The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
(1903-2011)
O

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OBANDO BRAVO, S.D.B., Miguel
(1926-

Birth. February 2, 1926, La Libertad, Chontales, apostolic prelature of Juigalpa, Nicaragua. Son of Antonio Obando y Cisneros and María Nicolasa Bravo de Obando. The couple had six children: Cándido, Miguel Purificación, Anselmo, Lino, Jesús and Estela.

Education. Salesian school in Granada; "Aspirantado Salesiano", Granada; joined the Pious Society of St. Francis de Sales (Salesians of Don Bosco) in 1949. Salesian houses of study in San Salvador, El Salvador (Latin, Greek, pedagogy, mathematics, physics and philosophy); in Guatemala, Guatemala (theology); and in Colombia and Venezuela (vocational psychology).

Priesthood. Ordained, August 10, 1958, Guatemala, by Giuseppe Paupini, titular archbishop of Sebastopoli di Abasgia, nuncio in Guatemala and El Salvador. Professor of mathematics and physics, Nicaragua and El Salvador, 1958-1959. Prefect of discipline, Salesian Seminary, San Salvador, 1959-1961; rector of the Institute Rinaldi, Salesian Seminary, San Salvador, 1961-1968. Member of the provincial council of the Salesian Order in Central America, 1962-1968. Delegate of the Central America and Panamá provinces to the general chapter of the Salesian Order, Rome, 1965.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Puzia di Bizacena and appointed auxiliary of Matagalpa, January 18, 1968.Consecrated, March 31, 1968, by Marco Antonio García y Suárez, bishop of Granada, assisted by Clemente Carranza y López, bishop of Estelí, and by Julián Luis Barni Spotti, O.F.M., titular bishop of Coracesio, prelate of Juigalpa. His episcopal motto is Omnibus omnia factus. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Managua, February 16, 1970. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. President of the Episcopal Conference of Nicaragua, 1971-1974; and 1979-1983. President of the Episcopal Secretariat of Central America and Panamá, 1976-1980. Active defensor of human rights during Somoza's dictatorship and Sandinista regime. Received the Bruno Kreysky Award for peace and freedom, Vienna, Austria, 1979; the Plaque for Peace and Freedom of the Nicaraguan People, San Francisco, United States of America, 1980; the Letter of Brotherhood of the Piarist Society, Managua, 1980; the Venezuelan Order of Francisco Miranda, 1981; the Distinction of Loyalty to the Pope, the Church and the Nicaraguan People, Central of Nicaraguan Workers (CTN), 1982.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of S. Giovanni Evangelista a Spinaceto, May 25, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. President of the Episcopal Conference of Nicaragua, 199--1996; 1999-. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of theFourth centennial of the veneration of Santo Cristo of Esquipulas, Guatemala, March 9, 1995. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Managua upon having reached the age limit, March 12, 2005. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005; by papal appointment. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, February 2, 2006. On March 14, 2007, he announced in a press conference held at Unica Catholic University that he had accepted a request made in January by Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega to preside over the Peace and Reconciliation Commission, which is charged with ensuring the implementation of signed agreements with Nicaraguans who were affected by the civil war of the 1980's. He accepted the presidency "a título personal" (in his own name). In February, the cardinal had indicated that he would accept only if the Holy See allowed him. On March 10, 2007, he had an audience with Pope Benedict XVI and in the press conference the cardinal said that the pope had told him to work for the reconciliation of the Nicaraguan family. He is the first Nicaraguan cardinal.

Bibliography. Urtasun Martínez, Domingo. Miguel Obando Bravo cardenal por la paz. Managua : Hispamer, 1994.

Links. His arms, Araldica Vaticana; Ven luces y sombras de Obando, La Prensa.com.ni, Managua, 19 de agosto, 2012.


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O'BRIEN, Keith Michael Patrick
(1938-

Birth. March 17, 1938, Ballycastle, diocese of Down and Connor, Northern Ireland. Eldest of the two sons of Mark O'Brien and his wife, Alice. The other son is Terry.

Education. Started his primary education in Ballycastle; then, in 1949, he moved with his family to Scotland and attended Saint Stephens Primary School, Dalmuir; secondary school at Saint Patrick's High School, Dumbarton; then, the family moved to Edinburgh, where he completed his secondary education at Holy Cross Academy; after his second request to become a priest, Archbishop Gordon Joseph Gray of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh told him to first study at the University of Edinburgh (1), where he earned a bachelor of science in chemistry and mathematics in 1959; and later, he obtained a diploma of education at Moray House College of Education in 1966. He studied for the priesthood at Saint Andrew's College, Drygrange, Roxburghshire.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 3, 1965, Edinburgh, by Gordon Joseph Gray, archbishop of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh. He was vicar cooperator in Holy Cross, Edinburgh from 1965 to 1966. Between 1966 and 1971, he was employed by Fife County Council as a teacher of mathematics and science, while, at the same time, he was chaplain to Saint Columba's Secondary School, initially in Cowdenbeath and later in Dunfermline, teaching mathematics; and assisting in Saint Bride's parish, Cowdenbeath. Full time ministry at Saint Patrick's parish, Kilsyth, from 1972 until 1975; and at Saint Mary's parish, Bathgate, from 1975 until 1978. Spiritual director of Saint Andrew's College, Drygrange, from 1978 until 1980; and rector, Saint Mary's College, the junior seminary at Blairs, Aberdeen from 1980 until 1985.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh, May 30, 1985. Consecrated, August 5, 1985, metropolitan cathedral of Saint Mary, Edinburgh, by Cardinal Gordon Joseph Gray, archbishop emeritus of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh, assisted by Bruno Bernard Heim, titular archbishop of Xanto, apostolic delegate in Great Britain, and by Thomas Joseph Winning, archbishop of Glasgow. His episcopal motto is Serve the Lord with gladness. President of the Bishops' Conference of Scotland. Grand cross and conventual chaplain of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, 1985. Knight commander with star of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem. Apostolic administrator of the diocese of Argyll and the Isles from 1996 to 1999. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. In 2001, he was named grand prior of the Scottish Lieutenancy of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem; and in 2003, appointed knight grand cross. In June 2001, after the unexpected death of Cardinal Thomas Joseph Winning, archbishop of Glasgow, he was appointed acting president of the Bishops Conference of Scotland; and in March 2002, he was elected its president.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Gioacchino ed Anna al Tuscolano, October 21, 2003. Member of the Pontifical Councils for Social Communications; for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People; and for the Family. In 2004, he was granted an honorary degree of doctor of laws from Saint Francis Xavier University, Antigonish, Nova Scotia, Canada; an honorary degree of doctor of divinity from the University of Saint Andrews; and an honorary degree of doctor of divinity from the University of Edinburgh. Named bailiff grand cross of honor and devotion of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta in 2005. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Special papal envoy to the centennial celebrations of the foundation of the church of Long Tower, in the city of Derry, Ireland, which took place on June 9, 2009. Director of the Scottish Catholic International Aid Fund (SCIAF). Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese on February 18, 2013, according to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law (2). Did not participate in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis, for personal reasons.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh; biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Catholic leader backs Scottish independence , scotsman.com, Sunday 15 October 2006 00:44; The 'Cardinal of Controversy', BBC News, Thursday, 31 May 2007, 15:17 GMT 16:17 UK.Cardinal urges referendum on gay marriage , The Tablet, 16 July 2012; Scottish cardinal calls for referendum on same-sex 'marriage' by David Kerr, CNA/EWTN News, Jul 16, 2012 / 03:25 pm; An eloquent silence, L'Osservatore Romano, news.va, 2012-08-22; Edimbourg: Un geste symbolique mais éloquent, InfoCatho.be, mercredi, 22 août 2012; OBrien quits talks with government, The Tablet, 21 August 2012; Cardinal O'Brien calls on politicians to "sustain rather than subvert Marriage", Vatican Radio, news.va, 2012-08-23; No alle nozze gay in Scozia, la lettera di O'Brien nelle chiese by Elisabetta Del Soldato, Chiesa, Avvenire, 28 agosto 2012; Top British Cardinal Faces Accusations of Committing Inappropriate Acts by Jon Burns, The New York Times, February 24, 2013 Cardinal Keith O'Brien resigns as Archbishop by Robert Pigott, Religious affairs correspondent, BBC News, 25 February 2013; Britain's Cardinal Keith O'Brien to skip papal election by Kim Hjelmgaard and Cathy Lynn Grossman, USA TODAY, 11:36a.m. EST February 25, 2013; Vatican: Cardinal O' Brien resigns, Vatican Radio, 2013-02-25 12:11:54; Cardinal O'Brien will not take part in conclave, number of electors down to 115, video, Rome Reports, 2013-02-25 21:49:29; British cardinal's resignation underscores challenge to Catholic Church/s moral authority by Anthony Faiola, The Washington Pots, February 25, 2013; Pope accepts cardinal's resignation; Scot to stay away from conclave by Cindy Wooden, Catholic News Service, Feb-25-2013; Top British Cardinal Resigns, a Day After Charges of 'Inappropriate Acts' by Rachel Donadio and John F. Burns, The New York Times, February 25, 2013; Disgraced Keith O'Brien faces Vatican 'trial', The Scotsman, Monday 24th February 2014; Scotland: Vatican launches investigation into Cardinal OBrien, Vatican Insider, 04/04/2014; Disgraced cardinal's archdiocese subject of Vatican investigation by Joshua J. McElwee, The National Catholic Reporter, Apr. 4, 2014.

(1) He had a murmur in his heart and the archbishop told him, "if you are able to survive the university, there is a chance that you could survive in the seminary".
(2) The cardinal's biography in the site of the archdiocese of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh, linked above, said that: "On approaching his 75th birthday and with health concerns, the Cardinal's resignation was tendered and subsequently accepted by Pope Benedict XVI nunc pro tunc. He relinquished pastoral governance of the Archdiocese on 25th February 2013." The pope had accepted his resignation on November 13, 2012, to take effect later - nunc pro tunc.


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O'CONNOR, John Joseph
(1920-2000)

Birth. January 15, 1920, Philadelphia, United States of America. Fourth child of Thomas O'Connor and Dorothy Gomple.

Education. Public elementary and junior high schools, Philadelphia; West Catholic High School for Boys, Philadelphia; St. Charles Borromeo Seminary, Philadelphia; Villanova University, Philadelphia; University of Delaware, Wilmington; Catholic University, Washington; Georgetown University, Washington (masters in superior ethics, clinical psychology and political science).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 15, 1945. Faculty member, St. James School and St. James School for Adults, Philadelphia; University of Virginia, Charlottesville. Military chaplain in the United States Army and Navy, in Quantico, Barstow, Okinawa, and Vietnam; chief chaplain, 1957-1979; retired, June 1, 1979. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, October 27, 1966.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Curzola and appointed auxiliary to the military vicar for the United States of America, April 18, 1979. Consecrated, May 27, 1979, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy, archbishop emeritus of Bangalore, secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, and by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State. His episcopal motto was There can be no love without justice. Transferred to the see of Scranton, May 6, 1983. Promoted to the metropolitan see of New York, January 25, 1984. Apostolic administrator of the armed services, January 26, 1984 to March 16, 1985.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, May 25, 1985. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, 1985; November 6, 1995. Special papal envoy to the Philippines National Eucharistic Congress, Manila, December 8, 1987. Attended the IX Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; one of its three president delegates. Special papal envoy to the closing ceremonies of the centenary of the cathedral of Melbourne, Australia, October 27, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, January 15, 2000. Awarded the Congressional Gold Medal, March 7, 2000.

Death. May 3, 2000, at 8.05 p.m., of cardiopulmonary arrest, the result of brain tumor complications, in his archiepiscopal residence in New York. His funeral took place at St. Patrick's metropolitan cathedral, New York, and it was presided over by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, secretary of State; the eulogy was delivered by Cardinal Bernard Law, who was at his bedside when he died. U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan; President Bill Clinton and First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton; Vice President Al Gore; former President George H. W. Bush; Governor of Texas George W. Bush; New York Governor George Pataki and New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani were among the dignitaries who attended the funeral. He was buried in the crypt of that metropolitan cathedral (1).

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1790-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 179-180; Hentoff, Nat. John Cardinal O`Connor: At the storm center of a changing Catholic Church. New York : 1988; Shelley, Thomas J. "O'Connor, John Joseph." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyła years. Detroit, MI : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, pp.368-370.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana..

(1) This is the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta;

+
JOHN CARDINAL O'CONNOR
1920 - 2000
ARCHBISHOP
1984 - 2000


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OKOGIE, Anthony Olubunmi
(1936-

Birth. Tuesday June 16, 1936, Lagos, Nigeria. From a royal family of Uromi in Edo State. First child of Prince Michael Ohigbom Okogie, from Ishan, and Lucy Adunni Okogie (nee Afolabi), a Yoruba princess. His father belonged to the Esan ethnic group and his mother to the Yoruba.

Education. He began his education at the Holy Cross School; and later at Saint Patrick's Primary School, Sapele in present day Delta State; he had his secondary school education at Saint Gregory's College in Lagos, during which period he showed interest in the priestly vocation; he eventually transferred to Saint Theresa's Minor Seminary in Ibadan; after his training at the Minor Seminary, he went to Saints Peter and Paul Major Seminary, Ibadan (philosophy and theology); then, he was sent to the Pontifical Urbanian University, Rome, in 1963, where he obtained a licentiate in theology in 1966.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 11, 1966, Lagos, by Archbishop John Kwao Amuzu Aggey of Lagos. Incardinated in the archdiocese of Lagos; coadjutor of the cathedral parish; vicar economous of St. Patrick's parish, Idumagbo; diocesan director of Catholic schools and of the Work of Vocations; in charge of the radio programs of National Radio-Television; he was also at the war front during the Nigeria Civil War counselling soldiers and broadcasting religious programs; professor of religion, King's College; member of the episcopal senate; member of the pastoral commission.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Mascula and appointed auxiliary of Oyo, June 5, 1971. Consecrated, August 29, 1971, cathedral of Saint Benedict, Oshogbo, by Owen McCoy, bishop of Oyo, assisted by Anthony Saliu Sanusi, bishop of Ijebu-Ode, and by Alexius Obabu Makozi, titular bishop of Fallaba, auxiliary of Lokoja. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lagos, April 13, 1973. He was enthroned as archbishop of Lagos on June 17, 1973. Attended the Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994. President of the Bishops Conference of Nigeria (CBCN), 1994-2000. President of the Christian Association of Nigeria (CAN), at a time when the then military juntas were confronted with controversial policies over separation of state and religion.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of Beata Vergine Maria del Monte Carmelo a Mostacciano, October 21, 2003. Took possession of his title on May 22, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Special papal envoy to the National Eucharistic Congress of Ghana, November 19 to 20, 2005. Named member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, February 3, 2007. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World". Some of the outstanding socio-political crusades of the cardinal that most Nigerians will remember him for include his offer to give life up in place of a Muslim woman who was condemned to death by stoning by an Islamic court for the crime of adultery. Cardinal Okogie offered to pay the sentence imposed on the woman, Safiya Hussainii Tungar-Tudu, in the northern state of Sokoto in a case which created an international outcry. The woman was allowed to go free. Honorary member of The International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Lagos was accepted in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law on May 25, 2012. The pope named as new archbishop of Lagos Alfred Adewale Martins, until then bishop of Abeokuta, Nigeria. Cardinal Okogie was apostolic administrator of the archdiocese until the installation of his successor on Saturday August 4, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis.

Bibliography. Ayeni, Victor Olanrewaju. Anthony Cardinal Olubunmi Okogie : a voice crying in the wilderness. Lagos, Nigeria : Potter's House, 2006; Ngene, Albert IAnthony Cardinal Okogie : "A man for all seasons". Lagos Island [Nigeria] : Silver Jose United Publications, 2005; Ogbeide, Omoluyi. Reluctant politician : most Reverend Anthony Olubunmi Okogie, Archbishop of Lagos, Nigeria. Ede, Osun State, Nigeria : Provincial Pastoral Institute Publications, 1996; Omojafor, Steve. Archbishop Olubunmi Okogie : ... devil or saint?. Lagos, Nigeria : STB & Associates, 1992; Tomori, Pascal. Anthony Olubunmi Okogie: the People's Bishop. Nigeria : Jeromelaiho & Associates, 1991?.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Catholic Bishops' Conference of Nigeria; photograph and biography, in English, edowrold.net; biography, in English, Wikipedia; his photograph, Araldica Vaticana; The Achebe Foundation Interviews #16: Cardinal Anthony Olubunmi Okogie, in English, Nigerian Village Square; Nigerian cardinal blasts laxity of American culture, priesthood, Catholic World News (CWN), July 27, 2009, CatholicCulture; Anthony Cardinal Olubunmi Okogie: Jonathan's govt confused, Nigeria News; Nigerian archbishop urges president to take action to fight insecurity by Peter Ajayi Dada, Catholic News Service, January 5, 2011; Anthony Cardinal Okogie at 75, June 10, 2011, Catholic News Service of Nigeria; Cardinal Okogie vows Christians will not flee from North, National Accord, Thursday, 12 January 2012 04:12; Anthony Cardinal Olubunmi Okogie ill, flown to India, Surpirise blog, Monday, 30 January 2012; Sycophants Around Our Leaders are Ruining Nigeria - Cardinal Anthony Olubunmi Okogie by Etop Ekanem, Nigerian Vanguard, Africa Undisguised; Okogie condemns Islamic banking, wants licence revoked by Joseph Onyekwere, Thursday, June 30, 2011, The Guardian, Nigeria; Nigerian cardinal urges president to unmask sponsors of Boko Haram, The Catholic Review, Baltimore; Archbishop Proposes to Die in Place of Woman Sentenced to Stoning by Obed Minchakpu, Christianity Today, posted 2/01/2002 12:00AM; Lagos names road after Anthony Cardinal Okogie, he Guardian, Nigeria, Wednesday, February 22, 2012; Hommage du pape à un cardinal nigérian courageux, News.va/BL, InfoCatho.be, vendredi, 17 août 2012; Benedicto XVI saluda a Cardenal nigeriano por 46 aniversario de ordenación sacerdotal, ACI/EWTN Noticias, 20 Ago. 12 / 04:19am.


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ORTEGA Y ALAMINO, Jaime Lucas
(1936-

Birth. October 18, 1936, Jagüey Grande, diocese of Matanzas, Cuba. Son of Arsenio Ortega, first a worker in the sugar industry and later, a merchant, and Adela Alamino, a housewife. When he was five years old, his family moved to the city of Matanzas.

Education. Studied at the public school "Arturo Echemendía" (primary education); Instituto de Segunda Enseñanza de Matanzas (secondary education; bachillerato in sciences and letters, 1955); he also studied music (piano) in Matanzas; Seminary of San Alberto Magno, Matanzas, 1956-1960 (humanities and philosophy); Seminary of Priests of Foreign Missions, Québec, Canada, 1960-1964 (theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, August 2, 1964, cathedral of San Carlos Borromeo, Matanzas, by José Maximino Eusebio Domínguez y Rodríguez, bishop of Matanzas. Vicar cooperator in Cárdenas, 1964-1966. For eight months, he was recruited by the "Unidades Militares de Apoyo a la Producción" (UMAP), controlled by the Ministry of the Interior in Camagüey. From 1967-1969, pastor of Jagüey Grande, his native city; as all the pastors in Cuba, due to a severe shortage of priests in those years, he served in several parishes and churches at the same time. Pastor of the cathedral of Matanzas, and at the same time, assisted the parish of Pueblo Nuevo and two other churches in the countryside; he was also president of the Diocesan Commission of Catechetic and realized an active apostolate with the youth of the diocese; in those years, which were even more difficult for the pastoral work of the church, he began a youth movement that included, among other forms of apostolate, a summer camp for the youth, and a work of evangelization through theatrical works performed by the same youth. At the same time, he was professor at San Carlos y San Ambrosio Interdiocesan Seminary, Havana, where he traveled every week to teach moral theology for several years.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Pinar del Rio, December 4, 1978. Consecrated, January 14, 1979, cathedral of San Carlos Borromeo, Matanzas, by Mario Tagliaferri, titular archbishop of Formia, pro-nuncio in Cuba, assisted by Francisco Ricardo Oves Fernández, archbishop of San Cristóbal de La Habana, and by José Maximino Eusebio Domínguez y Rodríguez, bishop of Matanzas. Took possession of the see on January 21, 1979. His episcopal motto is Sufficit tibi gratia mea. Promoted to the metropolitan see of San Cristóbal de La Habana, November 20, 1981. President of the Conference of Catholic Bishops of Cuba, 1988 to 1999. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Aquila e Priscilla, November 26, 1994. In February 1995, he was elected second vice-president of the Latin American Episcopal Council (CELAM); he occupied the post for several years. In 1996, he presided the commission for the process of postulation of the cause of beatification of the Servant of God Fr. Félix Varela y Morales. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Special papal envoy to the National Eucharistic Congress of El Salvador, San Salvador, November 25 to 26, 2000. President of the Conference of Catholic Bishops of Cuba, 1988-1998; and again, December 6, 2001 to 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. He was awarded honorary doctorates by St. Thomas University, Miami, Florida; Barry University, also in Miami, Florida; Providence University, Rhode Island; St John University, New York; University of San Francisco, San Francisco, California; and Universidad Popular Autónoma de Estado de Puebla, México; he also received the Annual Prize of "Fundazione Bonino Pulejo", Messina, Italy, among others. Participated in the 5th General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. He received an honorary Doctor of Laws degree at commencement ceremony of Creighton University, a Jesuit institution in Omaha, Nebraska, United States of America on May 14, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On June 15, 2013, he was named special papal envoy to the conclusive celebration of the first centenary of the elevation to metropolitan archdiocese of San Salvador and the erection of the dioceses of Santa Ana and of San Miguel, as well as to the closing ceremony of the National Eucharistic Congress of El Salvador, programmed for August 11, 2013. He was confirmed as member of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America on January 15, 2014. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Clergy on June 9, 2014. On July 12, 2014, he was named special papal envoy to the conclusive celebration of the 350th anniversary of the foundation of the parish of Notre Dame-de-Québec, Canada, "mother-church of all the parishes of North America", programmed for September 14, 2014.

Links. Biography by Salvador Miranda, in Spanish, Episcopologio de la Iglesia Católica en Cuba; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Once in a Castro labor camp, now Cuba's cardinal by David Ariosto, CNN, March 27th, 2012; La visita di un Papa conciliatore e i suoi frutti. Papa Benedetto a Cuba nella cronaca scritta per 30Giorni dal cardinale arcivescovo di San Cristóbal de La Habana. 30Days In the Church and in the world, international monthly magazine directed by Giulio Andreotti, year XXIX, issue no. 03/04 - 2012; Opposition members take exception to remarks at Harvard by Cardinal Jaime Ortega Alamino, Archbishop of Havana by Juan Carlos Chávez, The Miami Herald, Posted on Friday, 04.27.12; U.S. government's Radio and TV Marti call Cuban Cardinal Jaime Ortega a lackey by William Booth, The Washington Post, published: May 5, 2012; Respaldan decisión de Radio y TV Martm de transmitir editorial sobre cardenal cubano Jaime Ortega by Daniel Shoer Roth, El Nuevo Herald, Miami, Florida, Publicado el martes, 05.08.12; Cuban dissidents criticize Havana bishops letter on Cardinal Jaime Ortega by Juan Carlos Chavez, The Miami Herald, Posted on Sunday, 06.03.12; Las Damas de Blanco se reunirán con el cardenal cubano Jaime Ortega by Juan Carlos Chavez, El Nuevo Herald, Miami, Publicado el miércoles, 06.06.12; Cuba's Ladies in White say they trust Cardinal Ortega by Juan O. Tamayo, The Miami Herald, Posted on Friday, 06.08.12; Benedicto XVI recibió en audiencia a Arzobispo de La Habana, in Spanish, 18 Jun. 12 / 10:51 am, ACI/EWTN Noticias; 'Su vocación polmtica no apartó a Oswaldo Payá de su fe'. El cardenal Ortega presidió el funeral y leyó el pésame del papa, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 24-07-2012; Cardenal Ortega: Payá siempre inspiró su vocación política en la fe católica, ACI/EWTN Noticias, 24 Jul. 12 / 11:05 am; El cardenal Ortega y un libro interesante by Xavier L. Suárez, El Nuevo Herald, domingo, 08.26.12; Celebrarán 50 años de ordenación sacerdotal de Jaime Ortega, Diario de Cuba, El Nuevo Herald, viernes, 08.01.14; Cardenal cubano celebra 50 años como sacerdote, El Nuevo Herald, Miami, sábado, 08.02.14; Cuba: Cardenal Jaime Ortega cumple 50 años de sacerdocio, ACI/EWTN Noticias, 04 Ago. 14 / 04:07 pm.


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OUELLET, P.S.S., Marc
(1944-

Birth. June 8, 1944, Lamotte, diocese of Amos, Canada. Son of Pierre Ouellet, a school director, and Graziella Michaud. They had eight children. His baptismal name is Joseph Armand Marc.

Education. Studied at Collège de Berthier, 1958-1959; then, at Ècole Normale of Amos, 1959-1964 (two years of philosophy); later, at the University of Laval, where he obtained a bachelor in education in 1964); then, at the Major Seminary of Montréal, from 1964 until 1968, earning a licentiate in theology in 1968); later, he attended the Pontifical University San Tommaso d'Aquino, Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in philosophy in 1974; and finally, the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in dogmatic theology in 1983. He speaks French, English, German, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 25, 1968, in his home parish, Amos, by Gaston Hains, titular bishop of Belesana, coadjutor with right of succession of Amos. Vicar in the parish of Saint-Sauveur de Val-d'Or, Abitibi, from 1968 to 1970. Professor of philosophy at the Major Seminary of Bogotá, Colombia, from 1970 to 1971; the seminary was then directed by the Sulpicians. Entered the Society of Priests of Saint-Sulpice (Sulpicians) in 1972. Furthher studies in Rome, 1972-1974. Professor at the Major Seminary of Manizales, Colombia, from 1974 to 1976. Professor at the Grand Seminary of Montréal, 1976-1978. Further studies in Rome, 1978-1983. Professor at the Major Seminary of Cali, 1983-1984. Rector of the Major Seminary of Manizales from 1984 to 1989. Rector of the Grand Seminary of Montréal, 1990-1994. Rector at Saint Joseph Seminary, from 1994 to 1996. Professor of dogmatic theology at the John Paul II Institute of Studies on Marriage and the Family, Rome, from 1996 to 2002.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Agropoli and appointed secretary of the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity, March 3, 2001. Consecrated, March 19, 2001, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, secretary of State, and by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Re, prefect of the Congregation for Bishops. His episcopal motto is Ut unum sint. Member of the editorial board of the North American edition of the theological journal Rivista Internazionale Communio. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of Québec on November 15, 2002; and took possession of the see on January 26, 2003. Received the pallium from Pope John Paul II on June 29, 2003, at the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria in Traspontina, October 21, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005; by papal appointment. Named member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, February 3, 2007. Participated in the Fifth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church"; he was the relator general; elected member of the council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, October 22, 2008. Named prefect of the Congregation for Bishops and president of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America, June 30, 2010. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Québec, June 30, 2010. He was apostolic administrator of the archdiocese until taking up his duties at the Congregation for Bishops. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the fourth centennial of the baptism of Grand Chief Henri Membertou of the Mik'maq, which took place in Chapel Island, Nova Scotia, diocese of Antigonish, Canada, on August 1, 2010. Named member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches on March 7, 2012. Special papal envoy to the opening celebrations of the pilgrimage to the "Sacra Tunica" (Holy Robe), in the fifth centenary of the first public display of the same, which took place in the cathedral of Trier, Federal Republic of Germany, on April 13, 2012. Pontifical legate to the celebration of the 50th International Eucharistic Congress programmed for Dublin, Ireland, from June 10 to 17, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013. Confirmed as prefect of the Congregation for Bishops on December 16, 2013. Confirmed as president of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America on January 15, 2014. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, until the expiration of his term, on February 19, 2014. He was named member of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life on March 29, 2014; and on that same date, he was confirmed as member of the Pontifical Council for Culture until the expiration of his mandate. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Clergy on June 9, 2014.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2202. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 724-725.

Links. Photograph, arms and biography, in French, archdiocese of Québec; photograph, arms and biography, in English, archdiocese of Québec; and another picture of his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Could he be the first Canadian pope? by Gerard O'Connell, Vatican Insider, 04/29/2012; Classroom Exercises on Who Will Be the Next Pope by Sandro Magister, Chiesa, Rome, June 10, 2012; Cardinal Ouellet meets survivors of abuse at Irelands' famous pilgrimage site by Gerard O'Connell, Vatican Insider, 06/13/2012; Cardinal Ouellet's Homily at the Closing Mass of the Eucharistic Congress, Zenit, the World seen from Rome, 2012-06-17; Cardinal Marc Ouellet, the man in charge of the world's bishops, Rome Reports, 2013-02-21 15:15:13.


oviedo.jpg

OVIEDO CAVADA, O. de M., Carlos
(1927-1998)

Birth. January 19, 1927, Santiago de Chile, Chile. Son of Carlos Oviedo Armstrong dna Elena Cavada Riesco.

Education. Primary studies at Colegio San Pedro Nolasco, Santiago; secondary studies at Instituto de Humanidades Luis Campino, also in Santiago. Joined the Order of Mercy in Melipilla on January 28, 1944; took the simple vows, March 18, 1945; the solemn vows, March 19, 1948.Studied at houses of studies of his order (philosophy); at the Theological Faculty of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Santiago, obtaining a licentiate in theology in 1949; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in canon law in 1953. In Rome he also studied in the SS.CC. of the Council and of Religious; and in the Studium of the Sacred Roman Rota.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 24, 1949, metropolitan cathedral Santiago. Further studies, Rome, 1949-1953. Faculty member and spiritual director, St. Peter Nolasco School; faculty member, Pontifical Catholic University, Santiago, 1953-1958. Work in the general curia of his order and further studies in the Secret Vatican Archive, Rome, 1958-1961. Director of the Theological Faculty, Pontifical Catholic University, Santiago, 1962-1963; pastoral ministry in Santiago and official in the archdiocesan curia as lawyer in the ecclesiastical tribunal; prosynodal examiner; visitor to women religious; and book censor, 1961-1964.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Benevento and appointed auxiliary of Concepción, March 21, 1964. Consecrated, June 7, 1964, basilica of La Merced, Santiago, by Alfredo Silva Santiago, titular archbishop of Petra di Palestina, retired archbishop of Concepción, assisted by Manuel Sánchez Beguiristain, archbishop of Concepción, and by Emilio Tagle Covarrubias, bishop of Valparaíso. His episcopal motto was Pacem in diebus nostris. Attended the Second Vatian Council, 1964-1965. Secretary of the Episcopal Conference of Chile, 1970-1974. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Antofagasta, March 25, 1974. Apostolic administrator, sede vacante, of the prelature of Calama, 1974-1976. Grand chancellor of the University of the North, May 29, 1976-1989. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Santiago de Chile, March 30, 1990. Grand chancellor of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chilefrom 1990 to 1998. Member of the Chilean Academy of History. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria della Scala, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, November 26, 1994. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, February 16, 1998; continued governing archdiocese until a successor was appointed, April 24, 1998.

Death. December 7, 1998, after a long illness, at the hospital of the Catholic University of Chile, Santiago de Chile. Buried in his family's crypt in the Catholic Cemetery, Santiago de Chile. In 2006, his remains were transferred to the archbishops' crypt in the metropolitan cathedral of Santiago (1).

Links. Photograph and biography, in Spanish, archdiocese of Santiago de Chile; another photograph and biography, in Spanish, from the archdiocese of Santiago de Chile; his tomb and biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia.; his arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

CARDENAL CARLOS OVIEDO CAVADA
DA SEÑOR TU PAZ EN NUESTROS DIAS
19 DE ENERO DE 1927 - 7 DE DICIEMBRE DE 1998

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