The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
(1903-2011)
P

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PADIYARA, Antony
(1921-2000)

Birth. February 11, 1921, Manimala, archdiocese of Changanacherry, India.

Education. St. Peter's Regional Seminary, Bangalore. Joined the Latin rite (from Syro-Malabar) and incardinated in diocese of Coimbatore.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 19, 1945. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Coimbatore, 1946-1952; rector of the minor diocesan seminary; and successively, faculty member of St. Peter's Regional Seminary, Bangalore, 1952-1955.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ootacamund, July 3, 1955. Consecrated, October 16, 1955, Ootacamund, by René Feuga, bishop of Mysore, assisted by Francis Xavier Muthappa, bishop of Coimbatore, and by Matthew Kavukatt, archbishop of Changanacherry of the Syro-Malabars. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Changanacherry of the Syro-Malabars, June 14, 1970, returning to his native Syro-Malabar rite. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Ernakulam of the Syro-Malabars, April 23, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Vice-president of the Episcopal Conference of India and of the Syro-Malabars. Apostolic visitor for the Syro-Malabars faithful residing in Kerala. President of the Syro-Malabar Episcopal Conference. He was the youngest-ever bishop in India.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria "Regina Pacis" a Monte Verde, June 28, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Promoted to archbishop major of Ernakulam-Angamaly of the Syro-Malabars, December 16, 1992, when the see was elevated to that rank. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese major, November 11, 1996. Awarded the Padmashree in 1998, which is the fourth highest civilian award in the Republic of India.

Death. March 23, 2000, at 4:45 a.m., after suffering from Parkinson's disease for a long time, at the Yoga and Nature Cure Centre he had founded near Kochin. Buried on March 24, in St. Mary's Cathedral Basilica, Ernakulam, Kochi, Kerala. A public school in Manimala, district of Kerala, was named after him.

Bibliography. Eranakulam atirupata caritravalokam : satabdi smaranika, 1896-1996 = Souvenir of the centenary of the Archdiocese of Ernakulam, and the sacerdotal golden jubilee of His Eminence Mar Antony Cardinal Padiyara. Ernakulam : Archdiocesan Curia, 1996. Abstract: History of Archdiocese of Ernakulam, educational institutes under it, Catholic churches, and convents of Kerala, India; published on the occasion of the centenary of Archdiocese and golden jubilee of Antony Padiyara.

Links. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and biography by Eman Bonnici, in Englisj, Find a Grave;


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PANAFIEU, Bernard
(1931-

Birth. January 26, 1931, Châtellerault, diocese of Poitiers, France. Son of André Panafieu, director of a bank, and Madeleine Doussière. His baptismal name is Bernard-Louis-Auguste-Paul.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Albi; and later at the Seminary of Saint-Sulpice, Issy-les-Moulineaux; and at the Institut dÉtudes Sociales.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 22, 1956, for the archdiocese of Albi. Vicar of Saint-Sauveur-de-Mazamet and chaplain of the lyceum La Pérouse, Albi, 1962; chaplain of the university parish and responsible of the chaplaincy of public education; chaplain of students in Toulouse, 1967-1970; curé-doyen of Brassac, 1971-1974; secretary general of the presbyteral council of 1973-1974.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tibili and appointed auxiliary of Annecy, April 18, 1974. Consecrated, June 9, 1974, metropolitan cathedral of Saint-Cécile, Albi, by Claude Marie Josep Dupuy, archbishop of Albi, assisted by Jean Baptiste Étienne Sauvage, bishop of Annecy, and by Henri Clément Victor Donze, bishop of Tarbes et Lourdes. His episcopal motto is Parare viam Domini. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Aix, November 30, 1978. Named coadjutor with right of succession of Marseille, August 24, 1994. Succeeded to the archbishopric of Marseille, see immediatamente soggeta to the Holy See, April 22, 1995. Member of the Académie des Sciences, Lettres et Arts de Marseille, April 1996. Metropolitan archbishop when Marseille was elevated to that rank, December 16, 2002.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Gregorio Barbarigo alle Tre Fontane, October 21, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese was accepted on May 12, 2006, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. He was apostolic administrator of the archdiocese until the installation of his successor, Archbishop Georges Pontier, on June 11 2006. Commandeur of the Légion d'Honneur, August 28, 2009. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on January 26, 2011.

Bibliography. Jore, Alexander. Épiscopologe Français de 1592 à 1973. Mis à jour et continué jusqu'en 2004. Complément de l'article "France" du Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie Ecclésiastiques t. XVIII, colonnes 161 à 532. Pro-Manuscripto, 25 - III- 2004, no. 3210.

Links. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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PASKAI, O.F.M., László
(1927-

Birth. May 8, 1927, Szeged, Hungary. Son of Ádám Paskai and Mária Ördög. They were Jews who had converted to the Roman Catholic faith before the arrival of their son and who later died during the Holocaust.

Education. Joined the Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans). Studied at Franciscan houses of formation; Franciscan theologate, Gyongyos; Central Seminary, Budapest; Academy of Budapest (doctorate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, March 3, 1951. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Nagyvarad, 1951-1952. Further studies, Budapest, 1952. In Szeged, episcopal master of ceremonies, 1952-1955; faculty member and librarian of its seminary, 1955-1962. Prefect of the Interdiocesan Seminary, faculty member and spiritual director, 1962-1965. Faculty member and spiritual director, Central Seminary, Budapest, 1965-1973; rector, 1973-1978.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Bavagaliana and appointed apostolic administrator of Veszprém, March 2, 1978. Consecrated, April 5, 1978, parish church of Szent Marguerite, Veszprém, by Cardinal László Lekai, archbishop of Esztergom, assisted by László Kadar, archbishop of Eger, and by Imre Kisberk, bishop of Székesfehérvár. His episcopal motto is In Virtute Spiritus. Transferred to the see of Veszprém, March 31, 1979. Promoted to coadjutor archbishop of Kalocsa, April 5, 1982. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1983. President of the Episcopal Conference of Hungary, 1986-1989. Transferred to the metropolitan and primatial see of Esztergom, March 3, 1987. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Teresa al Corso d'Italia, June 28, 1988. Became archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest when the name of the see was changed, May 31, 1993. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; the II Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. On December 7, 2002, the pope accepted his resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese presented in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age on May 8, 2007.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B., André and Charles N. Bransom. "Franciscan bishops." Franciscan Studies, XLVIII (1988), 317; Beke, Margit. "Paskai III. László. 1987. március 3. - 2002. december 7." in Esztergomi érsekek 1001-2003. Budapest : Szent Istvan Tarsulat, 2003, p. 405-408; Paskai, Antal. Menekülésünk története 19441945 [The Story of our Escape 19441945], Budapeszt: Kármelita Rendház, 2009; Tusor, Péter. Purpura Pannonica : az esztergomi "bíborosi szék" kialakulásának elozminyei a 17. században = Purpura Pannonica : the "Cardinalitial See" of Strigonium and its Antecedens in the 17th Century. Budapest : Róma : Research Institute of Church History at Péter Pázmány Catholic University, 2005. (Collectanea Vaticana Hungariae, Classis I, vol. 3), pp. 210 and 330.

Link. Photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photograph, arms and biography, in Polish, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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PAVAN, Pietro
(1903-1994)

Birth. August 30, 1903, Treviso, Italy. Third of the ten children of Giuseppe Pavan and Maria Piccioli (1). The other children were Natalina (married and Englishman and lived in London); Domenico (twice mayor of Povegliano); Pietro; Lazzaro (a priest); Clemente (a carabinieri who died in 1945 fighting the Yugoslav partisans); Aldo (died at two months of age); Marcellino (died at two years of age); Angela Marcella (a nun, missionary in Nigeria); and Giovanni (a professor of letters). He was given the name Fioravante in the baptismal registry of the parish; and the name of Pietro in the municipal registry office. The father and two of his sons were prominent Christian union activists involved in the organization of the anti-Fascist Partito Populare Italiano, founded by the priest and social theorist Luigi Sturzo.

Education. Received his initial religious formation from Archpriests Giovanni Battista Volpano and Cesare Tognana; and his initial education at the state school of Povegliano, where he completed the first, second and third elementary grades; then, he attended the private Institute Mazzarollo, where he completed the fourth elementary grade; in November 1916, at 13, he entered the Seminary of Treviso (2), where he completed the first ginnasiale year, without having done the fifth elementary grade; he had to interrupt his studies from 1917 until 1919 because of the First World War; he reentered the seminary in 1918 and completed the three remaining years of ginnasiali studies; in 1921, he decided to become a missionary and entered the Pontifical Seminary for Foreign Missions (PIME); he was sent to Monza for his liceale studies; there, he became ill several times; then, he went to Milan to study theology and start his novitiate but his health worsened; finally, in 1925, he had to leave the seminary and abandon his intentions of becoming a missionary; in that year, the bishop of Treviso allowed him to return to the seminary, where he finished the last three years of theology; after his priestly ordination, he was sent by his bishop to study at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, while residing at the Almo Collegio Capranica; he obtained doctorates in philosophy on March 8, 1929; and in theology on January 30, 1932; later, from 1934, he attended the University of Padua and earned a doctorate in political sciences on July 6, 1936.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 8, 1928, by Andrea Giacinto Longhin, bishop of Treviso. Further studies in Rome, 1928-1932; while in Rome, he exercised his pastoral ministry in the region of Boccea, where many faithful from Treviso resided. The bishop recalled him to Treviso in 1932 and named him professor of moral theology at the Seminary of Treviso; later, he was named professor of philosophy and history at Collegio Pio X; of pedagogy at Collegio Canossiane; and of religion and philosophy at the state lyceum "A. Canova". From 1933 to 1939, he was cooperator of Pastor Carlo Bosello at the parish of S. Agnese. From the end of the Second World War in 1945 to the close of the Second Vatican Council in 1965, he was a indefatigable sower of democratic ideals. Secretary of the Permanent Committee for the Social Weeks of the Italian Catholic from 1945 to 1953; and its vice-president from 1953 to 1965. Ecclesiastical counselor of the Catholic Institute of Social Activity, Rome, 1946. Professor of social economics at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome, 1948-1969; its rector magnifico, 1969-1974 (3). Professor of political science (which he taught in Latin) at the Pontifical Gregorian University. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 5, 1951. Counselor to Alcide de Gasperi, Italian prime minister. He had an important role in the World Congress for Lay Apostolate celebrated in Rome in 1951; as well as in the Second World Congress of 1957; and in the continental meeting organized by the Permanent Committee of the International Congresses for Lay Apostolate (COPECIAL) for Africa in 1953; and for Asia in 1955. In 1953, Pope Pius XII named him member of the Ecclesiastical Commission of the Permanent Committee of the International Congresses for Lay Apostolate (COPECIAL). Professor at the Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C., United States of America; and at the Catholic University of Montréal, Canada in 1954. Protonotary apostolic ad instar, January 11, 1962. Consultor of the SS.CC. of the Holy Office, Consistorial, and of Seminaries and Universities of Studies. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965, as an expert; member of the commission for the laity; collaborated in the redaction of the conciliar declaration on religious freedom. Vice-president of the Social Catholic Weeks of Italy. Socius of the International Union of Social Studies of Mechlen, Belgium. The Catholic University of Santiago, Chile, granted him a doctorate honoris causa. He was instrumental in the writing of Pope John XXIII's encyclicals Mater et Magistra, published on May 15, 1961; and Pacem in terris, published on April 11, 1963. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; by papal appointment. Considered a world leading authority in social teachings of the church. He wrote numerous works on social economics, sociology and democracy (4).

Episcopate. Excused from becoming a bishop, as required of new cardinals, because of advanced age.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon, May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Francesco da Paola ai Monte, May 25, 1985. He was eighty one years of age when created a cardinal and, therefore, did not have the right to participate in the conclave.

Death. December 26, 1994, Rome. Buried in the chapel of the Daughters of the Church, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. On December 20, 1995, to commemorate the first anniversary of his death, the Daughters of the Church unveiled his bronze statue in a center and park that he had established in Viale Vaticano.

Bibliography. Biffi, Franco. Prophet of our times : the social thought of Cardinal Pietro Pavan. Hyde Park, N.Y. : New City Press, 1992; Cerro, Giovanni. "Un professore che difendeva la persona. Il contributo di Pietro Pavan allo sviluppo della dottrina sociale della Chiesa." L'Osservatore Romano, Città del Vaticano, Anno CLII n. 139 (46.085), domenica 17 giugno 2012, pagina 4; Ciriello, Caterina. Pietro Pavan. La metamorfosi della dottrina sociale nel pontificato di Pio XII. Bologna : Società Editrice Il Mulino, 2011. (Santa Sede e politica nel novecento, 8); Costruire l'unità della famiglia umana : l'orizzonte profetico del cardinale Pietro Pavan (1903-1994). Roma : Edizioni Studium, 2004. (Coscienza studi ; 39). Note: Collected essays and papers (p. 195-271) presented to the symposium, Treviso, 2003. Responsibility: a cura di Lino Bosio, Fabio Cucculelli ; prefazione di Romano Prodi. Note: Collected essays and papers presented to the symposium, Treviso, 2003; Kambalu, Lourenço F. La democrazia personalista nel pensiero del cardinale Pietro Pavan (1903-1994). Rome : Studium, 2011. (Coscienza/Studi); Longoni, Fabiano. Verso l'organizzazione politico giuridica della comunità mondiale : contributo del card. Pietro Pavan alla dottrina sociale della Chiesa. Venezia : [s.n.], 1994. Note: "Excerpta ex dissertatione ad Doctoratum in Facultate Scientiarum Socialium Pontificia[e] Universitatis Gregorianae"; Molinaro, Aniceto. "Mons. Pietro Pavan." La Pontificia Università lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, p. 257-258; Pavan, Pietro. Libertà religiosa e pubblici poteri. Milano : Editrice Ancora, 1965; Pietro Pavan tra tradizione e modernità. Roma : Agrilavoro Edizioni Srl, 1999. (Cristiani nel mondo).

Links. His photograph and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; biography, in French, Wikipedia; biography, in German, Wikipedia; biography, in Polish, Wikipedia; his photograph and biography by Guy Gagnon, in English, Find a Grave; Lettera al Cardinale Pietro Pavan Diacono di San Francesco di Paola ai Monti, Giovanni Paolo II, 5 giugno 1988, Libreria Editrice Vaticana; Pietro Pavan il mio amico sapiente by Joseph Ratzinger, in Italian, in Convegno sul pensiero del cardinale Pietro Pavan dal titolo «La Sussidiarietà nel tempo della globalizzazione», sede nazionale delle Associazioni Cristiane dei Lavoratori Italiani (Acli), a Roma, il 27 ottobre 1999, Figlie della Chiesa; Le carte Pavan by Giulio Andreotti, in Italian, Editoriale, 30Giorni, nella Chiesa e nel mondo, mensile internazionale diretto da Giulio Andreotti,tratto dal n. 03 - 2003; Una sintesi del magistero sociale Card. Pietro Pavan. Le idee madri della dottrina sociale della Chiesa (1962), Una Pagina Classica. Una sintesi del magistero sociale, Oikonomia; Il professore che difendeva la persona. Il contributo di Pietro Pavan allo sviluppo della dottrina sociale della Chiesa, by Giovanni Cerro, L'Osservatore Romano, 17 giugno 2012.

(1) According to Costruire l'unità della famiglia umana : l'orizzonte profetico del cardinale Pietro Pavan (1903-1994), p. 275, his uncle, Agostino Pavan, introduced Maria, his mother, on April 25, 1903, feast of S. Marco, to Cardinal Giuseppe Sarto, patriarch of Venice, future pope Pius X and saint, while she was expecting Pietro, and the cardinal blessed the baby. The mother always said that the priestly vocation of Pietro was born on that day because she had offered her son before the patriarch to God.
(2) According to Costruire l'unità della famiglia umana : l'orizzonte profetico del cardinale Pietro Pavan (1903-1994), p. 275, his mother received very well his decision to enter the seminary, but not his father, who wanted him to help in the commercial business of the family.
(3) According to Costruire l'unità della famiglia umana : l'orizzonte profetico del cardinale Pietro Pavan (1903-1994), p. 280, in 1974, after a bitter argument (amara discussione) with the pope about the caso Gennari, he submitted his resignation as rector of the Pontifical Lateran University.
(4) 283 bibliographical entries concerning Cardinal Pietro Pavan, WorldCat


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PELL, George
(1941-

Birth. Trinity Sunday June 8, 1941, Ballarat, Australia. Son of George Arthur Pell, manager of the Gordon Gold Mine and a nominal member of the Church of England, and Margaret Lillian Burke, a devout Catholic. They had twins, a boy and a girl, who died in 1940. He has a younger sister, Margaret; and a younger brother, David.

Education. Initial studies at Loreto Convent, Ballarat, where he received his first communion in 1948; later, he studied at Corpus Christi College, Werribee; at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum of "Propaganda Fide", Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in theology in 1967; at Oxford University, Oxford, England, where he earned a doctorate in church history in 1971; at Monash University, Clayton, Australia, where he earned a master's in education in 1982. He is a fellow of the Australian College of Educators; and was a visiting scholar at Campion Hall, Oxford University, in 1979; and at St Edmund's College, Cambridge University, in 1983. He was elected an honorary fellow of St Edmund's in 2003. In earlier years, he was a keen sports coach in soccer, Aussie Rules and rowing. He is vice-patron of the Richmond Football Club and a long-term supporter and member of the Club since he signed to play with them in 1959. He received the diaconate on August 15, 1966.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 16, 1966, patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Grégoire-Pierre Agagianian, prefect of the S.C. for Propagation of the Faith. Further studies, Oxford, from 1967 to 1970. Assistant pastor in the parishes of Swan Hill, 1971-1972; and Ballarat East, 1973-1983; administrator of the parish of Bungaree, 1984; and parish priest of Mentone, from 1984 to1996. Episcopal vicar for Education, diocese of Ballarat, 1973-1984; a founding member of the Catholic Education Commission of Victoria, from 1973 to 1984; director of the Aquinas Campus of the Institute of Catholic Education from 1974 to 1984; principal of the Institute (now merged into Australian Catholic University), from 1981 until 1984; editor of Light, the magazine of the diocese of Ballarat, from 1979 until 1984; member of the Academic Board of State College of Victoria and at different times a member of the Councils of the State College of Victoria - Ballarat, the Ballarat College of Advanced Education and Signadou College, Canberra. Rector of Corpus Christi College, the Provincial Seminary for Victoria and Tasmania, from 1985 to1987.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Scala and appointed auxiliary of Melbourne, March 30, 1987. Consecrated, May 21, 1987, St. Peter's metropolitan cathedral, Melbourne, by Frank Little, archbishop of Melbourne, assisted by Ronald Austin Mulkearns, bishop of Ballarat, and by Joseph Peter O'Connell, titular bishop of Sanctus Germanus, auxiliary of Melbourne. His episcopal motto is Be not afraid. Chairman of Caritas Australia, 1988-1997. Chairman of the committee charged with setting up the new Australian Catholic University, 1989; served as the University's Foundation Pro-Chancellor, 1991-1995. President of the University's board of owners, 1996. Attended the VIII Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; by papal appointment. Appointed by the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, apostolic visitor to the National Seminaries of New Zealand, 1994; Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, 1995; the Pacific, 1996; and Irian Jaya and Sulawesi, 1998. Promoted to metropolitan see of Melbourne, July 16, 1996. Delegate, appointed by the prime minister, to the Constitutional Convention, February 1998. Decorated with the Grand Cross of Merit of the Order of Saint Lazarus and co-deputy National Chaplain of the order, 1998. Grand Prior of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, Australian Lieutenancy - Southern, 1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; by papal appointment. Fellow of the Australian College of Education. Since 2001, he has been the chair of Vox Clara, the committee of English-speaking bishops who advise the Vatican's Congregation for Divine Worship on English-language translations.Transferred to metropolitan see of Sydney, March 26, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Cleared by the independent inquiry set up to investigate an accusation of sexual abuse against him, October 2002.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Domenica Mazzarello, October 21, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005, by papal appointment. Named member of of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, February 3, 2007. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church"; he was one of the three presidents delegates, and was substituting for Cardinal Oswald Gracias, archbishop of Bombay, India, who was unable to attend. On September 18, 2012, the pope appointed him synodal father of the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 7 to 28, 2012, on the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of the Christian faith". Named member of the Congregation for Bishops on September 22, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On April 13, 2013, he was named by Pope Francis member of a group of cardinals to advise him in the government of the universal Church and to study a plan for revising the apostolic constitution on the Roman Curia, Pastor Bonus. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for Bishops on December 16, 2013. Named prefect of the newly established Secretariat for the Economy on February 24, 2014. Became archbishop emeritus of Sydney on that same date. He was named member of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life on March 29, 2014.

Bibliography. Livingstone, Tess. George Pell. Sydney : Duffy & Snellgrove, 2002.

Link. Photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of Sydney; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Cardinal Pell, from soccer prospect to priest, video, Rome Reports, 2013-02-23 17:12:23; Cardinal Pell: We'e got to have a Pope who is able to speak to the world, video, Rome Reports, 2013-03-07 17:34:30; Finance czar aims to steer Vatican 'off the gossip pages by John L. Allen Jr., The Boston Globe, July 09, 2014; Pell e le resistenze curiali: «C'è antagonismo in alcuni ambienti» by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 10/07/2014; È il numero uno della nuova curia, ma dice messa all'antica by Sandro Magister, Chiesa, 30 luglio 2014; Pope's finance chief talks Vatican reform by Francis X. Rocca, Catholic News Service, Aug-6-2014.


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PENGO, Polycarp
(1944-

Birth. August 5, 1944, Mwazye, diocese of Sumbawanga, Tanganyika. He has four brothers and four sisters.

Education. Studied at the Preparatory Seminary of Mwazye; at the Minor Seminary of Karema; at the Major Seminary of Kipalapala, Sumbawanga; at Accademia Alfonsiana, Pontifical Lateran University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in moral theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 20, 1971, Sumbawanga, by Charles Msakila, bishop of Sumbawanga. Secretary of the bishop of Sumbawanga, 1971-1973. Further studies in Rome, 1973-1977. Faculty member, Seminary of Kipalapala, 1977-1978. Rector, faculty member and economous of the Major Seminary of Segerea, 1978-1983. Also, in charge of pastoral of the laity and of vocations.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Nachingwea, November 11, 1983. Consecrated, January 6, 1984, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Durasamy Simon Lourdusamy, archbishop emeritus of Bangalora, secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. In the same ceremony was consecrated Jan Pieter Schotte, C.I.C.M., titular archbishop of Silli, vice-president of the Pontifical Commission Iustitia et Pax, future cardinal. His episcopal motto is Ecce ego Domine. Transferred to the see of Tunduru-Masasi, October 17, 1986. Promoted to coadjutor with succession of Dar-es-Salaam, January 22, 1990. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Dar-es-Salaam, July 22, 1992. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, April 10 to May 8, 1994; member of the council of the General Secretariat of the Special Assembly for Africa.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of Nostra Signora de La Salette, February 21, 1998. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Elected president of the Symposium of Episcopal Conferences of Africa and Madagascar (SECAM) at the end of the First Panafrican Congress of Evangelization and of the 14th Plenary Assembly of SECAM, celebrated in Dar-es-Salaam on Sunday January 21, 2007. Attended the XII Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church"; by papal appointment. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World". Named member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economical Problems of the Holy See, June 23, 2012. On September 18, 2012, the pope appointed him synodal father of the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 7 to 28, 2012, on the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of the Christian faith". Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On March 29, 2014, he was confirmed as member of the Pontifical Council for Culture until the expiration of his mandate.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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PHẠM ÐÌNH TUNG, Paul Joseph
(1919-2009)

Birth. June 15, 1919, Quang Nap, Yên Mô, diocese of Phát Diêm, Việt Nam. Of a Christian family for several generations. His first name is also listed as Phaôlô-Giuse, its Vietnamese form.

Education. Initial studies at the local school; École Puginier La Salle (Hà Nôi); Hoàng Nguyên Minor Seminary, 1931-1940; St. Sulpice Major Seminary, Hà Nôi, 1940-1949; the seminary was closed due to revolutionary and social unrest until from 1945 to 1948; (philosophy and theology; and pastoral ministry in a parish of the diocese for a period).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 6, 1949, Hà Nôi, by Tadêô Lê Huu Tu, O. Cist., titular bishop of Daphnusia, apostolic vicar of Phát Diêm. Chaplain of the orphanage of Sainte-Thérèse in 1949. The following year, he became vicar of the parish of Hàm Long in Hà Nôi and founded the home of Bach Mai for refugees from the war. In 1954 occurred the division of the country in two parts, North and South, separated by the 17th parallel. A Communist government was installed in Hà Nôi and the dioceses of the North saw a large exodus priests and faithful. Fr. Phạm Ðình Tụng stayed in Hà Nôi. Superior of St. John Minor Seminary, Hà Nôi, 1955-1963; the seminary was closed by the state authorities in 1960 and never opened again.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Bac Ninh, April 5, 1963. Consecrated, August 15, 1963, metropolitan cathedral of Hà Nôi, by Joseph-Marie Trinh Nhu Khuê, archbishop of Hà Nôi, assisted by Father J. Bich and Father Cung. His episcopal motto was Credidimus caritate. Placed under house arrest, 1963-1990 (1). Apostolic administrator sede vacante et ad nutum Sanctæ Sedis of Hà Nôi, July 5, 1990. Director of the Major Seminary of Hà Nôi, 1990-2003. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Hà Nôi, March 23, 1994.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Regina Pacis in Ostia Mare, November 26, 1994. President of the Episcopal Conference of Viêt Nam, 1995-2001. Apostolic administrator, sede vacante et ad nutum Sanctæ Sedis, of Lang Son et Cao Bang, March 1, 1998 until June 3, 1999. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of Second Centennial of Apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary in La Vang, August 13 to 15, 1998. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, June 15, 1999. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese according to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law, February 19, 2005. He worked to improve relations between the Holy See and Việt Nam's communist government, which cut off ties with the Vatican after taking power in 1954.

Death. Sunday February 22, 2009, Hà Nôi. The bells of all the churches of the city rang at 5 p.m. The funeral, which took place on February 26, 2009, at St. Joseph's metropolitan cathedral of Hà Nôi, was presided over by Cardinal Jean-Baptiste Phạm Minh Mẫn, archbishop of Thàn-Phô Hô Chi Minh (Hôchiminh Ville), and lasted from from 9 to 11:15 a.m.; twenty one bishops, 550 priests and over 20,000 faithful participated. The body of the late cardinal was buried in the floor of a lateral nave of that metropolitan cathedral.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) For virtually all the 30 years of his episcopate in the Diocese of Bac Ninh (except the last four), he was forced to stay at home without ever being able to make pastoral visits to the more than 100 parishes in his ecclesiastical territory. With only three priests in all, and restricted in his movements and means of communication, during his years of 'house arrest', the Bishop started to write the whole of Jesus' life as it is told in the Gospels, the Christian doctrine, the commandments of God and of the Church, and the sacraments in the 'luc-bat' poetic form (stanzas of six or eight words). The cadence of the composition helps people learn them quickly. He formed councils of lay people in the parishes, their number varying according to the importance of the parishes, to be responsible for the continuation of religious life in the local communities and provide a three-year marriage course for the young people. Another initiative promoted by the former Bishop PPhạm Ðình Tụng was the foundation of a secular institute for boys and girls for the purpose of training them as catechists. The initiative has had excellent results and these young catechists, traveling all over the country guaranteeing catechetical courses everywhere, especially to children.


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PHẠM MINH MẪN, Jean-Baptiste
(1934-

Birth. March 5, 1934, Thanh Hoa, Ca Mau, diocese of Cantho (now Cân Tho, Cu Lao Gien), Việt Nam. His first name in Vietnamese is Gioan Baotixita.

Education. In 1944, he entered the Probatorium in Cu Lao Gieng, where he stayed for two years; then, from 1946 to 1954, he completed his secondary studies and the human and spiritual preparation at the Minor Seminary of Phnom Penh, Cambodia (1); from 1954 to 1956, he studied philosophy at Saint Joseph's Mayor Seminary, Sài Gón (now Hôchiminh Ville); and from 1961 to 1966; teaching in a secondary school in Bac Liêu, from 1956 to 1961; studied theology at Saint Joseph's Mayor Seminary, Sài Gón from 1961 to 1965; later, he also studied at Loyola University, Los Angeles, California, United States of America, from 1968 to 1971, where he obtained a master's of Education degree. Besides his native Vietnamese, he also speaks French and English.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 25, 1965, cathedral of Cân Tho, by Jacques Nhuyên Ngoc Quang, bishop of Cân Tho. Incardinated in the diocese of Cân Tho. Professor in the Minor Seminary of Beato Quy in Cai Rang, Cân Tho. Further studies in the United States, 1968-1971; returned to his country and was again named professor at the Minor Seminary of Cân Tho in 1971; occupied the post until the Communist invasion in 1975. Because of the change of political system in South Vietnam, the Catholic Church was persecuted and the seminaries were closed or confiscated by the State. During those years, he was placed in charge of the formation of priests. Then, in 1988, six major seminaries in Vietnam were allowed to be opened and he was named rector of the Seminary of Santo Quy in Cai Rang, Cân Tho; during his rectorship, he had to confront numerous difficulties, such as the lack of professors; the Seminary served the three dioceses of Cân Tho, Vinh Long and Long Xuyen; he occupied the post until his promotion to the episcopate in 1993.

Episcopate. Elected coadjutor bishop of My Tho, March 22, 1993. Consecrated, August 11, 1993, Seminary of Cân Tho, by Emmanuel Lê Phong Thuân, bishop of Cân Tho, assisted by François Xavier Nguyên Quang Sach, bishop of Dà Nang, and by Joseph Nguyên Tuyên, coadjutor bishop of Bac Ninh. His episcopal motto is Như Thầy Yêu Thu'o'ng. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Thàn-Phô Hô Chi Minh (Hôchiminh Ville), March 1, 1998. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Giustino, October 21, 2003. The government of Viêt Nam expressed its displeasure because the Vatican did not seek its permission to elevate the archbishop to the cardinalate and indicated that it was not going to recognize the promotion; four days later, it reversed itself and welcomed the appointment. Member of the Congregations for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments; and for the Evangelization of Peoples; and of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral of Health Workers. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on March 5, 2014. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law, was accepted on March 22, 2014.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photograph, arms and biographical data, in Vietnamese, Vietnamese Missionaries in Asia; photograph, arms and biographical data, in Vietnamese, Tổng Giáo Phận Tp. HCM; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) On September 20, 1955, the Vietnamese part of the apostolic vicariate of Phnom Penh was separated from the vicariate and became the new apostolic vicariate of Cân Tho, suffragan of Saigon.


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PIMENTA, Simon Ignatius
(1920-2013)

Birth. Monday March 1, 1920, at 10:20 a.m., parish of Saint John the Evangelist, Marol, archdiocese of Bombay, India. Son of Joseph Anthony and Rosie Pimenta. He was baptized in the church of Marol on March 14, 1920. He received the first communion on February 27, 1927, in the church of Marol; and confirmation on January 8, 1933 in the same church.

Education. tudied at the local Marathi School (up to Std. IV); at Saint John the Evangelist Parochial School, Marol, 1929-1930 (for Std. II, English ); at St. Xavier's College, Bombay (1930-1936); at the State University, Bombay, 1936-1940 (B.A. in Pedagogy and Mathematics); at the Diocesan Seminary at Parel, Bombay, 1940-1944 (humanities, philosophy and theology); at Saint Andrew's High School, Bandra, 1944-1946 (regency); and at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide", Rome, 1951-1954, where he earned a doctorate in canon law in June 1954.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1940, Saint Peter's church, Bandra, by Valerian Gracias, titular bishop of Tenneso, auxiliary of Bombay. He celebrated his first mass on December 22, 1949, in the church of Marol. On the staff of Holy Name cathedral and of the archbishop's house, Bombay, May 1950-1951. Further studies in Rome, 1951-1954. Secretary, archbishop's house, vice chancellor of the archdiocese and defensor of the matrimonial bond, September 1954 to June 1959. Assistant at the church of Our Lady of Grace, Papdy, Vasai, June 1959 to June 1960. Vice-rector of the cathedral of the Holy Name, Bombay, June 1960 to August 1960; its rector, August 1967. Visiting professor of liturgy, St. Pius College Seminary, Goregaon, 1960 to 1965; its rector, March 1971. Named chaplain of His Holiness, October 7, 1964. Episcopal vicar for the liturgy and for the pastoral formation of the junior clergy, March 1968.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Bocconia and appointed auxiliary of Bombay, June 5, 1971. Consecrated, June 29, 1971, St. Peter's church, Bandra, by Cardinal Valerian Gracias, archbishop of Bombay, assisted by Longinus Gabriel Pereira, titular bishop of Vada, auxiliary of Bombay, and by William Zephyrine Gomes, bishop of Poona. His episcopal motto was "Rooted and grounded in love". Promoted to the metropolitan see of Bombay, April 10, 1976; the appointment was suspended due to conflict with the Indian government concerning ecclesiastical appointments. Promoted to coadjutor archbishop, with right of succession, of Bombay, February 26, 1977. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Bombay, September 11, 1978. Elected president of the Catholic Bishops Conference of India (CBCI ), Tiruchirapalli meeting, January 11, 1982; re-elected, Nagpur meeting, February 3, 1984; re-elected, Goa meeting, April 14, 1986. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1983; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Regina Mundi a Torre Spaccata, June 28, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; one of its three president delegates; member of its general secretariat, 1990-1994. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, December 2, 1993, for five years. Elected president of the Conference of Catholic Bishops of India, Latin Rite (CCBI -LR ), March 3, 1994. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, November 8, 1996. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, March 1, 2000. During his episcopate in Bombay, he opened twelve hospitals and forty four dispensaries as well as several educational facilities.

Death. July 19, 2013, unexpectedly, at 9 p.m., after having dinner, while resting, at the Clergy Home, the residence for aged priests in Bandra, suburban Mumbai. Waiting for the renovation of his house near the Holy Name cathedral, he had moved to a Clergy Home. Upon learning the news of the death of Cardinal Pimenta, Pope Francis sent a telegram of condolence to Cardinal Oswald Gracias, archbishop of Bombay (1). On Tuesday July 23, 2013, at noon, there was a Missa Coram Corpore (Mass with the body present) for the late cardinal at the Holy Name Cathedral, presided over by Cardinal Gracias. The funeral mass, also presided by Cardinal Gracias, followed by burial, took place at Saint John the Evangelist Church, Marol, at 5.00 p.m., in accordance to the late cardinal's wish.

Bibliography. Pimenta, Simon. Memoirs & milestones. Bombay : Printania, 2000.

Links. Bbiography, in English, archdiocese of Bombay, (fifth item on page); his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, published by the Press Office of the Holy See:
To my Venerable Brother
Cardinal Oswald Gracias
Archbishop of Bombay
Having learned with sadness of the death of Cardinal Simon Ignatius Pimenta, archbishop emeritus of Bombay, I offer heartfelt condolences to you and to all the clergy, religious and lay faithful of the archdiocese. Recalling with gratitude Cardinal Pimenta's long years of devoted service to the Catholic community there and his many years of faithful assistance to the Successor of Peter as a member of the College of Cardinals, I join you in praying that God our merciful Father will grant him the reward of his labours amd welcome his noble soul into the joy and peace of the heavenly kingdom. To Cardinal Pimenta's relatives and all assembled for the solemn requiem mass I cordially impart my Apostolic Blessing as a pledge of consolation and strength in the Lord.

Franciscus PP.

Analogous telegram was sent by Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., secretary of State.


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PIOVANELLI, Silvano
(1924-

Birth. February 21, 1924, Ronta di Borgo San Lorenzo, Mugello, archdiocese of Florence, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Florence; and at the University of Florence.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 13, 1947, Florence, by Cardinal Elia Dalla Costa, archbishop of Florence. In the archdiocese of Florence, pastoral ministry, 1947-1948; faculty member and vice-rector of its minor seminary, 1948-1961; pastoral ministry, 1961-1979; Chaplain of His Holiness, October 26, 1966. Pro-vicar general of Flroence and, later, vicar general, 1979-1982.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tubune di Maritania and appointed auxiliary of Florence, May 28, 1982. Consecrated, June 24, 1982, metropolitan cathedral basilica S. Maria del Fiore, Florence, by Cardinal Giovanni Benelli, archbishop of Florence, assisted by Antonio Bagnoli, bishop emeritus of Fiesole, and by Giovanni Bianchi, bishop of Pescia. His episcopal motto is In Verbo tuo. Vicar capitular of Florence at the death of Cardinal Benelli, October 26, 1982. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Florence, March 18, 1983.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, May 25, 1985; received red biretta and title of S. Maria delle Grazie a Via Trionfale, May 25, 1985. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 21, 2001. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, February 21, 2004.

Links. His arms, Araldica Vaticana, Piovanelli, il cardinale di 90 anni che usa power point by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 20/02/2014.


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POGGI, Luigi
(1917-2010)

Birth. November 25, 1917, in via Sant'Antonino numero 21, Piacenza, Italy. Son of Giuseppe Poggi, a tailor of liturgical vestments, who worked under the shade of the steeple of Sant'Antonino's basilica. The family was composed of six children, Luigi, the cardinal; Carlo, the bishop; a sister and a set of triplets.

Education. Collegio Alberoni, Piacenza; Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", 1940-1944; (doctorate in utroque iuris, July 1944); Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome 1944-1946 (diplomacy).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 28, 1940. After a few months as vice pastor in the parish of S. Francesco in Piacenza, he was sent to Rome to further his studies. From 1940 to 1944, pastoral ministry, Rome, for two years in the parish of Santi Fabiano e Venanzio, and later, for another two years in the church of Valcannuta, next to the Pontifical Brazilian College. From 1944 to 1946, pastoral ministry in the parish of San Salvatore in Lauro, and later, in Collegium Tarsicii, erected in the church of Santa Lucia di via Monte Brianzo. Joined the Vatican secretariat of State in the section of relations with the States in 1945. From 1947 to 1950 he was in charge of the spiritual assistance of the detainees in the jail of Regina Coeli of Rome. Named privy chamberlain supernumerary of His Holiness on June 15, 1949. Named domestic prelate of His Holiness on April 14, 1960. In charge of the mission to Republic of Tunisia for the modus vivendi with Holy See on the legal situation of the church in the spring of 1963; he negotiated a modus vivendi with that country, which was signed in the spring of 1964.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Forontoniana and appointed apostolic delegate to Central Africa (Cameroun, Chad, Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon, and Centroafrican Republic), with see in Yaoundé, April 3, 1965. Consecrated, May 9, 1965, basilica of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, by Cardinal Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, secretary of State, assisted by Antonio Samorè, titular archbishop of Tirnovo, secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Umberto Malchiodi, archbishop-bishop of Piacenza. Pro-nuncio in Cameroun, October 31, 1966. Pro-nuncio in Gabon, October 31, 1967. Pro-nuncio in Centroafrican Republic, November 4, 1967. Nuncio in Perú, May 21, 1969. Nuncio with special charge to improve relations with Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Rumania and Bulgaria, August 1, 1973. Chief of the Vatican delegation for permanent working contact with Poland, February 7, 1975. Nuncio in Italy, April 19, 1986. On September 17, 1988, he consecrated his younger brother Carlo as bishop of Fidenza; his brother died in 1997. Pro-archivist and pro-librarian of the Holy Roman Church, April 9, 1992 until November 26, 1994.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon, November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, November 26, 1994. Archivist and Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, November 26, 1994 until March 7, 1998. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, November 25, 1997. Cardinal protodeacon, February 26, 2002. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, February 24, 2005.

Death. May 4, 2010, at 10 a.m., his residence in Via Rusticucci 13, Rome. After Pope Benedict XVI learned the news, he prayed for the eternal repose of the soul of the cardinal and sent a telegram of condolence to the brother and sister of the late cardinal. On Friday May 7, 2010, at 5.30 p.m., took place the funeral mass, which was concelebrated by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, together with twenty seven other cardinals, among them the secretary of State, Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B. Present at the mass were Cardinals José Tomás Sánchez and Ignace Moussa I Daoud; prelates of the Roman Curia; the brother and sister and some other members of the family of the late cardinal. With the diplomatic corps accredited before the Holy See, led by the ambassador from Honduras, Alejandro Emilio Valladares Lanza, were Archbishops Fernando Filoni, substitute of the secretary of State, and Dominique Mamberti, secretary for the relations with the States, together with Monsignors Peter Brian Wells, assessor, Ettore Balestrero, under-secretary for the relations with the States, and Fortunatus Nwachukwu, chief of protocol. Accompanying the pope in the basilica were Archbishop James Michael Harvey, prefect of the Pontifical Household; Bishop Paolo De Nicolò, regent of the prefecture of the Pontifical Household; Monsignors Georg Gänswein, private secretary of the pope, and Alfred Xuereb, of the private secretariat. At the end of the eucharistic celebration, the pope delivered the homily and presided over the rite of the Ultima Commendatio and the Valedictio. On Saturday May 8, 2010, at 11:00 a.m., Bishop Gianni Ambrosio of Piacenza-Bobbio presided over the eucharistic liturgy for the exequies of Cardinal Poggi, in the basilica of Sant'Antonino, piazza Sant'Antonino, Piacenza. After the ceremony, according to his wishes, the body of the late cardinal was buried in left nave of that basilica, next to the tomb of Antonino Arata, titular archbishop of Sardi, apostolic nuncio in Estonia and Latvia, his "maestro" in Collegio Alberoni.

Link. His arms Araldica Vaticana.


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POLETTO, Severino
(1933-

Birth. March 18, 1933, Salgareda, diocese of Treviso, Italy. Youngest of 11 siblings. He was baptized on March 29, 1933 in the parish church of S. Michele Arcangelo in Salgareda; and received the sacrament of confirmation in the same church on November 17, 1940 from Antonio Mantiero, bishop of Treviso.

Education. Seminary of Treviso, Treviso; Major Seminary of Casale Monferrato, Casale Monferrato; "Accademia Alfonsiana" of the Pontifical Lateran University (licentiate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1957, Casale Monferrato, by Giuseppe Angrisani, bishop of Casale Monferrato. Vice-pastor of Montemagno, 1957-1961. Successively, 1961-1965, prefect of discipline, Seminary of Casale Monferrato and director of the diocesan work for vocations. Pastor of Maria SS. Assunta in Oltreponte di Casale, 1965-1980. Founder of the diocesan center for the pastoral of the family, 1973; coordinator of the Great Urban Mission, 1974, to celebrate the 500th anniversary of the foundation of the diocese of Casale Monferrato. Nominated episcopal delegate for pastoral, 1977.

Episcopate. Elected bishop coadjutor of Fossano, April 3, 1980. Consecrated, May 17, 1980, cathedral of S. Evasio, Casale Monferrato, by Cardinal Anastasio Alberto Ballestrero, O.C.D., archbishop of Turin, assisted by Carlo Cavalla, bishop of Casale Monferrato, and by Giovanni Dadone, archbishop-bishop of Fossano. His episcopal motto is In sequela Christi. Succeeded to see of Fossano, October 29, 1980. Transferred to see of Asti, March 16, 1989. Promoted to metropolitan see of Turin, June 18, 1999.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, February 21, 2001; received red biretta and deaconry of S. Giuseppe in via Trionfale, pro hac vice title, February 21, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Turin, Italy, in conformity with canon 401 § 1, of the Code of Canon Law, on October 11, 2010. Following his retirement, he moved to Moncalieri, south of Turin, where he began serving in one of the local parishes as a simple vice-parish priest. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on March 18, 2013.

Bibliography. Aime, Oreste ; Ghiberti, Giuseppe ; Tuninetti, Giuseppe. In sequela Christi : miscellanea in onore del cardinale Severino Poletto arcivescovo di Torino in occasione del suo 70. compleanno. Cantalupa (Torino) : Effatà, 2003.

Links. Photographs, documents and biography, in Italian archdiocese of Turin; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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POLICARPO, José da Cruz
(1936-2014)

Birth. February 26, 1936, Alvorninha, patriarchate of Lisbon, Portugal. He was the eldest of the nine children of José Policarpo and his wife, Maria Gertrudes Rosa. He had four brothers and four sisters.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Santarém; then, at the Seminary of Almada; later, at the Major Seminary "Cristo-Rei", of the Olivais (philosophy and theology); also, at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (licentiate in dogmatic theology with a thesis on the theology of non-Christian religions); and finally, at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in theology; thesis "Sinais dos Tempos").

Priesthood. Ordained, August 15, 1961, patriarchal cathedral of Lisbon, by Cardinal Manuel Gonçalves Cerejeira, patriarch of Lisbon. Rector of the Seminary of the Olivais, 1970-1997. Faculty member, Faculty of Theology, Catholic University of Portugal, 1970-1986. Director of the Faculty of Theology, Catholic University of Portugal (1974/1980; 1985/1988). Member of the Superior Council of the Catholic University of Portugal.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Caliabria and appointed auxiliary of Lisbon. Consecrated, June 29, 1978, church of Santa Maria de Belém, Lisbon, by Cardinal António Ribeiro, patriarch of Lisbon, assisted by João Alves, bishop of Coimbra, and by Manuel Franco Falcão, titular bishop of Telepte, coadjutor with succession of the archbishop-bishop of Beja. His episcopal motto was Per obedientiam ad libertatem. President of the Organizing Commission of the Regional Center of Porto, Catholic University of Portugal, 1985-1987. Attended Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Rector of the Catholic University of Portugal, 1988-1992 and 1992-1996. Promoted to archbishop coadjutor of Lisbon, with right of succession, March 27, 1997. Succeeded as the 16th patriarch of Lisbon, March 24, 1998. Grand chancellor of the Catholic University of Portugal from March 1998. President of the Portuguese Episcopal Conference, April 13, 1999; reelected, April 11, 2002; finished his mandate in 2005. Attended Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, February 21, 2001; received red biretta and title of S. Antonio in Campo Marzio, February 21, 2001. Attended Tenth Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. He was elected president of the Portuguese Episcopal Conference on Tuesday May 3, 2011, for a triennium. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. The pope accepted his resignation from the pastoral government of the patriarchate of Lisbon, according to canon 401 §1 of the Code of Canon Law on May 18, 2013. He was apostolic administrator of the patriarchate until July 7, 2013, when his successor, Manuel José Macário do Nascimento Clemente, until then bishop of Porto, was installed. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013.

Death. March 12, 2014, Lisbon, from an aneurysm of the aorta. He was in a retreat in Fátima when he felt indisposed and was taken to the Hospital do SAMS, where he passed away. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Francis prayed for the repose of his soul and sent Patriarch Manuel José Macário do Nascimento Clemente of Lisbon a telegram of condolence (1). The body of the late cardinal arrived on Thursday March 13, at 3 p.m., at patriarchal cathedral of Lisbon, and laid in repose there until the celebration of the requiem mass. The funeral, presided over by Patriarch Clemente, who also delivered the homily, was celebrated on Friday March 14, at 4 p.m., in the patriarchal cathedral of Lisbon and following, the body was buried at the pantheon of the patriarchs in the church of the monastery of São Vicente de Fora in Alfama, near 6 p.m..

Links. Photograph and biography, in Portuguese, patriarcado de Lisboa; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Cardinal Policarpo accuses Masonic lodges of dictating government agendas, in English, Vatican Insider, 01/12/2012; Portuguese Cardinal, Josi Policarpo, dies at 78, video, Rome Reports, 2014-03-13.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Press Office of the Holy See:

EXCMO E REVMO
DOM JOSÉ MANUEL MACÁRIO DO NASCIMENTO CLEMENTE
PATRIARCA DE LISBOA E
PRESIDENTE DA CONFERÊNCIA EPISCOPAL PORTUGUESA
QUINTA DO CABEÇO 1885-076 MOSCAVIDE PORTUGAL

COM PESAR RECEBI A NOTÍCIA DO FALECIMENTO DO CARDEAL JOSÉ DA CRUZ POLICARPO E DESEJO EXPRESSAR A MINHA UNIÃO DE ORAÇÃO COM O PATRIARCADO DE LISBOA, A FAMÍLIA DO DEFUNTO E QUANTOS CHORAM A SUA MORTE INESPERADA. CONFIO À MISERICÓRDIA DE DEUS O AMADO CARDEAL, RECORDANDO-ME DA SUA PRECIOSA COLABORAÇÃO NOS DIFERENTES ORGANISMOS DA SANTA SÉ E DOS MEUS ENCONTROS COM ESTE PASTOR APAIXONADO PELA BUSCA DA VERDADE. ELE ERA SOLÍCITO EM COLOCAR OS DONS RECEBIDOS DO SENHOR AO SERVIÇO DO POVO DE DEUS E DOS SEUS IRMÃOS BISPOS SOBRETUDO NOS ANOS QUE O VIRAM PRESIDENTE DA CONFERÊNCIA EPISCOPAL. DOU GRAÇAS AO PAI DO CÉU PELO SEU MINISTÉRIO EPISCOPAL EM QUE ELE SE PRODIGALIZOU COM GENEROSIDADE CONDUZINDO PELOS CAMINHOS DO EVANGELHO O POVO QUE LHE FORA CONFIADO, COM O MESMO ZELO COM QUE REALIZARA OS SEUS SERVIÇOS PRECEDENTES, NOMEADAMENTE NA UNIVERSIDADE CATÓLICA PORTUGUESA. ENQUANTO CONFIO À MATERNA PROTECÇÃO DA VIRGEM MARIA OS SEUS DORIDOS BEM COMO O SENHOR PATRIARCA, QUANTOS O COADJUVAM NO SEU MINISTÉRIO E TODOS OS FIÉIS DO PATRIARCADO, DE CORAÇÃO LHES CONCEDO EXTENSIVA AOS PARTICIPANTES NAS EXÉQUIAS CONFORTADORA BÊNÇÃO APOSTÓLICA

FRANCISCUS PP
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Analogous telegram was sent by Cardinal Pietro Parolin, secretary of State.


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POMPEDDA, Mario Francesco
(1929-2006)

Birth. April 18, 1929, Ozieri, Sardinia, Italy.

Education. Archiepiscopal Seminary of Sassari, Sassari (ginnasiali studies); Regional Seminary of Cagliari, Cagliari (liceali studies and philosophy); resided at Almo Collegio Capranica, Rome; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in theology); Pontifical Biblical Institute (licentiate in sacred scripture); Pontifical Lateran University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure); "Studium" of the Sacred Roman Rota, Rome (lawyer avvocato Rotale).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 23, 1951, Rome; incardinated in the diocese of Rome. Pastoral ministry for 30 years in the Roman parish of "Nostra Signora di Guadalupe a Monte Mario". Ecclesiastical counselor of the Roman Union of Catholic Jurists. Joined the Tribunal of the Sacred Roman Rota, 1955; defender of the matrimonial bond; prelate auditor 1969-1993; dean, September 11, 1993. President of the Appellate Court of the State of Vatican City, November 1993. Awarded honorary doctorate by the Faculty of Canon Law, Catholic Institute of Paris, October 1995. Ecclesiastical counselor of the International Union of Catholic Jurists. For more than 20 years he was a faculty member of the "Studio Rotale"; also taught at the Faculty of Canon Law, Pontifical Gregorian University, and at the Roman Athenaeum of the "Santa Croce".

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Bisarcio, November 29, 1997. Consecrated, January 6, 1998, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Giovanni Battista Re, titular archbishop of Vescovio, substitute of the Secretariat of State, section of General Affairs, and by Jorge María Mejía, titular archbishop of Apollonia, secretary of the Congregation for Bishops and secretary of the College of Cardinals. His episcopal motto was Soli Deo. Named prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature and president of the Cassation Court of the State of Vatican City, November 16, 1999. Named president of the Commission for the Advocates, ad quinquennium, March 7, 2000.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon, February 21, 2001; received red biretta and deaconry of Annunciazione della B.V.M. a Via Ardeatina, February 21, 2001. Attended X Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001; president of the Commission for the Controversies. Resigned the prefecture of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, May 27, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. (He was credited with drafting Universi Dominic Gregis, the apostolic constitution of Pope John Paul II, dated February 22, 1996, concerning the sede vacante and the conclave.) Grand prior of the Sacred Military Order Costantiniana di San Giorgio.

Death. October 18, 2006, in the early morning, of a brain hemorrhage, in the Polyclinic "Agostino Gemelli", Rome, where he had been hospitalized for several days; a short time before he had received a pacemaker after suffering from a cardiac crisis. On Friday October 20, at 5 p.m., in the altar of the Chair of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, took place the exequial liturgy for the late cardinal, presided by the pope. Cardinals Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, and Giovanni Battista Re, prefect of the Congregation for Bishops, were the main concelebrants. The body of the late cardinal was transferred to Ozieri, his native city, and in the evening of Sunday October 22, 2006, the cortege started in the Basilica of S. Antioco di Bisarcio and went to the church of S. Antonio, in the center of the city. Sebastiano Sanguinetti, bishop of Tempio-Ampurias and apostolic administrator of Ozieri, celebrated the exequies. Numerous provincial and local dignitaries attended the ceremony. The mortal remains of the cardinal were buried in the tomb of the cathedral chapter in the cemetery of Ozieri until his definitive tomb in the cathedral is finished (1).

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) On Thursday, February 18, 2010, his remains were reinterred in a specially constructed sarcophagus in the cathedral of Ozieri at the chapel of the Most Holy Sacrament. The requiem mass was celebrated at 5 p.m., presided by Bishop Sergio Pintor of Ozieri. At the end of the mass, Monsignor Giuseppe Sciacca, judge of the Roman Rota and a long time collaborator of the late cardinal, read a special message sent for the occasion by Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., secretary of State, in the name of Pope Benedict XVI. Following the religious ceremony, a civil service took place, where the former Piazza Cirenaica, in the historic area of the city of Ozieri, was renamed Piazza Cardinale Pompedda.


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POSADAS OCAMPO, Juan Jesús
(1926-1993)

Birth. November 10, 1926, Salvatierra, archdiocese of Morelia, México. Son of Juan Bautista Posadas Díaz and María Ocampo Pérez, merchants.

Education. Entered the Seminary of Morelia, Morelia, when he was eleven years old.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 23, 1950, Morelia. Successively, 1950-1970, in Morelia, vicar of Pátazcuaro; professor of Latin, philosophy and theology at the seminary; its prefect of studies; and later, its vice-rector. Canon of the cathedral chapter.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tijuana, March 21, 1970. Consecrated, June 14, 1970, Morelia, by Manuel Martín del Campo y Padilla, archbishop of Morelia, assisted by Alfredo Galindo Mendoza, M.Sp.S., bishop emeritus of Tijuana, and by Román Acevedo Rojas, titular bishop of Tamugadi, auxiliary of Morelia. Transferred to the see of Cuernavaca, December 28, 1982. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Guadalajara, May 15, 1987. First vice-president of the Latin American Episcopal Council, 1991-1993.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, June 28, 1991; received the red biretta and the title of Nostra Signora di Guadalupe e S. Filippo Martire in Via Aurelia, June 28, 1991. Attended the IV General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Special papal envoy to the National Marian Eucharistic Congress, San Salvador, El Salvador, November 26 to 29, 1992.

Death. Assassinated in the airport of Guadalajara, May 24, 1993, at around 3:30 p.m.; he was hit fourteen times by an AK-47 automatic rifle; the criminal case is still unresolved as of 2009. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Guadalajara.

Bibliography. Becerra Pedrote Jesús. li Sciacalli. Los Chacales. The Jackals., 2014; Ramos, Víctor M. La muerte de un príncipe. Guadalajara : Editorial Conexión Gráfica, 1993; .

Link. Assassinated Mexican Cardinal Remembered in New Book by Deborah Castellano Lubov, Zenit, The world seen from Rome, May 21, 2014; Presentan libro en Roma sobre asesinato al cardenal Juan Jesús Posadas Ocampo, video, Rome Reports, 2014-05-31.


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POUPARD, Paul
(1930-

Birth. August 30, 1930, Bouzillé, diocese of Angers, France. Son of Joseph Poupard, a farmer, and Célestine Guéry. His baptismal name is Paul Joseph Jean.

Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Beaupréau; at the University Seminary of Angers; at La Sorbonne University, Paris, where he earned doctorates in theology and in history; with theses on the relation between reason and faith; and relations between Church and State; and at École des Hautes Études, where he obtained a diploma.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 18, 1954, Paris, by Stanislas Courbe, titular bishop of Castoria, auxiliary of Paris, for the diocese of Angers. Faculty member, Mongazon School. Worked in the French section of the Vatican Secretariat of State, 1959-1972. Chaplain of His Holiness, March 20, 1965. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, November 29, 1971. Rector, Catholic Institute, Paris, 1972-1980. Vice-president, Society of French Ecclesiastical History. Awarded the Cardinal Grente Grand Prize, Academie Française. Knight of the Legion d'honor.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Usula and appointed auxiliary of Paris, February 2, 1979. Consecrated, April 6, 1979, church of Saint-Germain-des-Prés, Paris, by Cardinal François Marty, archbishop of Paris, assisted by André Pailler, archbishop of Rouen, and by Jean Orchampt, bishop of Angers. His episcopal motto is Episcopus vobis vobiscum Christianus. Promoted to archbishop and appointed pro-president of Secretariat for Non-Believers, June 27, 1980. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Member of the Council of Presidency and president, executive committee of the Pontifical Council for Culture, May 20, 1982. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon, May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Eugenio, May 25, 1985. President of the Secretariat for Non-Believers, May 27, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. President of the Pontifical Council for Culture, April 19, 1988. Special papal envoy to the millennium celebration of cathedral of Verdun, France, June 17, 1990. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Personal papal envoy to the funeral of Cardinal Henri de Lubac, S.J., September 10, 1991, Notre-Dame cathedral, Paris, France. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. When the Pontifical Council for Dialog with Non-Believers merged with Pontifical Council for Culture, March 26, 1993, he continued as president of the new dicastery, the Pontifical Council for Culture. Special papal envoy to the 8th centennial celebration of the rebuilding of the cathedral of Chartres, September 11, 1994. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the closing ceremony of the centennial of the evangelization of Ivory Coast, Gran-Bassan, September 9 to 10, 1995. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Prassede, January 29, 1996. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the 9th centennial of the consecration of Saint-Sernin's basilica, Toulouse, France, May 24 to 26, 1996. Special papal envoy to the 4th centenary of the birth of St. Jean-François Regis, Lalouvesc, diocese of Viviers, France, June 22, 1997. Special envoy to the closing ceremonies for the 1st centenary the of death of Saint Thérèse of the Child Jesus and the Holy Face, diocese of Bayeux-Lisieux, France, September 28 to October 5, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998. Special papal envoy to the commemoration of the millennium of the election of Pope Silvester II, April 11, 1999, Aurillac, France. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; president delegate. Special papal envoy to the conclusive ceremonies of the first National Eucharistic Congress of Ivory Coast, Abidjan, April 29, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the millennium of the birth of Pope St. Leo IX, Eguisheim, France, June 23, 2002. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Ninth General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Named president of the Pontifical Council for Inter-Religious Dialog, post united to his other presidency, March 11, 2006; he occupied the post until September 1, 2007. Member of the honorary board of the International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation, December 2006. Participated in the 5th General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. On September 3, 2007, the pope accepted his resignation, for reasons of age, to the post of president of the Pontifical Council for Culture. Special papal envoy to preside over the 22nd International Mariological Marian Congress that took place in Lourdes, France, from September 4 to 8, 2008. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the seventh centennial of the beginning of the Avignonese stay of the Roman pontiffs, 1309 to 1377. The celebrations took place in Avignon, France, on March 7 and 8, 2009. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on August 30, 2010. In April 2012, he willed his personal library and vast archive, together with other precious material, including some paintings by Jean Guitton to the diocese of Crema, Italy. The Fondazione Paul Poupard, named after him, is situated in via Matteotti 41, Crema. Special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the jubilar year dedicated to the Venerable Servant of God Pauline Jaricot, in the 150th anniversary of her death and in the 50th anniversary of the decree of the heroism of her virtues, programmed for Lyon, France, on January 9, 2013.

Bibliography. Jore, Alexander. Épiscopologe Français de 1592 à 1973. Mis à jour et continué jusqu'en 2004. Complément de l'article "France" du Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie Ecclésiastiques t. XVIII, colonnes 161 à 532. Pro-Manuscripto, 25 - III- 2004, no. 3240; Poupard, Paul. Science et foi. Tournai : Desclée international, 1982. (Athéisme et dialogue, 2).

Links. His arms and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms and biography, in French, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Entretien inédit : Cardinal Paul Poupard , in French, published on Mar 17, 2012 by KTOTV, You Tube; Poupard: "Così il profeta Maritain influenzò Paolo VI " by Giacomo Galeazzi, Vatican Insider, 4/12/2013.


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PUJATS, Jānis
(1930-

Birth. November 14, 1930, Nautrēni, archdiocese of Riga (now diocese of Rēzekne-Aglona), Latvia. His father was a farmer. He had four sisters and three brothers; two brothers also became priests. His last name, Pujats, means cardinal in Latvian, but not referring to church hierarchy.

Education. Theological Seminary, Riga; Seminary was closed by the Soviet authorities, January 18, 1951; persecution of the Catholic Church increased. Archbishop Antonijs Springovics of Riga decided (with papal permission) to ordain all students of the 3rd year and up. Besides his native Latvian, he is fluent in Russian, Polish, Lithuanian, German and Latin. He is the only prelate who spoke exclusively Latin at the Synod of Bishops of 1991, 1994, 1999, 2001 and 2005.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 29, 1951, in secret, by Archbishop Antonijs Springovics in his private chapel. On April 15, 1951, he celebrated his first mass at the parish of Jaunavas Marijas Debesīs Uznemšanas in Preiļi; pastoral ministry in this parish until July 3, 1951. From July 3, 1951 to September 22, 1953, parish priest of Sv. Ercenéīa Miķeīa in Zosna of Sv. Ercenéīa Miķeīa in Balta; and of Jaunavas Marijas in Dukstigals; in addition, he was also chaplain of Sv. Krusta pagodināšanas in Rozentova. From September 22, 1953 to October 13, 1954 chaplain of Sv. Anna in Bērži. From October 13, 1954 to April 8, 1957, parish priest of Sv. Jēkaba in Rudzāti. From April 8, 1957 to February 28, 1958, parish priest of Sv. Laurencija in Stirnienē. From February 28 to June 28, 1958, chaplain of Sv. Alberta in Riga and Sv. Pētera in Pēternieki. From June 28, 1958 to July 1, 1959, parish priest of Kristus Karaļa in Riga. From July 1, 1959 to March 7, 1962, chaplain of Sv. Franciska (seminary church) in Riga. From March 7, 1962 to April 22, 1964, chaplain of Sāpju Dievmāātes in Riga. From April 22, 1964 to October 11, 1966, parish priest of Sv. Antona in Riga. From October 11, 1966 to November 9, 1979, professor of history and liturgy at the Theological Seminary of Riga and vicar of St. Franciskus Seminary Church. Chaplain of His Holiness, November 14, 1972. Inspector of the Theological Seminary of Riga, October 28, 1974. Vicar general of the archdiocese of Riga, from November 9, 1979 to December 27, 1984; concurrently, since 1981, archpriest of the cathedral of Sv. Jākaba, Riga. Secretary of the liturgical commission and chaplain at St. Franciskus Seminary Church, December 27, 1984 to December 22, 1987. Declared persona non grata by the Soviet authorities and expelled from his duties as vicar general of the archdiocese of Riga; he was impeded from December 27, 1984 to December 22, 1987. Inspector of the Theological Seminary of Riga, October 9, 1986; professor for history and liturgy and faculty member of the Theological Seminary of Riga and dean of the deanate of Riga, December 22, 1987 to June 1, 1991. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, February 23, 1988. Parish priest of Kristus Karaļa in Riga from January 26, 1989. Head of the commission for the implementation of the liturgical reform of the Second Vatican Council in the Latvian parishes. Published the first Missal in Latvian language.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Riga, May 8, 1991. Consecrated, June 1, 1991, metropolitan cathedral of Sv. Jākaba, Riga, by Francesco Colasuonno, titular archbishop of Tronto, representative of the Holy See in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, assisted by Jānis Cakuls, titular bishop of Tinista, auxiliary of Riga, and by Vilhelms Nukss, titular bishop of Acci, auxiliary of Riga. His episcopal motto is Ad Jesum per Mariam. Attended the First Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994, by papal appointment; the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. On June 29, 1998, he was elected first president of the Latvian Bishops Conference after it was established November 15, 1997.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore, February 21, 1998; published, February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of S. Silvia, February 21, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. On October 26, 1998, he was decorated with the cross of merit, second class, of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Latvia (Triju Zvaigžņu Ordenis). On April 19, 2004, he was decorated with the cross of merit, third class, of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Italy (Ordine al Merito della Repubblica Italiana). Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. On September 7, 2005, he was decorated with the cross of merit, second class, of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland (Krzyź Zasługi). Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Resigned the pastoral government of the metropolitan see of Riga on June 19, 2010; the pope appointed Father Zbigņevs Stankevičs, spiritual director at the Theological Seminary in Riga and director of the Religion Research Institute of Riga. The cardinal was apostolic administrator of the archdiocese until the installation of his successor on August 21, 2010. Chaplain in the parish of Sāpju Dievmātes in Riga since September 1, 2010. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on November 14, 2010.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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PULJIĆ, Vinko
(1945-

Birth. September 8, 1945, Prijecani, diocese of Banja Luka, Yugoslavia. He was the twelfth of the thirteen children of Ivan and Kaja Puljić. His mother died when he was three years old. His father remarried and he was raised by his stepmother, Ana.

Education. Minor Seminary, Zagreb; Minor seminary, Djakovo; Major Seminary, Djakovo.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1970, Djakovo, by Stjepan Bauerlein, bishop of Djakovo. Incardinated in the diocese of Banja Luka. From 1970 to 1978, pastoral ministry in the diocese of Banja Luka and in its episcopal curia. Spiritual director of the Minor Seminary, Zadar, and pastoral ministry in that archdiocese, 1978-1987. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Banja Luka 1987-1990. In 1990, Sarajevo, vice-rector of its major seminary; relator for seminaries, promoter of sacerdotal and religious vocations, and member of the presbyteral council.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Vrhbosna, November 19, 1990. Consecrated, January 6, 1991, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Giovanni Battista Re, titular archbishop of Vescovio, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Justin Francis Rigali, titular archbishop of Bolsena, secretary of the Congregation for Bishops and of the College of Cardinals. In the same ceremony were consecrated future Cardinals Jean-Louis Tauran, Francisco Javier Errázuriz Ossa, of the Fathers of Schönstatt, and Julián Herranz Casado. His episcopal motto is Pro Mariju u Vjeri NadiI i Ljubavi.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the title of S. Chiara a Vigna Clara, November 26, 1994. Attended the II Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Special papal envoy to the Second National Eucharistic Congress of Lithuania, Kaunas, June 1 to 4, 2000. Special papal envoy to the celebrations in occasion of the International Ukrainian Pilgrimage to the Marian Shrine of Zarvanycia, Ukraine, July 22 to 23, 2000. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Invested as bailiff of Grand Cross of Honour and Devotion, Sovereign Military Order of Malta, October 18, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005; by papal appointment. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". On September 18, 2012, the pope appointed him synodal father of the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 7 to 28, 2012, on the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of the Christian faith". He is the first cardinal from Bosnia i Hercegovina. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Press Office of the Holy See; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Puljic: io, vescovo a Sarajevo - La mia guerra, la mia pace, Avvenire, 15 giugno 2014.

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