The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
(1903-2011)
O

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OBANDO BRAVO, S.D.B., Miguel
(1926-

Birth. February 2, 1926, La Libertad, Chontales, apostolic prelature of Juigalpa, Nicaragua. Son of Antonio Obando y Cisneros and María Nicolasa Bravo de Obando. The couple had six children: Cándido, Miguel Purificación, Anselmo, Lino, Jesús and Estela.

Education. Salesian school in Granada; "Aspirantado Salesiano", Granada; joined the Pious Society of St. Francis de Sales (Salesians of Don Bosco) in 1949. Salesian houses of study in San Salvador, El Salvador (Latin, Greek, pedagogy, mathematics, physics and philosophy); in Guatemala, Guatemala (theology); and in Colombia and Venezuela (vocational psychology).

Priesthood. Ordained, August 10, 1958, Guatemala, by Giuseppe Paupini, titular archbishop of Sebastopoli di Abasgia, nuncio in Guatemala and El Salvador. Professor of mathematics and physics, Nicaragua and El Salvador, 1958-1959. Prefect of discipline, Salesian Seminary, San Salvador, 1959-1961; rector of the Institute Rinaldi, Salesian Seminary, San Salvador, 1961-1968. Member of the provincial council of the Salesian Order in Central America, 1962-1968. Delegate of the Central America and Panamá provinces to the general chapter of the Salesian Order, Rome, 1965.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Puzia di Bizacena and appointed auxiliary of Matagalpa, January 18, 1968.Consecrated, March 31, 1968, by Marco Antonio García y Suárez, bishop of Granada, assisted by Clemente Carranza y López, bishop of Estelí, and by Julián Luis Barni Spotti, O.F.M., titular bishop of Coracesio, prelate of Juigalpa. His episcopal motto is Omnibus omnia factus. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Managua, February 16, 1970. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. President of the Episcopal Conference of Nicaragua, 1971-1974; and 1979-1983. President of the Episcopal Secretariat of Central America and Panamá, 1976-1980. Active defensor of human rights during Somoza's dictatorship and Sandinista regime. Received the Bruno Kreysky Award for peace and freedom, Vienna, Austria, 1979; the Plaque for Peace and Freedom of the Nicaraguan People, San Francisco, United States of America, 1980; the Letter of Brotherhood of the Piarist Society, Managua, 1980; the Venezuelan Order of Francisco Miranda, 1981; the Distinction of Loyalty to the Pope, the Church and the Nicaraguan People, Central of Nicaraguan Workers (CTN), 1982.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of S. Giovanni Evangelista a Spinaceto, May 25, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. President of the Episcopal Conference of Nicaragua, 199--1996; 1999-. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of theFourth centennial of the veneration of Santo Cristo of Esquipulas, Guatemala, March 9, 1995. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Managua upon having reached the age limit, March 12, 2005. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005; by papal appointment. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, February 2, 2006. On March 14, 2007, he announced in a press conference held at Unica Catholic University that he had accepted a request made in January by Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega to preside over the Peace and Reconciliation Commission, which is charged with ensuring the implementation of signed agreements with Nicaraguans who were affected by the civil war of the 1980's. He accepted the presidency "a título personal" (in his own name). In February, the cardinal had indicated that he would accept only if the Holy See allowed him. On March 10, 2007, he had an audience with Pope Benedict XVI and in the press conference the cardinal said that the pope had told him to work for the reconciliation of the Nicaraguan family. He is the first Nicaraguan cardinal.

Bibliography. Urtasun Martínez, Domingo. Miguel Obando Bravo cardenal por la paz. Managua : Hispamer, 1994.

Links. His arms, Araldica Vaticana; Ven luces y sombras de Obando, La Prensa.com.ni, Managua, 19 de agosto, 2012.


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O'BOYLE, Patrick Aloysius
(1896-1987)

Birth. July 18, 1896, Scranton, Pennsylvania, United States of America. Son of Michael O'Boyle, a steelworker who died when Patrick was ten, and Mary Muldoon. As the only surviving child, he had to help support his mother with odd jobs.

Education. Saint Thomas College, Scranton; Saint Joseph's Seminary, Yonkers, New York; New York School of Social Work, New York.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 21, 1921, New York, by Patrick Joseph Hayes, archbishop of New York. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of New York, 1921-1926. Faculty member of the New York School of Social Work, 1932-1936. Executive director of the Catholic Guardian Society, New York, 1926-1933. Assistant director of the Children Care Department of Catholic Charities of New York, 1933-1936. Executive director of the Mission of the Immaculate Virgin, Mt. Loretto, Staten Island, 1936-1943. Privy chamberlain, of His Holiness 1941. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 21, 1944. Executive director of the War Relief Services, National Catholic Welfare Conference, Washington, D.C., 1943-1947. Executive director of the Catholic Charities of New York, August 1, 1947.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Washington, D.C., November 27, 1947. Consecrated, January 14, 1948, St. Patrick's cathedral, New York, by Cardinal Francis Spellman, archbishop of New York, assisted by John Michael McNamara, titular bishop of Eunemia, auxiliary of Washington, and by Henry Theophilus Klonowski, titular bishop of Daldis, auxiliary of Scranton. Assistant at Pontifical Throne, December 25, 1955. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. At the March on Washington in 1963, he delivered the invocation and stood with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. on that day, when the latter pronounced the famous speech "I Have a Dream".Named metropolitan archbishop of Washington when the see was elevated to that rank, October 12, 1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 26, 1967; received the red biretta and the title of S. Nicola in Carcere, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, June 29, 1967. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 3, 1973. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, July 18, 1976. He had a reputation within the church of being a sturdy champion of minority rights and a skillful organizer of charities. He was a strong suppoorter of racial integration.

Death. August 10, 1987, of pneumonia and kidney failure (complications aggravated by a broken leg), while recovering at Providence Hospital of Washington. Buried in the chapel of St. Francis of Assisi, the burial chamber for the archbishops of the archdiocese, in St. Matthew the Apostle's metropolitan cathedral, Washington; he was the first person to be interred in that chamber constructed to be the final resting place of the archbishops of Washington; Cardinal James Aloysius Hickey was buried there in 2004.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 112; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 219; MacGregor, Morris J. Steadfast in the Faith: The Life of Patrick Cardinal O'Boyle. Washington, D.C. : The Catholic University of America Press, 2006. Contents : Preface; 1. A Scranton Childhood; 2. A Curate's Education; 3. Catholic Charities; 4. Other Duties as Assigned; 5. An Organization Man; 6. Pomp and Circumstance; 7. Learning on the Job; 8. Fighting Jim Crow; 9. A Capital Pulpit; 10. The Measure of the Man; 11. Vatican II; 12. A Fretful Man; 13. A Civil Rights Crusader; 14. State in Fide; 15. "What'll They Think of Next?"; 16. Finale; Bibliography; Index.

Links. His arms, Araldica Vaticana; A prayer, and a life, for justice by Mark Zimmermann Catholic Standard, 8/14/2013 11:06:00 AM, mycatholicstandard, Archdiocese of Washington.


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O'BRIEN, Keith Michael Patrick
(1938-

Birth. March 17, 1938, Ballycastle, diocese of Down and Connor, Northern Ireland. Eldest of the two sons of Mark O'Brien and his wife, Alice. The other son is Terry.

Education. Started his primary education in Ballycastle; then, in 1949, he moved with his family to Scotland and attended Saint Stephens Primary School, Dalmuir; secondary school at Saint Patrick's High School, Dumbarton; then, the family moved to Edinburgh, where he completed his secondary education at Holy Cross Academy; after his second request to become a priest, Archbishop Gordon Joseph Gray of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh told him to first study at the University of Edinburgh (1), where he earned a bachelor of science in chemistry and mathematics in 1959; and later, he obtained a diploma of education at Moray House College of Education in 1966. He studied for the priesthood at Saint Andrew's College, Drygrange, Roxburghshire.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 3, 1965, Edinburgh, by Gordon Joseph Gray, archbishop of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh. He was vicar cooperator in Holy Cross, Edinburgh from 1965 to 1966. Between 1966 and 1971, he was employed by Fife County Council as a teacher of mathematics and science, while, at the same time, he was chaplain to Saint Columba's Secondary School, initially in Cowdenbeath and later in Dunfermline, teaching mathematics; and assisting in Saint Bride's parish, Cowdenbeath. Full time ministry at Saint Patrick's parish, Kilsyth, from 1972 until 1975; and at Saint Mary's parish, Bathgate, from 1975 until 1978. Spiritual director of Saint Andrew's College, Drygrange, from 1978 until 1980; and rector, Saint Mary's College, the junior seminary at Blairs, Aberdeen from 1980 until 1985.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh, May 30, 1985. Consecrated, August 5, 1985, metropolitan cathedral of Saint Mary, Edinburgh, by Cardinal Gordon Joseph Gray, archbishop emeritus of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh, assisted by Bruno Bernard Heim, titular archbishop of Xanto, apostolic delegate in Great Britain, and by Thomas Joseph Winning, archbishop of Glasgow. His episcopal motto is Serve the Lord with gladness. President of the Bishops' Conference of Scotland. Grand cross and conventual chaplain of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, 1985. Knight commander with star of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem. Apostolic administrator of the diocese of Argyll and the Isles from 1996 to 1999. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. In 2001, he was named grand prior of the Scottish Lieutenancy of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem; and in 2003, appointed knight grand cross. In June 2001, after the unexpected death of Cardinal Thomas Joseph Winning, archbishop of Glasgow, he was appointed acting president of the Bishops Conference of Scotland; and in March 2002, he was elected its president.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Gioacchino ed Anna al Tuscolano, October 21, 2003. Member of the Pontifical Councils for Social Communications; for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People; and for the Family. In 2004, he was granted an honorary degree of doctor of laws from Saint Francis Xavier University, Antigonish, Nova Scotia, Canada; an honorary degree of doctor of divinity from the University of Saint Andrews; and an honorary degree of doctor of divinity from the University of Edinburgh. Named bailiff grand cross of honor and devotion of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta in 2005. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Special papal envoy to the centennial celebrations of the foundation of the church of Long Tower, in the city of Derry, Ireland, which took place on June 9, 2009. Director of the Scottish Catholic International Aid Fund (SCIAF). Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese on February 18, 2013, according to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law (2). Did not participate in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis, for personal reasons.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh; biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Catholic leader backs Scottish independence , scotsman.com, Sunday 15 October 2006 00:44; The 'Cardinal of Controversy', BBC News, Thursday, 31 May 2007, 15:17 GMT 16:17 UK.Cardinal urges referendum on gay marriage , The Tablet, 16 July 2012; Scottish cardinal calls for referendum on same-sex 'marriage' by David Kerr, CNA/EWTN News, Jul 16, 2012 / 03:25 pm; An eloquent silence, L'Osservatore Romano, news.va, 2012-08-22; Edimbourg: Un geste symbolique mais éloquent, InfoCatho.be, mercredi, 22 août 2012; OBrien quits talks with government, The Tablet, 21 August 2012; Cardinal O'Brien calls on politicians to "sustain rather than subvert Marriage", Vatican Radio, news.va, 2012-08-23; No alle nozze gay in Scozia, la lettera di O'Brien nelle chiese by Elisabetta Del Soldato, Chiesa, Avvenire, 28 agosto 2012; Top British Cardinal Faces Accusations of Committing Inappropriate Acts by Jon Burns, The New York Times, February 24, 2013 Cardinal Keith O'Brien resigns as Archbishop by Robert Pigott, Religious affairs correspondent, BBC News, 25 February 2013; Britain's Cardinal Keith O'Brien to skip papal election by Kim Hjelmgaard and Cathy Lynn Grossman, USA TODAY, 11:36a.m. EST February 25, 2013; Vatican: Cardinal O' Brien resigns, Vatican Radio, 2013-02-25 12:11:54; Cardinal O'Brien will not take part in conclave, number of electors down to 115, video, Rome Reports, 2013-02-25 21:49:29; British cardinal's resignation underscores challenge to Catholic Church/s moral authority by Anthony Faiola, The Washington Pots, February 25, 2013; Pope accepts cardinal's resignation; Scot to stay away from conclave by Cindy Wooden, Catholic News Service, Feb-25-2013; Top British Cardinal Resigns, a Day After Charges of 'Inappropriate Acts' by Rachel Donadio and John F. Burns, The New York Times, February 25, 2013; Disgraced Keith O'Brien faces Vatican 'trial', The Scotsman, Monday 24th February 2014; Scotland: Vatican launches investigation into Cardinal OBrien, Vatican Insider, 04/04/2014; Disgraced cardinal's archdiocese subject of Vatican investigation by Joshua J. McElwee, The National Catholic Reporter, Apr. 4, 2014.

(1) He had a murmur in his heart and the archbishop told him, "if you are able to survive the university, there is a chance that you could survive in the seminary".
(2) The cardinal's biography in the site of the archdiocese of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh, linked above, said that: "On approaching his 75th birthday and with health concerns, the Cardinal's resignation was tendered and subsequently accepted by Pope Benedict XVI nunc pro tunc. He relinquished pastoral governance of the Archdiocese on 25th February 2013." The pope had accepted his resignation on November 13, 2012, to take effect later - nunc pro tunc.


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O'CONNELL, William Henry
(1859-1944)

Birth. December 8, 1859, Lowell, archdiocese of Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America. Youngest of the eleven children of John O'Connell, a textile mill laborer, and Bridget Farrelly; both were Irish immigrants.

Education. Saint Charles Seminary College, Ellicott City, Maryland, 1879; left the seminary and entered Boston College, Boston (graduated in 1881, first honors in philosophy and physics); resumed his studies for the priesthood and was sent to the North American College, Rome; Pontifical Urban Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome (because of illness had to leave without completing his doctorate).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 7, 1884, Rome, by Cardinal Lucido Maria Marocchi, vicar general of His Holiness. Pastoral ministry in the parishes of St. Joseph, Medford, and St. Joseph, Boston, West End, archdiocese of Boston, 1885-1895. Rector of the North American College, Rome, 1895-1901. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, 1897.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Portland, Maine, May 14, 1901. Consecrated, May 19, 1901, Corsini chapel of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Satolli, assisted by Edmund Stonor, titular archbishop of Trapezus (Trebizonda), and by Rafael Merry del Val, titular archbishop of Nicea. The liturgy was directed by Monsignor Francesco Riggi, prefect of Pontifical Ceremonies. After the liturgy, lavish refreshments were served under the arches of basilica's cloister. The United States ambassador to Italy was in attendance, along with his wife and son, as well as various members of the European aristocracy. He was installed on July 4, 1901 in the cathedral of the Immaculate Conception in Portland. Special papal envoy to Japan, 1905. Special papal envoy to Emperor Mutsuhito of Japan, August 31, 1905; decorated with the Grand Cordon of the Sacred Treasure. Assistant at Pontifical Throne, 1905. Promoted to titular archbishop of Constantia (1) and appointed coadjutor of Boston, with right of succession, February 6, 1906. Succeeded to the archdiocese of Boston, August 31, 1907.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 27, 1911; received the red hat and the title of S. Clemente, November 30, 1911. Arrived late to the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Arrived late to the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI; asked the new pope to extend the number of days between the death of the pope and the opening of the conclave (2). Papal legate to the National Convention of Holy Name Society, Washington, D.C., September 23, 1924. Awarded an honorary degree by Harvard University in 1937; he was the first native Catholic prelate to receive such recognition. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII.

Death. April 22, 1944, of pneumonia, in Brighton, Boston. Conscious until the end, he answered the prayers for the dying and gave a final blessing to the faithful members of his household. On April 28, 1944, he was buried in the chapel of the Immaculate Conception which he had constructed on the grounds of the St. John Seminary as his final resting place (3). With the 2007 sale of the seminary and archdiocesan property to his alma mater, Boston College, the chapel then became the college's property. The archdiocese planned to relocate the cardinal's remains to St. Sebastian's School in Needham, which Cardinal O'Connell helped found in 1941. In July 2011 the chapel was razed and the cardinal's body was moved to another section of Boston College property which is nearer to the remaining seminary building, St. John Hall (4).

Bibliography. Branson, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 55; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, pp. 221-22; Golden jubilee of His Eminence, William Cardinal O'Connell, Archbishop of Boston, 1884-1934. Cambridge, Mass. : Riverside Press, 1935; O'Connell, William Henry. Reminiscences of twenty-five years, 1901-1926. Boston : Pilot Pub. Co., 1926; O'Leary, Robert Aidan. William Henry Cardinal O'Connell : a social and intellectual biography. Dissertation: Thesis (Ph. D.)--Tufts University, 1980; Reproduction: Photocopy. Ann Arbor, Mich. : University Microfilms International, 1982; O'Toole, James M. Militant and Triumphant: William Henry O'Connell and the Catholic Church in Boston, 1859-1944. Notre Dame : University of Notre Dame Press, 1992; Pieta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 11, 22, 90 and 139; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, p. 464; Sexton, John E. Cardinal O'Connell : a biographical sketch, souvenir of the silver jubilee of his episcopate. Boston : Pilot Pub. Co., 1926; Wayman, Dorothy G. Cardinal O'Connell of Boston. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Young, 1955; Slawson, Douglas J. Ambition and Arrogance. Cardinal William O'Connell of Boston and the American Catholic Church. Cobalt Productions, 2007.

Links. His portrait and biography, in English; "Number One" The man who set the style for America's bishops, article from Boston College Magazine, Winter 2003; The Cardinal of Repression, book review of Militant and Triumphant: William Henry O'Connell and the Catholic Church in Boston, 1859-1944, by James Carroll, published in The Atlantic Monthly; July 1992; Volume 270, No. 1; pp. 90-95; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana; and his photograph; Remains of Cardinal O'Connell reinterred at new location by Antonio M. Enrique, The Boston Pilot, posted: 7/29/2011, Archdiocese of Boston; Misreporting Moving of Tomb, blog Boston Catholic Insider, July 30, 2011.

(1) This see is also called Tomi.
(2) In response, the pope issued the motu proprio Cum proxime, dated March 1, 1922, by which he ordered that the conclave should begin fifteen days after the death of the Roman Pontiff and empowered the College of Cardinals to extend this period to eighteen days if they considered it necessary.
(3) An article in The Boston Globe describes the place of burial: "in a small chapel, on a hill situated well away from the major buildings, with two statues of lions in front of it. There is no plaque or any other wording there to identify it." In reality, there was no exterior marking but looking inside of the chapel there was a five foot long, two and a half foot wide lengthy summary of Cardinal O'Connell's life and accomplishments -- all in splendid Ciceronian Latin written by his secretary, John Joseph Wright, himself later a cardinal (1969). Both men graduated from Boston College.
(4) There had been a lengthy litigation between the O'Connell family (opposed to exhumation) against both the archdiocese and Boston College. The family finally agreed to his exhumation only on condition that the archdiocese of Boston and Boston College honor the cardinal's wish to be buried at his seminary. The seminary is on land now surrounded by the much larger parcel sold by the archdiocese to the college to pay for the sexual abuse settlements. Hence, the little chapel was destroyed and the bronze coffin, weighing one ton, was reinterred in a landscaped courtyard of the seminary itself. It will remain there and not be moved to St. Sebastian's school in the suburbs.


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O'CONNOR, John Joseph
(1920-2000)

Birth. January 15, 1920, Philadelphia, United States of America. Fourth child of Thomas O'Connor and Dorothy Gomple.

Education. Public elementary and junior high schools, Philadelphia; West Catholic High School for Boys, Philadelphia; St. Charles Borromeo Seminary, Philadelphia; Villanova University, Philadelphia; University of Delaware, Wilmington; Catholic University, Washington; Georgetown University, Washington (masters in superior ethics, clinical psychology and political science).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 15, 1945. Faculty member, St. James School and St. James School for Adults, Philadelphia; University of Virginia, Charlottesville. Military chaplain in the United States Army and Navy, in Quantico, Barstow, Okinawa, and Vietnam; chief chaplain, 1957-1979; retired, June 1, 1979. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, October 27, 1966.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Curzola and appointed auxiliary to the military vicar for the United States of America, April 18, 1979. Consecrated, May 27, 1979, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy, archbishop emeritus of Bangalore, secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, and by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State. His episcopal motto was There can be no love without justice. Transferred to the see of Scranton, May 6, 1983. Promoted to the metropolitan see of New York, January 25, 1984. Apostolic administrator of the armed services, January 26, 1984 to March 16, 1985.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, May 25, 1985. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, 1985; November 6, 1995. Special papal envoy to the Philippines National Eucharistic Congress, Manila, December 8, 1987. Attended the IX Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; one of its three president delegates. Special papal envoy to the closing ceremonies of the centenary of the cathedral of Melbourne, Australia, October 27, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, January 15, 2000. Awarded the Congressional Gold Medal, March 7, 2000.

Death. May 3, 2000, at 8.05 p.m., of cardiopulmonary arrest, the result of brain tumor complications, in his archiepiscopal residence in New York. His funeral took place at St. Patrick's metropolitan cathedral, New York, and it was presided over by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, secretary of State; the eulogy was delivered by Cardinal Bernard Law, who was at his bedside when he died. U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan; President Bill Clinton and First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton; Vice President Al Gore; former President George H. W. Bush; Governor of Texas George W. Bush; New York Governor George Pataki and New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani were among the dignitaries who attended the funeral. He was buried in the crypt of that metropolitan cathedral (1).

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1790-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 179-180; Hentoff, Nat. John Cardinal O`Connor: At the storm center of a changing Catholic Church. New York : 1988; Shelley, Thomas J. "O'Connor, John Joseph." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyła years. Detroit, MI : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, pp.368-370.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana..

(1) This is the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta;

+
JOHN CARDINAL O'CONNOR
1920 - 2000
ARCHBISHOP
1984 - 2000


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ODDI, Silvio
(1910-2001)

Birth. November 14, 1910, Morfasso, diocese of Piacenza, Italy. He was the twelfth of fourteen children, seven boys and seven girls. His baptismal name was Silvio Angelo Pio.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Piacenza from October 1921 to 1926 (studies ginnasiali); at Collegio Alberoni, Piacenza, from 1926 to 1933 (philosophy, theology and moral); at the Pontifical Athenaeum Angelicum, Rome; and at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy).

Priesthood. Ordained, May 21, 1933, Piacenza. Further studies, Rome, 1933-1936. Scretary of the apostolic delegation in Iran, 1936-1939. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, April 24, 1937; reappointed, March 3, 1939. Secretary of the apostolic delegation in Lebanon and Syria, 1939-1945; in Egypt, 1945-1948; in the nunciature in France, 1948-1951. Regent of the nunciature in Yugoslavia, 1951-1953.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Messembria, July 30, 1953. Appointed apostolic delegate in Jerusalem, Palestine, Transjordania, and Cyprus, July 31, 1953. Consecrated, September 27, 1953, cathedral of Piacenza, by Cardinal Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, patriarch of Venice, assisted by Umberto Malchiodi, titular archbishop of Serre, coadjutor, with right of succession, of the archbishop-bishop of Piacenza, and by Antonio Samorè, titular archbishop of Tirnovo, secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. His episcopal motto was Dominus fortitudo. Internuncio in Egypt, January 11, 1957. Nuncio in Belgium and internuncio in Luxemburg, May 17, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Agata in Urbe, April 30, 1969. President of the Commission of Cardinals for the Pontifical Shrines of Pompei and Loreto, and pontifical legate for the patriarchal basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi, June 13, 1969. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated, pro illa vice, to title, June 30, 1979. Prefect of the S.C. for the Clergy, September 29, 1979. Attended the V Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; the VI Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Camerlengo of the College of Cardinals, June 25, 1984 to June 22, 1987. Attended the II Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Resigned prefecture, January 9, 1986. Special papal envoy to the state funeral of Emperor Hirohito of Japan, Tokyo, February 24, 1989. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, November 14, 1990. Cardinal patronus of the Milizia del Tempio - Ordine dei Poveri Cavalieri di Cristo, from 1993 until his death.

Death. June 29, 2001, at a hospital in Cortemaggiore, Piacenza. Buried in the old parish church in Morfasso.

Bibliography. Oddi, Silvio ; Brunelli, Lucio. Il tenero mastino di Dio : memorie del Cardinale Silvio Oddi. Roma : Progetti museali editore : ENEL, 1995. Other Title : Memorie del Cardinale Silvio Oddi.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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O'DONNELL, Patrick
(1856-1927)

Birth. November 28, 1856, Kilraine, near Glenties, parish of Inniskeel, county Donegal, diocese of Raphoe, Ireland. He was the son of Dan O'Donnell, a small farmer, and Mary Breslin, from Gortlosk. The family had four boys (among them, Patrick, John, a medical doctor; Daniel, a barrister); and five girls ( among them, Rose, a Loreto nun, who died in 1959 at 104; Kate, also a Loreto nun). They were brought up as native Gaelic speakers.

Education. Primary education at the National School, Lower Kilkraine, together with his brothers and sister; later, he studied at the High School of Letterkenny (classical studies); the Catholic University, Dublin (1873-1875); St. Patrick's College, Maynooth, (theology), 1875-1879; Dunboyne Establishment (to obtain qualifications for the duties of parish priests, or to be professors in the college), 1879-1880. Pope Leo XIII conferred on him the degree of doctor of divinity on May 29, 1885.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1880, Maynooth, by Cardinal Edward McCabe, archbishop of Dublin. Professor of dogmatic and moral theology, St. Patrick's Seminary, Maynooth, 1880-1884. Prefect of the Dunboyne Establishment, 1884-1888; the institute provided post graduate courses in theology and canon law. During this time, he was a prolific author on moral theology and canon law, some of them published in "The Irish Ecclesiastical Record" and in his native parish of Inniskeel.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Raphoe, February 26, 1888; at the time, he was the youngest bishop in the world. Consecrated, April 3, 1888, pro-cathedral of Raphoe, Letterkenny, by Michael Logue, archbishop of Armagh, assisted by Francis Kelly, bishop of Derry, and by Patrick McAllister, bishop of Down and Connor; the sermon was preached by Bartolomew Woodlock, bishop of Ardagh and Clonmacnoise. He played an important role in the struggle between landlords and tenants in Donegal during the Plan of Campaign, trying to alleviate the suffering of evicted tenants of his own diocese. He was the longest serving member of the Congested District Board, which tried to improve the social conditions of the people living in those districts. Avidly interested in Home Rule, he participated in its movement and played a prominent role in the politics of the Irish Parliamentary Party, whose philosophy was that of Home Rule for Ireland. From 1914 until 1925, he had an active participation in Irish life during the First World War; the 1916 Easter Rising; as member of the Irish Convention, July 25, 1917 to April 5, 1918; the War of Independence; the 1920 Government of Ireland Act; the Treaty of 1921; the Civil War; and the Boundary Commission, November 1924. Promoted to the titular archbishop of Attalia and appointed coadjutor of Armagh, with right of succession, January 14, 1922. Apostolic administrator of Raphoe, 1922-1923. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Armagh, and primate of All Ireland, November 19, 1924.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 14, 1925; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria della Pace, December 17, 1925. Papal legate to the Irish Plenary Council, Maynooth, June 27, 1927.

Death. October 22, 1927, of pneumonia and double pleurisy, shortly before noon, Carlingford, County Louth, archdiocese of Armagh. Buried, St. Patrick's cemetery, Armagh (1). The St. Connell's Museum in Glenties has a display about his life. There is a monument in his memory outside St. Eunan's cathedral, Letterkenny.

Bibliography. Ó Baoighill, Pádraig S. Cardinal Patrick O'Donnell 1856-1927. Baile na Finne, Condae Dhún na nGall, Éire: Foilseacháin Chró na mBothán, 2008; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, p. 316; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, p. 476.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, fourth on the page; photograph and biography, in English; the O'Donnell family and arms.


(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tombstone, taken from Ó Baoighill, Pádraig S. Cardinal Patrick O'Donnell 1856-1927, p. 285, photograph n. 24:

PATRICIUS SUB TITULO S. MARIAE DE PACE S.R.E. PRESBYTER
CARDINALIS O'DONNELL ARCHIEPISCOPUS ARMACANUS TOTIUS
HIBERNIAE PRIMAE
NATUS APUD CLENTIES 1855
ORDINATUS SACERDOS 1880
CONSECRATUS EPISCOPUS RAPOTENSIS 1888
COADJUTOR ARCHIEPISCOPI ARMACANI 1922
ARCHIEPISCOPUS ARMACANUS ET TITIUS HIBERNIAE PRIMAS 1925
CREATUS CARDINALIS 1925.

INDOLEMITE GENEROSAQUE INGENIO AMORENO ANIMO MISERCORDIAE
ET HUMANITATIS PLENO SUAE PATRIAE MORUM
LINGUAQUE AMANTISSIMUS HOMO HOSPITALISSIMUS DOCTRINA SAPIENTIA
PRUDENTIA HUMILITATE SANCTITATE AUCTUS ECCLESIAE PRAESIDIUM ET
DECUS PIISSIME DIE 22 OCT. 1927 IN DOMINO OBIIT.

R . I . P .


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Ó FIAICH, Tomás
(1923-1990)

Birth. November 3, 1923, Crossmaglen, archdiocese of Armagh, Ireland. Son of Patrick Ó Fiaich and Annie Carragher. He had an older brother, Patrick (Paddy), who died in 1983. His last name is also listed as Fee and O' Fee.

Education. Primary education at Cregganduff Public Elementary School, where his father was the principal teacher, from 1928 until 1936; St. Patrick's College, Armagh; St. Patrick's College, Maynooth, September 1940-1943; he had to interrupt his studies because of illness (pleurisy and pneumonia); St. Peter's College, Armagh (theology); University College, Dublin, 1948-1950 (took his degree in 1950; thesis: "The Kingdom of Airgialla", a study of the tribes and customs of South Armagh); and St. Anthony's College, Louvain, Belgium, 1950-1952 (history; he obtained his degree in 1952 "avec la plus grande distinction") .

Priesthood. Ordained, July 6, 1948, St. Peter's College, Armagh, by Bishop James Staunton of Ferns. Further studies in Dublin and Louvain, 1948-1952. Curate in the Parish of Clonfeacle, Armagh, 1952-1953. Lecturer in modern history, St Patrick's College, Maynooth, 1953-1959; professor, 1959-1970; vice-president, 1970-1974; president, 1974-1977.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Armagh, August 18, 1977. Consecrated, October 2, 1977, Armagh, by Gaetano Alibrandi, titular archbishop of Binda, nuncio in Ireland, assisted by Francis Lenny, titular bishop of Rotdon, auxiliary of Armagh, and by William J. Philbin, bishop of Down and Connor. His episcopal motto was Fratres in unum. President of Episcopal Conference of Ireland, 1977-1990.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the title of S. Patrizio, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. During his time as archbishop of Armagh and primate of Ireland, sectarian and political violence greatly affected Northern Ireland and he suffered with his people. Throughout his ministry he maintained a pastoral concern for all the sections of the population.

Death. May 8, 1990, of a severe heart attack, in the evening, while leading the annual Armagh Archdiocesan Pilgrimage to the Marian Shrine of Lourdes in France. He had arrived in France the day before and had complained of feeling ill shortly after saying mass at the Grotto in the French town of Lourdes. He was rushed by helicopter to a hospital in Toulouse, 125 miles away, where he died. During his lying in state at the metropolitan cathedral of Armagh, thousands of people lined up to pay their respects. The funeral took place on May 15, 1990 in that cathedral. The requiem mass was celebrated by Bishop Cahal Brendan Daly of Down and Connor, senior bishop of the ecclesiastical province of Armagh, who also delivered the homily. Present were Cardinals George Basil Hume, O.S.B., archbishop of Westminster; Bernard Francis Law, archbishop of Boston; John Joseph O'Connor, archbishop of New York; Adrianus Johannes Simonis, archbishop of Utrecht; Francis Arinze, president of the Secretariat for Non-Christians; and Emmanuel Gerada, titular archbishop of Nomento, nuncio in Ireland. Also in attendance were President Patrick John Hillery of Ireland; Vice-President Martin McGuiness; Taoiseach Charles Haughey; Taniste Brian Lenihan; Lord Caledon, representative of Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain; Sinn Fein President Gerry Adams. At the head of the nave, in the front seats, on either side were the members of the late cardinal's immediate family: Mrs. Deidre O'Fee, his sister-in law, with his nieces and nephews Ainin, Eithne, Blaithin, Tom, Padraig, Sile, John and Orla. The remains of the cardinal were buried in the grounds of that metropolitan cathedral. The Cardinal Tomás Ó Fiaich Memorial Library, a registered charity, was officially opened in Armagh on May 8, 1999 by the Northern Ireland Secretary of State (1).

Bibliography. FitzGerald, Billy. Father Tom. Fount, 1990; Ó Glaisne, Risteárd. Tomás Ó Fiaich. Baile Átha Claith: Coiscéim, 1990; Ó Fiaich, Tomás, "'The Primacy in the Irish Church". Seanchas Ard Mhacha: Journal of the Armagh Diocesan Historical Society, XXI, no 1, (2006), 1-23.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Named after the cardinal to honor his academic interests, it contains extensive archival material about local and national Irish folklore, heritage and history. Cardinal Ó Fiaich's private papers covering his period as archbishop and cardinal are held by the library, as are those of nine previous archbishops of Armagh dating back to the mid-eighteenth century.


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O'HARA, C.S.C., John Francis
(1888-1960)

Birth. May 1, 1888, Ann Arbor, diocese of Detroit, Michigan, United States of America, while his father was studying at the University of Michigan. He was the fourth of the eight children, five boys and three girls, of John Walter O'Hara and Ella Cecilia Thornton, both former school teachers. When his father was named American consul to Uruguay, John went with him to Montevideo; and spent there the next three years; he served as secretary to the U.S. minister to Uruguay, starting in 1905. This experience provided him with a strong command of the Spanish language and a great understanding of the Latin American culture. He returned to the United States in 1908.

Education. Studied at the Catholic elementary school in Peru, Indiana; at Peru Public High School, from 1902 until 1905, when his father was appointed consul; while in Uruguay, he studied at the Jesuit University in Montevideo; then, at the University of Notre Dame, South Bend, Indiana, from January 1909 (bachelors degree in economics and history); in 1911, he introduced the practice of frequent or daily communion to the university campus; later, he studied at the Catholic University of America, Washington; and at the State University of Pennsylvania. Joined the Congregation of the Holy Cross, August 8, 1912; the following year, 1913, he started his theological studies at Holy Cross College in Washington, D.C.; professed, September 14, 1914.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 9, 1916, Indianapolis, by Joseph Chartrand, titular bishop of Flavia, auxiliary of Indianapolis. After ordination, he finished the final year of theological studies. Professor of Latin American studies and prefect of religion at the University of Notre Dame from 1917 to 1933; its vice-president from 1933 until 1934 (he was acting president when Father Charles Leo O'Donnell, C.S.C. fell ill); its president, succeeding Father O'Donnell, who passed away, from 1934 until 1939.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Milasa and appointed delegate of the military vicar of the United States Armed Forces, December 11, 1939. Consecrated, January 15, 1940, church of the Sacred Heart, Notre Dame, by Francis Spellman, archbishop of New York, assisted by John Francis Noll, bishop of Fort Wayne, and by Joseph Elmer Ritter, bishop of Indianapolis. His episcopal motto was Ipsam sequens non devias. Transferred to the diocese of Buffalo, March 10, 1945. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Philadelphia, November 28, 1951. He established the first Annual Catholic Charities Appeal in 1958. He was also interested in the education of the mentally challenged.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Andrea e Gregorio al Monte Celio, December 18, 1958. Humble by character, it is said that he often answered his own doorbell (1).

Death. Sunday August 28, 1960, at 3:06 a.m., peacefully, following a surgery for peritonitis, in Philadelphia. Priests and prelates came from all over the United States for his funeral. Cardinal Francis Joseph Spellman, archbishop of New York, sang the final pontifical mass. The eulogy was delivered by Cardinal James Francis McIntyre, archbishop of Los Angeles. Both cardinals had known him closely in New York and considered him a friend. Messages by the thousands paid tribute to the dead cardinal. Although in his last will he asked to be buried in the Holy Cross Cemetery on the grounds of the University of Notre Dame, a tomb was hurriedly prepared in the chapel of the Sacred Heart, on the side of the gospel of the main altar, as he lay in state while fathers and sisters of the Holy Cross, professors and old friends, filed by. More than 100,000 people filed past the bier as he was laid out in state. Archbishop Paul Clarence Schultz of Indianapolis sang the pontifical mass and gave the final absolution. The final entombment took place on September 7, 1960 in the church of the Sacred Heart, Notre Dame. His body rests at The Cardinal O'Hara Chapel in Notre Dame's Basilica of the Sacred Heart. The Cardinal O'Hara High School in Springfield, Pennsylvania, and The Cardinal O'Hara High School in Tonowanda, New York, were named after him.

Bibliography. Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 229; McAvoy, Thomas T. Father O'Hara of Notre Dame the cardinal archbishop of Philadelphia. Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press, 1967.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, The Notre Dame Center for Ethics and Culture, University of Notre Dame, Indiana; portrait and biography, in English, twelfth on page, Philadelphia Catholic League; biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and biography by rjschatz, Find a Grave; his signature, Havel's House of History; Cardinal O'hara Dies At 72 In Philadelphia, Google News; Founding of the John Cardinal O'Hara Society by Peggy Bolstetter, Mendoza College of Business, University of Notre Dame; John Francis O'Hara Papers, Notre Dame Archives; Cardinal O'Hara Papers, Philadelphia Archdiocesan Historical Research Center (PAHRC); The Bishops of Philadelphia, The Archdiocese of Philadelphia; his arms, portrait and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) During his last two years, the cardinal fought continuously for his life through several operations, spending months at the Misericordia Hospital. Although sick in bed, on one occasion taking twenty two pills a day, he kept his finger firmly on the pulse of his archdiocese by daily consultation with his secretary, the chancellor, and other officials. On Saturday morning, August 27, 1960, word went out from the chancery to the 439 parishes that Cardinal O'Hara was gravely ill. Priests and people began to offer prayers for the man they loved. He died quietly the following morning at 3:06 am. He had long known that his days were numbered, and he looked forward to release.


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OKOGIE, Anthony Olubunmi
(1936-

Birth. Tuesday June 16, 1936, Lagos, Nigeria. From a royal family of Uromi in Edo State. First child of Prince Michael Ohigbom Okogie, from Ishan, and Lucy Adunni Okogie (nee Afolabi), a Yoruba princess. His father belonged to the Esan ethnic group and his mother to the Yoruba.

Education. He began his education at the Holy Cross School; and later at Saint Patrick's Primary School, Sapele in present day Delta State; he had his secondary school education at Saint Gregory's College in Lagos, during which period he showed interest in the priestly vocation; he eventually transferred to Saint Theresa's Minor Seminary in Ibadan; after his training at the Minor Seminary, he went to Saints Peter and Paul Major Seminary, Ibadan (philosophy and theology); then, he was sent to the Pontifical Urbanian University, Rome, in 1963, where he obtained a licentiate in theology in 1966.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 11, 1966, Lagos, by Archbishop John Kwao Amuzu Aggey of Lagos. Incardinated in the archdiocese of Lagos; coadjutor of the cathedral parish; vicar economous of St. Patrick's parish, Idumagbo; diocesan director of Catholic schools and of the Work of Vocations; in charge of the radio programs of National Radio-Television; he was also at the war front during the Nigeria Civil War counselling soldiers and broadcasting religious programs; professor of religion, King's College; member of the episcopal senate; member of the pastoral commission.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Mascula and appointed auxiliary of Oyo, June 5, 1971. Consecrated, August 29, 1971, cathedral of Saint Benedict, Oshogbo, by Owen McCoy, bishop of Oyo, assisted by Anthony Saliu Sanusi, bishop of Ijebu-Ode, and by Alexius Obabu Makozi, titular bishop of Fallaba, auxiliary of Lokoja. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lagos, April 13, 1973. He was enthroned as archbishop of Lagos on June 17, 1973. Attended the Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994. President of the Bishops Conference of Nigeria (CBCN), 1994-2000. President of the Christian Association of Nigeria (CAN), at a time when the then military juntas were confronted with controversial policies over separation of state and religion.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of Beata Vergine Maria del Monte Carmelo a Mostacciano, October 21, 2003. Took possession of his title on May 22, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Special papal envoy to the National Eucharistic Congress of Ghana, November 19 to 20, 2005. Named member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, February 3, 2007. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World". Some of the outstanding socio-political crusades of the cardinal that most Nigerians will remember him for include his offer to give life up in place of a Muslim woman who was condemned to death by stoning by an Islamic court for the crime of adultery. Cardinal Okogie offered to pay the sentence imposed on the woman, Safiya Hussainii Tungar-Tudu, in the northern state of Sokoto in a case which created an international outcry. The woman was allowed to go free. Honorary member of The International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Lagos was accepted in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law on May 25, 2012. The pope named as new archbishop of Lagos Alfred Adewale Martins, until then bishop of Abeokuta, Nigeria. Cardinal Okogie was apostolic administrator of the archdiocese until the installation of his successor on Saturday August 4, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis.

Bibliography. Ayeni, Victor Olanrewaju. Anthony Cardinal Olubunmi Okogie : a voice crying in the wilderness. Lagos, Nigeria : Potter's House, 2006; Ngene, Albert IAnthony Cardinal Okogie : "A man for all seasons". Lagos Island [Nigeria] : Silver Jose United Publications, 2005; Ogbeide, Omoluyi. Reluctant politician : most Reverend Anthony Olubunmi Okogie, Archbishop of Lagos, Nigeria. Ede, Osun State, Nigeria : Provincial Pastoral Institute Publications, 1996; Omojafor, Steve. Archbishop Olubunmi Okogie : ... devil or saint?. Lagos, Nigeria : STB & Associates, 1992; Tomori, Pascal. Anthony Olubunmi Okogie: the People's Bishop. Nigeria : Jeromelaiho & Associates, 1991?.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Catholic Bishops' Conference of Nigeria; photograph and biography, in English, edowrold.net; biography, in English, Wikipedia; his photograph, Araldica Vaticana; The Achebe Foundation Interviews #16: Cardinal Anthony Olubunmi Okogie, in English, Nigerian Village Square; Nigerian cardinal blasts laxity of American culture, priesthood, Catholic World News (CWN), July 27, 2009, CatholicCulture; Anthony Cardinal Olubunmi Okogie: Jonathan's govt confused, Nigeria News; Nigerian archbishop urges president to take action to fight insecurity by Peter Ajayi Dada, Catholic News Service, January 5, 2011; Anthony Cardinal Okogie at 75, June 10, 2011, Catholic News Service of Nigeria; Cardinal Okogie vows Christians will not flee from North, National Accord, Thursday, 12 January 2012 04:12; Anthony Cardinal Olubunmi Okogie ill, flown to India, Surpirise blog, Monday, 30 January 2012; Sycophants Around Our Leaders are Ruining Nigeria - Cardinal Anthony Olubunmi Okogie by Etop Ekanem, Nigerian Vanguard, Africa Undisguised; Okogie condemns Islamic banking, wants licence revoked by Joseph Onyekwere, Thursday, June 30, 2011, The Guardian, Nigeria; Nigerian cardinal urges president to unmask sponsors of Boko Haram, The Catholic Review, Baltimore; Archbishop Proposes to Die in Place of Woman Sentenced to Stoning by Obed Minchakpu, Christianity Today, posted 2/01/2002 12:00AM; Lagos names road after Anthony Cardinal Okogie, he Guardian, Nigeria, Wednesday, February 22, 2012; Hommage du pape à un cardinal nigérian courageux, News.va/BL, InfoCatho.be, vendredi, 17 août 2012; Benedicto XVI saluda a Cardenal nigeriano por 46 aniversario de ordenación sacerdotal, ACI/EWTN Noticias, 20 Ago. 12 / 04:19am.


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ORTEGA Y ALAMINO, Jaime Lucas
(1936-

Birth. October 18, 1936, Jagüey Grande, diocese of Matanzas, Cuba. Son of Arsenio Ortega, first a worker in the sugar industry and later, a merchant, and Adela Alamino, a housewife. When he was five years old, his family moved to the city of Matanzas.

Education. Studied at the public school "Arturo Echemendía" (primary education); Instituto de Segunda Enseñanza de Matanzas (secondary education; bachillerato in sciences and letters, 1955); he also studied music (piano) in Matanzas; Seminary of San Alberto Magno, Matanzas, 1956-1960 (humanities and philosophy); Seminary of Priests of Foreign Missions, Québec, Canada, 1960-1964 (theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, August 2, 1964, cathedral of San Carlos Borromeo, Matanzas, by José Maximino Eusebio Domínguez y Rodríguez, bishop of Matanzas. Vicar cooperator in Cárdenas, 1964-1966. For eight months, he was recruited by the "Unidades Militares de Apoyo a la Producción" (UMAP), controlled by the Ministry of the Interior in Camagüey. From 1967-1969, pastor of Jagüey Grande, his native city; as all the pastors in Cuba, due to a severe shortage of priests in those years, he served in several parishes and churches at the same time. Pastor of the cathedral of Matanzas, and at the same time, assisted the parish of Pueblo Nuevo and two other churches in the countryside; he was also president of the Diocesan Commission of Catechetic and realized an active apostolate with the youth of the diocese; in those years, which were even more difficult for the pastoral work of the church, he began a youth movement that included, among other forms of apostolate, a summer camp for the youth, and a work of evangelization through theatrical works performed by the same youth. At the same time, he was professor at San Carlos y San Ambrosio Interdiocesan Seminary, Havana, where he traveled every week to teach moral theology for several years.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Pinar del Rio, December 4, 1978. Consecrated, January 14, 1979, cathedral of San Carlos Borromeo, Matanzas, by Mario Tagliaferri, titular archbishop of Formia, pro-nuncio in Cuba, assisted by Francisco Ricardo Oves Fernández, archbishop of San Cristóbal de La Habana, and by José Maximino Eusebio Domínguez y Rodríguez, bishop of Matanzas. Took possession of the see on January 21, 1979. His episcopal motto is Sufficit tibi gratia mea. Promoted to the metropolitan see of San Cristóbal de La Habana, November 20, 1981. President of the Conference of Catholic Bishops of Cuba, 1988 to 1999. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Aquila e Priscilla, November 26, 1994. In February 1995, he was elected second vice-president of the Latin American Episcopal Council (CELAM); he occupied the post for several years. In 1996, he presided the commission for the process of postulation of the cause of beatification of the Servant of God Fr. Félix Varela y Morales. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Special papal envoy to the National Eucharistic Congress of El Salvador, San Salvador, November 25 to 26, 2000. President of the Conference of Catholic Bishops of Cuba, 1988-1998; and again, December 6, 2001 to 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. He was awarded honorary doctorates by St. Thomas University, Miami, Florida; Barry University, also in Miami, Florida; Providence University, Rhode Island; St John University, New York; University of San Francisco, San Francisco, California; and Universidad Popular Autónoma de Estado de Puebla, México; he also received the Annual Prize of "Fundazione Bonino Pulejo", Messina, Italy, among others. Participated in the 5th General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. He received an honorary Doctor of Laws degree at commencement ceremony of Creighton University, a Jesuit institution in Omaha, Nebraska, United States of America on May 14, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On June 15, 2013, he was named special papal envoy to the conclusive celebration of the first centenary of the elevation to metropolitan archdiocese of San Salvador and the erection of the dioceses of Santa Ana and of San Miguel, as well as to the closing ceremony of the National Eucharistic Congress of El Salvador, programmed for August 11, 2013. He was confirmed as member of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America on January 15, 2014. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Clergy on June 9, 2014. On July 12, 2014, he was named special papal envoy to the conclusive celebration of the 350th anniversary of the foundation of the parish of Notre Dame-de-Québec, Canada, "mother-church of all the parishes of North America", programmed for September 14, 2014.

Links. Biography by Salvador Miranda, in Spanish, Episcopologio de la Iglesia Católica en Cuba; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Once in a Castro labor camp, now Cuba's cardinal by David Ariosto, CNN, March 27th, 2012; La visita di un Papa conciliatore e i suoi frutti. Papa Benedetto a Cuba nella cronaca scritta per 30Giorni dal cardinale arcivescovo di San Cristóbal de La Habana. 30Days In the Church and in the world, international monthly magazine directed by Giulio Andreotti, year XXIX, issue no. 03/04 - 2012; Opposition members take exception to remarks at Harvard by Cardinal Jaime Ortega Alamino, Archbishop of Havana by Juan Carlos Chávez, The Miami Herald, Posted on Friday, 04.27.12; U.S. government's Radio and TV Marti call Cuban Cardinal Jaime Ortega a lackey by William Booth, The Washington Post, published: May 5, 2012; Respaldan decisión de Radio y TV Martm de transmitir editorial sobre cardenal cubano Jaime Ortega by Daniel Shoer Roth, El Nuevo Herald, Miami, Florida, Publicado el martes, 05.08.12; Cuban dissidents criticize Havana bishops letter on Cardinal Jaime Ortega by Juan Carlos Chavez, The Miami Herald, Posted on Sunday, 06.03.12; Las Damas de Blanco se reunirán con el cardenal cubano Jaime Ortega by Juan Carlos Chavez, El Nuevo Herald, Miami, Publicado el miércoles, 06.06.12; Cuba's Ladies in White say they trust Cardinal Ortega by Juan O. Tamayo, The Miami Herald, Posted on Friday, 06.08.12; Benedicto XVI recibió en audiencia a Arzobispo de La Habana, in Spanish, 18 Jun. 12 / 10:51 am, ACI/EWTN Noticias; 'Su vocación polmtica no apartó a Oswaldo Payá de su fe'. El cardenal Ortega presidió el funeral y leyó el pésame del papa, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 24-07-2012; Cardenal Ortega: Payá siempre inspiró su vocación política en la fe católica, ACI/EWTN Noticias, 24 Jul. 12 / 11:05 am; El cardenal Ortega y un libro interesante by Xavier L. Suárez, El Nuevo Herald, domingo, 08.26.12.


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OTTAVIANI, Alfredo
(1890-1979)

Birth. October 29, 1890, Rome, Italy. Eleventh of the twelve children of Enrico Ottaviani, a baker, and Palmira Catalini.

Education. Initial studies with the Brothers of the Christian Schools in Trastevere, Rome; Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome; Pontifical Roman Athenaum "S. Apollinare", Rome (doctorates in philosophy, theology and canon law); later, he also obtained a doctorate in civil law.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 18, 1916, Rome. Professor of Public Ecclesiastical Law at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare"; and of philosophy at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide"; minutante at the S.C. of Propaganda Fide; and pastoral ministry at the Pontifical Oratory of S. Pietro in diocese of Rome, 1916-1926. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, March 15, 1922. Rector of the Pontifical Bohemian College, Rome, 1926-1928. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 31, 1927. Under secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, February 1928-1929. Substitute of the secretariat of State, June 7, 1929. Protonotary apostolic, December 21, 1931. Assessor of the Supreme S.C. of Holy Office, December 19, 1935.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, January 15, 1953. His cardinalitial motto was Semper idem, the same as Cardinal Armand-Jean Du Plessis de Richelieu, prime minister of France. Member of the Commission for the Study of the Dogma of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. President of the Spiritual Commission in the Central Committee for the Holy Year. President of the Committee for the 15th centennial of the Council of Chalcedonia. President of the Committee for the Commemoration of the apostolic constitution "Sapienti Consilio". Pro-secretary of the Supreme S.C. of Holy Office, January 15, 1953 to November 7, 1959. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinal, May 20, 1954 until June 9, 1958. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. In 1959, he received a doctorate honoris causa from The Catholic University of America, Washington; from the University of Notre Dame, Indiana; from Creighton University, Omaha; from Seton Hall University, Newark; and from Loras College, Dubuque. Papal legate to the centennial celebration of the establishment of the Catholic hierarchy in Canada, August 25, 1959. Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of Holy Office, November 7, 1959 to February 9, 1966. Cardinal protodeacon, August 3, 1961.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Berrea, April 5, 1962. Consecrated, April 19, 1962, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Cardinal Giuseppe Pizzardo and by Cardinal Benedetto Aloisi Masella. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinals Joaquín Anselmo María Albareda, O.S.B., Antonio Bacci, Augustin Bea, S.J., Francesco Bracci, Michael Browne, O.P., William Theodore Heard, Alberto di Jorio, André Jullien, P.S.S., Arcadio María Larraona, C.M.F., Francesco Morano, and Francesco Roberti. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Crowned Pope Paul VI, June 30, 1963. Pro-prefect of the S.C. of the Doctrine of the Faith, February 9, 1966 to January 8, 1968. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, June 26, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Resigned the pro-prefecture and was named prefect emeritus, January 6, 1968. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, May 18, 1970 until March 5, 1973. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971. By the end of his life, he had lost most of his eyesight.

Death. August 3, 1979, after a lengthy illness, in Vatican City. Buried in the chapel of S. Salvatore in ossibus church, Vatican City (1).

Bibliography. Cavaterra, Emilio. Il prefetto del Sant'Offizio : le opere e i giorni del cardinale Ottaviani. Presentazione di S.Em. il cardinale Pietro Palazzini. Milan : Mursia, 1990. (Storia e documenti ; 100; Variation: Storia e documenti (Mursia (Firm) ; 100.); Damizia, Giuseppe. "Card. Alfredo Ottaviani." La Pontificia Università lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, p. 230-231; Lesourd, Paul ; Ramiz, Jean-Marie.Alfredo Cardinal Ottaviani. Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press, 1964. (The Men who make the council, 9).

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


(1) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici from Malta:

ALFRIDVS CARD. OTTAVIANI
CHRISTVM ET ECCLESIAM
VEHEMENTER DILEXIT
"SEMPER IDEM"
N. 29 X 1890     M. 3 VIII 1979


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OTUNGA, Maurice
(1923-2003)

Birth. January, 1923, Chebukwa, diocese of Kisumu, Kenya. He was the son of Wasike Lusweti 'Sudi', a traditional paramount chief of the Bakhone (or Bukusu) who had about seventy recognized as true wives, and diviner Rosa Namisi. He was named "Otunga", which meant a staff on which the elderly or the ill lean for support. The original name was Odunga but the Lubukusu language does not have a "d" sound, so it was eventually changed to Otunga. He converted to Catholicism and was baptized in 1935 in Kabibii, either by Father Leo Pulaert or Fent; he took the name Maurice Michael. His father was baptized in 1963 and his mother in 1965.

Education. Mill Hill School, Kibabii, 1931-1933; Mill Hill School, Sijei, 1933-1934; back to Kisibii, 1934; Holy Ghost School, Kabaa, 1935-1939; Holy Ghost School, Mangu, 1939-1943; St. Peter the Apostle Minor Seminary, Mukumu; Major Seminary at Ggaba, Kampala, Uganda (philosophy and theology); in 1947, he declined to become paramount chief when his father retired; Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, 1947-1950 (licentiate in theology, September 1951).

Priesthood. Ordained, October 3, 1950, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Fumasoni Biondi, prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith. Further studies in Rome, 1950-1951. Traveled in Europe for a few months in 1951, visiting northern Italy, Paris, Lourdes, England and Ireland. Returned to Kenya in 1951 and was professor of theology at St. Peter's Seminary, Kakamega, for three years, 1951-1954. Secretary to James Know, titular archbishop of Melitene, apostolic delegate in British Africa, 1954-1956; resided in Mombasa; he traveled extensively in Africa with the delegate. Assigned to the parish of Makupa, Nairobi, 1956.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tacape and appointed auxiliary of Kisumu, November 17, 1956. Consecrated, February 25, 1957, seminary grounds, Kakamega, by James Robert Knox, titular archbishop of Melitene, apostolic delegate in British Africa, assisted by John Joseph McCarthy, archbishop of Nairobi, and by Frederick Hall, bishop of Kisumu. Transferred to diocese of Kisii, May 21, 1960. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. First chancellor of the University of Eastern Africa. Military vicar of Kenya, January 20, 1964. Promoted to titular archbishop of Bomarza and appointed coadjutor of Nairobi, with right of succession, November 15, 1969. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Nairobi, October 24, 1971. President of Episcopal Conference of Kenya. Vice-president of the Association of Episcopal Conferences of East Africa (AMECEA). Member of the Permanent Commission of the Symposium of Episcopal Conferences of Africa and Madagascar (SECAM).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the title of S. Gregorio Barbarigo alle Tre Fontane, March 5, 1973. Attended the III Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the IV Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; member of its general secretariat, 1977-1980. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the V Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; member of its general secretariat, 1980-1983. Military ordinary for Kenya, January 24, 1981. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, May 31, 1981. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, May 14, 1997. Resigned the military ordinariate, September 13, 1997. After his retirement, he decided to live in a home for the aged. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, January, 2003. He spent his last days until he died at Nyumba ya Wazee home for the elderly. He was the first Kenyan to become a priest, a bishop, an archbishop and cardinal.

Death. September 6, 2003, 6:45 a.m., of cardiac arrest, at the intensive care unit of Mater Misericordiae Hospital, Nairobi. Buried, according to his will, in Saint Austin's Cemetery, Msongari, Nairobi. In February 2005, the starting of plans for his beatification were announced. The first step is the reburial of his body at Resurrection Gardens in Karen, Nairobi. This was immediately opposed by the Bukusu community, from which the late cardinal came, arguing that the move was likely to bring a curse on the community. His remains were secretly reburied at 1 pm., on August 24, 2005, at the Resurrection Gardens.

Beatification. The process was started in September 2009. The first postulator of the cause, Father Anthony Bellagamba, I.M.C., a Consolata Missionary, was a former professor of pastoral theology at the Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA). He was named postulator by Cardinal John Njue, archbishop of Nairobi. He passed away at 84 on August 11, 2011. No replacement has been named yet. The Vatican has already accepted the late Cardinal Otunga as Servant of God. The process is in its second phase, where the committee is studying written works of as well as on the late cardinal.

Bibliography. Ogola, Margaret A. and Roche, Margaret. Cardinal Otunga : a gift of grace. Nairobi, Kenya : Paulines Publications Africa, 1999.


Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; Cardinal Otunga, the Servant of God, in English; Kenya Episcopal Conference, in English; Inquiry into beatification of Cardinal Otunga begins in Nairobi, in English, Catholic News Agency; R.I.P. Consolata missionary Fr. Anthony Bellagamba, Jesus Caritas Est, Sunday, August 14, 2011.

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OUELLET, P.S.S., Marc
(1944-

Birth. June 8, 1944, Lamotte, diocese of Amos, Canada. Son of Pierre Ouellet, a school director, and Graziella Michaud. They had eight children. His baptismal name is Joseph Armand Marc.

Education. Studied at Collège de Berthier, 1958-1959; then, at Ècole Normale of Amos, 1959-1964 (two years of philosophy); later, at the University of Laval, where he obtained a bachelor in education in 1964); then, at the Major Seminary of Montréal, from 1964 until 1968, earning a licentiate in theology in 1968); later, he attended the Pontifical University San Tommaso d'Aquino, Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in philosophy in 1974; and finally, the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in dogmatic theology in 1983. He speaks French, English, German, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 25, 1968, in his home parish, Amos, by Gaston Hains, titular bishop of Belesana, coadjutor with right of succession of Amos. Vicar in the parish of Saint-Sauveur de Val-d'Or, Abitibi, from 1968 to 1970. Professor of philosophy at the Major Seminary of Bogotá, Colombia, from 1970 to 1971; the seminary was then directed by the Sulpicians. Entered the Society of Priests of Saint-Sulpice (Sulpicians) in 1972. Furthher studies in Rome, 1972-1974. Professor at the Major Seminary of Manizales, Colombia, from 1974 to 1976. Professor at the Grand Seminary of Montréal, 1976-1978. Further studies in Rome, 1978-1983. Professor at the Major Seminary of Cali, 1983-1984. Rector of the Major Seminary of Manizales from 1984 to 1989. Rector of the Grand Seminary of Montréal, 1990-1994. Rector at Saint Joseph Seminary, from 1994 to 1996. Professor of dogmatic theology at the John Paul II Institute of Studies on Marriage and the Family, Rome, from 1996 to 2002.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Agropoli and appointed secretary of the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity, March 3, 2001. Consecrated, March 19, 2001, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, secretary of State, and by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Re, prefect of the Congregation for Bishops. His episcopal motto is Ut unum sint. Member of the editorial board of the North American edition of the theological journal Rivista Internazionale Communio. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of Québec on November 15, 2002; and took possession of the see on January 26, 2003. Received the pallium from Pope John Paul II on June 29, 2003, at the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria in Traspontina, October 21, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005; by papal appointment. Named member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, February 3, 2007. Participated in the Fifth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church"; he was the relator general; elected member of the council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, October 22, 2008. Named prefect of the Congregation for Bishops and president of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America, June 30, 2010. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Québec, June 30, 2010. He was apostolic administrator of the archdiocese until taking up his duties at the Congregation for Bishops. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the fourth centennial of the baptism of Grand Chief Henri Membertou of the Mik'maq, which took place in Chapel Island, Nova Scotia, diocese of Antigonish, Canada, on August 1, 2010. Named member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches on March 7, 2012. Special papal envoy to the opening celebrations of the pilgrimage to the "Sacra Tunica" (Holy Robe), in the fifth centenary of the first public display of the same, which took place in the cathedral of Trier, Federal Republic of Germany, on April 13, 2012. Pontifical legate to the celebration of the 50th International Eucharistic Congress programmed for Dublin, Ireland, from June 10 to 17, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013. Confirmed as prefect of the Congregation for Bishops on December 16, 2013. Confirmed as president of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America on January 15, 2014. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, until the expiration of his term, on February 19, 2014. He was named member of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life on March 29, 2014; and on that same date, he was confirmed as member of the Pontifical Council for Culture until the expiration of his mandate. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Clergy on June 9, 2014.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2202. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 724-725.

Links. Photograph, arms and biography, in French, archdiocese of Québec; photograph, arms and biography, in English, archdiocese of Québec; and another picture of his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Could he be the first Canadian pope? by Gerard O'Connell, Vatican Insider, 04/29/2012; Classroom Exercises on Who Will Be the Next Pope by Sandro Magister, Chiesa, Rome, June 10, 2012; Cardinal Ouellet meets survivors of abuse at Irelands' famous pilgrimage site by Gerard O'Connell, Vatican Insider, 06/13/2012; Cardinal Ouellet's Homily at the Closing Mass of the Eucharistic Congress, Zenit, the World seen from Rome, 2012-06-17; Cardinal Marc Ouellet, the man in charge of the world's bishops, Rome Reports, 2013-02-21 15:15:13.


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OVIEDO CAVADA, O. de M., Carlos
(1927-1998)

Birth. January 19, 1927, Santiago de Chile, Chile. Son of Carlos Oviedo Armstrong dna Elena Cavada Riesco.

Education. Primary studies at Colegio San Pedro Nolasco, Santiago; secondary studies at Instituto de Humanidades Luis Campino, also in Santiago. Joined the Order of Mercy in Melipilla on January 28, 1944; took the simple vows, March 18, 1945; the solemn vows, March 19, 1948.Studied at houses of studies of his order (philosophy); at the Theological Faculty of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Santiago, obtaining a licentiate in theology in 1949; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in canon law in 1953. In Rome he also studied in the SS.CC. of the Council and of Religious; and in the Studium of the Sacred Roman Rota.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 24, 1949, metropolitan cathedral Santiago. Further studies, Rome, 1949-1953. Faculty member and spiritual director, St. Peter Nolasco School; faculty member, Pontifical Catholic University, Santiago, 1953-1958. Work in the general curia of his order and further studies in the Secret Vatican Archive, Rome, 1958-1961. Director of the Theological Faculty, Pontifical Catholic University, Santiago, 1962-1963; pastoral ministry in Santiago and official in the archdiocesan curia as lawyer in the ecclesiastical tribunal; prosynodal examiner; visitor to women religious; and book censor, 1961-1964.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Benevento and appointed auxiliary of Concepción, March 21, 1964. Consecrated, June 7, 1964, basilica of La Merced, Santiago, by Alfredo Silva Santiago, titular archbishop of Petra di Palestina, retired archbishop of Concepción, assisted by Manuel Sánchez Beguiristain, archbishop of Concepción, and by Emilio Tagle Covarrubias, bishop of Valparaíso. His episcopal motto was Pacem in diebus nostris. Attended the Second Vatian Council, 1964-1965. Secretary of the Episcopal Conference of Chile, 1970-1974. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Antofagasta, March 25, 1974. Apostolic administrator, sede vacante, of the prelature of Calama, 1974-1976. Grand chancellor of the University of the North, May 29, 1976-1989. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Santiago de Chile, March 30, 1990. Grand chancellor of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chilefrom 1990 to 1998. Member of the Chilean Academy of History. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria della Scala, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, November 26, 1994. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, February 16, 1998; continued governing archdiocese until a successor was appointed, April 24, 1998.

Death. December 7, 1998, after a long illness, at the hospital of the Catholic University of Chile, Santiago de Chile. Buried in his family's crypt in the Catholic Cemetery, Santiago de Chile. In 2006, his remains were transferred to the archbishops' crypt in the metropolitan cathedral of Santiago (1).

Links. Photograph and biography, in Spanish, archdiocese of Santiago de Chile; another photograph and biography, in Spanish, from the archdiocese of Santiago de Chile; his tomb and biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia.; his arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

CARDENAL CARLOS OVIEDO CAVADA
DA SEÑOR TU PAZ EN NUESTROS DIAS
19 DE ENERO DE 1927 - 7 DE DICIEMBRE DE 1998

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