The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
(1903-2011)
P

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PACELLI, Eugenio (1876-1958)

Birth. March 2, 1876, Rome, Italy. Third of the four children of Filippo Pacelli and Virginia Graziosi. The other siblings were Giuseppa, Francesco and Elisabetta. He was baptized by his uncle, Father Giuseppe Pacelli, on March 4, 1876, in the parish church of Ss. Celso e Giuliano, Rome; his baptismal name was Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni.

Education. Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 2, 1899, Rome. Further studies, 1899-1901. Staff member of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, 1901-1911. Undersecretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, March 7, 1911; pro-secretary, June 20, 1912; secretary, February 1, 1914.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Sardes and appointed nuncio in Bavaria, April 20, 1917. Consecrated, May 13, 1917, Sistine Chapel, Rome, by Pope Benedict XV, assisted by Giovanni Battista Nasalli Rocca di Corneliano, titular archbishop of Tebe di Grecia, papal almoner, and by Agostino Zampini, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, sacristan of His Holiness. Nuncio in Germany, June 22, 1920.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, December 16, 1929; received red hat and title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, December 19, 1929. Secretary of State, February 9, 1930 until February 10, 1939. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, March 25, 1930. Grand chancellor of the Pontifical Institute of Christian Archeology, March 10, 1932. Papal legate to the 32nd International Eucharistic Congress, Buenos Aires, Argentina, September 16, 1934. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, April 1, 1935. Papal legate to the jubilar celebration of the Redemption, Lourdes, France, April 12, 1935. Apostolic visitor to the twelve ecclesiastical provinces in the United States of America, October 1936. Papal legate for the blessing of St. Thérèse de Lisieux basilica, Lisieux, June 29, 1937. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, December 13, 1937 until his election to the papacy. Papal legate to the 34th International Eucharistic Congress, Budapest, Hungary, May 12, 1938. Participated in the conclave of 1939 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected, March 2, 1939. Took the name Pius XII. Crowned, March 12, 1939, by Cardinal Camillo Caccia Dominioni, protodeacon of S. Maria in Domnica. By the apostolic constitution Munificentissimus Deus, he proclaimed the dogma of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary in body and soul into heaven. Created fifty six cardinals in two consistories.

Death. October 9, 1958, at 3:50 a.m., of an acute heart failure brought on by a sudden myocardial infarction, Castelgandolfo. Buried on October 13, 1958 in the grotto of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Beatification. The process of beatification was started by Pope Paul VI on November 18, 1965, during the last session of the Second Vatican Council, together with the cause of Pope John XXIII. On December 19, 2009, Pope Benedict XVI authorized the promulgation of the decree concerning his heroic virtues.

Bibliography. Alvarez, David J. ; Graham, Robert Andrew. Papauté et espionnage nazi : 1939-1945. Translated by Yolanda Fraga. Paris : Beauchesne, 1999. (Bibliothèque Beauchesne. Religions, société, politique ; 35); Bargellini, Piero. Pius XII. The angelic shepherd. New York : Good Shepherd, 1950; Bayern, Konstantin von. Der Papst : ein Lebensbild. Bad Wôrishofen : Kindler und Schiermeyer, 1952. Note: "Erschien zuerst in der illustrierten Zeitschrift Revue"; Chenaux, Philippe. Pie XII : diplomate et pasteur. Paris : Cerf, 2003. (Histoire; Biographie); Dalin, David G. The myth of Hitler's Pope : how Pope Pius XII rescued Jews from the Nazis. Washington, DC : Regnery Pub. ; Lanham, MD : Distributed by National book Network, 2005. Contents: Myth of Hitler's Pope and why it matters -- Popes in defense of the Jews -- Future Pope -- Righteous gentile: Pope Pius XII and the holocaust -- Liberal media and the culture wars -- Hitler's Mufti: Muslim anti-semitism and the continuing Islamic war against the Jews -- John Paul II and papal condemnation of anti-semitism; Duffy, Eamon. Ten popes who shook the world. New Haven [Conn.] : Yale University Press, 2011. Contents: St Peter -- Leo the Great -- Gregory the Great -- Gregory VII -- Innocent III -- Paul III -- Pio Nono -- Pius XII -- John XXIII -- John Paul II; Halecki, Oscar. Eugenio Pacelli : pope of peace. New York: Creative Age Press, Inc., 1951. Hatch, Alden and Seamus Walshe. Crown of glory : The life of Pope Pius XII. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1957; I "fogli di udienza" del cardinale Eugenio Pacelli segretario di Stato, i (1930). A cura di Sergio Pagano, Marcel Chappin, Giovanni Coco. Città del Vaticano : Archivio Segreto Vaticano, 2010. (Collectanea Archivi Vaticani, 72); In difesa di Pio XII. Le ragioni della storia. A cura di Giovanni Maria Vian. Venezia : Marsilio, 2009; McGoldrick, Patricia M. "New perspectives on Pius XII and Vatican financial transactions during the Second World War", The Historical Journal, 55 (2012), 1029-1048; Marchione, Margherita. Crusade of charity : Pius XII and POWs (1939-1945). Mahwah, N.J. : Paulist Press, 2006; Marchione, Margherita. Pope Pius XII, architect for peace. Mahwah, N.J. : Paulist Press, 2000; Marchione, Margherita. Pio XII : La verità' ti farà libero. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2008; McInerny, Ralph. The defamation of Pius XII. South Bend, Ind. : St. Augustine Press, 2001; Napolitano, Matteo Luigi ; Tornielli, Andrea. Il papa che salvò gli ebrei : dagli archivi del Vaticano tutta la verità su Pio XII. Casale Monferrato (Alessandria) : Piemme, 2004. Note: On Eugenio Pacelli (1876-1958), Pope Pius XII, and his efforts to protect Jews during World War II./ M.L. Napolitano at the University of Urbino; Pfister, Pierre. Pius XII. The life and work of a great pope. New York : Studio, 1955; Pontificio Comitato di Scienze Storiche. Pio XII. L'uomo e il pontificato (1876- 1958). Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2008; Schmid, Johanna. Papst Pius XII. begegnen. Augsburg : Sankt-Ulrich-Verl., 2001. (Zeugen des Glaubens); Smit, Jan Olav. Angelic Shepherd. The life of Pope Pius XII. Adapted into English by Reverend James H. Vanderveldt, O.F.M. New York : Dodd, Mead & Company, 1950; Tardini, Domenico Cardinal. Memories of Pius XII. Translated by Rosemary Goldie. Westminster : Newman, 1961; Tornielli, Andrea. Pio XII : Eugenio Pacelli : un uomo sul trono di Pietro. Milano : Mondadori, 2007. (Le scie); Tornielli, Andrea. Pio XII : il papa degli ebrei. Casale Monferrato : Piemme, 2001; Traniello, Francesco. "Pio XII." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 632-645.

Links. Portrait, arms and documents, in several languages, The Vatican; photographs and biography by Frank Coppa, in English (Britannica); biography by Francesco Traniello, in Italian, Enciclopedia dei papi, Treccani; his coronation as pope, video, in English, Almo Collegio Capranica, Rome; his genealogy, A3, Libro d'Oro della Nobilità Mediterranea; and his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; images and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Requiem SS. Pii XII P.M., YouTube, uploaded on Oct 7, 2009; Solemnis Beatificatio Pii X declarata est a SS. Pio XII P.M., YouTube uploaded on Nov 21, 2009; 06/ 9/2011 Pius XII, the sensitivity of Pastor Angelicus by Andrea Tornelli, in Italian, Vatican Insider, 06/9/2011; Pio XII Santo, YouTube, uploaded on Jul 6, 2011; B.M.V. Assumptionis Definitio Dogmatica declarata est a viva voce Pii XII P.M. Ex Cathedra Romae , YouTube, uploaded on Aug 18, 2011; Pius XII Defensor Civitatis!, YouTube, uploaded on Nov 10, 2011; Pastor Angelicus Piux XII - Full Movie, YouTube, uploaded on Dec 20, 2011; Benedizione pasquale di Pio XII [1953], YouTube, published on Jul 30, 2012; Cardenal Pacelli, futuro Pío XII, llega a Buenos Aires - 1934, YouTube, published on Nov 23, 2012; Preparazione del conclave del 1939 antico rito elezione ed incoronazione di Pio XII 02/03/1939, YouTube, published on Mar 10, 2013; Il pontificato di Pio XII sotto il segno di Maria, in Italian, by Enrico Lenzi , Avvenire, 12 ottubro 2013; Gumpel: Pio XII voleva un Concilio by Filippo Rizzi, Avvenire, 15 novembre 2013; Pacelli aiutò a creare una "homeland" ebraica in Palestina, Vatican Insider, 21/03/2014.


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PACINI, Alfredo
(1888-1967)

Birth. February 10, 1888, Capannori, archdiocese of Lucca, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Lucca.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 25, 1913, Lucca. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Lucca and faculty member of its seminary, 1913-1915; 1918-1924. Military chaplain during the First World War, 1915-1918. Honorary chamberlain of His Holiness, October 8, 1924. Secretary of the nunciature in Yugoslavia, 1924-1928; auditor, 1928-1933. Auditor of the nunciature in Poland, 1935-1944. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, September 3, 1935. Counselor of the nunciature in France, 1944-1946. Appointed nuncio in Haiti and Santo Domingo, April 23, 1946.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Germia, April 28, 1946. Consecrated, June 11, 1946, Paris, by Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, titular archbishop of Mesembria, nuncio in France, assisted by Louis Le Hunsec, C.S.Sp., titular archbishop of Marcianopoli, and by Stanislas Courbe, titular bishop of Castoria, auxiliary of Paris. Nuncio in Uruguay, April 23, 1949. Nuncio in Switzerland, February 4, 1960. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, June 26, 1967; received red biretta and title of Ss. Angeli Custodi a Città Giardino, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, June 29, 1967.

Death. December 23, 1967, in a Roman clinic, after suffering from a kidney infection. Buried in the tomb of his family in Campannori.

Links. Biography, in German, Wikipedia; his chronography, in English, Catholic Hierarchy.


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PADIYARA, Antony
(1921-2000)

Birth. February 11, 1921, Manimala, archdiocese of Changanacherry, India.

Education. St. Peter's Regional Seminary, Bangalore. Joined the Latin rite (from Syro-Malabar) and incardinated in diocese of Coimbatore.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 19, 1945. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Coimbatore, 1946-1952; rector of the minor diocesan seminary; and successively, faculty member of St. Peter's Regional Seminary, Bangalore, 1952-1955.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ootacamund, July 3, 1955. Consecrated, October 16, 1955, Ootacamund, by René Feuga, bishop of Mysore, assisted by Francis Xavier Muthappa, bishop of Coimbatore, and by Matthew Kavukatt, archbishop of Changanacherry of the Syro-Malabars. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Changanacherry of the Syro-Malabars, June 14, 1970, returning to his native Syro-Malabar rite. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Ernakulam of the Syro-Malabars, April 23, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Vice-president of the Episcopal Conference of India and of the Syro-Malabars. Apostolic visitor for the Syro-Malabars faithful residing in Kerala. President of the Syro-Malabar Episcopal Conference. He was the youngest-ever bishop in India.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria "Regina Pacis" a Monte Verde, June 28, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Promoted to archbishop major of Ernakulam-Angamaly of the Syro-Malabars, December 16, 1992, when the see was elevated to that rank. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese major, November 11, 1996. Awarded the Padmashree in 1998, which is the fourth highest civilian award in the Republic of India.

Death. March 23, 2000, at 4:45 a.m., after suffering from Parkinson's disease for a long time, at the Yoga and Nature Cure Centre he had founded near Kochin. Buried on March 24, in St. Mary's Cathedral Basilica, Ernakulam, Kochi, Kerala. A public school in Manimala, district of Kerala, was named after him.

Bibliography. Eranakulam atirupata caritravalokam : satabdi smaranika, 1896-1996 = Souvenir of the centenary of the Archdiocese of Ernakulam, and the sacerdotal golden jubilee of His Eminence Mar Antony Cardinal Padiyara. Ernakulam : Archdiocesan Curia, 1996. Abstract: History of Archdiocese of Ernakulam, educational institutes under it, Catholic churches, and convents of Kerala, India; published on the occasion of the centenary of Archdiocese and golden jubilee of Antony Padiyara.

Links. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and biography by Eman Bonnici, in Englisj, Find a Grave;


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PALAZZINI, Pietro
(1912-2000)

Birth. May 19, 1912, Piobbico, diocese of Cagli, Italy. Of a humble family. Son of Giovanni Palazzini, a carter, and Luigia Conti, a housewife. He had an older brother, Giuseppe, who also became a priest.

Education. Studied at the Diocesan Seminary of Cagli from 1923; at the Pontifical Regional Seminary "Pio XI," Fano; at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome; and at the Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome, where he obtained doctorates in theology and utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 6, 1934, Rome. Further studies, 1934-1941. Vice-rector of the diocesan seminary of Cagli, 1941-1942; canon of the cathedral chapter, 1941-1942. Vice-rector of the Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome, 1942-1945. During the Second World War, he distinguished himself by procuring for the students the necessary means to sustain themselves and guaranteeing the assistance to political refugees (among them Pietro Nenni, future prime minister of Italy), which earned the qualification of "patriota" and a medal from the State of Israel. Vice-rector and bursar of the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", 1945-1949. Faculty member of the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, 1945-1950. Faculty member of the Pontifical Institute "Utriusque Iuris," Rome, 1950-1954. Undersecretary of the S.C. of Religious, December 22, 1956. Secretary of the S.C. of the Council, December 18, 1958.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cesarea di Cappodocia, August 28, 1962. Consecrated, September 21, 1962, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Francesco Carpino, titular archbishop of Sardica, assessor of the S.C. Consistorial, and by Pietro Parente, titular archbishop of Teolemaide di Tebaide, assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office. In the same ceremony were consecrated future Cardinals Cesare Zerba, Enrico Dante, and Paul-Pierre Philippe, O.P. His episcopal motto was In domo Domine. Secretary of the Commission of Cardinals for the Pontifical Shrines of Pompei and Loreto, June 13, 1969.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon, March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Pier Damiani ai Monti di S. Paolo, March 5, 1973. Opted for the deaconry of S. Girolamo della Carità, December 12, 1974. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Prefect of the S.C. for the Causes of the Saints, June 27, 1980. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, February 2, 1983. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. In 1985, for his efforts to save Jews during the Holocaust, was recognized by Yad Vashem as "a righteous among the nations,'' with a medal; and a tree was planted in his name at Yad Vashem. The honor is bestowed on gentiles who risked their lives to save Jews during the war. Attended the II Extraordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Resigned the prefecture, July 1, 1988. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, May 19, 1992.

Death. October 11, 2000, Rome. The exequial liturgy took place on Friday October 13, 2000, 6 p.m., at the Altar of the Chair in the patriarchal Vatican basilica and was presided over by Pope John Paul II; the civil authorities of Piobbico and Cagli, with their respective mayors, attended the funeral; Pergola was represented by its clergy and by Don Romeo Mori of Fonte Avellana. Buried, temporarily, in the chapel of the Vatican canons, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome; his remains were exhumed and transferred to the church of S. Girolamo della Carità on November 27, 2008, where his brother Monsignor Giuseppe is also interred.

Link. His photograph, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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PANAFIEU, Bernard
(1931-

Birth. January 26, 1931, Châtellerault, diocese of Poitiers, France. Son of André Panafieu, director of a bank, and Madeleine Doussière. His baptismal name is Bernard-Louis-Auguste-Paul.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Albi; and later at the Seminary of Saint-Sulpice, Issy-les-Moulineaux; and at the Institut dÉtudes Sociales.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 22, 1956, for the archdiocese of Albi. Vicar of Saint-Sauveur-de-Mazamet and chaplain of the lyceum La Pérouse, Albi, 1962; chaplain of the university parish and responsible of the chaplaincy of public education; chaplain of students in Toulouse, 1967-1970; curé-doyen of Brassac, 1971-1974; secretary general of the presbyteral council of 1973-1974.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tibili and appointed auxiliary of Annecy, April 18, 1974. Consecrated, June 9, 1974, metropolitan cathedral of Saint-Cécile, Albi, by Claude Marie Josep Dupuy, archbishop of Albi, assisted by Jean Baptiste Étienne Sauvage, bishop of Annecy, and by Henri Clément Victor Donze, bishop of Tarbes et Lourdes. His episcopal motto is Parare viam Domini. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Aix, November 30, 1978. Named coadjutor with right of succession of Marseille, August 24, 1994. Succeeded to the archbishopric of Marseille, see immediatamente soggeta to the Holy See, April 22, 1995. Member of the Académie des Sciences, Lettres et Arts de Marseille, April 1996. Metropolitan archbishop when Marseille was elevated to that rank, December 16, 2002.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Gregorio Barbarigo alle Tre Fontane, October 21, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese was accepted on May 12, 2006, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. He was apostolic administrator of the archdiocese until the installation of his successor, Archbishop Georges Pontier, on June 11 2006. Commandeur of the Légion d'Honneur, August 28, 2009. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on January 26, 2011.

Bibliography. Jore, Alexander. Épiscopologe Français de 1592 à 1973. Mis à jour et continué jusqu'en 2004. Complément de l'article "France" du Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie Ecclésiastiques t. XVIII, colonnes 161 à 532. Pro-Manuscripto, 25 - III- 2004, no. 3210.

Links. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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PANICI, Diomede
(1841-1909)

Birth. January 18, 1841 (1), Ameseno, diocese of Ferentino. Brother of quasi Cardinal Agapito Panici.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in theology and in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. Protonotary apostolic de numero participantium. Voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, March 5, 1880. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, April 19, 1887. Secretary of the S.C. of Rites, October 2, 1896. Canon of the patriarchal Lateran basilica.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Laodicea di Frigia. Consecrated, May 1, 1900, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Satolli, prefect of the S.C. of Studies, assisted by Edmund Stonor, titular archbishop of Trebisonda, and by Amilcare Tonietti, titular archbishop of Tiana, former bishop of Montalcino. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, March 22, 1902.

Cardinalate. According to Christoph Weber, Quellen und Studien zur Kurie und zur vatikanischen Politik unter Leo XIII; mit Berücksichtigung der Beziehungen des Hl. Stuhles zu den Dreibundmächten, Pope Pius X planned to create him cardinal but he died before the promotion took place (2).

Death. August 6, 1909, Rome. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. "Archêques et évéques titulaires." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1907. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1907, p. 318; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, p. 332: Weber, Christoph. Quellen und Studien zur Kurie und zur vatikanischen Politik unter Leo XIII; mit Berücksichtigung der Beziehungen des Hl. Stuhles zu den Dreibundmächten. Tübingen, M. Niemeyer, 1973. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Intituts in Rom, Bd.45), p. 244, note 206.

Links. Biographical chronology, in English; another biographical chronology, in English.

(1) Archêques et évéques titulaires." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1907, p. 318; and the biographical chronologies linked above; Riztler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 332, says that he was born on February 18, 1841.
(2) This is according to Weber, Quellen und Studien zur Kurie und zur vatikanischen Politik unter Leo XIII, p. 244, note 4, says that Msgr. Agapito was on the way to the cardinalate but that before naming him, Pope Leo XIII asked his brother Diomede to renounce the red hat; when Agapito died in 1902, before the pope could create him a cardinal, the pope told Diomede that he would ignore the document he had signed renouncing the cardinalate.


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PANICO, Giovanni
(1895-1962)

Birth. April 12, 1895, Tricase, diocese of Ugento, Italy. Of a family of farmers. Sixth of the eleven children of Carmine Panico and Marina Zocco. His baptismal name was Santo Giovanni.

Education. Received the elementary education in his native city; first three years of studies ginnasiali with a private tutor; Seminary of Ugento, Ugento; Collegio Leonino, Rome, 1910-1915; Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome, 1915-1919; Pontifical Lateran University, Rome, 1919-1922 (doctorate in theology, 1919; doctorate in both canon and civil law, July 1922). He was a keen musician who excelled as an organ and piano player; during his seminary years, he served as the official organist.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 14, 1919, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Basilio Pompilj, vicar of Rome. Further studies in Rome, 1919-1922. Shortly after his ordination, he founded two "Scholae Cantorum", for young boys and girls. Pastoral ministry in Tricase, 1922-1923. Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, secretary of State, invited him to be attaché of the nunciature in Colombia, February 1923-1926. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, August 25, 1923. Auditor of the nunciature in Argentina, and accredited also in Paraguay and Uruguay, 1926-1931; in Czechoslovakia, 1931-1932; chargé d'affaires in Bavaria, 1932-1933; in Czechoslovakia, 1933-1935; observer of the Holy See in the plebiscite in Sarre, August 1934-January 1935; returned to Prague in 1935 and contributed to the foundation of the University of Bratislava. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, August 20, 1934. Decorated with the Legion d'honnore of France.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Giustiniana Prima and appointed apostolic delegate in Australasia (Australia, New Zealand, Polynesia and Dutch Indies), with residence in Sydney, October 17, 1935. Consecrated, December 8, 1935, chapel of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Fumasoni Biondi, prefect of S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, assisted by Bartolomeo Cattaneo, titular archbishop of Palmira, general treasurer of the Apostolic Chamber, and by Domenico Spolverini, titular archbishop of Larissa di Tessalia, consultor of the S.C. Consistorial. His episcopal motto was Respice stellam. Papal legate to the 4th Plenary Council of Australia and New Zealand, Sydney, April 25, 1937. Papal legate to the Eucharistic Congress, Wellington, New Zealand, November 20, 1939. Visited Indonesia and presided over the Eucharistic Congress of Java. During the Second World War he realized an extraordinary charitable activity in favor of the Italian, German and Japanese war prisoners in Australia as well as the Australian and New Zealand war prisoners in Italy; he established the "War Prisoners Bureau" in the apostolic delegation in Sydney. Nuncio in Perú, September 28, 1948. Apostolic delegate in Canada, November 14, 1953. Nuncio in Portugal, January 25, 1959.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, March 19, 1962; received red hat and title of S. Teresa al Corso d'Italia, May 24, 1962. Founded the Hospital Cardinale Giovanni Panico in Tricase.

Death. July 7, 1962, of a frail health for years after suffering two attacks, he died at noon in Tricase. The solemn funeral mass was celebrated by Gaetano Pollio, P.I.M.E., archbishop of Otranto, on July 11, 1962, in the mother church of Tricase; twelve archbishops and bishops were present. Buried in the tomb of his family in the small cemetery of Tricase. His remains were transferred from the cemetery on the following December 17, and reinterred, according to his wishes, in the crypt of the church della Nativitá e della Beata Maria Vergine, in that city, where he had served as an altar boy as a child. On June 23, 2012, his remains were placed in an enclosure in front of the altar of S. Carlo Borromeo in that same church.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1963, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1963, p. 88*; "Il Cardinale Giovanni Panico". L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, CII, n. 65 (March 20-21, 1962), p. 5; Fracasso, Rodolfo; Ricchiuto, Gerardo. Il cardinale Panico e la sua terra. A cura di Donato Valli. Galatina (Lecce): Congedo, 1995; "I funerali di Cardinale Panico." L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, CII, n. 157 (July 12, 1962), p. 2; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 262-263.

Links. Biographical entry, in German; chronogram, in English, Catholic Hierarchy; photograph and biographical entry, in Italian, sixth on the page; his arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana; and Piazza "Cardinale G. Panico", comune di Tricase..


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PAPPALARDO, Salvatore
(1918-2006)

Birth. September 23, 1918, Villafranca Sicula, diocese of Agrigento, Sicily, Italy.

Education. Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy; obtained the diploma); Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome (doctorates in theology; dissertation: La sentenza "de certitudine inhærentis gratiæ" in Ambrogio Catarino; and utroque iure, both canon and civil law; dissertation: La controversia per la giurisdizione ecclesiastica in Sicilia al tempo di Clemente XI).

Priesthood. Ordained, April 12, 1941, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome; in the same ceremony was ordained Giovanni Canestri, future cardinal. Further studies, 1942-1947. Staff member of the Secretariat of State, section of Extraordinary Affairs, with the rank of counselor of nunciature, 1947-1965. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, June 21, 1951; reappointed, October 28, 1958. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, 1949-1965. Professor at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy; and professor of ecclesiastical diplomacy at the Pontifical Lateran University, 1959-1965. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 19, 1961.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Mileto and appointed pro-nuncio in Indonesia, December 7, 1965. Consecrated, January 16, 1966, chapel of the Major Roman Seminary, by Cardinal Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, secretary of State, assisted by Guido Luigi Bentivoglio, S.O.C., archbishop of Catania, and by Antonio Samorè, titular archbishop of Trinovo, secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. His episcopal motto was Semper inhaerere mandatis. President of the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy May 7, 1969. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Palermo, October 17, 1970.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria d'Itria al Tritone, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, March 5, 1973; the name of the title was later changed to S. Maria Odigitria dei Siciliani. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Special papal envoy to the 16th International Marian Congress, Malta, September 15 to 18, 1983. Special papal envoy to the 22nd National Eucharistic Congress, Reggio Calabria, Italy, June 5 to 12, 1988. The slayings of two prominent anti-Mafia prosecutors in 1992 prompted the cardinal to publicly denounce the Mafia. Decorated with title of Knight of the Grand Cross of the Italian Republic by President Sandro Pertini. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, April 4, 1996. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, September 23, 1998.

Death. Sunday December 10, 2006, in the morning, in Casa Diocesana, piazza Baida, 1, Palermo, at the age of 88. Starting at 5 p.m., his body was exposed in Filangeri Hall of the archiepiscopal palace for the priests to visit; from 6 p.m., the faithful were also able to visit and pay their respects. The exposition of the body continued on Monday December 11, 2006, from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. At 7 p.m., the body was transferred to the metropolitan cathedral and exposed until midnight. At 9 p.m. there was a prayer vigil in the cathedral conducted by the Archiepiscopal Seminary. On Tuesday December 12, from 7 a.m. to noon, the exposition continued; Holy Mass was celebrated in the morning at 7, 7.45 and 9; at 10 a celebration of the Office of Readings by the metropolitan cathedral chapter took place. The cathedral reopened at 3 p.m. At 4 p.m., the exequial mass was celebrated by Cardinal Salvatore De Giorgi, archbishop of Palermo, who also delivered the homily, and was concelebrated by the bishops of Sicily, the metropolitan and Palatine chapters, as well as by all the priests present. Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals and secretary of State emeritus, presided the ceremony in the name of the pope. Paolo Romeo, titular archbishop of Vulturia, nuncio in Italy, also participated in the ceremony. Immediately after the mass, the body of the late cardinal was buried in the chapel of S.Cristina, in the metropolitan cathedral of Palermo (1).

Bibliography. Fabris, Rinaldo. "Mons. Salvatore Pappalardo." La Pontificia Università lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, p. 251-252; Noto, Vincenzo. Chiesa e Mafia : Salvatore Pappalardo un cardinale in prima linea. Palermo : ILA Palma, 2009. (Memorie/ testimonianze; Variation: Memorie/ testimonianze). Note: S. Pappalardo (1918-2006), Archbishop of Palermo (Sicily) and Cardinal.Contents: Premessa, 7; II giorno della morte, 9; Istantanee di un uomo di religione, 19; Lo stile, 23; I primi interventi, 37; Ruffini e la mafia, 45; Rifiutato all'Ucciardone, 59; I funerali di Dalla Chiesa, 67; II primo maxiprocesso, 73; Giovanni Paolo II ad Agrigento, 81; L'uccisione di don Pino Puglisi, 87; Conclusione, 95; Appendice/1, 101; Appendice/2, 105; Pappalardo, Salvatore. Vescovo a Palermo : discorsi e scritti del Cardinale Pappalardo. Palermo : S.F. Flaccovio, 1982. (Collana di saggi e monografie ; nuova ser., 57).

Links. Photograph and biographical data, in Italian, archdiocese of Palermo; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede, The Vatican; photographs and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia, Palermo, è morto il cardinale Pappalardo simbolo della lotta contro la mafia, in Italian, la Repubblica.it, December 10, 2006; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the inscription in his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici from Malta:

SEPULCRUM
SALVATORIS S.R.E. CARD. PAPPALARDO
TITULO SANCTAE MARIAE ODIGITRIAE SICULORUM
ARCHIEPISCOPI METROPOLITAE PANORMITANI
* 23.09.1918     + 10.12.2006


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PARECATTIL, Joseph
(1912-1987)

Birth. April 1, 1912, Kindagoor, Kerala, archdiocese of Ernakulam of the Chaldean-Malabar, India.

Education. Minor Seminary of Ernakulam, Ernakulam; Seminary of Kandy, Ceylon (doctorate in theology; dissertation: Augustine vs. Pelagius on Grace); University of Madras, Madras (specialized in economics).

Priesthood. Ordained, August 24, 1939, Kandy. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Ernakulam of Chaldean-Malabar; directory of the weekly Sathyadeepamn (Truth's Light), 1939-1953.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Aretusa per i Siri and appointed auxiliary of Ernakuam of Chaldean-Malabar, October 28, 1953. Consecrated, November 30, 1953, Ernakulam, Cardinal Eugene Tisserant, bishop of Ostia and Porto e Santa Rufina, secretary of the S.C. of the Oriental Church, assisted by by archbishop Augustine Kandathil, archbishop of Ernakulam, and by Martin Lucas, S.V.D., titular archbishop of Aduli. Apostolic administrator of Ernakulam of Chaldean-Malabar, January 20, 1956. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Ernakulam of Chaldean-Malabar, July 20, 1956. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. President of the Chaldean-Malabar Episcopal Conference; of the Catholic Episcopal Conference of Kerala; and of the Catholic Episcopal Conference of India.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of Nostra Signora "Regina Pacis," April 30, 1969. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. President of the Pontifical Commission for the Revision of the Code of Oriental Canon Law (1972-1987) Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, May 31, 1981. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, January 30, 1984.

Death. February 20, 1987, of cardiac related complications while recovering in a hospital in Cochin, India. Buried in St. Mary's Cathedral Basilica, Ernakulam, Kochi, Kerala.

Bibliography. Cardinal Parecattil, the man, his vision, and his contribution. Edited by A.M. Mundadan. Alwaye: Star Publications, 1988; Bharanikulangara, Kuriacose. "Strenuo diffensore della dignità dela Chiese di rito orientale". L'Osservatore Romano, edizione quotidiana, CXXXVII, n. 42 (41,480), February 20, 1997, p.6.


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PARENTE, Pietro
(1891-1986)

Birth. February 16, 1891, Casalnuovo Monterotaro, diocese of Lucera, Italy. He was baptized on the following day in the parish church of Ss. Pietro e Nicola.

Education. Inital studies in the elementary school in the old building of the Shrine of Madonna della Rocca; ginnasiale studies under Pasquale Beccia, renowned professor of Latin and priest in Casalvecchio di Puglia; Metropolitan Seminary of Benevento, Benevento, 19061909; Seminary "Pio," Rome, 1909; Ennio Quirino Visconti Lyceum, Rome (licentiate); Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome (doctorate in philosophy); Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome (doctorate in theology); State University of Naples, Naples.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 18, 1916, Rome. Rector of the Seminary of Naples, 1916-1926. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, January 8, 1925. Faculty member of the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome, 1926-1934; 1940-1955. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, December 20, 1934. Rector of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, 1934-1938. Founder and faculty member of the Faculty of Theology and Canon Law, Naples, 1938-1940. Faculty member of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, 1950-1955. Special envoy to the centennial celebration of the University of Laval, Québec, Canada, 1952. Protonotary apostolic, August 7, 1952. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, June 14, 1953.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Perugia, September 15, 1955. Consecrated, October 23, 1955, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Federico Tedeschini, bishop of Frascati, archpriest of St. Peter's basilica, papal datary, assisted by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome, and by Pietro Sigismondi, titular archbishop of Neapoli di Pisidia, secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide. His episcopal motto was Veritatem Facientes In Caritate. Transferred to the titular see of Tolemaide di Tebaide and appointed assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, October 23, 1959. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Secretary of the S.C. for the Doctrine of the Faith, December 7, 1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, June 26, 1967; received the red biretta and the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, June 29, 1967. Papal legate to the Eucharistic Congress, Seville, Spain, June 6, 1968. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, February 16, 1971. Special papal envoy to the Eucharistic Congress and the celebration of the VII centennial of St. Thomas Aquinas' death, Quino, Italy, May 15 to June 2, 1974. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979.

Death. December 29, 1986, at his Vatican apartment. Buried in the shrine of Vergine della Rocca, Casalnuovo Monterotaro. At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Bibliography. "La consacrazione episcopale di Mons. Pietro Parente." L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, XCV, n. 556 (October 24-25, 1955), p. 3; Ruberto, Michele di. Bibliografia del Cardinale Pietro Parente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1991.

Link. Photograph and biography, in Italian; biography, in English; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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PARRADO Y GARCÍA, Agustín
(1872-1946)

Birth. October 5, 1872, Fuensaldaña, archdiocese of Valencia, Spain.

Education. Seminary of Valladolid, Valladolid.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 21, 1895, Valladolid. Successively, 1895-1925, faculty member of the Seminary of Valladolid and of the Pontifical University of Valladolid; vice-rector of Seminary of Valladolid; canon penitentiary of cathedral chapter of Astorga; director of the diocesan newspaper of Astorga; diocesan official of Astorga; diocesan official of Salamanca and dean of the theological faculty of the Pontifical University of Salamanca. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 14, 1922.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Palencia, May 20, 1925. Consecrated, August 16, 1925, cathedral of Salamanca, by Julián de Diego Garía, patriarch of Western Indies and military vicar general, assisted by Manuel de Castro y Alonso, bishop of Segovia, and by Manuel María Vidal y Boullón, bishop of Tuy. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Granada, April 4, 1934. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, October 17, 1945.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Agostino, February 22, 1946.

Death. October 8, 1946, after a long illness, in Granada. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Granada .

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 87.


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PASKAI, O.F.M., László
(1927-

Birth. May 8, 1927, Szeged, Hungary.

Education. Joined the Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans). Studied at Franciscan houses of formation; Franciscan theologate, Gyongyos; Central Seminary, Budapest; Academy of Budapest (doctorate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, March 3, 1951. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Nagyvarad, 1951-1952. Further studies, Budapest, 1952. In Szeged, episcopal master of ceremonies, 1952-1955; faculty member and librarian of its seminary, 1955-1962. Prefect of the Interdiocesan Seminary, faculty member and spiritual director, 1962-1965. Faculty member and spiritual director, Central Seminary, Budapest, 1965-1973; rector, 1973-1978.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Bavagaliana and appointed apostolic administrator of Veszprém, March 2, 1978. Consecrated, April 5, 1978, parish church of Szent Marguerite, Veszprém, by Cardinal László Lekai, archbishop of Esztergom, assisted by László Kadar, archbishop of Eger, and by Imre Kisberk, bishop of Székesfehérvár. His episcopal motto is In Virtute Spiritus. Transferred to the see of Veszprém, March 31, 1979. Promoted to coadjutor archbishop of Kalocsa, April 5, 1982. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1983. President of the Episcopal Conference of Hungary, 1986-1989. Transferred to the metropolitan and primatial see of Esztergom, March 3, 1987. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Teresa al Corso d'Italia, June 28, 1988. Became archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest when the name of the see was changed, May 31, 1993. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; the II Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. On December 7, 2002, the pope accepted his resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese presented in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age on May 8, 2007.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B., André and Charles N. Bransom. "Franciscan bishops." Franciscan Studies, XLVIII (1988), 317; Tusor, Péter. Purpura Pannonica : az esztergomi "bíborosi szék" kialakulásának elozminyei a 17. században = Purpura Pannonica : the "Cardinalitial See" of Strigonium and its Antecedens in the 17th Century. Budapest : Róma : Research Institute of Church History at Péter Pázmány Catholic University, 2005. (Collectanea Vaticana Hungariae, Classis I, vol. 3), pp. 210 and 330.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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PAUPINI, Giuseppe
(1907-1992)

Birth. February 25, 1907, Mondavio, diocese of Fano, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Fano, Fano; Pontifical Regional Seminary "Pio XI," Fano (liceali studies and theology); Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome (doctorate in canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained, March 19, 1930, cathedral of Fano. Further studies, 1930-1932. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Fano and professor of canon law at its seminary, 1932-1939. Entered the service of the Secretariat of State in 1939 as attaché of the nunciature in France; and later, secretary of the nunciature in Italy. Successively, chargé d'affaires of the nunciatures in Honduras and Nicaragua, and Cuba, 1947-1951. Promoted to counselor of nunciature and destined to the Secretariat of State, 1951. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, October 19, 1952. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, 1952-1956.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Sebastopoli di Abasgia and appointed internuncio in Iran and apostolic administrator of Ispahan of the Latins, February 2, 1956. Consecrated, February 26, 1956, church of S. Eugenio, Rome, by Cardinal Valerio Valeri, prefect of S.C. of Religious, assisted by Antonio Samorè, titular archbishop of Tirnovo, secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Vincenzo Del Signore, bishop of Fano. Nuncio in Guatemala and El Salvador, February 25, 1957. Nuncio in Colombia, May 23, 1959. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon, April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ognissanti in Via Appia Nuova, April 30, 1969. Named grand penitentiary, March 21, 1973. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 24 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Opted for the order of priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Resigned the post of grand penitentiary, April 8, 1984. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, February 25, 1987. Camerlengo of the College of Cardinals, June 22, 1987 until May 2, 1988.

Death. July 18, 1992, Rome. His funeral mass was celebrated by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, secretary of State, at the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Buried in the collegiate church of Ss. Pietro e Paterniano, Mondavio, Marche.

Bibliography. Restrepo Posada, José. "Galería de representantes de la Santa Sede en Colombia." Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Historia Eclesiástica, V (January-June, 1970), 243-244.


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PAVAN, Pietro
(1903-1994)

Birth. August 30, 1903, Treviso, Italy. Third of the ten children of Giuseppe Pavan and Maria Piccioli (1). The other children were Natalina (married and Englishman and lived in London); Domenico (twice mayor of Povegliano); Pietro; Lazzaro (a priest); Clemente (a carabinieri who died in 1945 fighting the Yugoslav partisans); Aldo (died at two months of age); Marcellino (died at two years of age); Angela Marcella (a nun, missionary in Nigeria); and Giovanni (a professor of letters). He was given the name Fioravante in the baptismal registry of the parish; and the name of Pietro in the municipal registry office. The father and two of his sons were prominent Christian union activists involved in the organization of the anti-Fascist Partito Populare Italiano, founded by the priest and social theorist Luigi Sturzo.

Education. Received his initial religious formation from Archpriests Giovanni Battista Volpano and Cesare Tognana; and his initial education at the state school of Povegliano, where he completed the first, second and third elementary grades; then, he attended the private Institute Mazzarollo, where he completed the fourth elementary grade; in November 1916, at 13, he entered the Seminary of Treviso (2), where he completed the first ginnasiale year, without having done the fifth elementary grade; he had to interrupt his studies from 1917 until 1919 because of the First World War; he reentered the seminary in 1918 and completed the three remaining years of ginnasiali studies; in 1921, he decided to become a missionary and entered the Pontifical Seminary for Foreign Missions (PIME); he was sent to Monza for his liceale studies; there, he became ill several times; then, he went to Milan to study theology and start his novitiate but his health worsened; finally, in 1925, he had to leave the seminary and abandon his intentions of becoming a missionary; in that year, the bishop of Treviso allowed him to return to the seminary, where he finished the last three years of theology; after his priestly ordination, he was sent by his bishop to study at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, while residing at the Almo Collegio Capranica; he obtained doctorates in philosophy on March 8, 1929; and in theology on January 30, 1932; later, from 1934, he attended the University of Padua and earned a doctorate in political sciences on July 6, 1936.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 8, 1928, by Andrea Giacinto Longhin, bishop of Treviso. Further studies in Rome, 1928-1932; while in Rome, he exercised his pastoral ministry in the region of Boccea, where many faithful from Treviso resided. The bishop recalled him to Treviso in 1932 and named him professor of moral theology at the Seminary of Treviso; later, he was named professor of philosophy and history at Collegio Pio X; of pedagogy at Collegio Canossiane; and of religion and philosophy at the state lyceum "A. Canova". From 1933 to 1939, he was cooperator of Pastor Carlo Bosello at the parish of S. Agnese. From the end of the Second World War in 1945 to the close of the Second Vatican Council in 1965, he was a indefatigable sower of democratic ideals. Secretary of the Permanent Committee for the Social Weeks of the Italian Catholic from 1945 to 1953; and its vice-president from 1953 to 1965. Ecclesiastical counselor of the Catholic Institute of Social Activity, Rome, 1946. Professor of social economics at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome, 1948-1969; its rector magnifico, 1969-1974 (3). Professor of political science (which he taught in Latin) at the Pontifical Gregorian University. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 5, 1951. Counselor to Alcide de Gasperi, Italian prime minister. He had an important role in the World Congress for Lay Apostolate celebrated in Rome in 1951; as well as in the Second World Congress of 1957; and in the continental meeting organized by the Permanent Committee of the International Congresses for Lay Apostolate (COPECIAL) for Africa in 1953; and for Asia in 1955. In 1953, Pope Pius XII named him member of the Ecclesiastical Commission of the Permanent Committee of the International Congresses for Lay Apostolate (COPECIAL). Professor at the Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C., United States of America; and at the Catholic University of Montréal, Canada in 1954. Protonotary apostolic ad instar, January 11, 1962. Consultor of the SS.CC. of the Holy Office, Consistorial, and of Seminaries and Universities of Studies. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965, as an expert; member of the commission for the laity; collaborated in the redaction of the conciliar declaration on religious freedom. Vice-president of the Social Catholic Weeks of Italy. Socius of the International Union of Social Studies of Mechlen, Belgium. The Catholic University of Santiago, Chile, granted him a doctorate honoris causa. He was instrumental in the writing of Pope John XXIII's encyclicals Mater et Magistra, published on May 15, 1961; and Pacem in terris, published on April 11, 1963. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; by papal appointment. Considered a world leading authority in social teachings of the church. He wrote numerous works on social economics, sociology and democracy (4).

Episcopate. Excused from becoming a bishop, as required of new cardinals, because of advanced age.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon, May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Francesco da Paola ai Monte, May 25, 1985. He was eighty one years of age when created a cardinal and, therefore, did not have the right to participate in the conclave.

Death. December 26, 1994, Rome. Buried in the chapel of the Daughters of the Church, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. On December 20, 1995, to commemorate the first anniversary of his death, the Daughters of the Church unveiled his bronze statue in a center and park that he had established in Viale Vaticano.

Bibliography. Biffi, Franco. Prophet of our times : the social thought of Cardinal Pietro Pavan. Hyde Park, N.Y. : New City Press, 1992; Cerro, Giovanni. "Un professore che difendeva la persona. Il contributo di Pietro Pavan allo sviluppo della dottrina sociale della Chiesa." L'Osservatore Romano, Città del Vaticano, Anno CLII n. 139 (46.085), domenica 17 giugno 2012, pagina 4; Ciriello, Caterina. Pietro Pavan. La metamorfosi della dottrina sociale nel pontificato di Pio XII. Bologna : Società Editrice Il Mulino, 2011. (Santa Sede e politica nel novecento, 8); Costruire l'unità della famiglia umana : l'orizzonte profetico del cardinale Pietro Pavan (1903-1994). Roma : Edizioni Studium, 2004. (Coscienza studi ; 39). Note: Collected essays and papers (p. 195-271) presented to the symposium, Treviso, 2003. Responsibility: a cura di Lino Bosio, Fabio Cucculelli ; prefazione di Romano Prodi. Note: Collected essays and papers presented to the symposium, Treviso, 2003; Kambalu, Lourenço F. La democrazia personalista nel pensiero del cardinale Pietro Pavan (1903-1994). Rome : Studium, 2011. (Coscienza/Studi); Longoni, Fabiano. Verso l'organizzazione politico giuridica della comunità mondiale : contributo del card. Pietro Pavan alla dottrina sociale della Chiesa. Venezia : [s.n.], 1994. Note: "Excerpta ex dissertatione ad Doctoratum in Facultate Scientiarum Socialium Pontificia[e] Universitatis Gregorianae"; Molinaro, Aniceto. "Mons. Pietro Pavan." La Pontificia Università lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, p. 257-258; Pavan, Pietro. Libertà religiosa e pubblici poteri. Milano : Editrice Ancora, 1965; Pietro Pavan tra tradizione e modernità. Roma : Agrilavoro Edizioni Srl, 1999. (Cristiani nel mondo).

Links. His photograph and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; biography, in French, Wikipedia; biography, in German, Wikipedia; biography, in Polish, Wikipedia; his photograph and biography by Guy Gagnon, in English, Find a Grave; Lettera al Cardinale Pietro Pavan Diacono di San Francesco di Paola ai Monti, Giovanni Paolo II, 5 giugno 1988, Libreria Editrice Vaticana; Pietro Pavan il mio amico sapiente by Joseph Ratzinger, in Italian, in Convegno sul pensiero del cardinale Pietro Pavan dal titolo «La Sussidiarietà nel tempo della globalizzazione», sede nazionale delle Associazioni Cristiane dei Lavoratori Italiani (Acli), a Roma, il 27 ottobre 1999, Figlie della Chiesa; Le carte Pavan by Giulio Andreotti, in Italian, Editoriale, 30Giorni, nella Chiesa e nel mondo, mensile internazionale diretto da Giulio Andreotti,tratto dal n. 03 - 2003; Una sintesi del magistero sociale Card. Pietro Pavan. Le idee madri della dottrina sociale della Chiesa (1962), Una Pagina Classica. Una sintesi del magistero sociale, Oikonomia; Il professore che difendeva la persona. Il contributo di Pietro Pavan allo sviluppo della dottrina sociale della Chiesa, by Giovanni Cerro, L'Osservatore Romano, 17 giugno 2012.

(1) According to Costruire l'unità della famiglia umana : l'orizzonte profetico del cardinale Pietro Pavan (1903-1994), p. 275, his uncle, Agostino Pavan, introduced Maria, his mother, on April 25, 1903, feast of S. Marco, to Cardinal Giuseppe Sarto, patriarch of Venice, future pope Pius X and saint, while she was expecting Pietro, and the cardinal blessed the baby. The mother always said that the priestly vocation of Pietro was born on that day because she had offered her son before the patriarch to God.
(2) According to Costruire l'unità della famiglia umana : l'orizzonte profetico del cardinale Pietro Pavan (1903-1994), p. 275, his mother received very well his decision to enter the seminary, but not his father, who wanted him to help in the commercial business of the family.
(3) According to Costruire l'unità della famiglia umana : l'orizzonte profetico del cardinale Pietro Pavan (1903-1994), p. 280, in 1974, after a bitter argument (amara discussione) with the pope about the caso Gennari, he submitted his resignation as rector of the Pontifical Lateran University.
(4) 283 bibliographical entries concerning Cardinal Pietro Pavan, WorldCat


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PELL, George
(1941-

Birth. Trinity Sunday June 8, 1941, Ballarat, Australia. Son of George Arthur Pell, manager of the Gordon Gold Mine and a nominal member of the Church of England, and Margaret Lillian Burke, a devout Catholic. They had twins, a boy and a girl, who died in 1940. He has a younger sister, Margaret; and a younger brother, David.

Education. Initial studies at Loreto Convent, Ballarat, where he received his first communion in 1948; later, he studied at Corpus Christi College, Werribee; at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum of "Propaganda Fide", Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in theology in 1967; at Oxford University, Oxford, England, where he earned a doctorate in church history in 1971; at Monash University, Clayton, Australia, where he earned a master's in education in 1982. He is a fellow of the Australian College of Educators; and was a visiting scholar at Campion Hall, Oxford University, in 1979; and at St Edmund's College, Cambridge University, in 1983. He was elected an honorary fellow of St Edmund's in 2003. In earlier years, he was a keen sports coach in soccer, Aussie Rules and rowing. He is vice-patron of the Richmond Football Club and a long-term supporter and member of the Club since he signed to play with them in 1959. He received the diaconate on August 15, 1966.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 16, 1966, patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Grégoire-Pierre Agagianian, prefect of the S.C. for Propagation of the Faith. Further studies, Oxford, from 1967 to 1970. Assistant pastor in the parishes of Swan Hill, 1971-1972; and Ballarat East, 1973-1983; administrator of the parish of Bungaree, 1984; and parish priest of Mentone, from 1984 to1996. Episcopal vicar for Education, diocese of Ballarat, 1973-1984; a founding member of the Catholic Education Commission of Victoria, from 1973 to 1984; director of the Aquinas Campus of the Institute of Catholic Education from 1974 to 1984; principal of the Institute (now merged into Australian Catholic University), from 1981 until 1984; editor of Light, the magazine of the diocese of Ballarat, from 1979 until 1984; member of the Academic Board of State College of Victoria and at different times a member of the Councils of the State College of Victoria - Ballarat, the Ballarat College of Advanced Education and Signadou College, Canberra. Rector of Corpus Christi College, the Provincial Seminary for Victoria and Tasmania, from 1985 to1987.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Scala and appointed auxiliary of Melbourne, March 30, 1987. Consecrated, May 21, 1987, St. Peter's metropolitan cathedral, Melbourne, by Frank Little, archbishop of Melbourne, assisted by Ronald Austin Mulkearns, bishop of Ballarat, and by Joseph Peter O'Connell, titular bishop of Sanctus Germanus, auxiliary of Melbourne. His episcopal motto is Be not afraid. Chairman of Caritas Australia, 1988-1997. Chairman of the committee charged with setting up the new Australian Catholic University, 1989; served as the University's Foundation Pro-Chancellor, 1991-1995. President of the University's board of owners, 1996. Attended the VIII Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; by papal appointment. Appointed by the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, apostolic visitor to the National Seminaries of New Zealand, 1994; Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, 1995; the Pacific, 1996; and Irian Jaya and Sulawesi, 1998. Promoted to metropolitan see of Melbourne, July 16, 1996. Delegate, appointed by the prime minister, to the Constitutional Convention, February 1998. Decorated with the Grand Cross of Merit of the Order of Saint Lazarus and co-deputy National Chaplain of the order, 1998. Grand Prior of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, Australian Lieutenancy - Southern, 1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; by papal appointment. Fellow of the Australian College of Education. Since 2001, he has been the chair of Vox Clara, the committee of English-speaking bishops who advise the Vatican's Congregation for Divine Worship on English-language translations.Transferred to metropolitan see of Sydney, March 26, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Cleared by the independent inquiry set up to investigate an accusation of sexual abuse against him, October 2002.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Domenica Mazzarello, October 21, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005, by papal appointment. Named member of of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, February 3, 2007. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church"; he was one of the three presidents delegates, and was substituting for Cardinal Oswald Gracias, archbishop of Bombay, India, who was unable to attend. On September 18, 2012, the pope appointed him synodal father of the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 7 to 28, 2012, on the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of the Christian faith". Named member of the Congregation for Bishops on September 22, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On April 13, 2013, he was named by Pope Francis member of a group of cardinals to advise him in the government of the universal Church and to study a plan for revising the apostolic constitution on the Roman Curia, Pastor Bonus. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for Bishops on December 16, 2013. Named prefect of the newly established Secretariat for the Economy on February 24, 2014. He was named member of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life on March 29, 2014.

Bibliography. Livingstone, Tess. George Pell. Sydney : Duffy & Snellgrove, 2002.

Link. Photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of Sydney; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Cardinal Pell, from soccer prospect to priest, video, Rome Reports, 2013-02-23 17:12:23; Cardinal Pell: We'e got to have a Pope who is able to speak to the world, video, Rome Reports, 2013-03-07 17:34:30.


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PELLEGRINETTI, Ermenegildo
(1876-1943)

Birth. March 27, 1876, Camaiore, archdiocese of Lucca, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Lucca, Lucca; Pontifical Roman Academy of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Rome; Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome; Vatican School of Paleogrophy and Diplomacy, Vatican.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 24, 1898, Lucca. Pastoral ministry in Lucca and faculty member of its seminary, 1898-1917. Military chaplain in the First World War, 1917-1918. Secretary to the nuncio in Poland, 1918. Auditor in the nunciature in Poland, 1919-1922. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, July 29, 1919. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, February 22, 1922.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Adana, May 24, 1922. Appointed nuncio in Yugoslavia, May 29, 1922. Consecrated, June 18, 1922, church of S. Maria in Portico a Campitelli, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Gasparri, secretary of State, assisted by Giovanni Maria Zonghi, titular archbishop of Colosse, president of the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, and by Giovanni Volpi, titular archbishop of Antiochia di Pisidia. His episcopal motto was Fide Tutior. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Zagreb, Yugoslavia, July 30, 1930.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, December 13, 1937; received the red hat and the title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, December 16, 1937. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII.

Death. March 29, 1943, Rome. Buried in the collegiate church of Camaiore.

Bibliography. Pellegrinetti, Ermenegildo ; Natalini, Terzo. I diari del cardinale Ermenegildo Pellegrinetti, 1916-1922. Città del Vaticano : Archivio Vaticano, 1994. (Collectanea Archivi Vaticani, 35). Other title: Diari del card. E. Pellegrinetti.


Link. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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PELLEGRINO, Michele
(1903-1986)

Birth. April 25, 1903, Roata Chiusani, Centallo, diocese of Fossano, Italy. He was the only child of Giuseppe Pellegrino, a bricklayer, and Angela Ristorti, who died of typhus only four months after delivering her child.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Fossano from 1913; while a seminarian, he rendered military service in Mantua between March 1923 and April 1924; continued his studies at Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan, where he earned a degree in letters with the thesis "La poesia di San Gregorio Nazianzeno" on July 12, 1929; and a degree in philosophy in 1933; and, finally, he also studied at Facoltà Teologica, Turin, where he earned a degree in theology in 1931.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 19, 1925, Centallo, by Quirico Travaini, bishop of Fossano. Further studies, 1925-1933. Spiritual director of the Seminary of Fossano, 1929-1933. In 1930, he became director of the weekly diocesan review La Fedeltà, published by the diocese of Fossano. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Fossano; vicar general; and vicar capitular, 1933-1943. He taught Greek and Latin grammar at the University of Turin from 1943 to1965. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, July 21, 1965.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Turin, September 18, 1965. Consecrated, October 17, 1965, by Giovanni Dadone, archbishop-bishop of Fossano, assisted by Giuseppe Beltrami, titular archbishop of Damasco, internuncio in Holland, and by Felicissimo Stefano Tinivella, O.F.M., titular bishop of Cana, former coadjutor of Turin. His episcopal motto was Evangelizare Pauperibus. Attended the last session of the Second Vatican Council, 1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, June 26, 1967; received the red biretta and the title of Ss.mo Nome di Gesù, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, June 29, 1967. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, August 1, 1977. After his retirement, at the request of his successor, Cardinal Anastasio Alberto Ballestrero, O.C.D., he continued to reside in Turin, living in the parish house of Vallo Torinese. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. He suffered an ictus on January 8, 1982, which left him immobilized for the rest of his life. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, April 25, 1983. He championed the cause of Italy's industrial workers and urged the pope to permit priests to marry; he was a major figure in the post-Second Vatican Council era, earning a reputation as a "new kind of bishop" for his strong stance in favor of theological freedom in the church.

Death. October 10, 1986, at Reparto S. Pietro of the Cottolengo Hospital, in Turin, shortly after receiving the last rites from his successor, Cardinal Anastasio Alberto Ballestrero, O.C.D., who gave him a special blessing sent to him by Pope John Paul II. According to his wishes, his corneas were donated following his death. Buried, as he had requested in his will, in the family plot, next to his parents, in the cemetery of Roata Chiusani.

Bibliography. Berardi, Mario. Il Vescovo che ha fatto strada ai poveri : testimonianze su Michele Pellegrino : scritti.. Firenze : Vallecchi, 1977. (Documenti e interventi). Con un'antologia a cura di Pier Giuseppe Accornero e Marco Bonatti; Brusa Caccia, Maria Elisabetta. Un padre e la sua città. Il card. Michele Pellegrino arcivescovo di Torino. Torino : Editrice Elle di Ci, 1996; Parola, Alessandro. Michele Pellegrino : gli anni giovanili. Cuneo : Primalpe, 2003.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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PENGO, Polycarp
(1944-

Birth. August 5, 1944, Mwazye, diocese of Sumbawanga, Tanganyika. He has four brothers and four sisters.

Education. Preparatory Seminary of Mwazye, Mwazye; Minor Seminary of Karema, Karema; Major Seminary of Kipalapala, Sumbawanga; Accademia Alfonsiana, Pontifical Lateran University, Rome (doctorate in moral theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 20, 1971, Sumbawanga, by Charles Msakila, bishop of Sumbawanga. Secretary of the bishop of Sumbawanga, 1971-1973. Further studies in Rome, 1973-1977. Faculty member, Seminary of Kipalapala, 1977-1978. Rector, faculty member and economous of the Major Seminary of Segerea, 1978-1983. Also, in charge of pastoral of the laity and of vocations.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Nachingwea, November 11, 1983. Consecrated, January 6, 1984, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Durasamy Simon Lourdusamy, archbishop emeritus of Bangalora, secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. In the same ceremony was consecrated Jan Pieter Schotte, C.I.C.M., titular archbishop of Silli, vice-president of the Pontifical Commission Iustitia et Pax, future cardinal. His episcopal motto is Ecce ego Domine. Transferred to the see of Tunduru-Masasi, October 17, 1986. Promoted to coadjutor with succession of Dar-es-Salaam, January 22, 1990. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Dar-es-Salaam, July 22, 1992. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, April 10 to May 8, 1994; member of the council of the General Secretariat of the Special Assembly for Africa.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of Nostra Signora de La Salette, February 21, 1998. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Elected president of the Symposium of Episcopal Conferences of Africa and Madagascar (SECAM) at the end of the First Panafrican Congress of Evangelization and of the 14th Plenary Assembly of SECAM, celebrated in Dar-es-Salaam on Sunday January 21, 2007. Attended the XII Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church"; by papal appointment. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World". Named member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economical Problems of the Holy See, June 23, 2012. On September 18, 2012, the pope appointed him synodal father of the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 7 to 28, 2012, on the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of the Christian faith". Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On March 29, 2014, he was confirmed as member of the Pontifical Council for Culture until the expiration of his mandate.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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PEROSI, Carlo
(1868-1930)

Birth. December 18, 1868, Tortona, Italy. Of a family originally from Lodi. Son of Cavaliere Giuseppe Perosi and Carolina Bernardi. Brother of the famous composer of sacred music Lorenzo Perosi.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Tortona; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; in Collegio Lombardo, where he resided while in Rome, he was classmate of Luigi Sincero and Mario Nasalli Rocca di Corneliano, future cardinals.

Priesthood. Ordained, November 8, 1891. Further studies, Rome, 1891-1894. In Tortona, 1894-1904, pastoral ministry; professor of philosophy and theology and vice-rector of its seminary; pro-synodal examiner; and administrative counselor of the city hospital. In 1902, at the proposal of Cardinal Girolamo Gotti, O.C.D, prefect of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, Pope Leo XIII named Fr. Perosi professor of ecclesiastical history at Collegio Urbaniano of Propaganda Fide, but not wanting to leave his diocese, he resigned. In 1904, Pope Pius X, who knew him from Venice, where he used to visit his brother Lorenzo, then maestro di capella of the patriarchal basilica of S. Marco, granted him a benefice at the patriarchal Vatican basilica and, shortly after, named him consultor of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council and member of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Penitentiary. Counselor adjunct for the Provincial Councils, Rome, September 21, 1904. Visitor to the seminaries of Sicily, 1907. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 15, 1907. Named substitute of the S.C. Consistorial, October 20, 1908, at the proposal of Cardinal Gaetano de Lai, secretary of that congregation; occupied the post until 1911. Named regent of the Sacred Apostolic Penitentiary, December 7, 1911, at the recommendation of Cardinal Serafino Vannutelli, who had great esteem for Msgr. Perosi. Consultor of the S.C. of the Holy Office in January 1915; and shortly after, canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica. Assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, December 8, 1916; occupied the post until his promotion to the cardinalate. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, March 6, 1917.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon, June 21, 1926: received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Eustachio, June 24, 1926. His cardinalitial motto was Per Crucem ad lucem. Pro-secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, February 10, 1928; secretary, November 1, 1928. Superior general of the Scalabrinian Fathers (Missionaries of St. Charles Borromeo). He was member of the SS.CC. of the Holy Office, Consistorial, Sacraments, Council, Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs and Seminaries and Universities of Study; and of the Pontifical Commission for the Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law.

Death. February 22, 1930, Rome. He was the first cardinal to die in Rome after the ratification of the Lateran Treaty; accordingly, for the first time the ceremonial of the capella cardinalizia was celebrated; an intimatio from the prefect of pontifical ceremonies invited all to attend the obsequies, which took place on the following February 26, in the basilica of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome; nineteen cardinals were present; after the removal of the casket from the hearse, Cardinal Gennaro Granito Pignatelli di Belmonte, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, received the mortal remains; the funeral mass was celebrated by Raffaelle Carlo Rossi, O.C.D., titular archbishop of Tessalonica, assessor of the S.C. Consistorial; Cardinal Vincenzo Vannutelli, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals (who died the following July 9), imparted the absolution in the name of the pope. The late cardinal was buried in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. In 1959, the remains of the cardinal and those of his brother, who was also buried in the same cemetery, were exhumed and transferred to the cathedral of Tortona, their birthplace (1).

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1931. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1931, p. 61; "Nécrologe. E. Perosi (Charles), card. diacre." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 921; L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, LX, n. 141 (June 21-22, 1926), p. 2.

Link. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on the vault which contains his remains and those of his brother Lorenzo, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

LORENZO      +      CARLO
PEROSI                    PEROSI
         GENIO                     CARDINALE
      DELLA MUSICA SACRA                      DI SANTA ROMANA CHIESA
1872 - 1956                  1868 - 1930

QUOS DERTHONA PARENS FILIOS EXCEPIT AB URBE
UNA COMPONIT QUIS UNUS AMOR ERAT


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PETIT DE JULLEVILLE, Pierre
(1876-1947)

Birth. November 22, 1876, Dijon, France. His father, Louis Petit de Julleville, was a professor at the Faculty of Letters of Dijon; his mother's maiden name was Marty-Laveaux; he was the fourth of five children; he had three older sisters, Catherine, Marguerite and Madeleine; and a younger one, Geneviève. His baptismal name was Pierre-André-Charles. His father became professor at École Normale Supérieure of Paris and the family moved to that city when Pierre was still a young boy.

Education. Initial studies, when he was eight years old, at Lycée Janson-de-Sailly, Paris; La Sorbonne University, Paris, 1893-1896 (licentiate in history); military service, November 1897 to September 1898, in the 28th infantry regiment in Èvreaux; Seminary of Saint-Sulpice, Paris, October 13, 1899 to 1903; received the ecclesiastical tonsure. He was ordained to the subdiaconate and diaconate by Félix-Jules-Xavier Jourdan de La Passardière, Orat., titular bishop of Rosea.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 4, 1903, Paris, by Bishop Jourdan de La Passardière; he celebrated his first mass at the church of La Sorbonne University. Further studies, 1903-1905, Procure de Saint-Sulpice, Rome. Faculty member of the Grand Seminary of Issy Paris, 1905-1910. Canon of the cathedral chapter and superior the of School of Sainte-Croix-de-Neuilly, Neuilly, 1910-1914; 1918-1927. Military chaplain in the First World War, 1914-1918.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Dijon, June 23, 1927. Consecrated, September 29, 1927, metropolitan cathedral of Paris, by Cardinal Louis-Ernest Dubois, archbishop of Paris, assisted by Louis Gaillard, bishop of Meaux, and by Georges Audollent, bishop of Blois. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Rouen, August 7, 1936. Apostolic administrator of the see of Dijon, September 18, 1936 to May 15, 1937.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Aquiro, February 22, 1946.

Death. Wednesday December 10, 1947, at 1:15 a.m., from complications of a cold, after receiving holy communion and the extreme unction, Rouen. The obsequies took place on December 18 in the presence of Cardinals Achille Liénart, Emmanuel Suhard, Pierre-Marie Gerlier and Clément Roques; the apostolic nuncio; and all the bishops of the ecclesiastical province; as well as high civil authorities from the national, regional and local governments. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Rouen.

Bibliography. Brain, Roger. Le Cardinal Petit de Julleville. Paris: Centre de documentation sacerdotale, 1948; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 443-444; De la Serre, René. Le Cardinal Petit de Julleville. Paris: Librairie Plon, 1955.


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PHẠM ÐÌNH TUNG, Paul Joseph
(1919-2009)

Birth. June 15, 1919, Quang Nap, Yên Mô, diocese of Phát Diêm, Việt Nam. Of a Christian family for several generations. His first name is also listed as Phaôlô-Giuse, its Vietnamese form.

Education. Initial studies at the local school; École Puginier La Salle (Hà Nôi); Hoàng Nguyên Minor Seminary, 1931-1940; St. Sulpice Major Seminary, Hà Nôi, 1940-1949; the seminary was closed due to revolutionary and social unrest until from 1945 to 1948; (philosophy and theology; and pastoral ministry in a parish of the diocese for a period).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 6, 1949, Hà Nôi, by Tadêô Lê Huu Tu, O. Cist., titular bishop of Daphnusia, apostolic vicar of Phát Diêm. Chaplain of the orphanage of Sainte-Thérèse in 1949. The following year, he became vicar of the parish of Hàm Long in Hà Nôi and founded the home of Bach Mai for refugees from the war. In 1954 occurred the division of the country in two parts, North and South, separated by the 17th parallel. A Communist government was installed in Hà Nôi and the dioceses of the North saw a large exodus priests and faithful. Fr. Phạm Ðình Tụng stayed in Hà Nôi. Superior of St. John Minor Seminary, Hà Nôi, 1955-1963; the seminary was closed by the state authorities in 1960 and never opened again.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Bac Ninh, April 5, 1963. Consecrated, August 15, 1963, metropolitan cathedral of Hà Nôi, by Joseph-Marie Trinh Nhu Khuê, archbishop of Hà Nôi, assisted by Father J. Bich and Father Cung. His episcopal motto was Credidimus caritate. Placed under house arrest, 1963-1990 (1). Apostolic administrator sede vacante et ad nutum Sanctæ Sedis of Hà Nôi, July 5, 1990. Director of the Major Seminary of Hà Nôi, 1990-2003. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Hà Nôi, March 23, 1994.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Regina Pacis in Ostia Mare, November 26, 1994. President of the Episcopal Conference of Viêt Nam, 1995-2001. Apostolic administrator, sede vacante et ad nutum Sanctæ Sedis, of Lang Son et Cao Bang, March 1, 1998 until June 3, 1999. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of Second Centennial of Apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary in La Vang, August 13 to 15, 1998. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, June 15, 1999. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese according to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law, February 19, 2005. He worked to improve relations between the Holy See and Việt Nam's communist government, which cut off ties with the Vatican after taking power in 1954.

Death. Sunday February 22, 2009, Hà Nôi. The bells of all the churches of the city rang at 5 p.m. The funeral, which took place on February 26, 2009, at St. Joseph's metropolitan cathedral of Hà Nôi, was presided over by Cardinal Jean-Baptiste Phạm Minh Mẫn, archbishop of Thàn-Phô Hô Chi Minh (Hôchiminh Ville), and lasted from from 9 to 11:15 a.m.; twenty one bishops, 550 priests and over 20,000 faithful participated. The body of the late cardinal was buried in the floor of a lateral nave of that metropolitan cathedral.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) For virtually all the 30 years of his episcopate in the Diocese of Bac Ninh (except the last four), he was forced to stay at home without ever being able to make pastoral visits to the more than 100 parishes in his ecclesiastical territory. With only three priests in all, and restricted in his movements and means of communication, during his years of 'house arrest', the Bishop started to write the whole of Jesus' life as it is told in the Gospels, the Christian doctrine, the commandments of God and of the Church, and the sacraments in the 'luc-bat' poetic form (stanzas of six or eight words). The cadence of the composition helps people learn them quickly. He formed councils of lay people in the parishes, their number varying according to the importance of the parishes, to be responsible for the continuation of religious life in the local communities and provide a three-year marriage course for the young people. Another initiative promoted by the former Bishop PPhạm Ðình Tụng was the foundation of a secular institute for boys and girls for the purpose of training them as catechists. The initiative has had excellent results and these young catechists, traveling all over the country guaranteeing catechetical courses everywhere, especially to children.


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PHẠM MINH MẪN, Jean-Baptiste
(1934-

Birth. March 5, 1934, Thanh Hoa, Ca Mau, diocese of Cantho (now Cân Tho, Cu Lao Gien), Việt Nam. His first name in Vietnamese is Gioan Baotixita.

Education. In 1944, he entered the Probatorium in Cu Lao Gieng, where he stayed for two years; then, from 1946 to 1954, he completed his secondary studies and the human and spiritual preparation at the Minor Seminary of Phnom Penh, Cambodia (1); from 1954 to 1956, he studied philosophy at Saint Joseph's Mayor Seminary, Sài Gón (now Hôchiminh Ville); and from 1961 to 1966; teaching in a secondary school in Bac Liêu, from 1956 to 1961; studied theology at Saint Joseph's Mayor Seminary, Sài Gón from 1961 to 1965; later, he also studied at Loyola University, Los Angeles, California, United States of America, from 1968 to 1971, where he obtained a master's of Education degree. Besides his native Vietnamese, he also speaks French and English.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 25, 1965, cathedral of Cân Tho, by Jacques Nhuyên Ngoc Quang, bishop of Cân Tho. Incardinated in the diocese of Cân Tho. Professor in the Minor Seminary of Beato Quy in Cai Rang, Cân Tho. Further studies in the United States, 1968-1971; returned to his country and was again named professor at the Minor Seminary of Cân Tho in 1971; occupied the post until the Communist invasion in 1975. Because of the change of political system in South Vietnam, the Catholic Church was persecuted and the seminaries were closed or confiscated by the State. During those years, he was placed in charge of the formation of priests. Then, in 1988, six major seminaries in Vietnam were allowed to be opened and he was named rector of the Seminary of Santo Quy in Cai Rang, Cân Tho; during his rectorship, he had to confront numerous difficulties, such as the lack of professors; the Seminary served the three dioceses of Cân Tho, Vinh Long and Long Xuyen; he occupied the post until his promotion to the episcopate in 1993.

Episcopate. Elected coadjutor bishop of My Tho, March 22, 1993. Consecrated, August 11, 1993, Seminary of Cân Tho, by Emmanuel Lê Phong Thuân, bishop of Cân Tho, assisted by François Xavier Nguyên Quang Sach, bishop of Dà Nang, and by Joseph Nguyên Tuyên, coadjutor bishop of Bac Ninh. His episcopal motto is Như Thầy Yêu Thu'o'ng. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Thàn-Phô Hô Chi Minh (Hôchiminh Ville), March 1, 1998. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Giustino, October 21, 2003. The government of Viêt Nam expressed its displeasure because the Vatican did not seek its permission to elevate the archbishop to the cardinalate and indicated that it was not going to recognize the promotion; four days later, it reversed itself and welcomed the appointment. Member of the Congregations for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments; and for the Evangelization of Peoples; and of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral of Health Workers. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on March 5, 2014. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law, was accepted on March 22, 2014.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photograph, arms and biographical data, in Vietnamese, Vietnamese Missionaries in Asia; photograph, arms and biographical data, in Vietnamese, Tổng Giáo Phận Tp. HCM; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) On September 20, 1955, the Vietnamese part of the apostolic vicariate of Phnom Penh was separated from the vicariate and became the new apostolic vicariate of Cân Tho, suffragan of Saigon.


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PHILIPPE, O.P., Paul-Pierre
(1905-1984)

Birth. April 16, 1905, Paris, France.

Education. Joined the Order of Preachers, Paris, 1926. Dominican houses of studies.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 6, 1932. Further studies, 1932-1935. Faculty member of the Dominican Studium, Lwow, Poland, 1935. Faculty member of the Pontifical Angelicum Athenaeum, Rome, 1935-1939. Officer in the French Army during the Second World War, 1939-1942. Faculty member of the Institute "Le Saulchoir," 1942-1945. Superior of Dominican house of studies and faculty member of the Pontifical Angelicum Athenaeum, Rome, 1945-1950. Founder of the Institute of Spirituality for seminary directors and masters of novices, 1950. Founder and director of the Dominican school for mistresses of novices, 1953-1957. Apostolic visitor to various religious institutes, 1951-1956. First socius of the commissary of Holy Office, 1954-1955; commissary, 1955-1959. Secretary of the S.C. of Religious, December 14, 1959.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Erocleopoli Maggiore, August 28, 1962. Consecrated, September 21, 1962, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Francesco Carpino, titular archbishop of Sardica, assessor of the S.C. Consistorial, and by Pietro Parente, titular archbishop of Teolemaide di Tebaide, assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office. In the same ceremony were consecrated future Cardinals Cesare Zerba, Pietro Palazzini, and Enrico Dante. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Secretary of the S.C. for the Doctrine of the Faith, June 29, 1967.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon, March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Pio V a Villa Carpegna, March 5, 1973. Prefect of the S.C. for the Oriental Churches, March 6, 1973. Attended the III Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the IV Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Cardinal Patronus of Sovereign Military Order of Malta, November 10, 1978. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Resigned prefecture, June 27, 1980. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, February 2, 1983.

Death. April 9, 1984, of a heart attack, in a nursing home in Rome. Buried in the chapel of the Order of Preachers, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 445-446.


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PIAZZA, O.C.D., Adeodato Giovanni
(1884-1957)

Birth. September 30, 1884, Vigo de Cadore, diocese of Belluno, Italy. Son of Giuseppe Piazza and Elisabetta Nicolò.

Education. Entered the Carmelite school in Treviso, 1897; received the sacrament of confirmation, 1898; received the religious habit, August 6, 1902; emitted the religious vows, August 7, 1903; served in the medical corps in the Italian army in Trevso, 1904-1906; went to Venice to study theology; emitted the solemn vows, August 7, 1907; received the minor orders from Bishop Andrea Giacinto Longhini of Treviso.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 19, 1908, Venice, by Cardinal Aristide Cavallari, patriarch of Venice. Finished the theological studies in 1910. Faculty member of Carmelite houses of studies in San Vigilio, Adro and Brescia, 1909-1914. Returned to Venice in 1914 and taught letters at a lyceum. Prior of the Carmelite convent of Tombetta Veronese, 1915. During the First World War, 1915-1919, he was military chaplain of the 21st Regiment of Cavalry of Padua; and later, chaplain at the military hospital of Montecatini. Elected prior of the Carmelite novitiate of Brescia, 1919-1921. Elected prior of the convent and school of Adrio, 1921. Secretary of the Superior General of his order, Rome, 1922-1925. General procurator of his order, 1925-1930.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Benevento, January 29, 1930. Consecrated, February 24, 1930, church of S. Teresa al Corso d`Italia, Rome, by Cardinal Basilio Pompilj, bishop of Velletri, vicar general of Rome and its district, assisted by Cardinal Raffaele Carlo Rossi, O.C.D., secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, and by Pio Marcello Bagnoli, O.C.D., bishop of Marsi. Promoted to the patriarchate of Venice, December 16, 1935.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, December 13, 1937; received red hat and title of S. Prisca, December 16, 1937. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, October 1, 1948. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, March 14, 1949. Papal legate to the centennial celebration of Sant'Agata, Catania, Sicily, Italy, July 30, 1951; to the National Marian Congress, São Paulo, Brazil, July 30, 1954; to the First General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Rio de Janeiro, July 25 to August 4, 1955; to the celebrations for the finding of the mortal remains of Saint Nicholas of Myra, Bari, Italy, April 16, 1957. Superior general of the Scalabrinian Fathers (Missionaries of St. Charles Borromeo).

Death. November 30, 1957, of pneumonia following two cerebral strokes, in Rome. Buried, Carmelite church of S. Teresa al Corso d'Italia, Rome.

Bibliography. Di Franca, Mario, Una porpora bianca. Modena : Edizioni Paoline, 1958; Niero, Antonio. I patriarchi di Venezia. Da Lorenzo Giustiniani ai nostri giorni. Venice : Studium Cattolico Veneziano, 1961. (Collana Storica, 3), pp. 213-217and 258; Urbani, Giovanni. Il Cardinale Adeodato G. Piazza. Venice : Fondazione Giorgio Cini, 1958; Zarra, Titta. Una roccia del Cadore : il Cardinale Adeodato Giovanni Piazza. Roma : Editrice "Cor Unum", 1968.

Link. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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PICACHY, S.J., Lawrence Trevor
(1916-1992)

Birth. August 7, 1916, Darjeeling, India.

Education. Joined Society of Jesus (Jesuits), 1934. Saint Joseph College, Dajeerling; Saint Stanislaus College, Hazaribagali, Bihor; Sacred Heart Colle, Shembaganur; Saint Francis Xavier's College, Calcutta; Saint Mary's College, Kurslong, Himalaya.

Priesthood. Ordained, November 21, 1947. Faculty member and rector, Saint Francis Xavier's College, Calcutta, 1950-1960. Pastoral ministry, Basanti, 1960-1962.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Jamshedpur, July 12, 1962. Consecrated, September 9, 1962, Golmuri, church of Saint Joseph, by James Knox, titular archbishop of Melitene, internuncio in India and apostolic delegate in Burma and Ceylon, assisted by Pius Kerketta, S.J., archbishop of Ranchi, and by Augustine Francis Wildermuth, S.J., bishop of Patna. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Calcutta, May 29, 1969. Attended the III Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. President of the Episcopal Conference of India, 1976-.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, May 24, 1976; received the red biretta and the title of Sacro Cuore di Maria, May 24, 1976. Attended the IV Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the V Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; one of the three president delegates. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese on April 5, 1986.

Death. November 30, 1992, Calcutta. Buried, Jesuit Dhyanashram, Thakurpukur.


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PIFFL, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, Friedrich Gustav
(1864-1932)

Birth. October 15, 1864, Landskron, diocese of Königgrätz, Bohemia, Austrian Empire. Son of Rudolf Piffl, a bookseller and shopkeeper, and Maria Magdalena Piro. He volunteered for a year in the Austrian army.

Education. Teutonic College of S. Maria in Camposanto, Rome; Sankt'Augustine monastery, Klosterneuburg, Austria. Joined the Canons Regular of Saint Augustine, 1883; took the name Friedrich; University of Vienna, Vienna (philosophy).

Priesthood. Ordained, January 8, 1888. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Vienna, 1888-1892. Pastor and prior of the collegiate church of Klosterneuburg, 1892-1913; provost, January 9, 1907 to April 1, 1913.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Vienna, May 2, 1913. Consecrated, June 1, 1913, abbey of Klosterneuburg, by Raffaele Scapinelli di Léguigno, titular archbishop of Laodicea, nuncio in Austria-Hungary, assisted by Hermann Zschokke, titular bishop of Cesarea di Filippi, auxiliary of Vienna, and by Josef Pfluger, titular bishop of Arpasa, auxiliary of Vienna.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, May 25, 1914; received the red hat and the title of S. Marco, September 8, 1914. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. In 1918 the Austrian Empire ceased to exist and Vienna became the capital of the new Republic of Austria. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI.

Death. April 21, 1932, of an apoplexy, Vienna. At first, he was buried in the castle of Kranichberg; and in 1953, his remains were transferred to the the crypt of Sankt Stefan metropolitan cathedral, Vienna.

Bibliography. Knoll, August Maria. Kardinal Fr. G. Piffl und osterreichische Episkopat zu sozialen und kulturellen Fragen, 1913-1932. Quellensammlung von August M. Knoll ; Einband von Rose Reinhold. Wien: Reinhold-Verlag, 1932. (Kleine historische monographien, 35); Krexner, Martin. Hirte an der Zeitenwende: Kardinal Friedrich Gustav Piffl und seine Zeit. Wien : Dom, 1988. Note : Revision of the author's doctoral thesis: Kardinal Friedrich Gustav Piffl -- Universität Wein,1987; Rennhofer, Friedrich. Friedrich Gustav Kardinal Piffl, Erzbischof von Wien, 1864-1932. Denkschrift der Christkönigskirche (Kardinal-Piffl-Gedächtniskirche) Gloggnitz. [Mit Porträt]. Gloggnitz : Franz Rudolf Kopf, 1967; Saurer, Edith. Die politischen Aspekte der österreichischen Bischofsernennungen, 1867-1903. Anhang: Die Wiener Erzbischöfe Nagl und Piffl. Wien, München : Herold, 1968. (Forschungen zur Kirchengeschichte Österreichs, Bd. 6). Notes : Based on the author's thesis, Vienna, 1966.

Links. Photograph and biographical information, in German; his photograph, tomb and biography, in English, Find a Grave; list of the the provosts of Klosterneuburg; and photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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PIGNEDOLI, Sergio
(1910-1980)

Birth. June 4, 1910, Felina di Reggio Emilia, diocese of Reggio Emilia, Italy. Son of Omero Pignedoli and Emma Peretti. Baptized on June 7, 1910.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Reggio Emilia (classics); at the Catholic University of Milan, where he earned a doctorate in letters; at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in canon law; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in ecclesiastical history.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 1, 1933, Rome. Vice-rector of Seminary of Reggio Emilia, 1933-1934. Chaplain, Catholic University, Milan, 1934-1940. Military chaplain during the Second World War, 1940-1943. Staff member of the Secretariat of State; assistant general chaplain of the Italian Catholic Action; and general chaplain of the Italian Boy Scouts, 1943-1950. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, May 5, 1945. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, September 5, 1949. Secretary of the Central Committee of the 1950 Holy Year.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Iconio and appointed nuncio in Bolivia, December 22, 1950. Consecrated, February 11, 1951, major basilica of S. Paolo fuori le Mura, Rome, by Cardinal Adeodato Giovanni Piazza, O.C.D., bishop of of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, secretary of S.C. Consistorial, assisted by Valerio Valeri, titular archbishop of Efeso, assessor of the S.C. for the Oriental Church, and by Beniamino Socche, bishop of Reggio Emilia. His episcopal moto was Virtus ex alto. Nuncio in Venezuela, October 19, 1954. Named auxiliary bishop to Giovanni Battista Montini, archbishop of Milan, April 15, 1955. Apostolic delegate in Western and Central Africa, with residence in Lagos, September 23, 1960. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Apostolic delegate in Canada, June 3, 1964. President of the Extraordinary Conference of Viet Nam's Episcopate, September 1966. Secretary of S.C. for the Evangelization of Peoples, June 10, 1967.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon, March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, March 5, 1973. President of the Secretariat for Non-Christians, March 6, 1973. Special papal envoy to the consecration of the Ugandan Martyrs shrine, Namugongo, Uganda, June 3, 1974. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Cardinal protodeacon, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979.

Death. June 15, 1980, 1.00 am., unexpectedly, from a pulmonary embolism, at his brother Dr. Domenico's residence, in Reggio Emilia; he had just celebrated mass on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of priestly ordination of Fr. Carlo Varischi, one of his closest friends, a Capuchin friar. A funeral mass was celebrated on the following Tuesday June 17, in the cathedral of Reggio Emilia, presided by Cardinal Ugo Poletti, the pope's representative, with the participation among others of four other Cardinals: Agnelo Rossi, Michele Pellegrino, Giovanni Colombo and Antonio Poma. Among those present at the funeral mass were Bishop Renato Spallanzani of Palestrina, a long time friend and one time seminary condisciple; numerous military and civil authorities; and a delegation of handicapped, which traveled from Milan, headed by Fratel Ettore Boschini, a renowned Camillian. Buried in grounds of the the parish church of Felina di Castelnuovo ne' Monti, beside his parents. On June 26, 1980, at the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Pope John Paul II presided a funeral mass and delivered the homily. A piazzetta was named in his honor in Reggio Emilia. A memorial tablet in his memory was placed in the church of S. Giorgio in Velabro, his deaconry (1). At a later date, his remains were transferred from the family vault in the parish grounds to the church itself, and reburied beside the chapel in which once was the baptismal font where he had been baptized.

Bibliography. Palermo, Gervasio. Il cardinale Sergio Pignedoli, amico indimenticabile (1910-1980) : memorie e testimonianze. A cura di P. Gervasio Palermo. Andria: Collegio missionario S. Cuore, 1989; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 266-267.

Links. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and biography by Eman Bonnici, in English, Find a Grave; biography, in French, Wikipedia; biography, in German, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; La preghiera della strada by Sergio Pignedoli, Assistente Centrale dell'ASCI, in Italian, Tradizione Scout; Felina ricorda il suo Cardinale Sergio Pignedoli con una mostra fotografica, in Italian, Agenzia Redacon; Il Cardinale Sergio Pignedoli nel ricordo del Vescovo Adriano, 100 anni dalla nascita e a trenta dalla morte, La Libertà, settimanale cattolico reggiano.

(1) This is the text of the inscription, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

MEMORIAE
SERGII S.R.E.CARD.PIGNEDOLI
S.GEORGII AD VELABRVM DIACONI
MCMLXXIII - MCMLXXX

ADSCRIPTI APVD "HOSPITALITATEM SECTANTES
 HVMILIBVS CONSENTIENTES  CVM
OMNIBVS HOMINIBVS PACEM HABENTES (Rom. 12, 13 - 18)

CRVCICERI GRATO ANIMO POSVERVNT


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PIMENTA, Simon Ignatius
(1920-2013)

Birth. Monday March 1, 1920, at 10:20 a.m., parish of Saint John the Evangelist, Marol, archdiocese of Bombay, India. Son of Joseph Anthony and Rosie Pimenta. He was baptized in the church of Marol on March 14, 1920. He received the first communion on February 27, 1927, in the church of Marol; and confirmation on January 8, 1933 in the same church.

Education. Local Marathi School (up to Std. IV); Saint John the Evangelist Parochial School, Marol, 1929-1930 (for Std. II, English ); St. Xavier's College, Bombay (1930-1936); Saint Xavier's High School, Bombay, 1936-1940 (B.A. with mathematics); Diocesan Seminary at Parel, Bombay, 1940-1944 (humanities, philosophy and theology); Saint Andrew's High School, Bandra, 1944-1946 (regency); Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide", Rome, 1951-1954 (doctorate in canon law, June 1954).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1940, Saint Peter's church, Bandra, by Valerian Gracias, titular bishop of Tenneso, auxiliary of Bombay. He celebrated his first mass on December 22, 1949, in the church of Marol. On the staff of Holy Name cathedral and of the archbishop's house, Bombay, May 1950-1951. Further studies in Rome, 1951-1954. Secretary, archbishop's house, vice chancellor of the archdiocese and defensor of the matrimonial bond, September 1954 to June 1959. Assistant at the church of Our Lady of Grace, Papdy, Vasai, June 1959 to June 1960. Vice-rector of the cathedral of the Holy Name, Bombay, June 1960 to August 1960; its rector, August 1967. Visiting professor of liturgy, St. Pius College Seminary, Goregaon, 1960 to 1965; its rector, March 1971. Named chaplain of His Holiness, October 7, 1964. Episcopal vicar for the liturgy and for the pastoral formation of the junior clergy, March 1968.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Bocconia and appointed auxiliary of Bombay, June 5, 1971. Consecrated, June 29, 1971, St. Peter's church, Bandra, by Cardinal Valerian Gracias, archbishop of Bombay, assisted by Longinus Gabriel Pereira, titular bishop of Vada, auxiliary of Bombay, and by William Zephyrine Gomes, bishop of Poona. His episcopal motto was "Rooted and grounded in love". Promoted to the metropolitan see of Bombay, April 10, 1976; the appointment was suspended due to conflict with the Indian government concerning ecclesiastical appointments. Promoted to coadjutor archbishop, with right of succession, of Bombay, February 26, 1977. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Bombay, September 11, 1978. Elected president of the Catholic Bishops Conference of India (CBCI ), Tiruchirapalli meeting, January 11, 1982; re-elected, Nagpur meeting, February 3, 1984; re-elected, Goa meeting, April 14, 1986. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1983; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Regina Mundi a Torre Spaccata, June 28, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; one of its three president delegates; member of its general secretariat, 1990-1994. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, December 2, 1993, for five years. Elected president of the Conference of Catholic Bishops of India, Latin Rite (CCBI -LR ), March 3, 1994. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, November 8, 1996. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, March 1, 2000. During his episcopate in Bombay, he opened twelve hospitals and forty four dispensaries as well as several educational facilities.

Death. July 19, 2013, unexpectedly, at 9 p.m., after having dinner, while resting, at the Clergy Home, the residence for aged priests in Bandra, suburban Mumbai. Waiting for the renovation of his house near the Holy Name cathedral, he had moved to a Clergy Home. Upon learning the news of the death of Cardinal Pimenta, Pope Francis sent a telegram of condolence to Cardinal Oswald Gracias, archbishop of Bombay (1). On Tuesday July 23, 2013, at noon, there was a Missa Coram Corpore (Mass with the body present) for the late cardinal at the Holy Name Cathedral, presided over by Cardinal Gracias. The funeral mass, also presided by Cardinal Gracias, followed by burial, took place at Saint John the Evangelist Church, Marol, at 5.00 p.m., in accordance to the late cardinal's wish.

Bibliography. Pimenta, Simon. Memoirs & milestones. Bombay : Printania, 2000.

Links. His photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of Bombay; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, published by the Press Office of the Holy See:
To my Venerable Brother
Cardinal Oswald Gracias
Archbishop of Bombay
Having learned with sadness of the death of Cardinal Simon Ignatius Pimenta, archbishop emeritus of Bombay, I offer heartfelt condolences to you and to all the clergy, religious and lay faithful of the archdiocese. Recalling with gratitude Cardinal Pimenta's long years of devoted service to the Catholic community there and his many years of faithful assistance to the Successor of Peter as a member of the College of Cardinals, I join you in praying that God our merciful Father will grant him the reward of his labours amd welcome his noble soul into the joy and peace of the heavenly kingdom. To Cardinal Pimenta's relatives and all assembled for the solemn requiem mass I cordially impart my Apostolic Blessing as a pledge of consolation and strength in the Lord.

Franciscus PP.

Analogous telegram was sent by Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., secretary of State.


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PIOVANELLI, Silvano
(1924-

Birth. February 21, 1924, Ronta di Borgo San Lorenzo, Mugello, archdiocese of Florence, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Florence; and at the University of Florence.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 13, 1947, Florence, by Cardinal Elia Dalla Costa, archbishop of Florence. In the archdiocese of Florence, pastoral ministry, 1947-1948; faculty member and vice-rector of its minor seminary, 1948-1961; pastoral ministry, 1961-1979; Chaplain of His Holiness, October 26, 1966. Pro-vicar general of Flroence and, later, vicar general, 1979-1982.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tubune di Maritania and appointed auxiliary of Florence, May 28, 1982. Consecrated, June 24, 1982, metropolitan cathedral basilica S. Maria del Fiore, Florence, by Cardinal Giovanni Benelli, archbishop of Florence, assisted by Antonio Bagnoli, bishop emeritus of Fiesole, and by Giovanni Bianchi, bishop of Pescia. His episcopal motto is In Verbo tuo. Vicar capitular of Florence at the death of Cardinal Benelli, October 26, 1982. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Florence, March 18, 1983.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, May 25, 1985; received red biretta and title of S. Maria delle Grazie a Via Trionfale, May 25, 1985. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 21, 2001. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, February 21, 2004.

Links. His arms, Araldica Vaticana, Piovanelli, il cardinale di 90 anni che usa power point by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 20/02/2014.


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PIRONIO, Eduardo Francisco
(1920-1998)

Birth. December 3, 1920, Nueve de Julio, Argentina. He was the youngest of the twenty-two children of José Pironio and Enriqueta Rosa Butazzoni, an immigrant middle class family originally from Percoto, Friuli, Italy.

Education. Initial studies in the elementary school of Nueve de Julio; then, studied at the Seminary of San José, La Plata (philosophy and theology); and later, at the Pontifical Angelicum Athenaeum, Rome (licentiate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 5, 1943, basilica of Our Lady of Luján, Luján, by Annunziato Serafini, bishop of Mercedes. Faculty member, Pío XII Seminary, Mercedes, 1944-1959; vicar general of the diocese of Mercedes, 1959-1960. Rector of the Metropolitan Seminary of Villa Devoto, Buenos Aires, 1960-1964. Apostolic visitor to the Catholic Universities of Argentina, 1960. Faculty member and dean of the theological faculty of the Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina, Buenos Aires, 1960-1964. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1964, as an expert.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Ceciri and appointed auxiliary of La Plata, March 24, 1964. Consecrated, May 31, 1964, Luján, by Antonio José Plaza, archbishop of La Plata, assisted by Antonio Quarracino, bishop of Nueve de Julio, and by Luis Juan Tomé, bishop of Mercedes. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1964-1965. Apostolic administrator of the diocese of Avellaneda, 1967. Secretary general of the Latin American Episcopal Counsel (CELAM), 1967-1972. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Attended the Second General Conference of Latin American Episcopate, August 24 to September 6, 1968, Medellín, Colombia; its secretary general. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. President of the Latin American Episcopal Counsel, 1972-1974; confirmed, 1974-1975. Transferred to the see of Mar del Plata, April 19, 1972. Preached the spiritual exercises for the pope and the Roman Curia, Lent 1974. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; relator; member of its general secretariat, 1974-. Promoted to titular archbishop of Tiges and appointed pro-prefect of the S.C. for Religious and Secular Institutes, September 20, 1975.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon, May 24, 1976; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, May 24, 1976. Prefect of S.C. for Religious and Secular Institutes, May 29, 1976. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended theThird General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Resigned the prefecture, April 8, 1984. Named president of the Pontifical Council for the Laity, April 8, 1984. Named president of the Pontifical Commission for the Pastoral of Health Care Agents, February 16, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated, pro illa vice, to title, June 22, 1987. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; one of its three president delegates. Resigned the presidency of the commission, March 1, 1989. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Special papal envoy to the 5th National Marian Congress, Ibarra, Ecuador, December 8 to 12, 1992. Attended the Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Named bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Sabina-Poggio Mirteto, July 11, 1995. Resigned the presidency of the Council for Laity, August 20, 1996. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997.

Death. Thursday February 5, 1998, of bone cancer, at Vatican City. On Saturday February 7, 1998, in the altar of the chair of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Pope John Paul II presided over the funeral mass for the eternal repose of the late cardinal; the pope also delivered the homily; twenty seven cardinals concelebrated with the pope. The remains of Cardinal Pironio were transferred to Buenos Aires on February 11, 1998 and exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of that city. The funeral took place on Thursday February 12 in the metropolitan cathedral of Buenos Aires, presided by Cardinal Antonio Quarracino, archbishop of Buenos Aires, and concelebrated by 39 bishops and 141 priests. In attendance were the president of the Republic of Argentina, doctor Carlos Saúl Menem, and ministers of his government, representatives of the armed forces; the chief and vice-chief of the government of the city of Buenos Aires, Fernando de la Rúa and Enrique Olivera; and representatives of several Orthodox Oriental Churches. After the funeral, the mortal remains were taken to the abbey of "Santa Escolástica", of the Benedictine nuns, in Victoria, province of Buenos Aires, for a night vigil of prayers. The following day, the body was taken to the basilica of Our Lady of Luján, where a farewell mass was presided by Nuncio Ubaldo Calabresi and concelebrated by fifty one bishops and 180 priests, and the attendance of 50 seminarians from different dioceses of Argentina. After the mass, the body was buried in the left lateral altar of that basilica, where the late cardinal had been ordained a priest and a bishop (1).

Beatification. The solemn opening of the diocesan phase of the process of the cause of beatification and canonization of the cardinal took on June 23, 2006, at noon, in Conciliazione Hall, Lateran apostolic palace, Rome, situated on Piazza San Giovanni in Laterano, 4, and was presided by Cardinal Camillo Ruini, vicar general of His Holiness for the diocese of Rome. The opening of the diocesan phase took place in Rome because it is the diocese where the cardinal lived his last years and where he died. The cardinal was instrumental in the organization of the World Youth Days. The Archdiocesan Tribunal of Buenos Aires initiated the Argentinian phase of the beatification process on February 22, 2007; it will hear the testimonies of approximately thirty three witnesses, bishops, priests, religious men and women, and lay people; the tribunal is presided by Joaquín Mariano Sucunza, auxiliary bishop and vicar general of the archdiocese of Buenos Aires, and is composed by Fr. Luis Glinka, delegate judge; Fr. Alejandro Bunge, adjunct judge; Fr. César Salvador Sturba, promoter of justice; notaries adjunct Sister Isabel Fernández and Miss Josefina Martinetto. The phase of gathering testimonies will continue, besides Argentina, in Spain and Colombia.

Links. Biography, in Spanish; homily of Pope John Paul II in the exequial mass in the patriarchal Vatican basmiica on February 7, 1998; homily of Cardinal Antonio Quarracino, in the exequies on February 12, 1998, in Spanish; his spiritual testament, in Spanish; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

EDUARDO FRANCISCO
CARDENAL PIRONIO

3.XII.1920          5.II.1998


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PIZZARDO, Giuseppe
(1877-1970)

Birth. July 13, 1877, Savona, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Savona; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome; and at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy).

Priesthood. Ordained, September 19, 1903, Rome. Further studies, 1903-1907. Pastoral ministry in Rome, 1908-1909; 1912-1930. Staff member of the Secretariat of State, 1908-1909. Secretary of the nunciature in Bavaria and privy chamberlain of His Holiness, June 7, 1909. Minutant in the Secretariat of State, 1912-1920. Reappointed privy chamberlain of His Holiness, September 7, 1914. Undersecretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, September 27, 1920. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 4, 1921. Substitute of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs and secretary of the Cipher, May 7, 1921. Ecclesiastical Assistant of the Central Committee of the Italian Catholic Action, October 9, 1923. Apostolic protonotary, January 11, 1927. Secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, June 8, 1929.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cirro, March 28, 1930. Transferred to titular see of Nicea, April 22, 1930. Consecrated, April 27, 1930, altar of the Chair of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli, secretary of State and archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, assisted by Giuseppe Palica, titular archbishop of Filippi, vice-gerent of Rome, and by Francesco Marchetti Selvaggiani, titular archbishop of Seleuci d'Isauria, secretary of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith. President of the Pontifical Commission for Russia, December 21, 1934. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, January 19, 1936. Papal envoy to the coronation of King George VI of England, May 12, 1937.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, December 13, 1937; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Via Lata, December 16, 1937. President of the Central Committee of the Italian Catholic Action, March 28, 1938. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Prefect of the S.C. for Seminaries and Universities, March 14, 1939. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, June 21, 1948. Protector of the Pontifical North American College, Rome, 1948-1970. Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, February 16, 1951 to November 7, 1959. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 16, 1961 until March 19, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 29, 1965. Cardinal bishop of title of the suburbicarian see of Albano, November 17, 1966 (1). Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1966 until March 19, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Resigned the prefecture and was named prefect emeritus, January 13, 1968.

Death. August 1, 1970, in his Roman residence. Buried in the church of S. Giuseppe in Frattocchie, Rome. At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Link. Photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) The motu proprio Suburbicariis sedibus, issued by Pope John XXIII on April 11, 1962, established that the cardinal bishops would have no ordinary jurisdiction over their suburbicarian sees. These dioceses were to be ruled by bishops with complete and independent ordinary power; cardinal bishops would only retain the title of the see. The disposition applied only to the cardinal bishops appointed in 1961 and later. The others, Cardinals Eugène Tisserant, Clemente Micara, Benedetto Aloisi Masella and Giuseppe Pizzardo, retained the denomination of bishops of their sees. On November 17, 1966, they were listed as bishops of the title of their suburbicarian sees in Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 1967, except Cardinal Micara, who had died in 1965.


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PLA Y DENIEL, Enrique
(1876-1968)

Birth. December 19, 1876, Barcelona, Spain. Of a high middle class family. His parents were Narciso Pla Masgrau and Emilia Deniel.

Education. Institute of Barcelona, Barcelona, for a short period; Seminary of Barcelona, Barcelona (first year of Latin only); went to Rome with Manuel Domingo y Sol, future blessed; resided at Pontificio Colegio Español, Rome; Pontifical Roman Academy of S. Tommaso d'Aquino, Rome; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1892-1903 (doctorates in philosophy, theology and canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 25, 1900, Rome. Further studies, 1900-1903. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Barcelona; faculty member of the Seminary of Barcelona; director of El Social, Revista Social, and Revista Eclesiástica; and canon of the cathedral chapter, 1903-1918.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Avila, December 4, 1918. Consecrated, June 8, 1919, cathedral of Barcelona, by Francesco Ragonesi, titular archbishop of Mira, nuncio in Spain, assisted by Enrique Reig y Casanova, bishop of Barcelona, and by Francisco de Paula Mas y Oliver, bishop of Gerona. Transferred to see of Salamanca, January 28, 1935. Strongly supported National Movement of Generalissimo Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of Toledo, October 3, 1941.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, February 22, 1946. Papal legate to the celebrations in honor of Saint James the Apostle, Compostela, Spain, July 25, 1948; to the National Marian Congress, Zaragoza, Spain, September 24, 1954. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965; member of the board of presidency, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI.

Death. July 5, 1968, of a cerebral embolism, Toledo (1). Buried in the metropolitan and primatial cathedral of Toledo.

Bibliography. Alfonso Sánchez, José Manuel. Iglesia, política y educación en España, (1940-1960) : documentos del Archivo Pla y Deniel. Madrid : Fundación Universitaria Espaqola, 2005-. (Publicaciones de la Fundación Universitaria Española.; Monografías ; 99). Contents: t. 1. Orientación católica de la enseñanza; Alfonso Sánchez, José Manuel. Correspondencia entre Pla y Deniel, Ruiz-Giménez y Olaechea (1951-1953) : el conflicto polmtico y eclesial ante la reforma de la enseñanza media. Salamanca : Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca, 2004. (Estudios de la Facultad de CC. de la educación ; 1); Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 81; "Ha muerto el cardenal primado," Ecclesia, July 13, 1968, pp. 16-18; Morán Sánchez-Cabezudo, Benjamín. El cardenal primado de España y el origen del poder. Madrid : Studium, 1963. (Colección Scientia).

Link. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of his spiritual testament, taken from "Ha muerto el cardenal primado," Ecclesia, July 13, 1968, p. 17:
"Siendo cierta la muerte de todo hombre, y sólo inciertos el modo y momento, y disponiendo el ceremonial de los obispos que éstos, en vida y en muerte, adoctrinen con su ejemplo y con su palabra a los fieles que tienen encomendados; no sabiendo si estaré en estado de poder en la hora de mi muerte hacer mi última exhortación pastoral a mis amadísimos sacerdotes y fieles toledanos, la escribo en estos dmas en que me hallo retirado practicando ejercmcios espirituales en compañía de otros hermanos en el Episcopado.
Carísimos sacerdotes a quienes consagré ministros del Señor o a quienes consagrados ya por alguno de mis antecesoras, me tocó presidir como obispo: recordad siempre que fuisteis ordenados sacerdotes para estar al servicio de Dios y de las almas; para ello necesitáis conservar siempre vuestra vida interior y aun ir creciendo en ella; debéis dar ejemplo de santidad a los fieles con vuestra vida inmaculada, con vuestro desinterés, con vuestro espíritu de caridad y de abnegado y ardiente celo por la salvación de las almas.
Carísimos fieles: procurad ante todo la salvación de vuestras almas, que para esto os ha puesto Dios en este mundo, en una vida temporal, muy breve siempre comparada con la vida eterna. No dejéis el cumplimiento de vuestros deberes religiosos, pues sin él no seréis reconocidos como verdaderas cristianos en el día del juicio.
Mujeres: no seáis con vuestra inmodestia responsables del los pecados de los hombres.
Padres de familia: cuddad de la cristiana educación y vigilancia de vuestros hijos. Los que tenéis riquezas no olvidéis los deberes de caridad que ellas imponen.
Patronos y empresarios: no os hagáis responsables de injusticias no dando salarios suficientes a vuestros obreres o poniendo precios excesivos a vuestras mercancías.
Obreros: no os despojéis de vuestra gran dignidad de hijos de Dios, ante el cual gozáis de plena igualdad con los que ante los hombres temporalmente os aventajan, seducidos por la fantástica igualdad que predica el comunismo, convertida, si triunfa. en despótica tiranía que atropella la dignidad de la persona humana.
Estos son los últimos consejos de quien ha sido padre de vuestras almas y que ahora os pide una oración por la suya.
En Los Negrales, a 3 de julio de 1961. Enrique, Cardenal Pla y Deniel, arzobispo de Toledo."


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POGGI, Luigi
(1917-2010)

Birth. November 25, 1917, in via Sant'Antonino numero 21, Piacenza, Italy. Son of Giuseppe Poggi, a tailor of liturgical vestments, who worked under the shade of the steeple of Sant'Antonino's basilica. The family was composed of six children, Luigi, the cardinal; Carlo, the bishop; a sister and a set of triplets.

Education. Collegio Alberoni, Piacenza; Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", 1940-1944; (doctorate in utroque iuris, July 1944); Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome 1944-1946 (diplomacy).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 28, 1940. After a few months as vice pastor in the parish of S. Francesco in Piacenza, he was sent to Rome to further his studies. From 1940 to 1944, pastoral ministry, Rome, for two years in the parish of Santi Fabiano e Venanzio, and later, for another two years in the church of Valcannuta, next to the Pontifical Brazilian College. From 1944 to 1946, pastoral ministry in the parish of San Salvatore in Lauro, and later, in Collegium Tarsicii, erected in the church of Santa Lucia di via Monte Brianzo. Joined the Vatican secretariat of State in the section of relations with the States in 1945. From 1947 to 1950 he was in charge of the spiritual assistance of the detainees in the jail of Regina Coeli of Rome. Named privy chamberlain supernumerary of His Holiness on June 15, 1949. Named domestic prelate of His Holiness on April 14, 1960. In charge of the mission to Republic of Tunisia for the modus vivendi with Holy See on the legal situation of the church in the spring of 1963; he negotiated a modus vivendi with that country, which was signed in the spring of 1964.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Forontoniana and appointed apostolic delegate to Central Africa (Cameroun, Chad, Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon, and Centroafrican Republic), with see in Yaoundé, April 3, 1965. Consecrated, May 9, 1965, basilica of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, by Cardinal Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, secretary of State, assisted by Antonio Samorè, titular archbishop of Tirnovo, secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Umberto Malchiodi, archbishop-bishop of Piacenza. Pro-nuncio in Cameroun, October 31, 1966. Pro-nuncio in Gabon, October 31, 1967. Pro-nuncio in Centroafrican Republic, November 4, 1967. Nuncio in Perú, May 21, 1969. Nuncio with special charge to improve relations with Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Rumania and Bulgaria, August 1, 1973. Chief of the Vatican delegation for permanent working contact with Poland, February 7, 1975. Nuncio in Italy, April 19, 1986. On September 17, 1988, he consecrated his younger brother Carlo as bishop of Fidenza; his brother died in 1997. Pro-archivist and pro-librarian of the Holy Roman Church, April 9, 1992 until November 26, 1994.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon, November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, November 26, 1994. Archivist and Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, November 26, 1994 until March 7, 1998. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, November 25, 1997. Cardinal protodeacon, February 26, 2002. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, February 24, 2005.

Death. May 4, 2010, at 10 a.m., his residence in Via Rusticucci 13, Rome. After Pope Benedict XVI learned the news, he prayed for the eternal repose of the soul of the cardinal and sent a telegram of condolence to the brother and sister of the late cardinal. On Friday May 7, 2010, at 5.30 p.m., took place the funeral mass, which was concelebrated by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, together with twenty seven other cardinals, among them the secretary of State, Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B. Present at the mass were Cardinals José Tomás Sánchez and Ignace Moussa I Daoud; prelates of the Roman Curia; the brother and sister and some other members of the family of the late cardinal. With the diplomatic corps accredited before the Holy See, led by the ambassador from Honduras, Alejandro Emilio Valladares Lanza, were Archbishops Fernando Filoni, substitute of the secretary of State, and Dominique Mamberti, secretary for the relations with the States, together with Monsignors Peter Brian Wells, assessor, Ettore Balestrero, under-secretary for the relations with the States, and Fortunatus Nwachukwu, chief of protocol. Accompanying the pope in the basilica were Archbishop James Michael Harvey, prefect of the Pontifical Household; Bishop Paolo De Nicolò, regent of the prefecture of the Pontifical Household; Monsignors Georg Gänswein, private secretary of the pope, and Alfred Xuereb, of the private secretariat. At the end of the eucharistic celebration, the pope delivered the homily and presided over the rite of the Ultima Commendatio and the Valedictio. On Saturday May 8, 2010, at 11:00 a.m., Bishop Gianni Ambrosio of Piacenza-Bobbio presided over the eucharistic liturgy for the exequies of Cardinal Poggi, in the basilica of Sant'Antonino, piazza Sant'Antonino, Piacenza. After the ceremony, according to his wishes, the body of the late cardinal was buried in left nave of that basilica, next to the tomb of Antonino Arata, titular archbishop of Sardi, apostolic nuncio in Estonia and Latvia, his "maestro" in Collegio Alberoni.

Link. His arms Araldica Vaticana.


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POLETTI, Ugo
(1914-1997)

Birth. April 19, 1914, Omegna, diocese of Novara, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Novara, Novara.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1938, Novara. Vice-rector of the theological seminary and bursar of the general diocesan seminary of Novara, 1938-1946. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Novara, 1946-1951; its pro-vicar general, 1954-1958. Protonotary apostolic, June 16, 1955.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Medeli and appointed auxiliary of Novara, July 12, 1958. Consecrated, September 14, 1958, cathedral of Novara, by Vincenzo Gilla Gremigni, M.S.C., archbishop-bishop of Novara, assisted by Mario Longo Dorni, bishop of Pistoia, and by Francesco Brustia, bishop of Andria. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. President of the Pontifical Mission Aid Societies, 1964-1967. Promoted to the archiepiscopal see of Spoleto, June 26, 1967. Named apostolic administrator of the see of Todi on October 1, 1967; occupied the post until 1969. Transferred to the titular see of Cittanova and appointed one of two vice-gerents of Rome, July 3, 1969 (the other vice-gerent was Ettore Cunial, titular archbishop of Soteropoli, later vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church). Named pro-vicar general of Rome and its district, October 13, 1972.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Ambrogio e Carlo, March 5, 1973. Vicar general of Rome and its district, March 6, 1973. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, March 26, 1973. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Papal legate to the opening of Holy Door at the patriarchal Lateran basilica, December 24, 1974. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Papal legate to the opening of Holy Door at the patriarchal Lateran basilica, December 24, 1983. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. President of the Episcopal Conference of Italy, 1985-1990. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Resigned the vicariate, January 17, 1991. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, January 17, 1991. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, April 19, 1994.

Death. Tuesday February 25, 1997, suddenly, of a heart attack, at the Gemelli Polyclinic Hospital, Rome; he suffered from erysipelas or Saint Anthony's Fire for a long time. Buried in the chapel of S. Lucia in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome.


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POLETTO, Severino
(1933-

Birth. March 18, 1933, Salgareda, diocese of Treviso, Italy. Youngest of 11 siblings. He was baptized on March 29, 1933 in the parish church of S. Michele Arcangelo in Salgareda; and received the sacrament of confirmation in the same church on November 17, 1940 from Antonio Mantiero, bishop of Treviso.

Education. Seminary of Treviso, Treviso; Major Seminary of Casale Monferrato, Casale Monferrato; "Accademia Alfonsiana" of the Pontifical Lateran University (licentiate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1957, Casale Monferrato, by Giuseppe Angrisani, bishop of Casale Monferrato. Vice-pastor of Montemagno, 1957-1961. Successively, 1961-1965, prefect of discipline, Seminary of Casale Monferrato and director of the diocesan work for vocations. Pastor of Maria SS. Assunta in Oltreponte di Casale, 1965-1980. Founder of the diocesan center for the pastoral of the family, 1973; coordinator of the Great Urban Mission, 1974, to celebrate the 500th anniversary of the foundation of the diocese of Casale Monferrato. Nominated episcopal delegate for pastoral, 1977.

Episcopate. Elected bishop coadjutor of Fossano, April 3, 1980. Consecrated, May 17, 1980, cathedral of S. Evasio, Casale Monferrato, by Cardinal Anastasio Alberto Ballestrero, O.C.D., archbishop of Turin, assisted by Carlo Cavalla, bishop of Casale Monferrato, and by Giovanni Dadone, archbishop-bishop of Fossano. His episcopal motto is In sequela Christi. Succeeded to see of Fossano, October 29, 1980. Transferred to see of Asti, March 16, 1989. Promoted to metropolitan see of Turin, June 18, 1999.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, February 21, 2001; received red biretta and deaconry of S. Giuseppe in via Trionfale, pro hac vice title, February 21, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Turin, Italy, in conformity with canon 401 § 1, of the Code of Canon Law, on October 11, 2010. Following his retirement, he moved to Moncalieri, south of Turin, where he began serving in one of the local parishes as a simple vice-parish priest. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on March 18, 2013.

Bibliography. Aime, Oreste ; Ghiberti, Giuseppe ; Tuninetti, Giuseppe. In sequela Christi : miscellanea in onore del cardinale Severino Poletto arcivescovo di Torino in occasione del suo 70. compleanno. Cantalupa (Torino) : Effatà, 2003.

Links. Photographs, documents and biography, in Italian archdiocese of Turin; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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POLICARPO, José da Cruz
(1936-2014)

Birth. February 26, 1936, Alvorninha, patriarchate of Lisbon, Portugal. He was the eldest of the nine children of José Policarpo and his wife, Maria Gertrudes Rosa. He had four brothers and four sisters.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Santarém; then, at the Seminary of Almada; later, at the Major Seminary "Cristo-Rei", of the Olivais (philosophy and theology); also, at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (licentiate in dogmatic theology with a thesis on the theology of non-Christian religions); and finally, at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in theology; thesis "Sinais dos Tempos").

Priesthood. Ordained, August 15, 1961, patriarchal cathedral of Lisbon, by Cardinal Manuel Gonçalves Cerejeira, patriarch of Lisbon. Rector of the Seminary of the Olivais, 1970-1997. Faculty member, Faculty of Theology, Catholic University of Portugal, 1970-1986. Director of the Faculty of Theology, Catholic University of Portugal (1974/1980; 1985/1988). Member of the Superior Council of the Catholic University of Portugal.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Caliabria and appointed auxiliary of Lisbon. Consecrated, June 29, 1978, church of Santa Maria de Belém, Lisbon, by Cardinal António Ribeiro, patriarch of Lisbon, assisted by João Alves, bishop of Coimbra, and by Manuel Franco Falcão, titular bishop of Telepte, coadjutor with succession of the archbishop-bishop of Beja. His episcopal motto was Per obedientiam ad libertatem. President of the Organizing Commission of the Regional Center of Porto, Catholic University of Portugal, 1985-1987. Attended Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Rector of the Catholic University of Portugal, 1988-1992 and 1992-1996. Promoted to archbishop coadjutor of Lisbon, with right of succession, March 27, 1997. Succeeded as the 16th patriarch of Lisbon, March 24, 1998. Grand chancellor of the Catholic University of Portugal from March 1998. President of the Portuguese Episcopal Conference, April 13, 1999; reelected, April 11, 2002; finished his mandate in 2005. Attended Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, February 21, 2001; received red biretta and title of S. Antonio in Campo Marzio, February 21, 2001. Attended Tenth Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. He was elected president of the Portuguese Episcopal Conference on Tuesday May 3, 2011, for a triennium. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. The pope accepted his resignation from the pastoral government of the patriarchate of Lisbon, according to canon 401 §1 of the Code of Canon Law on May 18, 2013. He was apostolic administrator of the patriarchate until July 7, 2013, when his successor, Manuel José Macário do Nascimento Clemente, until then bishop of Porto, was installed. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013.

Death. March 12, 2014, Lisbon, from an aneurysm of the aorta. He was in a retreat in Fátima when he felt indisposed and was taken to the Hospital do SAMS, where he passed away. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Francis prayed for the repose of his soul and sent Patriarch Manuel José Macário do Nascimento Clemente of Lisbon a telegram of condolence (1). The body of the late cardinal arrived on Thursday March 13, at 3 p.m., at patriarchal cathedral of Lisbon, and laid in repose there until the celebration of the requiem mass. The funeral, presided over by Patriarch Clemente, who also delivered the homily, was celebrated on Friday March 14, at 4 p.m., in the patriarchal cathedral of Lisbon and following, the body was buried at the pantheon of the patriarchs in the church of the monastery of São Vicente de Fora in Alfama, near 6 p.m..

Links. Photograph and biography, in Portuguese, patriarcado de Lisboa; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Cardinal Policarpo accuses Masonic lodges of dictating government agendas, in English, Vatican Insider, 01/12/2012; Portuguese Cardinal, Josi Policarpo, dies at 78, video, Rome Reports, 2014-03-13.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Press Office of the Holy See:

EXCMO E REVMO
DOM JOSÉ MANUEL MACÁRIO DO NASCIMENTO CLEMENTE
PATRIARCA DE LISBOA E
PRESIDENTE DA CONFERÊNCIA EPISCOPAL PORTUGUESA
QUINTA DO CABEÇO 1885-076 MOSCAVIDE PORTUGAL

COM PESAR RECEBI A NOTÍCIA DO FALECIMENTO DO CARDEAL JOSÉ DA CRUZ POLICARPO E DESEJO EXPRESSAR A MINHA UNIÃO DE ORAÇÃO COM O PATRIARCADO DE LISBOA, A FAMÍLIA DO DEFUNTO E QUANTOS CHORAM A SUA MORTE INESPERADA. CONFIO À MISERICÓRDIA DE DEUS O AMADO CARDEAL, RECORDANDO-ME DA SUA PRECIOSA COLABORAÇÃO NOS DIFERENTES ORGANISMOS DA SANTA SÉ E DOS MEUS ENCONTROS COM ESTE PASTOR APAIXONADO PELA BUSCA DA VERDADE. ELE ERA SOLÍCITO EM COLOCAR OS DONS RECEBIDOS DO SENHOR AO SERVIÇO DO POVO DE DEUS E DOS SEUS IRMÃOS BISPOS SOBRETUDO NOS ANOS QUE O VIRAM PRESIDENTE DA CONFERÊNCIA EPISCOPAL. DOU GRAÇAS AO PAI DO CÉU PELO SEU MINISTÉRIO EPISCOPAL EM QUE ELE SE PRODIGALIZOU COM GENEROSIDADE CONDUZINDO PELOS CAMINHOS DO EVANGELHO O POVO QUE LHE FORA CONFIADO, COM O MESMO ZELO COM QUE REALIZARA OS SEUS SERVIÇOS PRECEDENTES, NOMEADAMENTE NA UNIVERSIDADE CATÓLICA PORTUGUESA. ENQUANTO CONFIO À MATERNA PROTECÇÃO DA VIRGEM MARIA OS SEUS DORIDOS BEM COMO O SENHOR PATRIARCA, QUANTOS O COADJUVAM NO SEU MINISTÉRIO E TODOS OS FIÉIS DO PATRIARCADO, DE CORAÇÃO LHES CONCEDO EXTENSIVA AOS PARTICIPANTES NAS EXÉQUIAS CONFORTADORA BÊNÇÃO APOSTÓLICA

FRANCISCUS PP
.


Analogous telegram was sent by Cardinal Pietro Parolin, secretary of State.


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POMA, Antonio
(1910-1985)

Birth. June 12, 1910, Villanterio, diocese of Pavia, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Pavia, Pavia; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in theology, 1934).

Priesthood. Ordained, April 15, 1933, chapel of the Major Roman Seminary, Rome, by Giuseppe Palica, titular archbishop of Filippo, vice-gerent of Rome. Secretary to the bishop of Pavia and faculty member of the Seminary of Pavia, 1935-1947; its rector, 1947-1951.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tagaste and appointed auxiliary of Mantua, October 28, 1951. Consecrated, Sunday December 9, 1951, cathedral of Pavia, by Carlo Allorio, bishop of Pavia, assisted by Vittorio De Zanche, bishop of Concordia, and by Giuseppe Piazzi, bishop of Crema. Named coadjutor of Mantua, with right of succession, August 2, 1952. Succeeded to the see of Mantua, September 8, 1954. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to titular archbishop of Gerpiniana and appointed coadjutor of Bologna, with right of succession, July 16, 1967. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Bologna, February 12, 1968.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Luca al Prenestino, April 30, 1969. President of the Italian Episcopal Conference. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Papal envoy to the National Eucharistic Congress, Udine, Italy, September 10, 1973. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the V Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, February 11, 1983. Apostolic administrator, sede vacante, of Bologna, February 11 to March 18, 1983.

Death. September 24, 1985, of heart related problems, Bologna; he also was a long time sufferer of erysipelas. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Bologna (1).

Bibliography. Meluzzi, Luciano. I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna. Bologna : Grafica Emiliana, 1975, (Collana storico-ecclesiastica, 3), pp. 606-617.

(1) In the south side of the metropolitan cathedral of Bologna, on the eastern (left hand) side of the altar inside the chapel of S. Carlo Borromeo is the tomb of Cardinal Poma (the tomb of the short-lived Archbishop Enrico Manfredini of Bologna is on the western (right hand) side). On the wall, there is a bronze showing a chalice with wheatsheaves and a book with the words DEI AGRICULTURA ESTIS, by Marco Marchesini. On the floor is a tombstone with the cardinal's arms and this inscription, which text was provided by Mr. Mark West, London, England:

RIPOSA IN CRISTO
NEL GREMBO DELLA CHIESA MADRE
IL CARD. ANTONIO POMA
VESCOVO A MANTUA DAL 1951 AL 1967
ARCHIVESCOVO DI BOLOGNA
DAL 1968 AL 1983
N. A VILLANTERIO - PAVIA IL 12.6.1910
M. A BOLOGNA IL 24.9.1985
SEMINO' VERITA E CARITA
NEI SOLCHI DELLA PAZIENZA EVANGELICA
PASTORE BUONO
RICORDATI DI NOI DAVANTI AL SIGNORE
PERCHE FORMIANO UN CUORE SOLO
E UN' ANIMA SOLA


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POMPEDDA, Mario Francesco
(1929-2006)

Birth. April 18, 1929, Ozieri, Sardinia, Italy.

Education. Archiepiscopal Seminary of Sassari, Sassari (ginnasiali studies); Regional Seminary of Cagliari, Cagliari (liceali studies and philosophy); resided at Almo Collegio Capranica, Rome; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in theology); Pontifical Biblical Institute (licentiate in sacred scripture); Pontifical Lateran University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure); "Studium" of the Sacred Roman Rota, Rome (lawyer avvocato Rotale).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 23, 1951, Rome; incardinated in the diocese of Rome. Pastoral ministry for 30 years in the Roman parish of "Nostra Signora di Guadalupe a Monte Mario". Ecclesiastical counselor of the Roman Union of Catholic Jurists. Joined the Tribunal of the Sacred Roman Rota, 1955; defender of the matrimonial bond; prelate auditor 1969-1993; dean, September 11, 1993. President of the Appellate Court of the State of Vatican City, November 1993. Awarded honorary doctorate by the Faculty of Canon Law, Catholic Institute of Paris, October 1995. Ecclesiastical counselor of the International Union of Catholic Jurists. For more than 20 years he was a faculty member of the "Studio Rotale"; also taught at the Faculty of Canon Law, Pontifical Gregorian University, and at the Roman Athenaeum of the "Santa Croce".

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Bisarcio, November 29, 1997. Consecrated, January 6, 1998, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Giovanni Battista Re, titular archbishop of Vescovio, substitute of the Secretariat of State, section of General Affairs, and by Jorge María Mejía, titular archbishop of Apollonia, secretary of the Congregation for Bishops and secretary of the College of Cardinals. His episcopal motto was Soli Deo. Named prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature and president of the Cassation Court of the State of Vatican City, November 16, 1999. Named president of the Commission for the Advocates, ad quinquennium, March 7, 2000.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon, February 21, 2001; received red biretta and deaconry of Annunciazione della B.V.M. a Via Ardeatina, February 21, 2001. Attended X Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001; president of the Commission for the Controversies. Resigned the prefecture of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, May 27, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. (He was credited with drafting Universi Dominic Gregis, the apostolic constitution of Pope John Paul II, dated February 22, 1996, concerning the sede vacante and the conclave.) Grand prior of the Sacred Military Order Costantiniana di San Giorgio.

Death. October 18, 2006, in the early morning, of a brain hemorrhage, in the Polyclinic "Agostino Gemelli", Rome, where he had been hospitalized for several days; a short time before he had received a pacemaker after suffering from a cardiac crisis. On Friday October 20, at 5 p.m., in the altar of the Chair of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, took place the exequial liturgy for the late cardinal, presided by the pope. Cardinals Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, and Giovanni Battista Re, prefect of the Congregation for Bishops, were the main concelebrants. The body of the late cardinal was transferred to Ozieri, his native city, and in the evening of Sunday October 22, 2006, the cortege started in the Basilica of S. Antioco di Bisarcio and went to the church of S. Antonio, in the center of the city. Sebastiano Sanguinetti, bishop of Tempio-Ampurias and apostolic administrator of Ozieri, celebrated the exequies. Numerous provincial and local dignitaries attended the ceremony. The mortal remains of the cardinal were buried in the tomb of the cathedral chapter in the cemetery of Ozieri until his definitive tomb in the cathedral is finished (1).

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) On Thursday, February 18, 2010, his remains were reinterred in a specially constructed sarcophagus in the cathedral of Ozieri at the chapel of the Most Holy Sacrament. The requiem mass was celebrated at 5 p.m., presided by Bishop Sergio Pintor of Ozieri. At the end of the mass, Monsignor Giuseppe Sciacca, judge of the Roman Rota and a long time collaborator of the late cardinal, read a special message sent for the occasion by Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., secretary of State, in the name of Pope Benedict XVI. Following the religious ceremony, a civil service took place, where the former Piazza Cirenaica, in the historic area of the city of Ozieri, was renamed Piazza Cardinale Pompedda.


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POMPILJ, Basilio
(1858-1931)

Birth. April 16, 1858, Spoleto, Italy.

Education. Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 5, 1886, Rome. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, 1888-1904. Auditor of the S.C. of the Council, 1891. Official in the Sacred Apostolic Penitentiary, 1896. Prelate adjunct of the S.C. of the Council, March 16, 1898. Protonotary apostolic, December 18, 1899. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, July 18, 1904. Secretary of the S.C. of the Council, January 31, 1908.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon, November 27, 1911; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, November 30, 1911. Vicar general of Rome and its district, April 7, 1913.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Filippi, May 5, 1913. Consecrated, May 11, 1913, church of S. Vincenzo de' Paoli alla Bocca della Verità, Rome, by Cardinal Antonio Agliardi, bishop of Albano, assisted by Donato Raffaele Sbarretti, titular archbishop of Efeso, assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, and by Americo Bevilacqua, bishop of Alatri. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Maria in Aracoeli, May 25, 1914 (1). Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, October 28, 1914. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Velletri, March 22, 1917. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Papal legate to the Plenary Council of Umbria, Assisi, Italy, June 15, 1923; to the opening and closing of the Holy Door, patriarchal Lateran basilica, December 24, 1924 and December 24, 1925; to the Eucharistic Congress, Chieti, June 15, 1929. Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals after July 9, 1930. He was once an athlete.

Death. May 5, 1931, shortly after midnight, Rome. Buried, temporarily, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. On December 18, 1933, his remains were exhumed from Campo Verano and taken to the nearby basilica of S. Lorenzo fuori le mura, where a funeral service was celebrated by Giuseppe Palica, titular archbishop of Filippi, vicegerent of Rome; the absolution was imparted by Cardinal Francesco Marchetti Selvaggiani, vicar general of Rome and its district. The remains were then transferred to Spoleto and buried in its cathedral after a pontifical mass celebrated by Giovanni Capobianco, titular bishop of Efesto and auxiliary of Spoleto. The funeral monument, of sober lines, is situated in the transept of the cathedral; the sarcophagus of grained stone has an inscription and the arms of the late cardinal in relief.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1935. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1935, p. 63-64; "Nécrologe." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 917; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 11, 22, 23 and 26.

Link. Photographs, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 11; "Nécrologe." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1932, p. 917, says that he opted on May 28, 1914.


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POSADAS OCAMPO, Juan Jesús
(1926-1993)

Birth. November 10, 1926, Salvatierra, archdiocese of Morelia, México. Son of Juan Bautista Posadas Díaz and María Ocampo Pérez, merchants.

Education. Entered the Seminary of Morelia, Morelia, when he was eleven years old.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 23, 1950, Morelia. Successively, 1950-1970, in Morelia, vicar of Pátazcuaro; professor of Latin, philosophy and theology at the seminary; its prefect of studies; and later, its vice-rector. Canon of the cathedral chapter.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tijuana, March 21, 1970. Consecrated, June 14, 1970, Morelia, by Manuel Martín del Campo y Padilla, archbishop of Morelia, assisted by Alfredo Galindo Mendoza, M.Sp.S., bishop emeritus of Tijuana, and by Román Acevedo Rojas, titular bishop of Tamugadi, auxiliary of Morelia. Transferred to the see of Cuernavaca, December 28, 1982. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Guadalajara, May 15, 1987. First vice-president of the Latin American Episcopal Council, 1991-1993.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, June 28, 1991; received the red biretta and the title of Nostra Signora di Guadalupe e S. Filippo Martire in Via Aurelia, June 28, 1991. Attended the IV General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Special papal envoy to the National Marian Eucharistic Congress, San Salvador, El Salvador, November 26 to 29, 1992.

Death. Assassinated in the airport of Guadalajara, May 24, 1993, at around 3:30 p.m.; he was hit fourteen times by an AK-47 automatic rifle; the criminal case is still unresolved as of 2009. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Guadalajara.

Bibliography. Ramos, Víctor M. La muerte de un príncipe. Guadalajara : Editorial Conexión Gráfica, 1993.


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POUPARD, Paul
(1930-

Birth. August 30, 1930, Bouzillé, diocese of Angers, France. Son of Joseph Poupard, a farmer, and Célestine Guéry. His baptismal name is Paul Joseph Jean.

Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Beaupréau; at the University Seminary of Angers; at La Sorbonne University, Paris, where he earned doctorates in theology and in history; with theses on the relation between reason and faith; and relations between Church and State; and at École des Hautes Études, where he obtained a diploma.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 18, 1954, Paris, by Stanislas Courbe, titular bishop of Castoria, auxiliary of Paris, for the diocese of Angers. Faculty member, Mongazon School. Worked in the French section of the Vatican Secretariat of State, 1959-1972. Chaplain of His Holiness, March 20, 1965. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, November 29, 1971. Rector, Catholic Institute, Paris, 1972-1980. Vice-president, Society of French Ecclesiastical History. Awarded the Cardinal Grente Grand Prize, Academie Française. Knight of the Legion d'honor.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Usula and appointed auxiliary of Paris, February 2, 1979. Consecrated, April 6, 1979, church of Saint-Germain-des-Prés, Paris, by Cardinal François Marty, archbishop of Paris, assisted by André Pailler, archbishop of Rouen, and by Jean Orchampt, bishop of Angers. His episcopal motto is Episcopus vobis vobiscum Christianus. Promoted to archbishop and appointed pro-president of Secretariat for Non-Believers, June 27, 1980. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Member of the Council of Presidency and president, executive committee of the Pontifical Council for Culture, May 20, 1982. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon, May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Eugenio, May 25, 1985. President of the Secretariat for Non-Believers, May 27, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. President of the Pontifical Council for Culture, April 19, 1988. Special papal envoy to the millennium celebration of cathedral of Verdun, France, June 17, 1990. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Personal papal envoy to the funeral of Cardinal Henri de Lubac, S.J., September 10, 1991, Notre-Dame cathedral, Paris, France. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. When the Pontifical Council for Dialog with Non-Believers merged with Pontifical Council for Culture, March 26, 1993, he continued as president of the new dicastery, the Pontifical Council for Culture. Special papal envoy to the 8th centennial celebration of the rebuilding of the cathedral of Chartres, September 11, 1994. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the closing ceremony of the centennial of the evangelization of Ivory Coast, Gran-Bassan, September 9 to 10, 1995. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Prassede, January 29, 1996. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the 9th centennial of the consecration of Saint-Sernin's basilica, Toulouse, France, May 24 to 26, 1996. Special papal envoy to the 4th centenary of the birth of St. Jean-François Regis, Lalouvesc, diocese of Viviers, France, June 22, 1997. Special envoy to the closing ceremonies for the 1st centenary the of death of Saint Thérèse of the Child Jesus and the Holy Face, diocese of Bayeux-Lisieux, France, September 28 to October 5, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998. Special papal envoy to the commemoration of the millennium of the election of Pope Silvester II, April 11, 1999, Aurillac, France. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; president delegate. Special papal envoy to the conclusive ceremonies of the first National Eucharistic Congress of Ivory Coast, Abidjan, April 29, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the millennium of the birth of Pope St. Leo IX, Eguisheim, France, June 23, 2002. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Ninth General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Named president of the Pontifical Council for Inter-Religious Dialog, post united to his other presidency, March 11, 2006; he occupied the post until September 1, 2007. Member of the honorary board of the International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation, December 2006. Participated in the 5th General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. On September 3, 2007, the pope accepted his resignation, for reasons of age, to the post of president of the Pontifical Council for Culture. Special papal envoy to preside over the 22nd International Mariological Marian Congress that took place in Lourdes, France, from September 4 to 8, 2008. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the seventh centennial of the beginning of the Avignonese stay of the Roman pontiffs, 1309 to 1377. The celebrations took place in Avignon, France, on March 7 and 8, 2009. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on August 30, 2010. In April 2012, he willed his personal library and vast archive, together with other precious material, including some paintings by Jean Guitton to the diocese of Crema, Italy. The Fondazione Paul Poupard, named after him, is situated in via Matteotti 41, Crema. Special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the jubilar year dedicated to the Venerable Servant of God Pauline Jaricot, in the 150th anniversary of her death and in the 50th anniversary of the decree of the heroism of her virtues, programmed for Lyon, France, on January 9, 2013.

Bibliography. Jore, Alexander. Épiscopologe Français de 1592 à 1973. Mis à jour et continué jusqu'en 2004. Complément de l'article "France" du Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie Ecclésiastiques t. XVIII, colonnes 161 à 532. Pro-Manuscripto, 25 - III- 2004, no. 3240; Poupard, Paul. Science et foi. Tournai : Desclée international, 1982. (Athéisme et dialogue, 2).

Links. His arms and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms and biography, in French, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Entretien inédit : Cardinal Paul Poupard , in French, published on Mar 17, 2012 by KTOTV, You Tube; Poupard: "Così il profeta Maritain influenzò Paolo VI " by Giacomo Galeazzi, Vatican Insider, 4/12/2013.


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PREYSING, Konrad von
(1880-1950)

Birth. August 30, 1880, castle of Kronwinkel, archdiocese of Münich and Freising, Germany, of a noble family. Son of Kaspar von Preysing and Hedwig von Walterskirchen. His baptismal name was Johann Konrad Maria Augustin Felix. His last name is also listed as von Preysing Lichtenegg-Moos. His brothers Albert and Joseph also entered the priesthood. Cousin of Cardinal Clemens August von von Galen (1946).

Education. Gymnasium of Langshut, Lanfshut; University of Münich, Münich, 1898-1901; University of Würzburg, Würzburg, 1901-1902; Theological Faculty, Innsbruck, 1908-1913 (philosophy and theology; obtained a doctorate in theology in 1913).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 29, 1912, Innsbruck. Secretary to Cardinal Franz von Bettinger, archbishop of Münich and Freising, July 8, 1912-1916; as secretary of the cardinal, he attended the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Münich and Freising, 1916-1932; canon of the cathedral chapter, April 1, 1928-1932. Honorary chamberlain of His Holiness, May 15, 1914; reappointed, November 9, 1914, and September 25, 1922.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Eichstätt, Germany, September 9, 1932. Consecrated, October 28, 1932, cathedral of Eichstätt, by Jacobus Hauck, archbishop of Bamberg, assisted by Matthias Ehrenfried, bishop of Würzburg, and by Sigmund Ow Felldorf, bishop of Passau. His episcopal motto was In Verbo tuo. Transferred to the see of Berlin, July 5, 1935. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, July 15, 1937. Strongly opposed the Nazi regime in Germany.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Agata de' Goti, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, February 22, 1946.

Death. December 21, 1950, in the afternoon, of a heart attack, at his home in the United States sector, Berlin. On December 28, 1950 he was buried in the cemetery "St. Hedwig, Liesenstrasse", Berlin-Mitte; on February 12, 1968, reburied in the crypt of the cathedral of St. Hedwig, Berlin, after this church was rebuilt (it had been destroyed in the Second World War) (1).

Bibliography. Adam, Stephan. Die Auseinandersetzung des Bischofs Konrad von Preysing mit dem Nationalsozialismus in den Jahren 1933 bis 1945. St. Ottilien : EOS Verlag, 1996; Gatz, Manfred Clauss-Erwin. "Preysing, Graf Konrad von (1880-1950)." Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1785/1803 bis 1945 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1983, pp. 573-576; Knauft, Wolfgang. Konrad von Preysing, Anwalt des Rechts : der erste Berliner Kardinal und seine Zeit. Berlin : Morus, 1998; Konrad Kardinal von Preysing, Bischof von Berlin. Zur Vollendung seines 70. Lebensjahres herausgegeben vom Bischöflichen Ordinariat Berlin. Berlin : Morus, 1950.

Links. Photographs and biography, in German, Bayerischer Wald; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

IN VERBO TUO
KONRAD CARDINAL VON PREYSING
BISCHOF VON BERLIN
5.7.1935 - 21.12.1950


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PRIMATESTA, Raúl Francisco
(1919-2006)

Birth. April 14, 1919, Capilla del Señor, archdiocese of La Plata, Argentina.

Education. Seminary of La Plata, La Plata; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 25, 1942, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of La Plata and faculty member of its minor seminary, 1943-1945. Faculty member, prefect general of discipline, vice-rector, and rector of the Seminary of La Plata, 1945-1957.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tanais and appointed auxiliary of La Plata, June 14, 1957. Consecrated, August 15, 1957, cathedral of La Plata, by Antonio José Plaza, archbishop of La Plata, assisted by Adolfo Servando Tortolo, titular bishop of Ceciri, auxiliary of Paraná, and by Jorge Mayer, bishop of Santa Rosa. Vicar general of La Plata, 1957-1961. Transferred to the see of San Rafael, June 12, 1961. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Córdoba, February 16, 1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the title of Beata Maria Vergine Addolorata a Piazza Buenos Aires, March 5, 1973. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; member of the general secretariat, 1977-1980. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; president delegate. Special papal envoy to the 11th National Eucharistic Congress, Chile, November 20 to 23, 1980. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 2nd National Eucharistic Congress, Caacupé, Paraguay, December 3, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. President of the Episcopal Conference of Argentina for four periods, 1986-1998. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, November 17, 1998. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, April 14, 1999. Special papal envoy to the celebrations for the completion of the construction work of La Plata's cathedral, Argentina, November 19, 1999.

Death. Monday May 1, 2006, at 6:50 a.m., after complications of his cardiovascular condition, in his private residence in Córdoba. His remains were exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Córdoba on May 1 and 2; the funeral took place on May 3 in the same cathedral and later at 4 p.m., presided by Carlos Ñáñez, archbishop of Córdoba, and concelebrated by forty bishops, among them Adriano Bernardini, titular archbishop of Faleri, nuncio in Argentina, and Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio, S.J., archbishop of Buenos Aires and primate of the country. More than 200 priests also concelebrated the requiem mass. The late cardinal was buried in the bishops' crypt of the metropolitan cathedral of Córdoba.

Link. Photograph and brief biographical entry, in Spanish.


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PUJATS, Jānis
(1930-

Birth. November 14, 1930, Nautrēni, archdiocese of Riga (now diocese of Rēzekne-Aglona), Latvia. His father was a farmer. He had four sisters and three brothers; two brothers also became priests. His last name, Pujats, means cardinal in Latvian, but not referring to church hierarchy.

Education. Theological Seminary, Riga; Seminary was closed by the Soviet authorities, January 18, 1951; persecution of the Catholic Church increased. Archbishop Antonijs Springovics of Riga decided (with papal permission) to ordain all students of the 3rd year and up. Besides his native Latvian, he is fluent in Russian, Polish, Lithuanian, German and Latin. He is the only prelate who spoke exclusively Latin at the Synod of Bishops of 1991, 1994, 1999, 2001 and 2005.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 29, 1951, in secret, by Archbishop Antonijs Springovics in his private chapel. On April 15, 1951, he celebrated his first mass at the parish of Jaunavas Marijas Debesīs Uznemšanas in Preiļi; pastoral ministry in this parish until July 3, 1951. From July 3, 1951 to September 22, 1953, parish priest of Sv. Ercenéīa Miķeīa in Zosna of Sv. Ercenéīa Miķeīa in Balta; and of Jaunavas Marijas in Dukstigals; in addition, he was also chaplain of Sv. Krusta pagodināšanas in Rozentova. From September 22, 1953 to October 13, 1954 chaplain of Sv. Anna in Bērži. From October 13, 1954 to April 8, 1957, parish priest of Sv. Jēkaba in Rudzāti. From April 8, 1957 to February 28, 1958, parish priest of Sv. Laurencija in Stirnienē. From February 28 to June 28, 1958, chaplain of Sv. Alberta in Riga and Sv. Pētera in Pēternieki. From June 28, 1958 to July 1, 1959, parish priest of Kristus Karaļa in Riga. From July 1, 1959 to March 7, 1962, chaplain of Sv. Franciska (seminary church) in Riga. From March 7, 1962 to April 22, 1964, chaplain of Sāpju Dievmāātes in Riga. From April 22, 1964 to October 11, 1966, parish priest of Sv. Antona in Riga. From October 11, 1966 to November 9, 1979, professor of history and liturgy at the Theological Seminary of Riga and vicar of St. Franciskus Seminary Church. Chaplain of His Holiness, November 14, 1972. Inspector of the Theological Seminary of Riga, October 28, 1974. Vicar general of the archdiocese of Riga, from November 9, 1979 to December 27, 1984; concurrently, since 1981, archpriest of the cathedral of Sv. Jākaba, Riga. Secretary of the liturgical commission and chaplain at St. Franciskus Seminary Church, December 27, 1984 to December 22, 1987. Declared persona non grata by the Soviet authorities and expelled from his duties as vicar general of the archdiocese of Riga; he was impeded from December 27, 1984 to December 22, 1987. Inspector of the Theological Seminary of Riga, October 9, 1986; professor for history and liturgy and faculty member of the Theological Seminary of Riga and dean of the deanate of Riga, December 22, 1987 to June 1, 1991. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, February 23, 1988. Parish priest of Kristus Karaļa in Riga from January 26, 1989. Head of the commission for the implementation of the liturgical reform of the Second Vatican Council in the Latvian parishes. Published the first Missal in Latvian language.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Riga, May 8, 1991. Consecrated, June 1, 1991, metropolitan cathedral of Sv. Jākaba, Riga, by Francesco Colasuonno, titular archbishop of Tronto, representative of the Holy See in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, assisted by Jānis Cakuls, titular bishop of Tinista, auxiliary of Riga, and by Vilhelms Nukss, titular bishop of Acci, auxiliary of Riga. His episcopal motto is Ad Jesum per Mariam. Attended the First Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994, by papal appointment; the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. On June 29, 1998, he was elected first president of the Latvian Bishops Conference after it was established November 15, 1997.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore, February 21, 1998; published, February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of S. Silvia, February 21, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. On October 26, 1998, he was decorated with the cross of merit, second class, of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Latvia (Triju Zvaigžņu Ordenis). On April 19, 2004, he was decorated with the cross of merit, third class, of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Italy (Ordine al Merito della Repubblica Italiana). Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. On September 7, 2005, he was decorated with the cross of merit, second class, of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland (Krzyź Zasługi). Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Resigned the pastoral government of the metropolitan see of Riga on June 19, 2010; the pope appointed Father Zbigņevs Stankevičs, spiritual director at the Theological Seminary in Riga and director of the Religion Research Institute of Riga. The cardinal was apostolic administrator of the archdiocese until the installation of his successor on August 21, 2010. Chaplain in the parish of Sāpju Dievmātes in Riga since September 1, 2010. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on November 14, 2010.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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PULJIĆ, Vinko
(1945-

Birth. September 8, 1945, Prijecani, diocese of Banja Luka, Yugoslavia. He was the twelfth of the thirteen children of Ivan and Kaja Puljić. His mother died when he was three. His father remarried and he was raised by his stepmother.

Education. Minor Seminary, Zagreb; Minor seminary, Djakovo; Major Seminary, Djakovo.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1970, Djakovo, by Stjepan Bauerlein, bishop of Djakovo. Incardinated in the diocese of Banja Luka. From 1970 to 1978, pastoral ministry in the diocese of Banja Luka and in its episcopal curia. Spiritual director of the Minor Seminary, Zadar, and pastoral ministry in that archdiocese, 1978-1987. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Banja Luka 1987-1990. In 1990, Sarajevo, vice-rector of its major seminary; relator for seminaries, promoter of sacerdotal and religious vocations, and member of the presbyteral council.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Vrhbosna, November 19, 1990. Consecrated, January 6, 1991, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Giovanni Battista Re, titular archbishop of Vescovio, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Justin Francis Rigali, titular archbishop of Bolsena, secretary of the Congregation for Bishops and of the College of Cardinals. In the same ceremony were consecrated future Cardinals Jean-Louis Tauran, Francisco Javier Errázuriz Ossa, of the Fathers of Schönstatt, and Julián Herranz Casado. His episcopal motto is Pro Mariju u Vjeri NadiI i Ljubavi.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the title of S. Chiara a Vigna Clara, November 26, 1994. Attended the II Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Special papal envoy to the Second National Eucharistic Congress of Lithuania, Kaunas, June 1 to 4, 2000. Special papal envoy to the celebrations in occasion of the International Ukrainian Pilgrimage to the Marian Shrine of Zarvanycia, Ukraine, July 22 to 23, 2000. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Invested as bailiff of Grand Cross of Honour and Devotion, Sovereign Military Order of Malta, October 18, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005; by papal appointment. Attended the XII Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". On September 18, 2012, the pope appointed him synodal father of the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 7 to 28, 2012, on the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of the Christian faith". He is the first cardinal from Bosnia i Hercegovina. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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