 18, 1958. Attended the first session of the Second Vatican Council, 1962. Participated in conclave of 1963 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected, June 21, 1963; took name of Paul VI. Crowned, June 30, 1963, by Cardinal Alfredo Ottaviani, protodeacon of S. Maria in Domnica. He continued the Second Vatican Council, which had been automatically suspended because of the death of Pope John XXIII. He issued the motu proprio Ad purpuratorum patrum on February 11, 1965, in which he stipulated that Eastern-rite patriarchs incorporated to the Sacred College of Cardinals would not belong to the clergy of Rome and consequently no title or deaconry should be assigned to them. On February 24, 1965, he issued the motu proprio Sacro Cardinalium Consilio, by which he established that the dean and sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals should be elected to their posts by and from among the cardinal bishops instead of succeeding by order of seniority as had been the practice for centuries and as was legally stipulated by canon 237, paragraph one, of the Code of Canon Law of 1917. This election by the cardinal bishops requires papal confirmation to be valid. By his motu proprio Ingravescentem aetatem, dated November 21, 1970, he decided that cardinals older than eighty years were deprived of their right to elect the pope and to participate in the conclave; and that cardinals heading dicasteries in the Roman Curia were asked to submit their resignation to the pope upon reaching 75 years of age and ceased as members of the same at 80. Finally, he promulgated the apostolic constitution Romano Pontifici eligendo, of October 1, 1975, issuing norms for the College of Cardinals during a vacancy of the Holy See and the election of the Pope. He created one hundred forty three cardinals in six consistories.

Death. August 6, 1978, of a massive myocardial infarction and complications from a pulmonary edema; Castelgandolfo, Italy. He was buried on August 12, 1978 in the grotto of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Beatification. The diocesan process for cause of beatification and canonization opened May 11, 1993; it was closed March 18, 1999. The promulgation of the decree concerning his heroic virtues was authorized by Pope Benedict XVI on December 20, 2012, thus receiving the title of Venerable Servant of God.

Bibliography. Adornato, Giselda. Paolo VI. Il coraggio della modernità. Cinisello Balsamo : San Paolo, 2008; Barret, William. Shepherd of Mankind. Garden City, N.Y. : Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1964; Cazzani, Eugenio. Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano. Nuova ed./ a cura di Angelo Majo, 2. ed. Milano : Massimo : NED, 1996. Note: Originally published 1955, now enlarged and updated, p. 292-295; Clancy, John G. Apostle for our time. Pope Paul VI. New York : P.J. Kenedy & Sons, 1963; Chiron, Yves. Paul VI, le pape écartelé. Paris : Perrin, 1993; Giovanni Battista Montini, Arcivescovo di Milano e il Concilio Ecumenico Vaticano II : preparazione e primo periodo : colloquio internazionale di studio, Milano 23-24-25 settembre 1983. Brescia : Istituto Paolo VI ; Roma : Edizioni Studium Vita Nova, 1985. (Pubblicazioni dell'Istituto Paolo VI ; 3). Note: Bibliografia sull'episcopato milanese del Card. G.B. Montini (1955-1963)": p. 424-432; González, J.L. & Péres, T. Paul VI. English Version by Edward L. Heston, C.S.C. Boston : St. Paul Editions, 1964; Hatch, Alden. Pope Paul VI. New York : Random House, 1966; Hebblethwaite, Peter. Paul VI : The first modern pope. New York/Mahwah : Paulist Press, 1993; Majo, Angelo. Storia della chiesa ambrosiana. 5 vols. 2nd ed. Milano : NED, 1983-1986, V, 35, 50, 55, 78, 89, 103, 105, 106, 109-129, 131-133, 136, 138, 140, 158, 160, 164 and 173; Montini, Giorgio ; Montini, Giovanni Battista. Affetti familiari spiritualit` e politica. Carteggio 1900-1942. A cura di Luciano Pazzaglia. Brescia ; Roma: Istituto Paolo VI; Edizioni Studium, 2009. (Quaderni dell'Istituto, 30); Paul VI et la modernité dans l'Église: Actes du colloque organisé par l'École française de Rome (Rome 2-4 juin 1983). Rome : École française de Rome, 1984. Contributing authors include Yves Congar, René Laurentin, Paul Cardinal Poupard, and many others; Tornielli, Andrea. Paolo VI. L'audacia di un papa. Milano : Mondadori, 2009; Vaccaro, Luciano and Giselda Adornato. Montini. "Ha giunta un'ora nuova...". Introduction by Cardinal Dionigi Tettamanzi. Milan : Centro Ambrosiano, 2004; Versace, Eliana. Montini l'apertura a sinistra. Il falso mito del vescovo progressista. Milano : Guerini e Associati, 2007; Vian, Giovanni Maria. "Paolo VI.' Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 657-674; Vian, Nello. Anni e opere di Paolo VI. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 1978.

Links. Photograph, coat of arms and biography, in English, The Vatican; photographs, video and biography by The Most Rev. Edward Louis Heston, C.S.C., in English (Britannica); biography by Giovanni Maria Vian, in Italian, Enciclopedia dei papi, Treccani; his episcopal lineageby Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Milano (III-XXI secolo), in Italian, archdiocese of Milan; Arcivescovo Montini: La Grande Missione di Milano del 1956, in Italian, You Tube, Apr 2, 2008; Elezione Papa Paolo VI (1963), in Italian, You Tube; Paul VI: The Pope of Suffering Humanity, by Andrea Tornielli,, Vatican Insider, 06/9/2011; Giovanni Paolo I presto beato La svolta? Un miracolo 'pugliese' by Antonino D'Anna, Martedì, Affaritaliani.it, 3 luglio 2012 - 12:54:00; Juan Pablo I y Pablo VI podrman subir a los altares durante Aqo de la Fe, ACIPrensa, 10 Jul. 12 / 06:09 am; Cardinal Saraiva Martins optimistic about the beatification of Paul VI and John Paul I, Rome Reports, 2012-07-20 19:09:47; Montini, trovato il diario del suo viaggio in Africa, Chiesa, Avvenire, 4 agosto 2012; Carta a Pablo VI (falleció el 6 de agosto de 1978), por Jesús de las Heras Muela, Ecclesia, posted 5 agosto, 2012 by Editor in Blog del director; A personal memoir of Pope Paul VI on anniversary of his death, Vatican Radio, news.va, 2012-08-06; Conférence internationale sur le pape Paul VI et l'Afrique, InfoCatho.be, mardi, 07 août 2012; L'omelia di mons. Beschi per i 35 anni dalla morte di Paolo VI by Francesco Beschi, bishop of Bergamo, in Italian, Avvenire, 6 agosto 2013; Paolo VI, «la dolce e confortante gioia di evangelizzare» by Marco Roncalli, in Italian, Avvenire, 6 agosto 2013; Paul VIs "miracle" receives medical approval, Vatican Insider, 13/12/2013; Paolo VI in Terra Santa: 50 anni fa l'inizio dei viaggi papali, by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 29/12/2013.


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MOONEY, Edward Aloysius
(1882-1958)

Birth. May 9, 1882, Mount Savage, archdiocese of Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America. From a family of coal miners. Son of Thomas Mooney and Sarah Heneghan.

Education. Saint Charles College, Ellicott City; Saint Mary's Seminary, Baltimore; Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 10, 1909, Rome. Faculty member of Saint Mary's Seminary, Cleveland, 1909-1916. Principal of the Cathedral Latin School, Cleveland, 1916-1922. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Cleveland, 1922-1923. Spiritual director of the North American College, Rome, 1923-1926. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 3, 1925.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Irenopoli and appointed apostolic delegate in Eastern Indies, January 21, 1926. Consecrated, January 31, 1926, chapel of the Pontifical North American College, Rome, by Cardinal Willem Marinus van Rossum, C.SS.R., prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, assisted by Francesco Marchetti-Selvaggiani, titular archbishop of Seleucia in Isauria, president of the Pontifical Work for the Propagation of the Faith, and by Giulio Serafini, titular bishop of Lampsaco, secretary of S.C. of Council. His episcopal motto was Dominus servientes. Apostolic delegate in Japan, March 30, 1931. Transferred to the diocese of Rochester, with title of archbishop ad personam, August 28, 1933. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Detroit, May 26, 1937.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Susanna, February 22, 1946.

Death. October 25, 1958, suddenly, of a heart attack, in his room at the Pontifical North American College in Rome, less than three hours before the beginning of the conclave. He was laid out in state in the chapel of the college, from where after the celebration of a mass, his body was flown to Detroit. Exposed at the cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament, where some 225,000 people paid their respects. A solemn high requiem mass was celebrated at the cathedral. As the conclave was in progress, no cardinals were in attendance. Msgr. Pius Benincasa of Buffalo, attached to the Vatican Secretariat of State, acted as the Holy See's representative. He was originally buried at St. Johns Major Seminary in the chapel of St. Susanna in the seminary's crypt, which he had built at his own expense in 1952. In 1988, when the seminary was closed, his remains were transferred to Holy Sepulchre Catholic Cemetery, Southfield, archdiocese of Detroit (1).

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, pp. 79-80; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, pp. 206-207.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his gravestone, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

HIS EMINENCE
EDWARD CARDINAL MOONEY
ARCHBISHOP OF DETROIT, 1937 - 1958
DIED OCT. 25, 1958


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MORANO, Francesco
(1872-1968)

Birth. June 8, 1872, Caïvano, diocese of Aversa, Italy. Son of Antonio Morano and Luisa Stanzione. His elder brother, Canon Giuseppe Morano, founded the Piccola Casa di Carità in Aversa. Following his brother's death in 1951, he took personal care of the residence, paying a visit yearly.

Education. Seminary of Aversa, Aversa; Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome (doctorates in philosophy, theology and canon and civil law); Royal University, Rome (doctorates in physics and mathematics and teaching diplomas in both); "Studio" of the S.C. of the Council, Rome (diploma of lawyer of the Roman Curia).

Priesthood. Ordained, August 10, 1897, Rome. Further studies, 1897-1900. Assistant at the observatory of the Vatican, 1900-1903. Officer of the Supreme S.C. of Holy Office, 1903-1925. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, July 20, 1918. Referendary prelate of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, April 21, 1921; voting prelate, December 28, 1922. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, January 30, 1925. Secretary of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, December 20, 1935.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 14, 1959; received the red hat and the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, December 17, 1959.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Fallaba, April 5, 1962. Consecrated, April 19, 1962, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Cardinal Giuseppe Pizzardo and by Cardinal Benedetto Aloisi Masella. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinals Joaquín Anselmo María Albareda, O.S.B., Antonio Bacci, Augustin Bea, S.J., Francesco Bracci, Michael Browne, O.P., William Theodore Heard, Alberto di Jorio, André Jullien, P.S.S., Arcadio María Larraona, C.M.F., Alfredo Ottaviani and Francesco Roberti. His epsicopal motto was Maior autem charitas. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI.

Death. July 12, 1968, at 4 p.m., of a severe bronchopneumonia, in his apartment in the palace of the Holy Office, in Vatican City. Buried in the chapel of the Piccola Casa di Carità (renamed Casa Famiglia in 2005), in Aversa. At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.The Istituto Tecnico Industriale Francesco Morano of Caivano, Naples, is named after him.

Link. Photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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MORI, Giuseppe
(1850-1934)

Birth. January 24, 1850, Loro Piceno, archdiocese of Fermo, Italy .

Education. Seminary of Fermo, Fermo; Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 17, 1874, Rome. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, 1874-1880. Staff member of the S.C. of the Council, 1885-1903; auditor, 1903-1908. Honorary chamberlain of His Holiness, October 4, 1880; reappointed, December 7, 1903. Undersecretary of the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments, October 20, 1908. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, February 9, 1909. Secretary of the S. C. of the Council, December 8, 1916.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 11, 1922: received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere, December 14, 1922. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, March 13, 1933.

Death. September 30, 1934, of a heart disease, Loro Piceno. Buried in the chapel of the cemetery of Loro Piceno; later transferred to the family tomb.

Link. His photograph, Araldica Vaticana.

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MOTTA, Carlos Carmelo de Vasconcelos
(1890-1982)

Birth. July 16, 1890, Bom Jesus do Amparo, archdiocese of Mariana, Brazil. Second child of João de Vasconcelos Teixeira da Motta, a deputy during the empire, and Francisca Josina dos Santos Motta. He was a great-grandson of the Viscounts of Caeté.

Education. Initial studies at Fazenda da Prata, in the parish of Taquaraçu, Caeté, Minas Gerais; Colégio Matosinhos, of the Marist Brothers, in Congonhas do Campo (humanities); in 1904, he entered the Minor Seminary of Mariana and stayed there for a brief period; studied at the Faculty of Law of Belo Horizonte, 1910-1911; studied at the Major Seminary of Mariana, Mariana, 1914-1918.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 20, 1918, Mariana, by Silvério Gomes Pimenta, archbishop of Mariana; celebrated his first mass in Taquaruçu, on July 7, 1918. Vicar coadjutor of Taquaruçu for eleven months; named chaplain of Asilo São Lums da Serra da Piedade; later, he was chaplain of Recolhimento das Macaúbas and worked in the parishes of Caeté and Sabará; and finally, he was named rector of Seminary of Belo Horizonte until 1932. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, October 23, 1925.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Algiza and appointed auxiliary of Diamantina, July 29, 1932. Consecrated, October 30, 1932, in the church of São José, Belo Horizonte, by António dos Santos Cabral, bishop of Natal, assisted by Ranulfo da Silva Farias, bishop of Guaxupé, and by Antonio Colturato, O.F.M. Cap., bishop of Uberaba. His episcopal motto was In sinu Iesu. Administrator of the diocese of Diamantina, 1933-1934. Promoted to the metropolitan see of São Luis do Maranhão, December 19, 1935. Promoted the creation of the sees of Caxias and Pinheiros; was administrator of the latter from 1940 until 1944. Transferred to the metropolitan see of São Paulo, August 13, 1944; he established more than one hundred new parishes.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Pancrazio, February 22, 1946. On March 18, 1946, he established the Paulista Faculty of Law, initial nucleus of the the Catholic University of São Paulo on September 2, 1946; in 1947, Pope Pius XII granted it the rank of pontifical university. Presided over the 7th centennial celebrations of the Carmelite scapulary, Recife, July 6, 1951. First president of the Episcopal Conference of Bishops of Brazil from 1952 to 1958. Attended the First General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 25 to August 4, 1955. On March 2, 1956, he founded Rádio Nove de Julho, in commemoration of the 80th birthday of Pope Pius XII. He personally selected the name of Brasilia for the new federal capital city and celebrated there the first mass on May 3, 1957. Administrator of the archdiocese of Aparecida since its establishment on April 19, 1958 until April, 1964. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Aparecida as its first archbishop, April 18, 1964; he built the National Shrine of Nossa Senhora Aparecida, the patroness of Brazil. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971. Cardinal protoprete, October 23, 1979.

Death. September 18, 1982, Aparecida. The funeral mass was celebrated at the metropolitan cathedral basilica of Aparecida with the participation of Cardinal Eugênio de Araújo Sales, archbishop of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro; Cardinal Vicente Scherer, former archbishop of Porto Alegre; Luciano Pedro Mendes de Almeida, S.J., titular bishop of Torre di Proconsulare, auxiliary of São Paulo and secretary general of the National Conference of Brazilian Bishops (NCNBB); and twenty seven other bishops. The homily was delivered by Alexandre Gonçalves do Amaral, archbishop emeritus of Uberaba. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Aparecida. At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Bibliography. "Carlos Carmelo de Vasconcelos Mota" in "Terceira parte, Bispos do Brasil-Republica, Os cinco primeiros cardeais" in "Diocesis e bispos do Brasil" by Apolônio Nóbrega, Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro, volume 222, Janeiro-Março 1954, 196-197; Vidigal, Pedro Maciel. O Cardeal de Vasconcellos Motta. Belo Horizonte: Imp. Oficial, 1973.

Links. Biography, in Portuguese, archdiocese of São Paulo; and his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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MOZZONI, Umberto
(1904-1983)

Birth. June 29, 1904, Buenos Aires, Argentina. His family migrated from Macerata, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Macerata, Macerata, Italy; Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome; Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome; University of Rome, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 14, 1927, Rome. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Macerata and faculty member of its seminary, 1927-1935. Successively, 1935-1954, secretary and auditor of the apostolic delegations in Canada and Great Britain, and in the nunciature in Portugal. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, October 7, 1936; reappointed, March 3, 1939. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, January 2, 1948.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Side and appointed nuncio in Bolivia, November 13, 1954. Consecrated, Sunday December 5, 1954, chapel of the Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome, by Cardinal James Charles McGuigan, archbishop of Toronto, assisted by Antonio Samorè, titular archbishop of Tirnovo, secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Sivio Cassulo, bishop of Macerata e Tolentino. His episcopal motto was Duc in altum. Nuncio in Argentina, September 20, 1958. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Nuncio in Brazil, April 19, 1969.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Eugenio, March 5, 1973. President of the Cardinalitial Commission for Shrines of Pompeii and Loreto, June 19, 1974. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Cardinal protodeacon, 1980?-1983. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, February 2, 1983.

Death. November 7, 1983, collapsed while celebrating mass and later died in a Roman clinic. In the shrine of Loreto, Archbishop Loris Francesco Capovila presided over a funeral mass for the eternal repose of the soul of the cardinal on November 9; and on November 14, in the shrine of Pompeii, Domenico Vacchiano, prelate of Pompeii and papal delegate for that shrine, celebrated a funeral mass In die septima. On the following Thursday November 10 at 5 p.m., Pope John Paul II presided over the exequies, celebrated at the patriarchal Vatican basilica; the cardinals present in Rome concelebrated with the pope, who also delivered the homily; in attendance were delegations from the shrines of Loreto and Pompeii (the late cardinal was president of the cardinalitial commission for those shrines), the diplomatic corps and numerous faithful. The body of the cardinal was taken to Macerata and buried in its cathedral.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana; Lettera di Giovanni Paolo II all'Em.mo Cardinale Umberto Mozzoni per il XXV di episcopato, in Italian, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 19 novembre 1979.


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MUENCH, Aloisius Joseph
(1889-1962)

Birth. February 18, 1889, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America. Son of Joseph Muench and Theresa Kraus.

Education. Saint Francis Seminary, Milwaukee; State University of Wisconsin, Madison; University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland; University of Louvain, Louvain, Belgium; University of Oxford, Oxford, England; University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England; La Sorbonne University, Paris, France.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 8, 1913, Milwaukee, by Sebastian Gebhard Messmer, archbishop of Milwaukee. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Milwaukee, 1913-1919. Further studies, 1919-1922. Faculty member of Saint Francis Seminary, Milwaukee, 1922-1929. Rector of Saint Francis Seminary, Milwaukee, 1929-1935. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, September 21, 1934.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Fargo, August 10, 1935. Consecrated, October 15, 1935, church of the Gesu, Milwaukee, by Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, titular archbishop of Laodicea di Frigia, apostolic delegate in the United States of America, assisted by Christian Herman Winkelmann, titular bishop of Sita, auxiliary of St. Louis, and by William Richard Griffin, titular bishop of Lida, auxiliary of La Crosse. His episcopal motto was In omnibus Christus. Military vicar delegate of the United States of America Armed Forces in Germany and apostolic visitor in Germany, 1946-1949. Regent of the nunciature in Germany, 1949-1951. Given the title of archbishop ad personam, October 28, 1950. Nuncio in Germany, March 9, 1951. Promoted to titular archbishop of Selimbria, December 9, 1959.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 14, 1959; received the red hat and the title of S. Bernardo alle Terme, December 17, 1959. Papal legate to the 19th centennial celebration of Saint Paul's visit to Malta, March 3, 1960. When he fell ill in Rome, he received an unexpected visit from the pope in early 1962; his condition worsened during his last week.

Death. February 15, 1962, of a circulatory cardiac collapse shortly after receiving a special blessing from the pope and the last rites (he had suffered from Parkinson's disease for years), at "Salvator Mundi Hospital" in Rome. He was exposed in the chapel of the Salvatorian Sisters at the hospital. On February 19, 1962, a solemn funeral mass for his repose took place at St. Peter's basilica, presided by Pope John XXIII, who imparted the final absolution; thirty seven cardinals participated in the mass. The Central Ecumenical Council Committee postponed its opening session so that all the conciliar fathers could attend the funeral. Many members of the diplomatic corps also were present. Later the same day, the cardinal's body began its journey to the United States, accompanied by his secretary Father Raymond Lessard. On February 21, the body of the late cardinal reposed at St. John's cathedral in Milwaukee. Archbishop William E. Cousins of Milwaukee celebrated a pontifical requiem mass. The following morning Bishop Leo F. Dworschak of Fargo led the procession from the funeral home in Fargo to the cathedral and offered pontifical mass for the repose of the late cardinal. At 8 pm., the Office of the Dead was recited by the clergy and then repeated in English by the lay persons who attended. The final funeral mass, celebrated by Cardinal Joseph Ritter, archbishop of Saint Louis, took place on February 23, in St. Mary's cathedral. Archbishop Karl J. Alter of Cincinnati preached the panegyric. Many bishops from Canada and the United States of America were in attendance, as well as leaders of the state and municipality. Fifteen thousand people walked past his bier as he lay in state at Fargo's cathedral. The cardinal was buried at Holy Cross cemetery, in Fargo. His galero is on display, hanging from the ceiling, at St. Mary's cathedral, Fargo.

Bibliography. Barry, Colman. American nuncio : Cardinal Aloisius Muench. Collegeville : St. John's University Press, 1969; Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1790-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 91; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 209; Herbrich, Elisabeth. Alois Kardinal Muench : e. Lebensbild. Königstein im Taunus : Sudetendt. Priesterwerk, 1969 (Schriftenreihe des Sudetendeutschen Priesterwerkes Kvnigstein, Taunus ; Bd. 12; Schriftenreihe des Sudetendeutschen Priesterwerkes Königstein, Taunus; Bd. 12).

Links. Photographs and biography y the Abbess M. Augustina Weihermüller O.S.B., and her Community of St. Walburga's Abbey Eichstätt, Bavaria, Cardinal Muench Seminary; his arms and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.


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MUNDELEIN, George William
(1872-1939)

Birth. July 2, 1872, New York, New York, United States of America. Son of Francis Mundelein and Mary Goetz.

Education. Manhattan College, New York; Saint Vincent's Seminary, Latrobe; Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 8, 1895, Rome, by Charles Edward McDonnell, bishop of Brooklyn. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Brooklyn and secretary to its bishop, 1895-1897; chancellor, 1897-1909.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Loima and appointed auxiliary of Brooklyn, June 30, 1909. Consecrated, September 21, 1909, St. James Pro-cathedral, Brooklyn, by Charles E. McDonnell, bishop of Brooklyn, assisted by Charles Henry Colton, bishop of Buffalo, and by John Joseph O'Connor, bishop of Newark. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Chicago, December 9, 1915. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, May 8, 1920.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 24, 1924; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria del Popolo, March 27, 1924. Papal legate to the 8th National Eucharistic Congress, New Orleans, September 13, 1938. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII.

Death. October 2, 1939, unexpectedly, from massive thrombosis in his sleep (only twelve days after celebrating the thirtieth anniversary of his episcopal consecration), in Mundelein, town named after him. To accommodate the cardinal's funeral, the city of Chicago hastily re-paved State street, where the subway had been under construction. More than one million people paid their respects as the body of the cardinal lay in state in the nave of the cathedral. His remains were buried behind the main altar of the chapel of the Seminary of Chicago.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 63; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 211; Kantowicz, Edward R. Corporation sole : Cardinal Mundelein and Chicago Catholicism. Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press, 1983. (Notre Dame studies in American Catholicism); Martin, Paul R. The first cardinal of the West. Chicago : The New World Publishing Co., 1934.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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MUÑOZ DUQUE, Aníbal
(1908-1987)

Birth. October 3, 1908, Santa Rosa de Osos, Colombia. Son of José María Muñoz and Ana Rosa Duque. He was baptized in the parish church of Santa Rosa de Osos on October 16, 1908.

Education. tudied at the Seminary of Santa Rosa de Osos.

Priesthood. Ordained, November 19, 1933, Santa Rosa de Osos. Faculty member and prefect of the Minor Seminary of the Institute of Missions of Yarumal, 1933-1937; rector and vice-superior general of the Institute of Yarumal, 1937-1950. Pro-vicar general of the diocese of Santa Rosa de Osos, 1950-1951.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Socorro y San Gil, April 8, 1951. Consecrated, May 27, 1951, primatial and metropolitan cathedral basilica of Bogotá, by Antonio Samorè, titular archbishop of Tirnovo, nuncio in Colombia, assisted by Miguel Angel Builes, bishop of Santa Rosa de Osos, and by Ángel Ocampo Berrio, S.J., bishop of Tunja. Transferred to the diocese of Bucaramanga, December 18, 1952. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Nueva Pamplona, August 3, 1959. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. President of the Episcopal Conference of Colombia, 1964-1972. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Apostolic administrator sede plena of the archdiocese of Bogotá, April 15, 1967. Transferred to the titular see of Cariana, March 30, 1968. Hosted the visit of Pope Paul VI to Bogotá in August 1968 on the occasion of the 39th International Eucharistic Congress; it was the first papal visit to Latin America. Named coadjutor archbishop of Bogotá, with right of succession, February 2, 1969. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the II Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Succeeded to the archdiocese of Bogotá, July 29, 1972. Military vicar of Colombia, July 30, 1972.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, March S. 1973. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the III General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; the First Plenary Meeting of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the V Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Bogotá, June 25, 1984.

Death. January 15, 1987, Bogotá. Buried in the chapel of "El Sagrario", next to the metropolitan cathedral, Bogotá.

Bibliography. Agudelo Giraldo, Guillermo. Los arzobispos de Bogotá que he conocido : medio siglo en la historia eclesiástica colombiana, 1928-1984. Bogotá : s.n., 1987. Notes: "Ensayo sobre los cuatro arzobispos que han dejado huella profunda en la agitada historia contemporánea de Colombia: monseñor Ismael Perdomo, cardenal Crisanto Luque, cardenal Luis Concha, cardenal Aníbal Muñoz Duque." Originally presented by the author on entering the Academia Colombiana de Historia Eclesiástica on Nov. 15, 1986. Cover title: Cuatro arzobispos que han marcado nuestra historia, 1928-1984. "Ediciones Verdad y Vida", volumen 14, nos. 24-25 y 26, diciembre de 1986".

Link. Archbishops of Bogotá, in Spanish.


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MUÑOZ VEGA, S.J., Pablo
(1903-1994)

Birth. May 23, 1903, Mira, diocese of Tulcán, Ecuador. Son of Antonio Muñoz Carrera and Josefina Vega.

Education. Joined the Society of Jesus, September 27, 1918; Jesuit houses of studies, Quito; Colegio Máximo de Oña, Burgos, Spain; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 25, 1933 Rome. Further studies, Rome, 1933-1937. Faculty member of the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1937-1949; 1958-1964. Jesuit provincial of Ecuador, 1949-1955. Rector of the Pontifical Pio-Latin American College, Rome, 1955-1958. Rector magnifico of the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1958-1963. Expert at the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1963.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Ceramo and appointed coadjutor sedis datus of Quito, February 7, 1964. Consecrated, March 19, 1964, church of S. Ignazio, Rome, by Cardinal Carlo Confalonieri, secretary of S.C. Consistorial, assisted by Antonio Samorè, titular archbishop of Tirnovo, secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Martin John O`Connor, titular archbishop of Laodicea di Siria, president of the Pontifical Commission for Social Communications. Attended the last two sessions of the Second Vatican Council, 1964-1965. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Quito, June 23, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. President of the Episcopal Conference of Ecuador.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Roberto Bellarmino, April 30, 1969. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the II Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; named one of its three president delegates, August 2, 1971. Attended the III Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the IV Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the III General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, May 23, 1983. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, June 1, 1985. Attended the II Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Attended the IV General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992.

Death. June 3, 1994, Quito. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Quito.

Link. Photograph and biography, in Spanish, Conferencia Episcopal Ecuatoriana.


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MURPHY-O'CONNOR, Cormac
(1932-

Birth. August 24, 1932, Reading, diocese of Portsmouth, England. He was the fifth son of Dr. George Murphy-O'Connor and his wife, Ellen. The other siblings were Brian (a priest of the Portsmouth diocese), Patrick (deceased, also a priest of the same diocese), John (a Regular Officer in the Royal Artillery Regiment, died at 32) and Catherine (died in 2006). His cousin, Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, O.P., was a distinguished biblical scholar (died on November 11, 2013 in Jerusalem). Two of his uncles were also priests; and one aunt was a nun.

Education. Initial education at Presentation College, Reading; secondary education at Prior Park College, Bath; then, in 1950, he started his studies for the priesthood at the Venerable English College, Rome, studying at the Pontifical Gregorian University, where he earned a licentiate in philosophy (PhL) and another one in theology (STL).

Priesthood. Ordained, October 28, 1956, Rome, by Cardinal Valerio Valeri, prefect of S.C. for Religious. Incardinated in the diocese of Portsmouth. From 1957 to 1963, he was vicar in the parish of Corpus Christi, Portsmouth; and in 1963, named vicar of the Sacred Heart, Fareham, and appointed Diocesan Director of Vocations. Later, from 1966 to 1969, secretary and chaplain to Bishop Dereck Worlock of Portsmouth. He participated in the preparatory stages of the first National Conference of Priests in 1970. In September of that same year, he was named pastor of the Immaculate Conception parish, Southampton. From he end 1971 until his episcopal appointment, he was rector of the Venerable English College, Rome; in that capacity, he hosted Dr Donald Coggan, archbishop of Canterbury, when he visited Pope Paul VI in April-May 1977; during the visit, on May 12, the pope and the archbishop signed the Unity Declaration. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, March 10, 1972.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Arundel and Brighton, November 17, 1977. Consecrated, December 21, 1977, cathedral of Our Lady and Saint Philip Howard, Arundel, by Michael Bowen, archbishop of Southwark, assisted by George Patrick Dwyer, archbishop of Birmingham, and by Anthony Joseph Emery, bishop of Portsmouth. His episcopal motto is Gaudium et spes. Chairman of the Bishops' Committee for Europe from 1978 to 1983. Vice-president of the Laity Commission from 1978 to 1983. Chairman of the Committee for Christian Unity (ARCIC) from 1983 to 2000. Chairman of the Department for Mission and Unity from 1994 to 2000. Co-chairman of the Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission from1982 to 2000. In 2000, he was awarded a Doctorate of Divinity by Dr George Carey, archbishop of Canterbury, in recognition of his work for Christian unity. He is an honorary bencher of the Inner Temple. In September 2000, he set up an independent review on child protection in the Catholic Church in England and Wales and invited Michael Patrick Nolan, Baron Nolan, to chair it (1). In August 2001, he was created a Freeman of the City of London. Promoted to metropolitan see of Westminster, February 15, 2000. Elected president of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales, November 2000.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, February 21, 2001. Member of Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments; of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Holy See; and of the Presidential Committee of the Pontifical Council for the Family. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, March 10, 2001. In January 2002, at the invitation of Queen Elizabeth II, he was the first member of the Catholic hierarchy since 1680 to deliver a sermon to an English monarch. This took place at Sandringham, the sovereign's country residence in Norfolk, during the Anglican morning service. Present with the queen were members of her family and her household. Member of the Pontifical Council for Culture in April 2002; member of the Pontifical Commission for the Cultural Heritage of the Church in June 2002; and member of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity in October 2002. Attended Tenth Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the establishment of the diocese of Stockholm, Sweden, October 12, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Westminster was accepted by Pope Benedict XVI on April 3, 2009. Apostolic administrator of the archdiocese until Thursday, May 21, 2009, when his successor, Vincent Nichols, until then archbishop of Birmingham, England, was installed. During Boston College's 134th Commencement ceremony on May 24, 2010, he was granted an honorary degree (doctor of laws) in recognition of his work in spiritual and pastoral renewal, especially for his grassroots program "At Your Word, Lord". On May 31, 2010, he was named visitor to the archdiocese of Armagh and its suffragan sees to explore more deeply questions concerning the handling of cases of abuse perpetrated by priests and religious upon minors and the assistance owed to the victims; to monitor the effectiveness of and seek possible improvements to the current procedures for preventing abuse, taking as points of reference the Pontifical Motu Proprio "Sacramentorum Sanctitatis Tutela" and the norms contained in Safeguarding Children: Standards and Guidance Document for the Catholic Church in Ireland, commissioned and produced by the National Board for Safeguarding Children in the Catholic Church. On December 1, 2010, he received an honorary doctorate of divinity from Heythrop College. He has authored The Family of the Church (1984); and At the Heart of the World (2004); and edited Faith in Europe (2005); and Faith and Life in Britain (2008). Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on August 24, 2012. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 125th anniversary of the archdiocese of Dhaka, Bangladesh and the fourth centennial of the evangelization of the Bengalese territory, which took place on November 9 and 10, 2012.

Bibliography. Bellenger, Dominc Aidan and Stella Fletcher. Princes of the church. A history of the English cardinals. Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire : Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2001, p. 64, 168-169 and 179; Schofield, Nicholas ; Skinner, Gerard. The English cardinals. Oxford, UK : Family Publications, 2007, p. 222-225 Walsh, Michael J. The Westminster cardinals : the past and the future. London ; New York : Burns & Oates, 2008, p. 223-240.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of Westminster; biography, in English (Britannica); photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Murphy-O'Connor off to Bangladesh, The Tablet, 21 August 2012; Cardinal Cormac Murphy-OConnor, blog of Nigel Baker, Great Britain Ambassador to the Holy See; Cardinal: disestablishment would benefit the Church of England by Mark Greaves, Catholic Herald, Friday, 24 August 2012; Reformer, Ökumeniker, Werteverteidiger. Der Londoner Kardinal Murphy-O'Connor wird 80, domradio.de, 24.8.2012; Cardinal Murphy-O'Connor: 'I thought of being called Benedict if elected pope' by Luke Coppen, The Catholic Herald, Monday, 27 August 2012.

(1) The Nolan Review published their First Report in April 2001 and their Final Report, "A Programme for Action", in September 2001 out of which a new independent office has been established called "COPCA" to oversee the protection of children and vulnerable adults.

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