The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
(1903-2011)
R

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RAGONESI, Francesco
(1850-1931)

Birth. December 21, 1850, Bagnaia, diocese of Viterbo, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Viterbo; then, at the Pio-Roman Seminary, Rome, from 1869; and finally at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome, where he obtained doctorates in philosophy, theology and utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Priesthood. Ordained in 1874. In the diocese of Viterbo, pastoral ministry; for twenty-five years professor of history and Sacred Scripture in its seminary; canon theologian and later canon archdeacon of its cathedral chapter; vicar capitular; vicar general, 1885-1904. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June (or July) 12, 1889. Apostolic delegate and extraordinary envoy to Colombia, September 7, 1904; during his delegation, he favored the opening of the Panama Canal in that country.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Mira, September 16, 1904. Consecrated, September 25, 1904, chapel of Collegio Pio-Latinoamericano, Rome, by Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val, secretary of State, assisted by Antonio Maria Grasselli, O.F.M.Conv., bishop of Viterbo, and by Domenico Rinaldini, bishop of Montefiascone. Nuncio in Spain, with faculties of legate a latere, February 9, 1913 until 1921; while in Spain, he visited the workshop of the church of Sagrada Familia, and was very impressed by its symbolism; he told Antonio Gaudí, the architect, whose cause of beatification has been introduced, that because of the richness of the symbols used in the design of the church, he was the Dante of architecture.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 7, 1921; with an apostolic brief of March 7, 1921, the pope sent him the red biretta; King Alfonso XIII of Spain imposed on him the red biretta in the chapel of the Royal Palace, Madrid, together with neo-Cardinals Francisco de Asís Vidal y Barraquer, archbishop of Tarragona, and Juan Bautista Benlloch y Vivó, archbishop of Burgos; received the red hat and the title of S. Marcello, June 16, 1921. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Papal representative to the Eucharistic Congress of the Upper Lazio, Italy, May 1924. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, March 9, 1926. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, December 17, 1928 until July 15, 1929.

Death. September 14, 1931, in the mother-house of the Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, Poggio a Caiano, Pistoia, where he had gone to recover his health. The body was transferred to Rome, where on September 17, in the church of S. Carlo al Corso, took place the funeral in the presence of eight cardinals; Cardinal Tommaso Pio Boggiani, O.P., dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, imparted the final absolution. Buried, temporarily, in the chapel of the Archconfraternity of Ss. Ambrosio e Carlo in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. Later, his remains were transferred to the chapel of Liceo Scientifico Cardinal Ragonesi, of the Marist Brothers, Viterbo, and deposited in an urn.

Bibliography. Alberti, Ottorino. "Card. Francesco Ragonesi" in La Pontificia Università lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, p 420; "Em. Ragonesi (François), préf. de la Signature ap." in "Nécrologe", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 917; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 18, 23 and 263; Ragonesi, Francesco. Discursos y alocuciones del Excmo. Sr. Cardenal F. Ragonesi mientras fuê Nuncio de Su Santidad en España : 1913-1921. Madrid : Tip. de la Rev. de Arch. Bibl. y Museos, 1926; Ragonesi, Francesco. El hábito del órden blanco supremo de la educación en las escuelas. Madrid : Sucesores de Rivadeneira (S.A.), 1920. Responsibility: discurso leído por el... Sr. D. Francesco Ragonesi Nuncio apostólico, con motivo de la inauguración del curso académico en el Seminario y Universidad Pontificia de Comillas, el día 1o. de Octubre de 1919; Ragonesi, Francesco. Sobre los estudios sociales; alocución del nuncio de Su Santidad en España, Monseñor Ragonesi, a los alumnos del Seminario pontificio de Comillas. Barcelona : "Acción Social Popular", [s.d.]. (Folletos blancos de la A.S.P.; Serie A, no. 2); Ragonesi, Francesco. La Sociología en los seminarios : alocución dirigida a los alumnos de Comillas (Santander) por... Mons. F. Ragonesi, Arzobispo de Mira y Nuncio Apostólico en estos reinos. Madrid : Tip. Revista de Arch., Bibl. y Museos, 1915; Restrepo Posada, Jose. "Galería de representantes de la Santa Sede en Colombia," Revista de la Academia Colombiana de la Historia Eclesiástica, V (January-June, 1970), 221-224.

Links. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; photograph and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.


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RAIMONDI, Luigi
(1912-1975)

Birth. October 25, 1912, Acque-Luserto, diocese of Acqui, Italy. He was the eldest of the eight children of Giovanni Raimondi and Maria Giacchero.

Education. Seminary of Acqui, Acqui; Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome; Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 6, 1936, Acqui, by Lorenzo Del Ponte, bishop of Acqui. Further studies, 1936-1938. Secretary of nunciature in Guatemala, 1938-1942. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, March 3, 1939. Auditor of the apostolic delegation in the United States of America, 1942-1949. Counselor and chargé d'affaires of the internunciature in India, 1949-1953. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, March 5, 1951. Staff member of the Secretariat of State, 1953.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tarso and appointed nuncio in Haiti and apostolic delegate to the British and the French West Indies, December 24, 1953. Consecrated, January 31, 1954, basilica of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, by Cardinal Adeodato Giovanni Piazza, O.C.D., secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, assisted by Antonio Samorè, titular archbishop of Tirnovo, secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Giuseppe Del'Olmo, bishop of Acqui. His episcopal motto was Fructus lucis bonita. Apostolic delegate in Mexico, December 15, 1956. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Apostolic delegate in the United States of America, June 30, 1967.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ss. Biagio e Carlo ai Catinari, March 5, 1973. Prefect of the S.C. for the Causes of the Saints, March 21, 1973. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974.

Death. June 24, 1975, after suffering a severe heart attack in his apartment in Vatican City, while he was waiting to receive a visit from Cardinal John Joseph Carberry, archbishop of St. Louis. Buried in his family's tomb in Acqui Terme. On the occasion of the centenary of his birth, a plaque was unveiled on the façade of the house where he was born in Luserto by Pier Giorgio Micchiardi, bishop of Acqui.

Bibliography. Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 437.

Link. His portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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RAKOTOMALALA, Jérôme
(1914-1975)

Birth. July 15, 1914, Sainte-Marie, apostolic vicariate of Tananarive, Madagascar.

Education. Regional Seminary of Ambotaraka, Madagascar.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 31, 1943. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Tananarive, 1943-1946. Faculty member of the Regional Seminary of Ambotaraka, director of Saint Peter Canisius School, and vicar general of Tananarive, 1946-1960.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Tananarive, April 4, 1960. Consecrated, May 8, 1960, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Napoléon-Alexandre La Brie, titular bishop of Ilta, national director of the Pontifical Missionary Work of Canada, French sector, and by Fulton John Sheen, titular bishop of Cesariana, auxiliary of New York, national director of the Pontifical Missionary Work of the United States of America. His episcopal motto was Opus fac evangelista. In the same ceremony were consecrated future Cardinals Paul Zoungrana, M.Afr., archbishop of Ouagadougou; Bernard Yago, archbishop of Abidjan; and Peter Poreku Dery, bishop of Wa. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Consolatrice a Casalbertone, April 30, 1969. He was the first cardinal from Madagascar.

Death. November 1, 1975, Tananarive. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Tananarive.

Link. His arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.


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RANUZZI DE' BIANCHI, Vittorio Amedeo
(1857-1927)

Birth. July 14, 1857, at the Ranuzzi Palace of Via S. Stefano, Bologna, Italy, of a noble family. He was the first child of Gian Carlo Ranuzzi and Cesarina de' Bianchi dei Conti di Piano. Received the sacrament of confirmation in 1865.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Bologna; and at the Theological College of Bologna, where he obtained a doctorate in theology in July 1882. He also earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law in April 1886.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 14, 1880, by Cardinal Lucido Maria Parocchi, archbishop of Bologna, for the archdiocese of Bologna. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Bologna, faculty member of its seminary; spiritual director, 1894-1899. Honorary canon of the cathedral chapter of Bologna, 1885. Primicerius of its cathedral canon chapter, 1892. Counselor of the nunciature in France, September 13, 1899. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, 1899.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Loreto and Recanati, June 22, 1903. Consecrated, July 12, 1903, chapel of the Nobili Oblate in Tor de' Specchi, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Respighi, vicar general of Rome, assisted by Giuseppe Constantini, titular archbishop of Patrasso, privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Rafael Merry del Val, titular archbishop of Nicea, provisional secretary of the S.C. Consistorial. Promoted to titular archbishop of Tiro, November 27, 1911. Master of the Papal Chamber, November 30, 1911. Papal Majordome, September 7, 1914.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 4, 1916; received the red hat and the title of S. Prisca, December 7, 1916. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. On September 10, 1922, he and Cardinal Giovanni Tacci became the first cardinals to fly; boarding a Caproni machine flown by Colonel Armando Armani, they went to Loreto in order to attend a meeting in honor of Our Lady of Loreto, patroness of aviators. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 30, 1925 until June 21, 1926.

Death. February 16, 1927, Rome. His funeral mass was celebrated in the basilica of S. Maria in Trastevere; and upon arriving in Bologna, was blessed again at the metropolitan cathedral of S. Pietro. Buried in the tomb of his family in the Carthusian cemetery in Bologna. The tomb is located at the Chiostro IX, Braccio di Ponente.

Links. His photograph and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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RATTI, Achille
(1857-1939)

Birth. May 31, 1857, Desio, archdiocese of Milan, Italy. Son of Francesco Ratti and Teresa Galli. Baptized on June 1, 1857, he received the name Ambrogio Damiano Achille.

Education. Minor Seminary of S. Pietro Martire, Seveso, 1867; Seminary of Milan, Monza; Theological Seminary of Milan, Milan; Lombard Seminary, Rome; La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in theology) Ambrosian Library, Milan; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in canon law); Pontifical Roman Academy of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Rome (doctorate in philosophy).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 20, 1879, Rome. Further studies, Rome, 1879-1882. Returned to Milan in 1882 and was, simultaneously, professor of theology at the Seminary of S. Pietro Martire, and of sacred eloquence and Hebrew at the Theological Seminary of Milan. Staff member of the Ambrosian Library, 1888-1907; prefect, 1907-1911. In 1893, he was named ablegato to deliver the red biretta to the two new Cardinals Victor-Lucien-Sulpice Lécot and Joseph-Chrétien-Ernest Bourret of France. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, March 6, 1907. Pro-prefect of the Vatican Library, February 20, 1912; prefect, August 20, 1914. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, September 14, 1914. Protonotary apostolic supra numerum, October 28, 1914. Apostolic visitor to Poland and Lithuania, April 25, 1918. Nuncio in Poland, June 6, 1919.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Lepanto (1), July 3, 1919. Consecrated, October 28, 1919, cathedral of Warsaw, by Aleksander Kakowski, archbishop of Warsaw, assisted by Józef Sebastian Pelczar, bishop of Przemyśl of the Latins, and by Stanisław Kazimierz Zdzitowiecki, bishop of Włocławek. Transferred to the titular see of Adana, April 29, 1921.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 13, 1921; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti, June 16, 1921. Transferred to metropolitan see of Milan, June 13, 1921. Participated in the conclave of 1922 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected, February 6, 1922; took the name Pius XI. Crowned, February 12, 1922, Vatican, by Cardinal Gaetano Bisleti, protodeacon of S. Agata in Suburra. He created seventy six cardinals in seventeen consistories.

Death. February 10, 1939, Vatican City. Buried on February 14, 1939 in the grotto of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Bibliography. Anderson, Robin. Between two wars. The Story of Pope Pius XI (Achille Ratti) 1922-1939. Chicago : Franciscan Herald, 1977; Aradi, Zsolt. Pius XI. The pope and the man. New York : Hanover House, 1958; Cazzani, Eugenio. Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano. Nuova ed./ a cura di Angelo Majo, 2. ed. Milano : Massimo : NED, 1996. Note: Originally published 1955, now enlarged and updated, p. 284-287; Chiron, Yves. Pie XI : 1857-1939. Paris : Perrin, 2004; Chiron, Yves. Pie IX, pape moderne. Bitche : Clovis, 1995; Confalonieri, Carlo. Pio XI visto da vicino. Nuova ed. Cinisello Balsamo : Edizioni Paoline, 1993. (Grande biografie ; 2); Falconi, Carlo. The Popes in the twentieth century, from Pius X to John XXIII. Boston : Little, Brown, 1968, ©1967. Translation of I papi del ventesimo secolo. Translated from the Italian by Muriel Grindrod ; Fattorini, Emma. Pio XI, Hitler e Mussolini. La solitudine di un Papa. Turin : Einaudi, 2007; Hughes, Philip. Pope Pius the Eleventh. London : Sheed & Ward, 1938; Majo, Angelo. Storia della chiesa ambrosiana. 5 vols. 2nd ed. Milano : NED, 1983-1986, IV, 26, 72, 127, 147, 171, 172 and 174; Margiotta Broglio, Francesco. "Pio XI." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 617-632; La sollecitudine ecclesiale di Pio XI : alla luce delle nuove fonti archivistiche : atti del convegno internazionale di studio, Città del Vaticano, 26-28 febbraio 2009. A cura di Cosimo Semeraro. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2010. (Atti e documenti ; 31; Variation: Atti e documenti ; 31).

Links. Photograph and biography, in English (Britannica); photograph and arms, The Vatican; biography by Francesco Margiotta Broglio, in Italian, Enciclopedia dei papi, Treccani; biography by Konrad Fuchs, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographische Kirchenlexikon; portrait and biography, in Italian, cronologia leonardo; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; his portrait, Menzies Virtual Museum; his photograph, Orbis Enterprise; portrait with the papal tiara Hawaii OnLine; close-up photograph, Ratti Family; his monument by Pietro Canonica, Lateran Palace, Rome; detail of the monument, from the same source; commemorative postal stamp, Vatican City; Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Milano (III-XXI secolo), in Italian, archdiocese of Milan; Pius XI, Pope of Challenges by Andrea Tornielli, in Italia, Vatican Insider, 04/26/2011; Il giallo dell'enciclica antinazista by Marco Roncalli, Avvenire, 17 ottobre 2013; Cracking the Vatican's culture of opacity on clerical crimes by Kieran Tapsell, Sydney, ucanews, February 6, 2014; Pio XI e lidea di Chiesa moderna by Gianfranco Ravasi, Avvenire, 8 febbraio 2014.

(1) This see is also called Naupactus.


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RATZINGER, Joseph
(1927-

Birth. April 16, 1927, Holy Saturday, at 4:15 a.m., Marktl, diocese of Passau, Germany. Son of Joseph Ratzinger, who was a member of the rural police, and Maria Peintner; before marrying she worked as a cook in several hotels. His grand uncle Georg Ratzinger was a priest and member of the Reichstag, as the German Parliament was called then. He was baptized with the name Joseph Alois on that same day at 8: 30 a.m., in the parish of Saint Oswald in Marktl, by Fr. Josef Stangl (1), vicar of Marktl. He received first communion in March 1936 and the sacrament of confirmation on June 9, 1937 in Traunstein from Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber, archbishop of München und Freising. He speaks eight languages among them his native German, English, French, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish. He is an accomplished pianist. He has a brother, Georg, who is a priest; and a sister, Maria, who died in 1991. His middle name is also listed as Aloysius.

Education. Superior School of Philosophy, Freising; University of München, München (doctorate in theology; thesis: "People and house of God in the doctrine on the church of St. Augustin" under the direction of Gottlieb Söhngen, professor of fundamental theology; habilitation for teaching thesis: "Offenbarungsverständnis und Geschichtstheologie Bonaventuras"). Received the subdiaconate, Saturday October 28, 1950, Freising, from Johannes Baptist Neuhäusler, titular bishop of Calidone, auxiliary of München und Freising; and the diaconate the following day in the same place and from the same bishop.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1951, cathedral of Sts. Mary and Corbinian, Freising, by Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber, archbishop of München und Freising; his brother Georg and 42 other priests were ordained in the same ceremony. Further studies, 1951-1952. Faculty member at the Superior School of Philosophy and Theology, Freising, 1952-1959. Faculty member at the University of Bonn, 1959-1963. Participated in the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965, as an expert. Faculty member at the University of Münster, 1963-1969. Faculty member at the University of Tübingen, 1966-1969. Faculty member at the University of Ratisbon, 1969-1977; its vice-president, 1969-1977. Member of the International Theological Commission, Vatican City, 1969-1977.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of München und Freising, March 24, 1977. Consecrated, May 28, 1977, cathedral of München, by Josef Stangl, bishop of Würzburg, assisted by Rudolf Graber, bishop of Regensburg, and by Ernst Tewes, C.O., titular bishop of Villamagna in Proconsulari, auxiliary of München und Freising. His episcopal motto was Cooperatores veritatis.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 27, 1977; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Consolatrice al Tiburtino, June 27, 1977. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25-26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Special papal envoy to the 3rd National Marian Congress, Guayaquil, Ecuador, September 16 to 24, 1978. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Meeting of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; theFifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; its relator general; member of its general secretariat, 1980-1983. Prefect of the S.C. for the Doctrine of the Faith, president of the Pontifical Biblical Commission, and president of the International Theological Commission, November 25, 1981 to April 2, 2005. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, February 15, 1982. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; its president delegate; member of its general secretariat, 1983-1986. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; member of its general secretariat until 1987. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; member of its general secretariat, 1987-1990. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; member of its general secretariat, 1990-1994. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. Elected associé étranger of the Académie des sciences morales et politiques, a part of the Institut de France, January 13, 1992. Named bishop of title of suburbicarian see of Velletri-Segni, April 5, 1993. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. In 1997, the city of Marktl am Inn, place of his birth, granted him the title of "Illustrious Citizen", on his 70th birthday; he unveiled a commemorative plaque in the facade of the house where he was born; he visited the city as pope on September 11, 2006, during his apostolic trip to Germany. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998. Vice-dean of College of Cardinals, November 9, 1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998. Special papal envoy to the 12th centenary celebrations of the creation of the diocese of Paderborn, Germany, January 3, 1999. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Special papal envoy to the jubilar celebrations in the diocese of Regensburg, Germany, October 6, 2002. Dean of the College of Cardinals and bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Ostia, proper of the dean, retaining the title of the suburbicarian see of Velletri-Segni, November 30, 2002. Papal legate to the celebrations of the 750th anniversary of the canonization of St. Stanislaus, bishop and martyr, Kraków, Poland, May 11, 2003. Papal representative to the funeral of Cardinal Franz König March 27, 2004, Vienna, Austria. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on April 19, 2005; took the name Benedict XVI. The ceremony to mark the beginning of his pontificate took place on April 24, 2005, at 10 a.m. Cardinal Jorge Arturo Medina Estévez, protodeacon of S. Saba, bestowed the pallium; and Cardinal Angelo Sodano, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Albano, subdean of the College of Cardinals, the ring of the fisherman. Celebrated mass and took possession of the patriarchal Lateran basilica on May 7, 2005. He celebrated five consistories for the creation of ninety cardinals. Resigned the papacy on February 28, 2013 at 8 p.m., Roman time.

Bibliography. Allen, John L. Cardinal Ratzinger : the Vatican's enforcer of the faith. New York : Continuum, 2000; Allen, John L. Pope Benedict XVI : a biography of Joseph Ratzinger. New York ; London : Continuum, 2005; Allen, John L. The rise of Benedict XVI : the inside story of how the Pope was elected and where he will take the Catholic Church. New York : Doubleday, 2005; Bardazzi, Marco. In the vinyard of the Lord. The life, faith, and teachings of Joseph Ratzinger, Pope Benedict XVI. New York : Rizzoli, 2005; Catalán Deus, José. Después de Ratzinger, ¿qué?. Balance de cuatro años de pontificado y los desafíos de su sucesión. Madrid : Penísula, 2009. (Colección Atalaya 364); De Carli, Giuseppe. Benedictus. Servus servorum Dei. Gorle Velar in coedizione; Roma : Rai-ERI ;Elledici, 2008; From Pope John Paul II to Benedict XVI : an inside look at the end of an era, the beginning of a new one, and the future of the church. Edited by Mary Ann Walsh ; with reporting by Catholic News Service. Lanham, Md. : Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2005; Gänswein, Georg. Benedetto XVI urbi et orbi. Con il Papa a Roma e per le vie del mondo. Herder ; Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2010; González-Balado, José Luis. Benedicto XVI, un Papa convincente. Madrid : Editorial San Pablo, 2006; Let God's light shine forth. The spiritual vision of Pope Benedict XVI. Edited and with an introduction by Robert Moynihan. New York; London ; Toronto ; Sydney; Auckland : Doubleday, 2005; Mansfield, Stephen. Pope Benedict XVI : his life and mission. New York : J.P. Tarcher/Penguin, 2005; Pursell, Brennan. Benedict of Bavaria : an intimate portrait of the Pope and his home land. North Haven, Conn. : Circle Press, 2008; Benedict XVI, Pope, 1927- . Jesus of Nazareth. Part two, Holy week : from the entrance into Jerusalem to the Resurrection. San Francisco, Calif. : Ignatius Press, 2011. Contents: The entrance into Jerusalem and the cleansing of the Temple -- Jesus' eschatological discourse -- The washing of the feet -- Jesus' high-priestly prayer -- The Last Supper -- Gethsemane -- The trial of Jesus -- Crucifixion and burial of Jesus -- Jesus' resurrection from the dead. Abstract: Offers a detailed analysis of Jesus Christ's final week in Jerusalem, examining the political, religious, and scholarly aspects of Jesus' life, teaching, death, and resurrection; Ratzinger, Joseph. Milestones. Memoirs: 1927-1977. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1998; Rodari, Paolo ; Tornielli, Andrea. Attacco a Razinger. Accuse e scandali, profezie e complotti contro Benedetto XVI. Milano : Piemme, 2010; Rose, Michael S. Benedict XVI : the man who was Ratzinger. Dallas, Tex. : Spence Pub. Co., 2005; Rourke, Thomas R. The social and political thought of Benedict XVI. Lanham, Md. : Lexington Books, 2010; Tornielli, Andrea. Ratzinger custode della fede. Casale Monferrato : Piemme, 2002; Valente, Gianni. Ratzinger professore - Gli anni dello studio e dellinsegnamento nel ricordo dei colleghi e degli allievi (1946-1977). Cinisello Balsamo : Edizioni San Paolo, 2008; Velásquez O., César Mauricio ; Beltramo Álvarez, Andrés. De Benedicto a Francisco; Los 30 días que cambiaron la Iglesia. Bogotá : Grupo Editorial Planeta, 2013; Villagrasa, Jesús. Joseph Ratzinger. Personas e ideas de una vida. Preface by Josef Clemens. México : El Arca, 2006.

Links. His arms and biography, in English, Libreria Editrice Vaticana; photographs and biography by Michael Frassetto, in English (Britannica); photograph and biography, in Italian, Enciclopedia on line, Treccani; his arms, as cardinal, Araldica Vaticana; and his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; Wiedersehen mit Wegbegleitern. Ratzinger-Schülerkreis zieht Ökumene-Bilanz, domradio.de, 22.8.2012; Ratzinger, Vatican II and the summer of 1962 by Gianni Valente, Vatican Insider, 02/24/2012.

(1) He was not the bishop who consecrated him in 1977, only his namesake.


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RAZAFIMAHATRATRA, S.J., Victor
(1921-1993)

Birth. September 8, 1921, Ambanitsilena-Ranomasina, archdiocese of Fianarantsoa, Madagascar.

Education. Major Seminary of Fianarantsoa, Fianarantsoa. Joined the Society of Jesus, September 19, 1945. Jesuit Schools of Saint Joseph and Saint Francis Xavier, Fianarantsoa; Theological Faculty, Brussels, Belgium; Catechetical Center "Lumen Gentium", Brussels.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 28, 1956. Further studies, 1956-1960. Rector, Minor Seminary of Fianarantsoa, 1960-1963. Solemn profession in the Society of Jesus, February 2, 1963. Superior of the Jesuit Residence, Amboistra, 1963-1969. Rector, Major Seminary and Institute of Superior Studies, Fianarantsoa, 1969-1971.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Farafangana, January 16, 1971. Consecrated, April 18, 1971, Fianarantsoa, by Gilbert Ramanantoanina, S.J., archbishop of Fianarantsoa, assisted by Albert Joseph Tsiahoana, archbishop of Diego Suarez, and by Pierre Zévaco, C.M., bishop of Fort-Dauphin. President of the Episcopal Conference of Madagascar, 1974-. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Tananarive, April 10, 1976.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 24, 1976; received the red biretta and the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, May 24, 1976. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 6, 1985. The name of the see was changed to Antananarivo, October 28, 1989.

Death. October 6, 1993, Antananarivo. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Andohalo, Antananarivo.


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RAZAFINDRATANDRA, Armand Gaétan
(1925-2010)

Birth. August 7, 1925, Ambohimalaza, apostolic vicariate of Tananarive, Madagascar. Son of Paul Razafindratandra, son of the governor of Tananarive, and Joséphine Rasoanoro. His first name is also listed as Gaëtan.

Education. Primary and secondary studies at the parish school of Faravohitra, at the school of the Christian Brothers of Andohalo, at the Minor Seminary, Ambohipo and at St. Michael School, of the Jesuit fathers; Major Seminary, Ambatoroka (philosophy and theology); Institute of Catechetical Pastoral, Catholic Institute, Paris; Institute of Social Studies, Catholic Institute, Paris.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 27, 1954, Tananarive, by Victor Sartre, S.J., titular bishop of Vaga, apostolic vicar of Tananarive. Further studies, Paris, 1954-1956. From 1956 to 1978, pastoral ministry; director of catechesis; spiritual director of public and private non-confessional schools; director of the National Catechetical Center; rector, Minor Seminary of Faliarivo; spiritual director, Major Seminary of Amabatoroka.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Mahajanga, April 27, 1978. Consecrated, July 2, 1978, by Cardinal Victor Razafimahatratra, S.J., archbishop of Tananarive, assisted by Albert Joseph Tsiahoana, archbishop of Diego Suárez, and by François Vòllaro, O.SS.T., bishop of Ambatondrazaka. His episcopal motto was Ut omnes unum sint. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Antananarivo, February 3, 1994; the name of the see had been changed from Tananarive on October 28, 1989. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, April 10 to May 8, 1994; member of the Council of the General Secretariat of the Special Assembly for Africa. Apostolic administrator sede vacante et ad nutum Sanctæ Sedis of Miarinavo, July, 1994 until February 14, 1998.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti, November 26, 1994. President of the Episcopal Conference of Madagascar from 1996 until 2002. He actively collaborated with the Malagasy Council of Christian Churches. He founded the Zanakavavin'ny Eglizin'i Mahajanga. Special papal envoy to the closing celebrations of the first centennial of the evangelization of the diocese of Antsirabé, Madagascar, September 17 to 19, 1999. He played a crucial role in the accession to the presidency of Marc Ravalomanana, to whom he was very close, after a disputed election held on December 16, 2001; he was present when the new president took the oath of office on February 22, 2002, in Antananarivo; the president was forced to resign in March 2009, after a prolonged national conflict. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old on August 7, 2005. The pope accepted his resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law, December 7, 2005. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World". His last public appearance took place on December 30, 2009, when he celebrated the funeral mass for former Prime Minister Jacques Hugues Sylla in the cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Andohalo.

Death. January 9, 2010, at 7 p.m., at Androva hospital, Mahajanga. He was walking near a religious center in Mahajanga, when he fainted and fell (he used to swim in the nearby beach). He had recently suffered a bout of influenza. He was taken to the hospital of Androva, where he died a short time later. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Benedict XVI prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to Archbishop Odon Marie Arsène Razanakolona of Antananarivo (1). President Andry Rajoelina, of the Présidence de la Haute autorité de la Transition de Madagascar, also sent telegrams of condolence to the pope, the apostolic nuncio in Madagascar and the Episcopal Conference of Madagascar. The cardinal's remains were exposed in the cathedral of Mahajanga. On Tuesday January 12, the remains were taken to Antananarivo and exposed in the church of Saint François Xavier, in Antanimena. The funeral was held Friday January 15, in the metropolitan cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Andohalo, Antananarivo; the date had been declared a day of national mourning by the government; after the funeral, the body of the cardinal was buried in that cathedral (2).

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Press Office of the Holy See:

Apprenant le rappel a Dieu du Cardinal Armand Gaétan Razafindratandra, votre prédécesseur, je vous exprime ma profonde union de prièière avec l'archidiocèse d'Antananarivo, avec la famille du défunt et avec toutes les personnes qui sont touchées par ce deuil. Le confiant a la miseéricordie du Seigneur, je rends grâce a Dieu pour le ministère de ce pasteur ardent qui s'est deépensé pendant toute sa vie en faveur des Melgaches, come prêtre diocésain puis comme archevêque d'Antananarivo, donnat le meilleur de lui-même pour que le Christ soit annoncé. Qu'a l'intercession maternelle de la Vierge Marie, Reine de l'Afrique, le Seigneur accueille son fidèle serviteur dans son royaume de paix et de lumière! A vous-même, a vos diocésain ansi quaux proches du défunt et a toutes les personnes réunies pour la liturgie des obsèquies, j'accorde de grand cœur la Bénédiction Apostolique

BENEDICTUS PP XVI
.
An analogous telegram was sent by Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B, secretary of State.

(2) He had expressed his wish to be buried in Besalampy, Région Melaky, one of the poorest areas of Madagascar, on the west coast, where he had established himself after retiring as archbishop of Antananarivo, and where he had founded a vacation camp for poor children.


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RE, Giovanni Battista
(1934-

Birth. January 30, 1934, Borno, diocese of Brescia, Italy. Son of Matteo Re, a carpenter, and his wife. He has one brother, Giuseppe, and five sisters, Franca, Giovanna (Canossiana religious), Mariateresa, Camilla and Adalgisa.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Brescia; sent to Rome, while studying there, he resided at Pontifical Collegio Lombardo; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, where he earned a doctorate in canon law; and at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy (Vatican school of diplomacy); besides his native Italian, he also speaks English and Spanish.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 3, 1957, at 7 a.m., church of S. Cristo, Brescia, by Giacinto Tredici, bishop of Brescia. Further studies, Rome, 1957-1960. In Brescia, 1960-1961, faculty member of its seminary and pastoral ministry. Further studies, Rome, 1962-1963. Joined the Vatican diplomatic service, July 1, 1963. Secretary of the nunciature in Panamá, 1963-1967. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, January 7, 1964 (title changed to chaplain of His Holiness when the Curia was reformed in 1967). Secretary of the nuncitature in Iran, 1967-1971. Recalled to the Vatican and promoted to auditor of nunciature, 2nd class, worked at the Secretariat of State and secretary to Giovanni Benelli, titular archbishop of Tusuro, substitute of Secretariat of State (1971-1977). Auditor, 1st class, 1974. Counselor of nunciature, 1976. Assessor of the Secretariat of State, December 1, 1979.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Vescovio and appointed secretary of the Congregation for Bishops, October 9, 1987. Consecrated, November 7, 1987, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Bruno Foresti, archbishop-bishop of Brescia. His episcopal motto is Virtus ex alto. Named substitute of the Secretariat of State, section of General Affairs, December 12, 1989. Named prefect of the Congregation for Bishops and president of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America, September 16, 2000.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, February 21, 2001. Attended Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30-October 27, 2001; president delegate. Promoted to the order of bishops and assigned the title of the suburbicarian see of Sabina-Poggio Mirteto, October 1, 2002. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 750th anniversary of the consecration of the patriarchal basilica of St. Francis in Assisi, Italy, May 23, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reappointed as prefect of the Congregation for Bishops and president of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America, April 21, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Special papal envoy to the conclusive celebration of the 9th centennial of the dedication of the cathedral of Parma, Italy, December 4, 2006. Named one of the three presidents of the 5th General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place in Aparecida, Brazil, from May 13 to 31, 2007. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World". Resigned the offices of prefect of the Congregation for Bishops and president of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America, June 30, 2010. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the fourth centennial of the archdiocese of Arequipa, Perú, which took place on July 14 to 18, 2010. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the fifteenth centennial of the Shrine of Santa Maria delle Grazie Madonna della Mentorella, diocese of Tivoli, Italy, which took place on August 29, 2010. On July 2, 2011, he was named special papal envoy to the 25th Italian National Eucharistic Congress that took place in Ancona from September 3 to 11, 2011. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. As the most senior cardinal bishop in the conclave, he asked the new pope if he accepted the election and by what name he wanted to be called. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on January 30, 2014.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph, arms and biography, in English, Wikipedia; Research on his heraldry by Giacomo Danesi, in Italian; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Il cardinale Re inaugura tela e mostra nella Scuola elementare cardinale Brancati, in Italian, YouTube, published on Apr 16, 2012; Il cardinale Re visita la chiesa di San Nicola a Lauria, in Italian, YouTube, published on Apr 16, 2012.


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REIG Y CASANOVA, Enrique
(1859-1927)

Birth. January 20, 1859, Valencia, Spain. Of a family from the town of Agullent, Valencia. Son of Francisco Reig and Ramona Casanova.

Education. Studied "bachillerato" at the Institute of Xátiva; entered the Seminary of Valencia for his ecclesiastical studies; feeling unworthy of the priesthood, he left the seminary shortly before receiving the priestly ordination.

Early life. He got married and practiced as a lawyer; when his wife and son died of cholera in 1885 (1), he decided to enter the seminary again and become a priest.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1886, Almería, by José María Orberá, bishop of Almería. In the diocese of Almería, professor of history at its seminary for a short time. Chancellor and vicar general of the diocese of Mallorca until 1900. He passed to the archdiocese of Toledo in 1900; professor of sociology at its seminary; archdeacon of the cathedral chapter, 1903; founder of "La revista parroquial" and director of "La paz social"; assessor of the Catholic labor unions; rector of "Academia Universitaria Católica"; professor of religion and sociology at "Escuela Superior de Magisterio"; moderator of "Unión Apostólica". Protonotary apostolic, March 22, 1903. Auditor of Sacred Rota of Madrid, 1904.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Barcelona, Mary 28, 1914. Consecrated, November 8, 1914, basilica of La Milagros, Madrid, by Francesco Ragonesi, titular archbishop of Mira, nuncio in Spain, assisted by José María Salvador y Barrera, bishop of Madrid, and by Jaime Cardona y Tur, titular bishop of Sion, pro-general military vicar. His episcopal motto was Plura concilium quam ut. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Valencia, April 22, 1920.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 11, 1922. Transferred to the metropolitan and primatial see of Toledo, December 14, 1922. Received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, May 25, 1923. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Toledo, June 15, 1926.

Death. August 25, 1927, at 2 a.m., after a long and painful illness, Toledo (2). Exposed in the chapel of the archiepiscopal palace of Toledo. Buried in the Capilla del Sagrario in the metropolitan cathedral of Toledo.

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 76; "Enrico Reig y Casanova", "Cardinali defunti" in Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1929. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1929, p. 62; Olmos Canalda, Elías. Los prelados valentinos. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Instituto Jerónimo Zurita, 1949; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 80 and 386; Urive, Aniceto. "Reig y Casanova, Enrique" in Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975, III, 2069-2070.

Link. Portrait and biography by Arturo Llin Cháfer, in Spanish, archdiocese of Valencia; photographs and biography, in Spanish, Remember Valencia, el Blog; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Urive, "Reig y Casanova, Enrique" in Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, III, 2069; and his first biography linked above. His second biography, linked above, says that it was only a daughter who died during the epidemic.
(2) This is according to his biographies in Spanish, linked above, and all the printed sources cited except "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1929, p. 62, which says that he died on August 20, 1927.


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RENARD, Alexandre-Charles
(1906-1983)

Birth. June 7, 1906, Avelin, diocese of Lille, France. Son of Jules Constant Jacques Renard, a university professor, and Claire Victorine Delos. His baptismal name was Alexandre Charles Albert Joseph.

Education. Seminary of Lille, Lille; Catholic University, Lille.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 12, 1931, Lille. Further studies, 1931-1933. Faculty member of Marcq College, Baraeul, 1933-1936. Faculty member of the Minor Seminary of Haubourdin, 1936-1938. Faculty member of the Catholic University of Lille, 1938-1943. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Lille, 1938-1947; Director of Works, Lille, 1947-1953.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Versailles, August 19, 1953. Consecrated, October 19, 1953, cathedral of Lille, by Cardinal Achille Liènart, bishop of Lille, assisted by Stanislas Courbe, titular bishop of Castoria, auxiliary of Paris, and by Alfred Ancel, titular bishop of Mirina, auxiliary of Lyon. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lyon, May 28, 1967.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 26, 1967; received the red biretta and the title of S. Francesco da Paola ai Monti, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, June 29, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Opted for the title of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, May 24, 1976. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, October 29, 1981. He resided in "Ma Maison", a house of the Little Sisters of the Poor, congregation founded by St. Jeanne Jugan, at 23 rue de Varize, Paris. Commandeur of the Légion d'Honneur.

Death. Sunday October 8, 1983, at 4 a.m., after undergoing a minor surgery , in '"Clinique Saint-Jean de Dieu", 19 rue Oudinot, in Paris. Buried in the metropolitan and primatial cathedral of Saint-Jean Baptiste of Lyon.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 463-464.


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REVOLLO BRAVO, Mario
(1919-1995)

Birth. June 19, 1919, Genoa, Italy, where his father was Colombian consul in that city. He was the third of the six children of Enrique Revollo del Castillo and Soledad Bravo Arbélaez.

Education. Minor Seminary of Bogotá, Bogotá (bachillerato; Major Seminary of Bogotá, Bogotá, 1936-1938 (philosophy); went to Rome to study; resided in the Pontifical Collegio Pio Latinoamericano, Rome; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1939-1943 (theology); Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome (licenciate in Sacred Scriptures).

Priesthood. Ordained, October 31, 1943, Gesú church, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. Incardinated in the archdiocese of Bogotá. Further studies, Rome, 1943-1948. In Bogotá, chaplain to Catholic schools, 1948-1967; faculty member of the Major Seminary, 1948-1960 and 1963-1964; pastoral ministry, 1967-1970; archdiocesan secretary of Education and Catechesis, 1965; pastoral ministry and archbishop's representative to the regional council of SENA, 1970-1973; director of the journal El Catolicismo, 1949-1966; press director for the 39th International Eucharistic Congress and papal visit to Bogotá, August 1968.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tinisa di Numidia and appointed auxiliary of Bogotá, November 13, 1973. Consecrated, December 2, 1973, Bogotá, by Cardinal Aníbal Muñoz Duque, archbishop of Bogotá, assisted by Alfredo Rubio Diaz, archbishop of Nueva Pamplona, and by Pablo Correa León, bishop emeritus of Cúcuta. His episcopal motto was Vis pacis. Vicar general for pastoral ministry, 1973-1978. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Nueva Pamplona, February 28, 1978. President of the Episcopal Conference of Colombia, 1978-1984. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Bogotá, June 25, 1984.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, June 28, 1988. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Bogotá, December 27, 1994.

Death. November 3, 1995, died after a long battle with cancer, in Bogotá. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Bogotá.

Links. Photograph and biographical entry, in Spanish, archdiocese of Bogotá; Archbishops of Bogotá, in Spanish, archdiocese of Bogotá; photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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RIBEIRO, António
(1928-1998)

Birth. May 21, 1928, Pereira, Gandarela de Basto, archdiocese of Braga, Portugal. Only child of José Ribeiro and Ana Gonçalves, landlords; his father, who was much older than his mother, died when António was eighteen months old. He was baptized on May 28, 1928, in the local parish of São Clemente, by Father José Texeira de Andrade. He is also known as D. António II.

Education. Initial studies in Pereira and catechism in the church of São Clemente; from 1941 until 1946, he studied at the Minor Seminary of Nossa Senhora da Conceição of Braga; then, he studied philosophy and theology at the Major Conciliar Seminary of Braga; after his priestly ordination, in 1953, he was sent to study at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in theology on March 9, 1959, with the dissertation A Doutrina do Evo em S. Tomás de Aquino. Ensaio sobre a duração da alma separada; while in Rome, he resided in Colégio Português.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 5, 1953, Braga, by António Bento Martins Júnior, archbishop of Braga. Incardinated in the archdiocese of Braga. He celebrated his first mass in the church of São Clemente on the following July 12. Further studies in Rome, 1953-1959. Cardinal Manuel Gonçalves Cerejeira, patriarch of Lisbon, asked Father António's transference to the patriarchate. Faculty member of the Instituto Superior de Ciêncis Sociais e Política Ultramarina (Universidade Técnica de Lisboa), 1964-1967, where he taught social philosophy, moral philosophy and social psychology. Faculty member and director of the Superior Institute of Catholic Culture, 1965-1967, where he taught introduction to theology, methodology of the social sciences and social doctrine of the Church. Diocesan assistant, and later national assistant, of the Liga Universitária Católica, 1958-1967. He was also assistant of the professional associations of physicians, pharmacists, jurists, engineers and professors. Vicar general of the archdiocese of Braga, 1966-1967. In Rádio e Televisão de Portugal, from 1959 to 1964, he had a weekly program on Saturdays entitled "Encruzilhadas da Vida"; and later, from 1964 to 1967, on Sundays, the program "Dia do Senhor". He was selected to succeed Bishop Sebastião Soares de Resende of Beira, Moçambique, but the Portuguese regime vetoed the promotion (1). This was the only veto in the more than fifty years of existence of the concordat between Portugal and the Holy See.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tigillava and appointed auxiliary of Braga, July 3, 1967. Consecrated, September 17, 1967, at the metropolitan cathedral of Braga, by Cardinal Manuel Gonçalves Cerejeira, patriarch of Lisbon, assisted by Francisco Maria da Silva, archbishop of Braga, and by António de Castro Xavier Monteiro, titular archbishop of Mitilene, auxiliary of Lisbon. His episcopal motto was Ex fide in fidem. Named vicar general of Braga in 1967. President of the Episcopal Commission for Social Communications, 1968-1971. Secretary of the Portuguese Episcopal Conference, 1968-1971. Realized several pastoral visits in the Northeast region. Named auxiliary bishop of Lisbon, June 6, 1969. National assistant to the lay apostolate and general assistant of the Catholic Action, 1969-1971. Rector of the church dos Mártires, Lisbon. Promoted to the patriarchate of Lisbon, May 10, 1971; took possession of the see on the following June 29. He was the fifteenth cardinal patriarch of Lisbon. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Grand chancellor of the Portuguese Catholic University, October 1, 1917. Military vicar of Portugal, January 24, 1972. President of the Episcopal Commission for the Portuguese Catholic University, July 10, 1972.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the title of S. Antonio da Padova in Via Merulana, March 5, 1973. Member of the SS. CC. for Catholic Education and for the Clergy; of the Pontifical Council for Culture; and of the Pontifical Commission for Social Communications, for more than fifteen years. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; one of its three presidents delegate. President of the Portuguese Episcopal Conference, 1975-1981; and 1987-1983. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Member of the Pontifical Commission for the Revision of the Code of Canon Law, 1981-1984. Elected sócio of the Academy of Sciences of Lisbon, class of letters, November 14, 1989. Special papal envoy to the 5th centennial celebration of the evangelization of Angola, Luanda, October 22 to 27, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Special papal envoy to the Fifth centennial celebration of the Treaty of Tordesillas, Setúbal, Portugal, September 5, 1994. He presided over the wedding ceremony of Duarte Pio de Bragança, pretender to the Portuguese throne, and Isabel de Herédia, on May 13, 1995. During his patriarchate occurred the transition between dictatorship and democracy in Portugal. He wrote and published several works (2).

Death. March 24, 1998, from advanced stages of cancer, in his residence in Lisbon. Buried in the tomb of the patriarchs in the church of São Vicente de Fora, Lisbon. A monument commemorating him was erected in Britelo, Basto; a street, Rua Cardeal Patriarca Dom António Ribeiro, in Agualva-Cacém, Lisbon, was given his name; and a bust was placed in his native town, Gandarela de Basto, in the square named after him.

Bibliography. Ferreira, António Matos. "D. António Ribeiro (1971-1998)" in Os patriarcas de Lisboa. Coordenação D. Carlos Azevedo, Sandra Costa Saldanha, António Pedro Boto de Oliveira. Palavra de apresentação do Cardeal Patriarca, D. José da Cruz Policarpo. Lisboa : Centro Cultural do Patriarcado de Lisboa; Alêtheia Editores, 2009, p. 161-177; Santos, José António. António Ribeiro, Patriarca de Lisboa. Lisboa : Editorial Notícias, 1996. (Diario de notícias textos & documentos).

Links. His photograph and biography, in Portuguese, Wikipedia; brief biographical entry, in Portuguese, in Os Cardeais Portugueses, patriarcado de Lisboa; his photograph and genealogy, in Portugues, Geneall.net; his arms, Araldlca Vaticana; house where he was born, Pereira; Fundação D. António Ribeiro, Universidade Católica Portuguesa; Cardeal Anttónio Ribeiro, 10 anos depois by Luís Filipe Santos, in Portuguese, Agência Ecclesia, 2008-03-24.

(1) In December 1964, Pope Paul VI went to Bombay, India, to preside the 38th International Eucharistic Congress. India and Portugal had broken diplomatic relations in 1961 when the former annexed Goa. Father Ribeiro tried to speak about the subject in his program "Encruzilhadas da Vida" but he was censored and impeded from expressing himself. He protested and for several weeks the program was cancelled.
(2) Besides his doctoral dissertation, he also wrote O Conceito de Socialização na Encíclica "Mater et Magistra, "Actas do Congresso Internacional dos Farmacêuticos Católicos", 1963; A Natureza Religiosa do Apostolado, Editora Logos, Lisboa, 1965; Caminhos de Unidade, "Actas da V Semana Portuguesa de Teologia", Lisboa, 1967; e edição da Gráfica de Coimbra, 1968; ExIsténcia e Utilição dos Tempos Livres: Problema Social e Cristão, Editora Logos, Lisboa, 1967; O Padre na Igreja, Editora Rei dos Livros, 1992; Arautos e Construtores de Um Mundo Novo, homilias a universitários, CeUC, 1992; Documentos Pastorais, Volume I, Editora Rei dos Livros, 1996; and several pastoral letters.


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RIBERI, Antonio
(1897-1967)

Birth. June 15, 1897, Montecarlo, Monaco. He was a lifelong friend of Giovanni Battista Montini, future Pope Paul VI.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Cuneo, Cuneo, Italy; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy) and at the Institute of Social Sciences, Bergamo.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1922, Rome. Further studies, 1922-1925. Attaché and secretary of the nunciature in Bolivia, 1925-1930. Honorary chamberlain of His Holiness, May 1, 1925. Counselor of the nunciature in Ireland, 1930-1934.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Dara, August 13, 1934. Consecrated, October 28, 1934, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Fumasoni Biondi, prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of Faith, assisted by Giuseppe Pizzardo, titular archbishop of Nicea, secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Carlo Salotti, titular archbishop of Filippopoli di Tracia, secretary of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith. Appointed apostolic delegate to the African Missions dependent of the S.C. for the Propagation of Faith, with residence in Mombasa, East Africa, November 4, 1934. Charged with the assistance service of the Holy See to the prisoners of the war and the wounded soldiers during the Second World War, Rome, 1939-1946. Nuncio in China, July 6, 1946. Expelled by the Communist regime, 1951; nuncio in Formosa. Nuncio in Ireland, February 19, 1959. Nuncio in Spain, April 28, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 26, 1967; received the red biretta and the title of S. Girolamo della Carità, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, July 25, 1967.

Death. Saturday December 16, 1967, of a lung infection, while conversing with some friends at the Institute of the Legionnaires of Christ, Rome, where he resided. Pope Paul VI personally paid his tribute to the late cardinal while the latter was laid out in state in the chapel of the Legionnaires' curia. He was buried in the tomb of his family in Limone-Piemonte. His remains were transferred to a lateral chapel in the Shrine of S. Antonio, in Limone-Piemonte, on September 15, 1973, in the presence of Domenico Enrici, titular archbishop of Ancusa, personally sent by Pope Paul VI to represent him. He was reinterred in a granite sarcophagus bearing the simple inscription:

CARDINALE ANTONIO RIBERI
1897 - 1967

Bibliography. Brender, Andreas ; Kierein-Kuenring, Mandred D. Catholic Hierarchy in China since 1307. Cluj-Napoca, 2012, p. 309-310 (Episcopal lineage).

Links. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography, in English, Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Christianity; photographs and biography by Eman Bonnici, in English, Find a Grave; Realism and patience by Vicente Cárcel Ortí, in English, L'Osservatore Romano, news.va, 2012-03-30.


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RICHAUD, Paul-Marie
(1887-1968)

Birth. April 16, 1887, Versailles, France. Of an old Versaillese family, originally from the Dauphiné, on his father's side. His baptismal name was Paul-Marie-André.

Education. Initial studies at the Eudist School of Saint Jean, Varsailles; Faculty of Law, Paris (licentiate in law); entered the Major Seminary of Versailles, Versailles, October 1909; sent to Rome to further studies; while in Rome, he stayed at the French Seminary and studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University and Collège Angelique; obtained a doctorate in philosophy in 1915.

Early life. Entered the Paris Faculty of Law and obtained a licentiate; during this period, he was president of Cercle d'Etude Saint-Benoît, which was the origin of the Action Catholique des Jeunes Française. Under the direction of Charles Gibier, bishop of Versailles, he joined the Oeuvres Sociales and the Oeuvres de Presse. Departmental secretary of the Societé Saint-Vincent-de-Paul. He was the first conferencist of the Oeuvre des Conférences Populaires, organized by the bishop of Versailles.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 28, 1913, Versailles, by Charles Gibier, bishop of Versailles. Further studies, 1913-1915. Vicar of the parish of Notre-Dame, Versailles, 1915-1924; there he was in charge of Patronage des Oeuvres de Lycéens and founded Cercle Saint-Thomas d'Aquin; toward the end of the First World War, he was mobilized by the French Army as a nurse. Chaplain of Lycée Hoche, Versailles. During these years, he published several articles in Bulletin Thomiste, Revue des Jeunes and Vie Spirituelle. He established the first Scout troops in Versailles. In 1928, he became director of Oeuvres de Jeunes Gens; he founded the first section of Jeune Ouevriers Catholiques. Vicar general of Versailles and vice-assistant general of the French Catholic Action, 1931-1933.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Irenopoli di Isauria and appointed auxiliary of Versailles, December 19, 1933. Consecrated, January 25, 1934, cathedral of Versailles, by Benjamin-Octave Roland-Gosselin, bishop of Versailles, assisted by Pierre Gerlier, bishop of Tarbes, and by Georges Louis, bishop of Périgueux. His episcopal motto was Vinctus Christi. Transferred to see of Laval, July 27, 1938. Promoted to metropolitan see of Bordeaux, February 10, 1950; took possession of the see on March 20, 1950; entered the archdiocese on the following March 25.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Quirico e Giulitta, December 18, 1958. Participated in the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Bordeaux, May 25, 1966. On September 4, 1966, he confirmed his spiritual testament, written on January 23, 1955 (1).

Death. Monday February 5, 1968, at 2 p.m., after a serious chirurgical operation (he suffered from liver ailment), Bordeaux (2). The obsequies took place in the metropolitan cathedral of Bordeaux on Friday February 9, at 10 a.m. presided by Archbishop Marius Maziers of Bordeaux; Cardinals Joseph-Charles Lefèbvre, archbishop of Bourges, Joseph-Marie Martin, archbishop of Rouen, and Alexandre-Charles Renard, archbishop of Lyon, were present. Paolo Bertoli, titular archbishop of Nicomedia, nuncio in France, represented the pope. Paul-Pierre Philippe, O.P., titular archbishop of Eracleopoli Maggiore, secretary of the S.C. for the Doctrine of the Faith, represented the Roman Curia. Also present were M. Fouchet, minister of the Interior, a friend of the late cardinal; M. Jacques-Pierre-Michel Chaban-Delmas, mayor of Bourdeaux and president of the National Assembly; and numerous other dignitaries. Buried, temporarily, in the grotto under the chapel of Saint-Sacrement, in the metropolitan cathedral of Bordeaux (3). On February 5, 1969, the first anniversary of his death, his body was transferred definitively to the chapel of Notre-Dame de la Nef, in that cathedral, according to his will (4).

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973.Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 465-466; Laroza, Olivier. Le Cardinal Paul Richaud, archevêque de Bordeaux (1887-1968). Préface de Mgr. M. Maziers, archevêque de Bordeaux. Impriméerie Daniel Duberga, 1969.

Links. His episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Text of his spiritual testament, taken from Laroza, Le Cardinal Paul Richaud, archevêque de Bordeaux (1887-1968), p. 122-124:
Bordeaux, le 23 janvier 1955
   J'entends mourir, quoi qu'il m'arrive et quoi qu'on puisse dire, dans la foi de l'Église catholique romaine, en pleine et entière soumission envers le Pape et en pleine et fraternelle union avec tous les évêques catholiques.
   Je déclare réprouver tout ce qui, dans mes écrits ou mes paroles, a pu être contraire à cette foi et à cette soumission, sans que je le veuille. Je regrette et rétracte toutes paroles que j'aurais pu prononcer ou écrire et qui auraient constitué un manque de respect, une médisance ou une calomnie à l'égard de mes supérieurs ou de mes collègues dans l'épiscopat.
   Je supplie que l'on me pardonne tout le tort et toute la peine que j'aurais causés aux uns et aux autres. J'offre pour eux, d'avance, toutes les souffrances que je pourrai endurer, ainsi que pour tous ceux que j'aurais pu scandaliser ou porter au mal.
   Je supplie que l'on prie beaucoup et longtemps pour moi. Car je suis écrasé à la pensée de tous les péchés que j'ai commis, de toutes les négligences dont je me suis rendu coupable. Ma vie aurait dû être bien plus féconde et bien plus édifiante !
   Je pardonne de tout coeur et sans la moindre réticence à ceux qui auraient pu me causer quelque peine.
   J'offre ma vie, mes souffrances, ma mort "pour mes péchés, pour mon diocèse, pour l'Église et pour la France ". Ce fut mon acte d'offrande perpétuel. Je les offre spéciale-ment pour mes prêtres que j'ai tant aireés et je demande très humblement pardon à ceux que j'aurais pu froisser ou contrarier.
   Je leur recommande un attachement indéfectible et délicat au Saint-Siège. Jamais je ne remercierai trop Dieu de la grâce incomparable de la formation romaine.
   Je recommande à mes prêtres l'assiduité dans l'étude des sciences sacrées, la pratique quotidienne de l'oraison mentale. Si je n'ai pas fait assez de bien et si j'ai eu tant de mouvements d'humeur, c'est parce que, dans ma vie, je n'ai pas fait assez oraison. Avec tout mon coeur, je leur recommande la dévotion ` la Sainte Vierge. C'est ma tendresse pour Marie et ma confiance dans le Coeur Sacré de Jésus qui m'auront sauvé, si Dieu veut bien me faire miséricorde.
   A mes prêtres et ` mes diocisains, je demande d'être apôtres, de correspondre aux directives de la hiérarchie en ce qui concerne l'Action Catholique, de vivre davantage suivant l'Évangile et, pour cela de pratiquer davantage le détachement. Je mourrai avec le regret de n'avoir pas été et de n'avoir pas eu le courage d'être pauvre.
   En ce moment, devant tous, je m'humilie profondément pour tout ce qu'il y a eu d'orgueilleux, de vaniteux, d'igoiste dans mes actes et mes sentiments.
   Je voudrais mourir dans l'amour le plus pur, en murmurant les mots: "Jésus ! Marie !" "

+ Paul RICHAUD Archevêque de Bordeaux
Evêque de Bazas


Texte confirmé le 4 septembre 1966.
+ Paul Card. RICHAUD.


(2) Upon learning the news of the death of Cardinal Richaud, Pope Paul VI sent the following telegram to Marius Maziers, archbishop of Bordeaux:
Apprenant avec une vive peine la mort de notre cher fils le Cardinal Paul-Marie Richaud, nous élevons de tout coeur nos prières vers Dieu pour le repos de l'âme de cet éminent pasteur qui a servi l'Eglise avec un courageux dévouement et nous vous envoyons, ainsi qu'aux prêtres et fidèles de l'archidiocèse de Bordeaux, notre paternelle bénédiction apostolique. PAULUS P.P. VI

(3) This is the text of the inscription, written on a parchment, that was place in a glass tube, sealed with the arms of the cardinal, and deposited in his casket, taken from Laroza, Le Cardinal Paul Richaud, archevêque de Bordeaux (1887-1968), p. 108-109:
PAULUS-MARIA-ALEXANDER RICHAUD
S.R.E.-PRESBYTER CARDINALIS
TITULI SS. CYRIACI ET JULITTAE ARCHIEPISCOPUS BURDIGALENSIS
EPISCOPUS VASATENSIS
AQUITANIAE PRIMAS VIR
S. SEDI ADDICTISSIMUS
DOCTRINAM
GREGI SIBI CREDITO
VERBO ET SCRIPTIS
INDEFESSO STUDIO
TRADIDIT
EPISCOPATUS BURDIGALENSIS XVIII LABENTE ANNO
LXXX ANNOS NATUS
OBDORMIVIT IN DOMINO
DIE V MENSIS FEBRUARI
ANNO D. MCMLXVIII

(4) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Laroza, Le Cardinal Paul Richaud, archevêque de Bordeaux (1887-1968), p. 112-113
ICI REPOSE
LE CARDINAL PAUL RICHAUD
(1887-1868)
NE A VERSAILLES. PRETRE EN 1913
EVEQUE AUXILIAIRE EN 1934
EVEQUE DE LAVAL EN 1938
ARCHEVEQUE DE BORDEAUX EN 1950
PASTEUR ET DOCTEUR
IL MAINTINT ET FIT GRANDIR
SON EGLISE DANS LA FOI
EN COMMUNION AVEC
LE SIEGE APOSTOLIQUE
IL FUT UN GRAND APOTRE
DE LA JUSTICE SOCIALE,
DE LA CHARITE ET DE LA PAIX
*
* *
LE 5 FEVRIER 1968
IL RESPONDIT AVEC CONFIANCE
A L'APPEL DU SEIGNEUR
QU'IL SAVAIT PROCHE


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RIGALI, Justin Francis
(1935-

Birth. April 19, 1935, Los Angeles, United States of America. He is the youngest of the seven children of Henry A. Rigali and Frances Irene White. One of his sisters is a nun; and a brother is a Jesuit priest. Baptized in the parish of the Holy Cross, Los Angeles.

Education. He attended Catholic schools in Los Angeles; then, he studied philosophy and theology at the archdiocesan seminaries of Los Angeles: Los Angeles College, Los Angeles; Our Lady Queen of Angels Seminary, San Fernando; St. John's College and St. John's Seminary, Camarillo; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1961-1964 (doctorate in canon law, June 1964); Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, 1964-1966 (obtained a diploma, 1966). Besides his native English, speaks correctly French, Italian and Spanish.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 25, 1961, metropolitan cathedral of St. Vibiana, Los Angeles, by Cardinal James Francis McIntyre, archbishop of Los Angeles. Associate pastor, Ascension parish, Los Angeles; associate pastor, Saint Raymond parish, Downey. Further studies, Rome, 1961-1964. Assistant priest at the patriarchal Vatican basilica during the first two sessions of the Second Vatican Council, 1962 and 1963. Associate pastor, St. Madeleine's parish, Pomona, archdiocese of Los Angeles, summer of 1964. Started service at the English language section of the Vatican secretariat of State, November 25, 1964. Secretary of nunciature in Madagascar and apostolic delegation for the Islands of the Indian Ocean, La Reunion and Mauritius, September 1966 to February 1970. Chaplain of His Holiness, July 11, 1967. Returned to Rome, February 11, 1970, and was appointed director of the English-language Section of the Secretariat of State. He also became the English-language translator for Pope Paul VI, whom he accompanied on his trip to Iran, Dhaka (then East Pakistan, now Bangladesh), the Philippines, Australia, Samoa, American Samoa, Indonesia, Hong Kong, and Sri Lanka (then Ceylon). Chaplain to the cloistered Carmelite nuns of the Monastery of Saint Joseph in Rome for several years. Faculty member, Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, 1972-1973. Counselor of nunciature, July 1, 1979. He accompanied Pope John Paul II on several of his international trips, including the ones to the United States of America in 1979 and 1987. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, April 19, 1980. Member of the Order of the Knights of Malta, October 25, 1984.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Bolsena and appointed president of Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, June 8, 1985. Consecrated, September 14, 1985, cathedral of Albano, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Achille Silvestrini, titular archbishop of Novaliciana, secretary of the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church. His episcopal motto is Verbum caro factum est. Member of the Order of the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre, October 13, 1986. Secretary of Congregation for Bishops, December 21, 1989. Secretary of College of Cardinals, January 2, 1990. Pastoral ministry in several Roman parishes and seminaries. Transferred to metropolitan see of St. Louis, United States of America, January 25, 1994. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Philadelphia, July 15, 2003.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Prisca, October 21, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the bicentennial of the birth of Saint John Nepomucene Neumann, which took place in Prachatice, Czech Republic, on June 18, 2011. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Philadelphia was accepted by Pope Benedict XVI on July 19, 2011, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. The pope named Charles Joseph Chaput, O.F.M.Cap., until then archbishop of Denver, his successor. Cardinal Rigali was apostolic administrator of Philadelphia until the installation of his successor on September 8, 2011. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. He resides in Knoxville, Tennessee. On July 26, 2014, he was named special papal envoy to the solemn eucharistic celebration planned in the new cathedral of Saint Louis, Missouri, United States of America, on August 24, 2014, on the occasion of the 250th anniversary of the foundation of the homonymous city.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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RIGHI-LAMBERTINI, Egano
(1906-2000)

Birth. February 22, 1906, Casalecchio di Reno, archdiocese of Bologna, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Regional Seminary of Bologna; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; and at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 25, 1929, Bologna. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Bologna, 1929-1936. Further studies, 1936-1939, Rome. Joined the Vatican Secretariat of State, 1939. Auditor, nunciature in Italy, 1939-1949. Auditor and counselor, nunciature in France, 1949-1954. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, December 10, 1954. Chargé d'affaires, nunciatures in Costa Rica and Venezuela; and in the apostolic delegation in Great Britain, 1954-1957. Apostolic delegate in Korea, December 28, 1957.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Doclea and appointed nuncio in Lebanon, July 9, 1960. Consecrated, October 28, 1960, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Diego Venini, titular archbishop of Adana, privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Benigno Carrara, bishop of Imola. In the same ceremony were consecrated future Cardinals Dino Staffa, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, secretary of the S.C. of Seminaries and Universities; and Pericle Felici, titular archbishop of Samosata, secretary general of the Second Vatican Council. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Nuncio in Chile, December 9, 1963. Nuncio in Italy, July 8, 1967. Nuncio in France, April 23, 1969. Special envoy, with functions of permanent observer, to the Council of Europe, Strasbourg, France, 1974-1979. Awarded the title of Grand Officer of the Legion of Honor of France.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Giovanni Bosco in Via Tuscolana, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Meeting of Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979, Vatican City. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, February 22, 1986. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Maria in Via, November 26, 1990.

Death. October 4, 2000, Rome. His funeral mass, presided by Pope John Paul II, took place at the patriarchal Vatican basilica, on Friday October 6, 2000, at 10 am. He was buried in his family's chapel in Casalecchio di Reno, Bologna.


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RINALDINI, Aristide
(1844-1920)

Birth. February 5, 1844, Montefalco, archdiocese of Spoleto, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of the Vatican, Rome, 1860-1862; at Almo Collegio Capranica, Rome, 1862-1868; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in philosophy and licentiate in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 6, 1868, Rome. Secretary of the nunciature in Portugal, 1868-1872. Secretary of the nunciature in Belgium, 1872-1880; chargé d'affaires, 1880-1885; auditor, 1887. Remained in Belgium as a "private agent" after the liberal cabinet of Frère Orban broke diplomatic relations with the Holy See and Nuncio Serafino Vannutelli left for Rome; chargé d'affaires when relations were resumed. Protonotary apostolic ad instar participantium. Internuncio in Holland, August 26, 1887 to 1893 (1). Internuncio in Luxembourg, January 1891. Substitute of the Secretariat of State, May 31, 1893 to 1896.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Eraclea di Europa, August 14, 1896. Named nuncio in Belgium, August 18, 1896 (3). Consecrated, August 30, 1896, church of S. Agostino, Rome, by Cardinal Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro, secretary of State, assisted by Guglielmo Pifferi, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, papal sacristan, and by Vincenzo Veneri, bishop of Amelia and cousin of Archbishop Rinaldini. In the same ceremony was consecrated Sebastiano Martinelli, O.E.S.A., titular archbishop of Efeso, apostolic delegate in the United States of America. Named nuncio in Spain, December 28, 1899 (4). Named papal legate for the baptism of the Prince of Asturias, April 6, 1907; the ceremony took place on May 18, 1907.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 15, 1907; received the red hat and the title of S. Pancrazio, December 19, 1907. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, December 2, 1912 until May 25, 1914. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV.

Death. February 10, 1920, Rome (5). Buried, chapel of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome (6).

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1922, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1921, p. 66; Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 685; De Marchi, Giuseppe. Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956. Pref. di Antonio Samoré. Roma : Edizioni di Storia e letteratura, 1957, pp. 33, 65, 169, 185 and 239; "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1919, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1920, p. 102; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 9 and 24; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, p. 302.

Link. Photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 302; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 685, says that he was named on January 11, 1887; De Marchi, Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956, p. 185, says that he was named on August 11, 1887.
(2) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 302; De Marchi, Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956, pp. 33 and 169, says that he was named on May 30, 1893.
(3) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 302; De Marchi, Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956, p. 65; and Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 685, say that he was named on August 14, 1896.
(4) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 302; De Marchi, Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956, p. 239, says that he was named on November 7, 1899.
(5) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 302; and Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 9; this latter source on p. 24 says that he died on February 11, 1920; "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1922, p. 66; and De Marchi, Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956, p. 33, say that he died on January 10, 1920.
(6) This is the text of the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

HEIC IN PACE SITVS ES
ARISTIDES RINALDINI
PRESB. CARDINALIS TIT. PANCRATIO
QVI SEDIS APOST. LEGATIONIBVS
BELGICA ET HISPANICA
BENE GESTIS
ROMANAM PVRPVRAM ADEPTVS
EANDEM DIGNIS VIRTVTIBVS ORNAVIT
PIE DEC. ID FEBR. A. MCMXX
ANNOS NATVS LXXVI


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RITTER, Joseph Elmer
(1892-1967)

Birth. July 20, 1892, New Albany, diocese of Indianapolis, Indiana, United States of America. Son of Nicholas Ritter, a baker of modest means, and Bertha Luette, of German lineage. He was one of five boys and one girl. He decided at a young age to enter the priesthood.

Education. He studied at St. Mary's parochial school and served mass in the church where he had been baptized; then, he entered Saint Meinrad's College and Seminary, Saint Meinrad, Indiana, not far from New Albany.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 30, 1917, in the abbey church of Saint Meinrad, by Joseph Chartrand, bishop of Indianapolis; a few days later, he celebrated his first mass in St. Mary's parish church. Although he wanted to pursue further studies in Rome and was qualified by his academic record, the bishop assigned him as assistant pastor at the church of St. Patrick, in Indianapolis on July 7, 1917. On October 12, 1917, he was transferred as second assistant to the cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul, also in Indianapolis; in 1920, he was named first assistant at the cathedral. On May 20, 1924, Pope Pius XI at the request of Bishop Chartrand, conferred on him an honorary doctorate in theology and thus, any hopes to go to Rome to study were dashed. On August 25, 1925, he was appointed rector of the cathedral. Successively, on January 3, 1930, he was nominated to the office of diocesan consultor; and member of the diocesan council on administration and finance, where he was instrumental in raising funds for the cathedral's high school; vicar general of the diocese; and also served as vice-president of the Indiana Catholic and Record, the official newspaper, which later became The Criterion. He also effectively helped the bishop in meeting the challenge of a hostile Ku Klux Klan, which in the 1920s and early 1930s in Indiana was a stronghold. He worked hard for civil and social rights of African Americans in Indiana.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Ippo and appointed auxiliary of Indianapolis, February 3, 1933. Consecrated, March 28, 1933, Indianapolis, by Joseph Chartrand, bishop of Indianapolis, assisted by Alphonse John Smith, bishop of Nashville, and by Emmanuel Boleslaus Ledvina, bishop of Corpus Christi. His episcopal motto was Miles Christi Sum. Vicar general of Indianapolis, February 5, 1933. Transferred to the see of Indianapolis, March 24, 1934; his installation took place on March 24, 1934, making him the youngest ordinary in the American hierarchy at the time. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Indianapolis when the diocese was elevated to archdiocese, November 11, 1944; his installation took place on December 19, 1944. On February 22, 1946, Pope Pius XII sent him the pallium. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Saint Louis, July 20, 1946. In September 1947, he desegregated five Catholic St. Louis high schools; as a result, the City Board of Education immediately advocated the abolition of segregation in St. Louis public schools. The archbishop threatened those who fought desegregation with excommunication from the Catholic Church, making it easier for him to implement change and to eliminate opposition. Named assistant at the Pontifical Throne on October 5, 1956. Cardinal Ritter's will was dated November 26, 1956. It assigned his property and that which he administered as head of the archdiocese to Bishop John Patrick Cody of Kansas City-St. Joseph, and Bishops-designate Charles Helmsing of Springfield-Cape Girardeau and Joseph Marling of Jefferson City (these were their titles in 1956), to be held by them in trust as joint tenants until a new archbishop was appointed. He appointed as executor of the will the person who would be serving as chancellor of the archdiocese at the time of his death. The will was filed at the Probate Court of St. Louis on June 12, 1967.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 16, 1961; received the red hat and the title of SS. Redentore e S. Alfonso in via Merulana, January 19, 1961. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Among the major accomplishments of his episcopate were his sending of priests of the St. Louis Archdiocese to work in the South American mission field; his early integration of parochial schools; his work in promoting the participation of the laity in the Apostolate; and his outstanding service as the head of the Commission for the Liturgy.

Death. Saturday June 10, 1967, at 5:47 a.m., of a heart attack, in Saint Louis. He had received the last rites the previous Monday, when he entered the hospital. His sister, Sister Mary Catherina, had come from Bardstown, Kentucky, to be with him during his illness. His red hat was hung from the ceiling of the cathedral of St. Louis. The requiem mass took place on Thursday, June 15, at the metropolitan cathedral. Cardinal-designate John Patrick Cody, archbishop of Chicago, formerly an auxiliary bishop under the late cardinal in St. Louis, was the main celebrant. Cardinals Richard James Cushing, James Francis McIntyre, Lawrence Joseph Shehan, and Francis Joseph Spellman attended, together with cardinals-designate John Joseph Krol and Patrick Aloysius O'Boyle. Ten archbishops, forty-eight bishops, and four abbots joined them. Some fifty Protestant, Jewish, and Orthodox leaders were present, representing the Episcopal Church, Missouri-Synod Lutheran, United Church of Christ, Greek Orthodox, Baptist, Disciples of Christ, Methodists, Presbyterians, and Salvation Army. In his sermon Bishop Charles Helmsing of Kansas City-St. Joseph, another former auxiliary bishop under the cardinal, singled out his liturgical leadership, particularly "his concern for a liturgy of the Word that would truly inform and enlighten the people of God." White vestments, the selection of readings, and use of psalms gave evidence of the experimental funeral liturgy authorized in St. Louis by the Vatican since September 1966. Cardinal Ritter was buried in the priests' lot at Calvary Cemetery among some 200 graves. He had expressed the desire not to be buried in the cathedral. Later his red hat was hung from the ceiling of the cathedral to perpetuate his memory. In 1967, St. Louis University established the "Cardinal Ritter Foundation for Human Rights and Social Justice"; and in 2006, Andrew Steffen, Indianapolis attorney, gave a one million dollar scholarship endowment to Marian College, Indianapolis, to increase diversity at the college, in honor of the legacy of Cardinal Ritter. On November 2, 1994, on the initiative of Archbishop Justin Rigali of St. Louis, Cardinal Ritter's remains were taken from Calvary Cemetery and brought to the cathedral. The re-interment in the crypt took place as part of the annual mass for departed members of the Priests' Purgatorial Society. The cardinal's remains were laid to rest with those of Cardinal John Joseph Glennon and Archbishop John Lawrence May in the new cathedral, now the cathedral basilica of St. Louis (1).

Bibliography. Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 252; Johnson, James. Joseph Cardinal Ritter. Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press, 1964. (The men who make the Council, 4); Schneider, Nicholas A. Joseph Elmer Cardinal Ritter: his life and times. Foreword by Justin Cardinal Rigali. Liguori Publications: Liguori, Missouri, 2008. Contents: Welcome to St. Louis: the early years -- Settling in St. Louis -- Beginnings -- St. Louis: the middle years -- Mission focus -- Promoter of ecumenism -- Installation as cardinal -- The Second Vatican Council years: Part one (1962 and 1963) -- The Second Vatican Council years: Part two (1964 and 1965) -- Post-Vatican II years (1966 and 1967) -- The final days.

Links. His photograph and biographical data, archdiocese of Saint Louis, in English, sixth from the top of the page; photograph and biography, in Englishh, Marian University, Indianapolis; historical markers in honor of Cardinal Joseph E. Ritter, IN.gov; Cardinal Ritter Birthplace Foundation, in English; The Legacy of Cardinal Joseph Ritter continues on Indy's West Side by Vicki Murphy, in English, The National Black Catholic Congress; Bishops and Archbishops of the Archdiocese of Indianapolis, in English; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the inscription in his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

CARDINAL
JOSEPH E.
RITTER
1892 - 1967


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RIVERA CARRERA, Norberto
(1942-

Birth. June 6, 1942, La Purísima,Tepehuanes, archdiocese of Durango, México. Son of Ramón Rivera Cháidez and Soledad Carrera. He has a sister who is a nun.

Education. Studied at the Conciliar Seminary of Durango; and later, at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 3, 1966, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope Paul VI. From 1967 to 1985, in Durango, pastoral ministry in Río Grande, Zacatecas; faculty member, Seminary of Durango for 18 years and prefect of discipline; founder and ecclesiastical assistant of the movement "Jornadas de Vida Cristiana"; diocesan assistant of "Movimiento Familiar Cristiano" and of Youth Catholic Action; member and coordinator of the presbyteral council; secretary of the archdiocesan pastoral commission; director of social communications; cathedral canon lector; faculty member, Pontifical Mexican University, México City, 1982-1985; executive secretary of pastoral care for the family, Episcopal Commission for Lay Apostolate, 1983-1985.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tehuacán, November 5, 1985. Consecrated, December 21, 1985, Minor Seminary of Tehuacán, by Antonio López Aviña, archbishop of Durango, assisted by Adolfo Suárez Rivera, archbishop of Monterrey, and by Rosendo Huesca Pacheco, archbishop of Puebla; another twenty three bishops also participated in the ceremony. His episcopal motto is Lumen Gentium. Apostolic visitor for the diocesan and religious seminaries of México. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of México, June 13, 1995. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of S. Francesco d'Assisi a Ripa Grande, February 21, 1998. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Participated in the Fifth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. Named member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See on October 23, 2010. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Confirmed as member of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America on January 15, 2014. He was named member of the Council for the Economy for a quinquennium on March 8, 2014. He was named member of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life on March 29, 2014. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Clergy on June 9, 2014.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Spanish, archdiocese of México; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Corte de Los Àngeles cierra definitivamente demanda contra Cardenal Rivera, ACI/EWTN Noticias, 24 Jul. 12 / 03:15 am.; !No saquemos a Dios de la familia!, clama Cardenal Rivera, ACI/EWTN Noticias, 08 Ago. 12 / 07:32 am; Cardenal Rivera a abogados: Dios valorará todo acto que haya sido justo, ACI, 13 Ago. 12 / 07:52 pm; Cardenal Rivera pide acercarse más dinámicamente a jóvenes, ACI/EWTN Noticias, 17 Ago. 12 / 05:05 am; Cardenal pide a catequistas no claudicar en compromiso misionero, ACI/EWTN Noticias, 27 Ago. 12 / 05:42 pm; Cardenal Rivera pide a mexicanos hacer labor pastoral con humildad, ACI, 31 Ago. 12 / 09:20 am.


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ROBERTI, Francesco
(1889-1977)

Birth. July 7, 1889, Pergola, diocese of Pesaro, Italy. Son of Terenzio Roberi and Giuseppina Profili. He was baptized on the same day of his birth.

Education. Studied at the Pre-Seminary of Pesaro from 1899; received the ecclesiastical tonsure on December 26, 1901; at the Pontifical Roman Seminary, from April 24, 1902 to 1913; returned to Pergola to receive the priestly ordination; at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome, where he earned doctorates in philosophy, theology and utroque iure, both canon and civil law; and at the Royal University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 3, 1913, Pergola. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, Tor di Mezzavia d'Albano and Torretta Massimi. Vice-rector of the Pontifical Minor Roman Seminary, 1915-1916; rector, 1916-1929. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, March 2, 1917. Professor of canon law at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", February 1, 1918-1938. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, March 23, 1922. Advocate of the Sacred Roman Rota and the Holy Office, 1927-1931. Referendary prelate of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, March 17, 1928; voting prelate, November 27, 1930. Founder and director of the journal Apollinaris, organ of the Faculty of Canon Law, 1928. Undersecretary of the S.C. of Seminaries and Universities, April 24, 1931. He was one of the organizers and contributors of the 4th International Juridical Congress for the commemoration of the 7th centennial of the decretali of Pope Gregory IX and the 14th centennial of the codice Giustinianeo, celebrated in Rome on November 12 to 17, 1934; the congress gathered the leading international specialists in canon and Roman law. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, June 5, 1936. Dean of the Pontifical Institute "Utriusque Iuris", 1937-1943. Official of the Roman vicariate. Secretary of the S.C. of the Council, March 9, 1946. Legal consultor of the Secretariat of State, October 6, 1952.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 15, 1958; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, December 18, 1958. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, November 14, 1959.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Colonnata, April 5, 1962. Consecrated, April 19, 1962, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Cardinal Giuseppe Pizzardo and by Cardinal Benedetto Aloisi Masella. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinals Joaquín Anselmo María Albareda, O.S.B., Antonio Bacci, Augustin Bea, S.J., Francesco Bracci, Michael Browne, O.P., William Theodore Heard, Alberto di Jorio, André Jullien, P.S.S., Arcadio María Larraona, C.M.F., Francesco Morano and Alfredo Ottaviani. His episcopal motto was Dominus robur meum. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, June 26, 1967. Resigned the prefecture, March 24, 1969; named prefect emeritus, March 26, 1969. Lost the right to participate in the conclave by being older than eighty years, January 1, 1971.

Death. July 16, 1977, Rome. Buried in his family's plot in Pergola.

Bibliography. Palazzini, Pietro. "Card. Francesco Roberti." La Pontificia Università lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, pp. 222-224; Palazzini, Pietro. "Commemorazione del cardinale Francesco Roberti." Apollinaris, LI (1978), 5-15.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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RODRÍGUEZ MARADIAGA, S.D.B., Óscar Andrés
(1942-

Birth. December 29, 1942, Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Third of the four children of Andrés Rodríguez Palacios and Raquel Maradiaga; the other siblings were Jorge, Hortensia and Mario. His paternal grandfather, Jesús María Rodríguez Orellana, was minister of education.

Education. Salesian "Instituto San Miguel", Tegucigalpa, 1949-1960 (elementary and secondary studies); joined the Pious Society of St. Francis de Sales (Salesians of Don Bosco); sent to El Salvador to initiate his Salesian formation; solemn profession, May 3, 1961; Institute "Don Rua", San Salvador, El Salvador (doctorate in philosophy); Pontifical Salesian Athenaeum, Rome (doctorate in theology); Alphonsian Academy of Moral Theology (incorporated into the faculty of the Pontifical Lateran University in 1960), Rome (doctorate in moral theology); University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (diploma in clinical psychology and psychotherapy); Conservatory of San Salvador, El Salvador (piano); studied harmony and musical composition in Guatemala and Newton, N.J., United States of America. Besides his native Spanish, he also speaks English, French, Italian, German and Portuguese.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 28, 1970, Guatemala, by Girolamo Prigione, titular archbishop of Lauriaco, nuncio in Guatemala and El Salvador. Professor of sacred music for 13 years; professor of chemistry, Salesian school "Don Bosco", Guatemala, 1971-1972; professor of moral theology and ecclesiology, Salesian Theological Institute, Guatemala, 1971-1975; secretary of the Theological Faculty of the University "Francisco Marroquín", Guatemala, 1974-1976; rector of the Salesian Philosophical Institute, Guatemala, 1975-1978.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Pudenziana and appointed auxiliary of Tegucigalpa, October 28, 1978. Consecrated, December 8, 1978, Tegucigalpa, by Gabriel Montalvo, titular archbishop of Celene, nuncio in Honduras, assisted by Hector Enrique Santos Hernández, S.D.B., archbishop of Tegucigalpa, and by Miguel Obando Bravo, S.D.B., archbishop of Managua. His episcopal motto is Mihi vivere Christus est. Named apostolic administrator of the diocese of Santa Rosa de Copán, 1981-1984. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; by papal appointment. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; by papal appointment. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Promoted to metropolitan see of Tegucigalpa, January 8, 1993. Apostolic Administrator of the diocese of San Pedro Sula, 1993-1995. Secretary general of the Episcopal Council of Latin America (CELAM), 1987-1991; president, 1995-1999. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. President of the Episcopal Conference of Honduras, 1997-. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; president of the commission for information. Awarded a doctorate ad honorem in political science by the University of Studies "Carlo Bo", Urbino, Italy, January 16, 2001; elected member of the Twelfth Council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, October 22, 2008.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria della Speranza, February 21, 2001. He is the first cardinal from Honduras. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Participated in the Fifth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. On June 5, 2007, he was elected president of Caritas Internationalis by the Confederation members at their Eighteenth General Assembly in Vatican City; he took possession of the post on June 9, 2007. On January 24, 2008, he received the 2007 "Honorary Award" in appreciation of his life work from the Viktor Frankl Foundation of the City of Vienna for the Advancement of Meaning-Oriented Humanistic Psychotherapy, Vienna, Austria. The board of the foundation had convened on November 28, 2007 to confer the prizes and scholarships for 2007. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church"; by papal appointment. Re-elected president of Caritas International on May 24, 2011, during the Caritas federation General Assembly in Rome. Named member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on June 12, 2012. Named member of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum on October 27, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On April 13, 2013, he was named by Pope Francis coordinator of a group of cardinals to advise him in the government of the universal Church and to study a plan for revising the apostolic constitution on the Roman Curia, Pastor Bonus.On May 10, 2013, the University of Studies of Parma, Italy, granted him an honorary doctorate in International Business and Development. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013. Confirmed as member of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America on January 15, 2014. He was named member of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life on March 29, 2014. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Clergy on June 9, 2014.

Bibliography. Romeo, Enzo. L'Oscar color porpora : il cardinale Rodríguez Maradiaga, voce dell'America Latina. Milano : Ancora, 2006. (Frontiere; Variation: Frontiere (Milan, Italy)).

Links. His arms, Araldica Vaticana; Rodriguez Maradiaga: sussulto etico per vincere la crisi by Gianni Cardinale, in Italian, Avvenire, 19 giugno 2012; Cardinal Maradiaga, a pilot and academic devoted to the poor, video, Rome Reports, 2013-02-26 12:24:42; L'Ateneo di Parma ha conferito al Cardinale Maradiaga la Laurea Honoris Causa in International Business and Development, in Italian, Università degli Studi di Parma, 8 maggio 2013; Francis' reforms and the Guadalupe method by Alver Metalli, Vatican Insider, 11/19/2013; Maradiaga says Müller needs to "be a bit more flexible" by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 21/01/2014; Il cardinale e la matematica, L'Osservatore Romano, 11 marzo 2014; Francis encountering curial opposition, cardinal says, by Joshua J. McElwee, National Catholic Register, Apr. 21, 2014; Rodríguez Maradiaga: "Dal deserto alla vita eterna" by Maria Teresa Pontara Pederiva, Vatican Insider, 22/04/2014; Cardinal staunchly defends popes critiques of capitalism by Joshua J. McElwee, National Catholic Reporter, Jun. 3, 2014.


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ROEY, Jozef-Ernest van
(1874-1961)

Birth. January 13, 1874, Vorsselaer, archdiocese of Mechelen, Belgium. Eldest of the five children of Stanislas van Roey and Anna-Maria Bartholomeus; the other siblings were Bernadette, Louis, Véronique, and Stephanie, who became a nun. He was baptized the same day of his birth in the parish church of Vorsselaer.

Education. Studied at the Jesuit school, Vorsselaer; at Saint-Joseph School, Herentals, 1885-1892; at the Seminary of Mechelen, September 1892-1894 (philosophy); at the Major Seminary of Mechelen, 1894-1897 (theology); at the Theological Falcuty of the University of Louvain, 1897-1901, obtaining a doctorate in theology and the habilitation, 1903.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 18, 1897, Mechelen, by Cardinal Pierre-Lambert Goossens, archbishop of Mechelen. Further studies, 1897-1901. Faculty member of "Collège Americaine," 1901-1905. Faculty member of the University of Louvain, 1905-1907; he became a friend of Dom Columba Marmion, O.S.B., future blessed. Honorary canon of the metropolitan chapter of Mechelen, May 19, 1907; vicar general, September 30, 1907 to 1925. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, April 2, 1909. Secretary of the provincial council, 1920. Participated in the "Conversations of Mechelen", 1921-1926 (1). Secretary of the diocesan synod, 1924. Protonotary apostolic, February 11, 1925.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Mechelen, March 12, 1926. Consecrated, Sunday April 25, 1926, metropolitan cathedral of Mechelen, by Clemente Micara, titular archbishop of Apamea, nuncio in Belgium, assisted by Gustave-Joseph Waffelaert, bishop of Brugge, and by Gaston-Antoine Rasneur, bishop of Tournai. His episcopal motto was In Nomine Domini.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 20, 1927; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Aracoeli, June 23, 1927. Papal legate to the centennial celebration of the University of Louvain, June 24, 1927. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Cardinal protoprete, March 29, 1958. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. On July 2, 1959, in Brussels, he celebrated the marriage of Prince Albert, future King Albert II of the Belgians and Princess Paola Margherita Consiglia Ruffo di Calabria. On December 15, 1960, at the collegiate church of Saints-Michele-et-Gudule, Brussels, he celebrated the marriage of King Baudouin I of the Belgians and Doña Fabiola de Mora y Aragón.

Death. Sunday August 6, 1961, at 6:05 a.m., after a long circulatory illness, Mechelen; the day before, at noon, Auxiliary Bishop Leo-Jozef Suenens had administered him the last rites and the holy communion. His body lay in state for three days in the archiepiscopal palace of Mechelen. The funeral took place on August 10 in the metropolitan cathedral of Saint-Romabut of Mechelen; Honoré van Waeyembergh, auxiliary bishop of Mechelen and rector magnifique of the University of Louvain, delivered the homily; King Leopold and Queen Elizabeth of Belgium attended the ceremony together with the prime minister, the ministers of state, all the bishops of Belgium and several who had come from other countries such as Cardinals Francis Joseph Spellman of New York and Bernardus Johannes Alfrink of Utrecht. Buried in the crypt of the metropolitan cathedral of Mechelen (2), above the vault of Cardinal Engelbert Sterckx, whom he recognized as the second founder of the archdiocese, as he had explicitly requested (3).

Bibliography. Le jubilé sacerdotal de Son Éminence le Cardinal van Roey, archevêque de Malines = Het priesterjubileum van Zijne Eminentie Kardinaal van Roey, aartsbisschop van Mechelen. [S.l. : s.n.], (Nova et Vetera), 1947; Kempeneers, Joseph Marie Léonard. Le Cardinal Van Roey en son temps. 1874-1961. Trente-cinq années d'épiscopat. Préface de Léon-Joseph Cardinal Suenens. Bruxelles : OEuvres pontificales missionnaires ; Gembloux : J. Duculot, 1971. (Bibliotheca Ephemeridum theologicarum Lovaniensium, 30); Leclef, Edmond François Xavier Antoine Marie Joseph. Le Cardinal van Roey et l'occupation allemande en Belgique. Bruxelles : A. Goemaere, 1945. Responsibility: actes et documents publiés par le chanoine Leclef; Plavsic, Wladimir S. Le Cardinal Van Roey. Bruxelles : Labor, 1974. (Collection Humanisme).

Links. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; and his bust by Willy Peeters, in Vorselaar; the bust was donated by Jef Olieslagers..

(1) A series of conversations between prominent Roman Catholic and Anglican figures. The conversations were held between 1921 and 1926 in Malines, Belgium, under the presidency of Cardinal Desiré-Joseph Mercier, archbishop of that city, at the instigation of Charles Lindley Wood, second viscount Halifax. Wood published the results in 1928 and 1930. All the conversations after the first took place with the knowledge of the pope and the archbishop of Canterbury. A wide range of agreements was reached on papal primacy of honor, real presence, eucharistic sacrifice, episcopacy, etc., which foreshadowed the current discussions of the Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission (ARCIC). The conversations were held in in the archiepiscopal palace of Malines in 1921, 1923, 1925 and 1926, and besides Msgr. van Roey, for the Catholic Church, also took part Ferdinand Étienne Portal, president of the Mission; Hyppolite Hemmer; Msgr. Pierre-Henri Batiffol; and for the Anglican Church, Walter Howard Frere, R.C.; Charles Gore, bishop; and Benjamin Kidd.
(2) This is the inscription in his tomb kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici from Malta:

JO. ERN. CARD. VAN ROEY
XVII ARCHIEP. MECHL.
1926
+ 6 AUGUSTII 1961

(3) This is the text of the inscription below his bust in the metropolitan cathedral of Mechelen, unveiled on August 6, 1971:
D. O. M.
PIAE MEMORIAE
JOSEPHI ERNESTI S. R. E. CARDINALIS
VAN ROEY
ARCHIEPISCOPI MECHLINIENSIS
GREGEM PER TRIGINTA QUINQUE ANNOS REXIT
IN NOMINE DOMINI
SAPEINTIA AEQUITATE PRUDENTIA
AD INFORMANDUM SCIENTIA AC PIETATE CLERUM
ASSIDUE STUDIT
CHRISTIFIDELIUM ET CIVIUM JURA
INTREPIDUS AB INIURIIS VINDICAVIT
S. SEDI DEVOTISSIMUS
CONSILIO ATQUE AUCTORITATE
CUM IN PATRIA TUM TOTA ECCLESIA CLARUIT
OBIIT 6 AUG. 1961 ANNO AETATIS SUAE 87
PIE LECTOR PRO EODEM PRECARE


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RONCALLI, Angelo Giuseppe
(1881-1963)

Birth. Friday November 25, 1881, at 10:15 a.m., Sotto il Monte, diocese of Bergamo, Italy. From a family of sharecroppers. Son of Giovanni Battista Roncalli and Marianna Mazzola. The other siblings were Maria Caterina, Teresa, Ancilla, Zaverio, Maria Elisa, Assunta Casilda, Alfredo, Giovanni Francesco, Enrica, Giuseppe Luigi and Luigi. He was baptized on the day of his birth, as it was the custom, in the church of S. Maria di Brusicco by Father Francesco Rebuzzini; his great-uncle Zaverio Roncalli was his godfather. He received the first communion in 1888 in Sotto il Monte; and confirmation on February 13, 1889 in Cavico from Gaetano Camillo Guindani, bishop of Bergamo.

Education. Minor Seminary of Bergamo, Bergamo, 1892-1895; Major Seminary of Bergamo, Bergamo, 1895-1900 (until his second year of theology); received the clerical habit and the tonsure, June 24, 1895; Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome, January 4, 1901 (doctorate in theology, July 13, 1904). Received the minor orders of porter and lector on July 3, 1898; the minor orders of exorcist and acolyte on June 25, 1899; the subdiaconate on April 11, 1903, at the patriarchal Lateran basilica, from Cardinal Pietro Respighi, vicar of Rome; and the diaconate on December 18, 1903, in the same basilica from the same cardinal. Began his military service in the 73rd Infantry, Lombardy Brigade, at Bergamo, in the Umberto I Barracks on November 30, 1901; promoted to corporal on May 31, 1902; promoted to sergeant on November 30, 1902; returned to his studies in Rome in December 1902; prefect of young students of theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 10, 1904, church of Santa Maria in Monte Santo, piazza del Popolo, Rome, by Giuseppe Ceppetelli, titular patriarch of Constantinople, vicegerent of Rome. Secretary to the bishop of Bergamo, 1905-1914. Named professor of church history at the Seminary of Bergamo, October 1906. Secretary of the 32nd diocesan synod of Bergamo, April 26 to 28, 1910. Military chaplain in the First World War, May 24, 1915 to December 10, 1918. Spiritual director of the Seminary of Bergamo, 1918-1921. Honorary canon of the cathedral chapter of Bergamo, 1921. Staff member of the S.C. for Propagation of the Faith, 1921-1925. President of the Central Council of the Propagation of the Faith in Italy, January 18, 1921. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 7, 1921. Named professor of patrology at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, November 1924.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Areopoli, March 3, 1925. Consecrated, March 19, 1925, church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni Tacci, secretary of the S.C. of the Oriental Church, assisted by Francesco Marchetti Selvaggiani, titular archbishop of Seleucia di Isauria, secretary of the S.C. for Propagation of Faith, and by Giuseppe Palica, titular archbishop of Filippi, vicegerent of Rome. His episcopal motto was Obedientia et pax. Appointed apostolic visitor in Bulgaria, March 19, 1925; apostolic delegate, October 16, 1931. Transferred to titular see of Mesembria, November 30, 1934. Apostolic delegate and apostolic vicar in Turkey, and apostolic delegate ad interim in Greece, January 12, 1935. Nuncio in France, December 22, 1944.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red biretta from President Vincent Auriol of France, in Paris, on the following January 15; received the red hat on October 29, 1953, together with new Cardinals Gaetano Cicognani, Pietro Ciriaci, Benjamín de Arriba y Castro and Fernando Quiroga y Palacios, in a special consistory that lasted fifteen minutes, and also the title of S. Prisca. Promoted to the patriarchate of Venice, January 15, 1953. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Beïrut, Lebanon, September 30, 1954. Participated in the conclave of 1958 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected, October 28, 1958; took name John XXIII (1). Crowned, November 4, 1958 by Cardinal Nicola Canali, protodeacon of S. Nicola in Carcere. He convoked the Second Vatican Ecumenical Council in 1962. Created fifty five cardinals in five consistories. Three of them were reserved in pectore and their names were never published, therefore, their promotion did not take effect. He wrote eight encyclicals: Pacem in terris; Paenitentiam Agere; Aeterna Dei Sapientia; Mater et Magistra; Princeps Pastorum; Grata Recordatio; Sacerdotii Nostri Primordia; and Ad Petri Cathedram.

Death. June 3, 1963, of peritonitis due to a perforated stomach caused by cancer; at the end of the mass celebrated by Cardinal Luigi Traglia, vicar of Rome, in St. Peter's square, Vatican City. Buried on June 6, 1963, in the grotto of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Canonization. The process of beatification was started by Pope Paul VI on November 18, 1965, during the last session of the Second Vatican Council together with the cause of Pope Pius XII. Beatified on September 3, 2000 in St. Peter's Square, by Pope John Paul II. His body was transferred to the altar of the chapel of S. Girolamo in the patriarchal Vatican basilica on June 3, 2001. On September 30, 2013, during an ordinary public consistory, Pope Francis approved his canonization to be celebrated on Sunday April 27, 2014, feast of the Divine Mercy. The Universal Church celebrates his feast on June 3; and the diocese of Bergamo on October 11.

Bibliography. Breig, Joseph A. The story of Pope John XXIII. St. Paul : Summit Press, 1959; Capovilla, Loris. Giovanni XXIII. Fotocronaca dagli album personali del pontefice commentati dal suo segretario particolare, dal fonte battesimale di Sotto il Monte alla canonizzazione in piazza San Pietro. Bergamo : Grafica & arte, 2000; Capovilla, Loris. Papa Giovanni. Fotocronaca dagli album personali del pontefice. Bergamo : Grafica & arte, 2014; Duffy, Eamon. Ten popes who shook the world. New Haven [Conn.] : Yale University Press, 2011. Contents: St Peter -- Leo the Great -- Gregory the Great -- Gregory VII -- Innocent III -- Paul III -- Pio Nono -- Pius XII -- John XXIII -- John Paul II; Elliot, Lawrence. I Will Be Called John. A biography of Pope John XXIII. New York : Reader's Digest, 1973; Falasca, Stefania. Giovanni XXIII, in una carezza la rivoluzione. Con un saggio di Ezio Bolis. Milano : Rizzoli, 2014. (Saggi italiani); Giovannetti, Albert. We have a pope. A portrait of His Holiness John XXIII. Translated from the Italian by John Chapin. Westminster : Newman, 1959; Groppi, Ugo ; Lombardi, Julius S. Above all a shepherd. Pope John XXIII. New York : P.J. Kenedy & Sons, 1959; Hatch, Alden. A man named John. The life of Pope John XXIII. Illustrated with Drawings by Allene Gaty Hatch. New York : Hawthorne Books, 1963; Hebblethwaite, Peter. Pope John XXIII, shepherd of the modern world. Garden City, N.J.; New York: Doubleday, 1985; Hebblethwaite, Peter ; Hebblethwaite, Margaret. John XXIII pope of the century. London ; New York : Continuum, Edition: Abridged ed. rev. by Margaret Hebblethwaite, 2000. Contents: Village boyhood --; Counter-Reformation seminary --; Roman education --; Into the whirlwind of Modernism --; Great War --; Towards propaganda and Fascism --; Ten hard years in Bulgaria --; Innocent suspect --; God's consul --; Difficult mission to France --; Seasons of Venice --; 1958: the wide-open conclave --; First ninety days --; Inspiration of the Council --; Struggle for the Council --; At home and in Rome --; Italian connection --; Enter Augustin Bea --; Getting on for eighty --; Dress rehearsal --; On the slopes of the sacred mountain --; Sixty days to change the church --; Last will and testament --; Eastertide. Javierre, José María. Juan XXIII : reto para hoy. 2a. ed. Salamanca : Editorial Sígueme, 2002, ©2000. (El rostro de los santos ; 25); John XXIII. Journal of a soul. Translated by Dorothy White. New York : McGraw-Hill, 1965. Other title: Giornale dell' anima; Johnson, Paul. Pope John XXIII. Boston : Little, Brown, 1974; Kartaloff, Kiril Plamen. La sollecitudine ecclesiale di monsignor Roncalli in Bulgaria (1925-1934). Studio storico-diplomatico alla luce delle nuove fonti archivistiche. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2014. (Atti e Documenti del Pontificio Comitato di Scienze Storiche); Kerdreux, Michel de. Jean XXIII. Preface by François Marty. Paris : Beacuhesne, 1970. (Collection Biographies); Lazzarini, Andrea. Pope John XXIII. A life of the new pope. New York : Herder and Herder, 1959; Mission to France 1944-1953. Edited by Don Loris Capovilla. Translated by Dorothy White. New York : McGraw-Hill, 1966; Ormenese, Giuseppe. Vita virtuosa e partecipazione liturgica La formazione spirituale e intellettuale di Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli. Cinisello Balsamo : Edizioni San Paolo, 2012. (Classici del pensiero cristiano); Paul VI. John XXIII. Pope Paul on his predecessor and a documentation by the Editors of 'Herder Correspondence'. New York : Herder and Herder, 1965; Pepper, Curtis Bill. An artist and the pope. Based upon the personal recollections of Giacomo Manzà. Illustrations by Manzà. New York : Grosset & Dunlap, 1968; Perrotta, Paul C. Pope John XXIII. His life and character. New York : Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1959; Riccardi, Andrea. L'uomo dell'incontro. Angelo Roncalli e la politica internazionale. Cinisello Balsamo : San Paolo, 2014; Roncalli, Marco. Giovanni XXIII. Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli. Una vita nella storia. Milano : EditoreMondadori, 2006. (Le scie); Roncalli, Marco. Papa Giovanni il santo. Postfazione di Loris Francesco Capovilla. Milano ; Cinisello Balsamo : Paoline ; San Paolo, 2014; Sonnemans, Heino. Giovanni XXIII Papa del Vaticano II, dell'unità e della pace. Cinisello Balsamo : Edizioni San Paolo, 2012. (Classici del pensiero cristiano); Spina, Tony. The making of the pope. Additional text by Dawson Taylor. With a foreword by John LaFarge, S.J. New York : A.S. Barnes and Company, 1962; Tobin, Greg. The good pope : the making of a saint and the remaking of the church : the story of John XXIII and Vatican II. New York, NY : HarperOne, 2012. Contents: Priest and Protector. Pastor et Nauta, Shepherd and navigator ; Family, youth, and seminary (1881-1904) ; Early priesthood and Rome (1904-1915) ; The Great War and after (1915-1925) ; Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey (1925-1945) ; France and Venice (1945-1958). -- The Soul of a Pope. Election and first days (October-December (1958) ; The first year (January-December 1959) ; A unique pontificate (January-December 1960) ; World in crisis (January 1961-September 1962) ; Aggiornamento, Si! (October 1962). -- Father of the Council. A new Pentecost? (November-December 1962) ; Peace on Earth (January-April 1963) ; Finis (May-June 1963) ; The Good Pope and his great council; Traniello, Francesco. "Giovanni XXIII, beato." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 646-657; Treece, Patricia. Meet John XXIII: joyful pope and father to all. Cincinnati, OH : Servant Books, 2008. Contents: Beginnings -- Formation in Rome -- A priest of Bergamo -- Drama, deaths, and a World War I chaplaincy -- Teacher and guide -- At home in Rome -- Bulgarian exile -- Turkey and Greece -- Walking World War II's tightrope -- The Paris years -- Shepherd of Venice -- Return to Rome -- A fatherly Holy Father -- The Council -- Of world rulers and God's humble servant -- Go in peace; Trevor, Meriol. Pope John. Garden City : Doubleday, 1967.

Links. His photograph, arms, documents and biography, in several languages, The Vatican; photograph and biography by John Cogley, in English (Britannica); biography by Francesco Traniello, in Italian, Enciclopedia dei papi, Treccani; his chronology, in Italian, ofm communications, Rome; his episcopal lineageby Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; pictures, bibliography and biographyby Maria Di Lorenzo, in Italian, Santi e Beati; research on his heraldry by Giacomo Danesi, in Italian, L'Araldica Ecclesiastica da Leone XIII a Benedetto XVI; and his photograph and arms as cardinal, Araldica Vaticana; Película completa-El Santo Padre Juan XXIII ---En Español, YouTube; John XXIII's angel by Marco Roncalli, LOsservatore Romano, 2012-08-28; Roncalli il bulgaro Cultura, Avvenire, 20 luglio 2013; La storia "vera" del Discorso papale più celebre di tutti i tempi by Gianni Gennari, Vatican Insider, 30/11/2013; Ecco perché Francesco canonizza Giovanni XXIII by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 23/04/2014; Pope John XXIII Launched Vatican II and Then Some by Nicole Winfield, Associated Press, ABC News, April 23, 2014; John XXIII: The accidental saint by Bill Huebsch, National Catholic Reporter, April 24, 2014.

(1) There had been an antipope by the same name, John XXIII (1410-1415), Baldassare Cossa, who was deposed by the Council of Constance on May 29, 1415. He made his submission to Martin V, who absolved him and named him cardinal bishop of Frascati on June 23, 1419. Died on December 22, 1419.


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ROQUES, Clément-Émile
(1880-1964)

Birth. December 8, 1880, Saint Pierre des Ports, Graulhet, archdiocese of Albi, France.

Education. He studied at the Minor Seminary of Lavaur; then, at the Seminary of Albi; and finally, at the Catholic Institute, Toulouse.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 2, 1904, Rodez. Faculty member, administrator, prefect of studies, and superior of the Seminary of Barral, Castres, 1904-1929.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Montauban, April 15, 1929. Consecrated, June 24, 1929, metropolitan cathedral of Albi, by Pierre-Celestin Cézerac, archbishop of Albi, assisted by Jules-Géraud Saliège, archbishop of Toulouse, and by Charles Challiol, bishop of Rodez. His episcopal motto was In fide et lenitate. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Aix, December 24, 1934. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Rennes, May 11, 1940.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Balbina, February 22, 1946. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Nantes, June 6, 1947; to the National Eucharistic Congress, Rennes, June 22, 1956. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the first two sessions of the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1963. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI.

Death. September 4, 1964, Rennes. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Rennes.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 473-474.

Link. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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ROSALES Y RAS, Julio
(1906-1983)

Birth. September 18, 1906, Calbayog, Philippines. Son of Basilio Rosales y Cinco and Agueda Ras y Sison.

Education. Seminary of Calbayog, Calbayog.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 2, 1929, Calbayog. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Calboyog, 1929-1946.

Episcopate. Elected first bishop of Tagbilaran, June 29, 1946. Consecrated, September 21, 1946, Palo, by Guglielmo Piani, titular archbishop of Nicosia, apostolic delegate in the Philippines, assisted by Manuel Mascariñas y Morgia, bishop of Caceres, and by Miguel Acebedo, bishop of Calbayog. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Cebu, December 17, 1949. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. President of the Episcopal Conference of Philippines.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of Sacro Cuore di Gesù a Vitinia, April 30, 1969. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, August 24, 1982.

Death. June 2, 1983, Cebu. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Cebu.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles. "Philippine episcopology (III)." Boletín Eclesiástico de Filipinas, LXV, 716-717 (July-August 1989), 575; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 451.


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ROSSI, Agnelo
(1913-1995)

Birth. May 4, 1913, Joaquim Egidio, diocese of Campinas, Brazil. Son of Vicente Rossi, commander of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre, and Vitória Colombo. He had one brother, Miguel.

Education. Initial studies, Valinhos; Diocesan Minor Seminary of Santa Maria, Campinas (philosophy); left for Rome, October 15, 1933; for five months resided at Pontifical Collegio Pio Latino-Americano; on April 4, 1934, he was one of the thirty-three founding students of the Pontifical Collegio Pio Brasileiro; he was student number 01; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (licentiate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, March 27, 1937, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. Secretary to the bishop of Campinas, 1937-1938. Faculty member of the Central Seminary of São Paulo, 1938-1942. From 1943-1956, in Campinas, vice-rector of the faculty of economic science; director of La Tribuna; vice-rector of the University of Campinas; and canon of the cathedral chapter, 1943-1956.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Barra do Pirai, March 5, 1956. Consecrated, April 15, 1956 by Paulo de Tarso Campos, bishop of Campinas, assisted by Vicente Marchetti Zioni, titular bishop of Lauzado, auxiliary of São Paulo, and by Helder Pessoa Câmara, titular bishop of Salde, auxiliary of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro. His episcopal motto was Oportet illum regnare. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Ribeirão Preto, September 6, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. President of the Episcopal Conference of Brazil, 1963-1970. Transferred to the metropolitan see of São Paulo, November 1, 1964.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of Gran Madre di Dio, February 25, 1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. President-delegate of the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; member of the board of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, 1969-1971. Prefect of the S.C. for the Evangelization of Peoples, October 22, 1970 until April 9, 1984. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, May 24, 1976 until June 27, 1977. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Confirmed as prefect of the S.C. for Evangelization of Peoples by Pope John Paul II, November 3, 1978. Attended the Thrid General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; the First Plenary Meeting of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 8, 1979. Special papal envoy to the International Missionary Congress, Manila, Philippines, December 2 to 6, 1979. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Participated in the Second Plenary Meeting of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 23 to 26, 1982. Special papal envoy to the Second Latin American Missionary Congress, Tlaxcala, México, May 16 to 21, 1983. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. President of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, April 8, 1984 until December 6, 1989. Named cardinal bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, June 25, 1984; the name of the suburbicarian see was changed to Sabina-Poggio Mirteto on September 30, 1986. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Dean of the College of Cardinals and bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Ostia, retaining the title of the suburbicarian see of Sabina-Poggio Mirteto, December 19, 1986. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Participated in the Fourth Extraordinary Consistory of College of Cardinals, April 4 to 7, 1991. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, May 4, 1993. Resigned the deanship of the College of Cardinals and the title of the suburbicarian see of Ostia, May 31, 1993. Returned to Brazil, residing in Campinas. Author of Cardinali santi (Roma : Pontifica Universitas Urbaniana, 1994; La diocesi di Ostia: e i cardinali decani. Roma : Pontificia Universitas Urbaniana, 1993; and Il Sacro Collegio Cardinalizio. (Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1990).

Death. May 21, 1995, of cancer, in Vila Santa Sílvia, neighborhood of Helvetia, Indaiatuba. His body was was laid out in state at the metropolitan cathedral of Campinas. The funeral mass, celebrated at that cathedral, was presided by Cardinal Lucas Moreira Neves, prefect of the Congregation for Bishops, in the presence of Cardinals Paulo Evaristo Arns, O.F.M. and Eugenio de Araújo Sales, twenty two bishops, eighty five presbyters and 2000 people. Buried in the shrine of Nossa Senhora de Guadalupe, Campinas, which he had built after recovering from a kidney and liver cancer in 1989.

Links. Biography, in Portuguese, archdiocese of São Paulo; and his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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ROSSI, Opilio
(1910-2004)

Birth. May 14, 1910, New York, United States of America. Son of Angelo Rossi and Davidina Ciappa. He moved to Italy with his mother as a young boy and was raised at Cereseto, where his maternal uncle, Father Lazzaro Chiappa, was the parish priest. When Father Chiappa was transferred to the parish of Corso in 1915, Opilio and his mother moved to Scopolo, where he received his first communion and confirmation when he was seven from Bishop Giovanni Maria Pellizzari of Piacenza. In 1917, his father returned to Italy from the United States; the following year, in September 1918, his mother died. The following December, Father Chiappa and his maternal grandparents took Opilio to Corso.

Education. Initial education at the local schools of Corso; later, he studied at Collegio Alberoni, Piacenza; Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome (doctorate in canon law with a thesis on St. Basil); Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 11, 1933, Rome. Celebrated his first mass, assisted by his uncle, Father Lazzaro Chiappa, in Piacenza. Incardinated in diocese of Piacenza. Further studies, 1933-1937. Attaché at Secretariat of State, 1937-1938. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, September 1, 1938. Secretary of the nunciature in Belgium, 1938-1939; in Holland, 1939-1940. Auditor of the nunciature in Germany, 1940-1945; in Holland, 1945-1948. Member of the Third Pontifical Mission to Germany, 1948-1951. Counselor of the nunciature in Germany, 1951-1953.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Ancira and appointed nuncio in Ecuador, November 21, 1953. Consecrated, December 27, 1953, cathedral of Santa Maria Assunta, Piacenza, by Aloisius Joseph Muench, archbishop-bishop of Fargo, nuncio in Germany, assisted by Umberto Malchiodi, titular archbishop of Serre, coadjutor with succession of the archbishop-bishop of Piacenza, and by Artemio Prati, bishop of Carpi. His episcopal motto was Omnia in Christo. Nuncio in Chile, March 25, 1959. Nuncio in Austria, September 25, 1961. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 24, 1976; received the red biretta and the deaconry S. Maria Liberatrice a Monte Testaccio, May 24, 1976. President of the Pontifical Council for Laity, December 10, 1976. President of the Pontifical Committee for the Family, December 10, 1976. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Special papal envoy to the 4th Bolivarian Eucharistic Congress, Panamá, April 11 to 18, 1982. Cardinal protodeacon, February 2, 1983. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. President of the Pontifical Committee for International Eucharistic Congresses, December 5, 1983. Resigned the presidency of the council, April 8, 1984. President of the Cardinalitial Commission for the Pontifical Shrines of Pompeii, Loreto and Bari, April 8, 1984. Special papal envoy to the National Eucharistic Congress, Managua, Nicaragua, November 17 to 23, 1986; to the celebrations of 9th centennial of the transfer of St. Nicholas' body, Bari, Italy, May 1987. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, June 22, 1987. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, May 14, 1990. Resigned the committee presidency, January 3, 1991. Resigned the presidency of the commission, September 12, 1993.

Death. February 9, 2004, in the morning, Domus Internationalis Paulus VI, Rome. The funeral mass was celebrated by Pope John Paul II in the patriarchal Vatican basilica on the following February 13. Another requiem mass, presided by Bishop Luciano Monari of Piacenza-Bobbio, was celebrated the next day at the Shrine Basilica of the Madonna di S. Marco, Bedonia. Buried in the chapel of Madonna di Lourdes, parish church of Scopolo, diocese of Piacenza-Bobbio, where he used to pray as a child.

Bibliography. Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 268-271.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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ROSSI, O.C.D., Raffaele Carlo
(1876-1948)

Birth. October 28, 1876, Pisa, Italy. Son of Francesco Rossi and Maria Palamidessi, both members of Pisa's late nineteenth century bourgeois families. His first name is also listed as Raffaello.

Education. Joined the Order of Carmelites Discalced, October 3, 1887; professed, December 19, 1899. Carmelite International College, Rome; Carmelite Scholasticate, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1901, Rome. Faculty member of Carmelite houses of studies, 1902-1920.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Volterra, April 22, 1920. Consecrated, May 25, 1920, in the church of S. Teresa al Corso d'Italia, Rome, by Cardinal Gaetano de Lai, bishop of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, assisted by Rinaldo Rousset, archbishop of Reggio Calabria, and by Pio Bagnoli, bishop of Marsi. Assessor of the S.C. Consistorial and secretary of the Sacred College of Cardinals, June 7, 1923. Promoted to titular archbishop of Tessalonica, December 20, 1923. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, March 11, 1930.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1930; received the red hat and the title of S. Prassede, July 3, 1930. Secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, July 4, 1930. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, December 11, 1939 to May 12, 1941. Due to his continuous failing health, in August 1948, he moved to Crespano del Grappa, Bassano, where he was received by the Scalabrini Fathers, to whom he was very close.

Death. September 17, 1948, during the early hours of the night, Crespano del Grappa. In the morning, he was discovered lying in his bed with three books by his side: the Holy Scriptures, The Imitation of Christ, and L'Arte di Ben Morire, of the renowned Jesuit Fr. Giuseppe Maria Petazzi. He was buried in the church of S. Teresa al Corso d'Italia, Rome.

Bibliography. Papàsogli, Maria Zalum. Il cardinale del silenzio : Raffaello Carlo Rossi. Roma : Postulazione Generale O.C.D., 1983; Rossi, Raffaello Carlo. Epistolario. 3 v. A cura di Valentino e Vito Bondani. Roma : Editrice Teresianum, 1973-1975. Contents: I. Carisma della paternità -- I. Testimonianza di servizio -- III. Pienezza di donazione. Other titles: Carisma della paternità Testimonianza di servizio; Pienezza di donazione.

Link. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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ROSSUM, C.SS.R., Wilhelmus Marinus van
(1854-1932)

Birth. September 3, 1854, Zwolle, Holland. Son of Jan van Rossum and Hendrika Veldwillems. His first name is also listed as Willem.

Education. Minor Seminary of Culemborg, 1867. Joined the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer (Redemptorists), June 15, 1873, Roermond; professed, June 16, 1874, Bois-le-Duc. Redemptorist houses of studies.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 17, 1879, Wittem. Professor of Latin and rhetoric in Roermond, 1880. Professor of dogmatic theology, Scholasticate of Wittem, 1883-1892; prefect of studies, 1886-1893; rector, 1893-1895. Member of the Redemptorist community of Rome, 1895-1911. Consultor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, December 25, 1896. Counselor to the commission for the codification of canon law, April 15, 1904. General consultor of his congregation, 1909-1911.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 27, 1911; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Cesareo in Palatio, November 30, 1911. Papal legate to the International Eucharistic Congress, Vienna, Austria, August 15, 1912. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1912. President of Pontifical Biblical Commission, January 13, 1914. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Grand Penitentiary, October 1, 1915. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, December 6, 1915. Member of the Pontifical Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law, 1917. Prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, March 12, 1918 until his death.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cesarea in Mauretania, April 25, 1918. Consecrated, May 19, 1918, in the Sistine Chapel, by Pope Benedict XV, assisted by Giovanni Battista Nasalli Rocca di Corneliano, titular archbishop of Tebe, privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Agostino Zampini, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, sacristan of His Holiness. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, December 11, 1922 until May 23, 1923. Papal legate to the 27th International Eucharistic Congress, Amsterdam, Holland, July 2, 1924; to the Congress of Missionology, Einsiedeln, Switzerland, October 15, 1928.

Death. August 30, 1932, Maastricht, diocese of Roermond, Holland. Buried in the crypt of the Redemptorist church of that city. Seven years later, his remains were placed beneath a monument specifically constructed in his memory in the church itself (1).

Bibliography. Drehmanns, Joseph Maria. Kardinaal van Rossum, korte levensschets. Roermond : J.J. Romen, 1935; Henze, Clemens Maria. Die Redemptoristinnen : Zur 2. Jahrhundertfeier d. Gründg d. Ordens ; Mit e. Schreiben d. Ordensprotektors Wilhelm Marinus Kardinal van Rossum. Bonn : Hofbauer-Verl., 1931; Smit, Jan Olav. Wilhelmus Marinus, Kardinaal van Rossum, een groot mens en wijs bestuurder. Roermond : Romen, 1955; Life with a mission. Cardinal Willem Marinus van Rossum C.Ss.R. (1854-1932). Edited by Genoveva Maria Johanna Poels, Johannes Petrus de Valk and Theodorus Albertus Maria Salemink. Leuven : Trajecta, 2011. (Trajecta,; jrg. 19/20 (2010/2011), no. 1/2). (Table of contents; Introduction).

Links. Biography, in Dutch, Historici.nl; photographs, portrait, bibliography and biography, in English, cardinalvanrossum.eu; photographs, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription in his monument, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

+
SVSCITATVS A TERRA INOPS
COLLACATVS CVM PRINCIPIBVS POPVLI DEI
PIVS FORTIS CONSTANS
INNVUMERVOS SVAVISSIMO CHRISTI SVBDIDIT IMPERIO
GVGLIELMVS MARINVS CARDINALIS VAN ROSSVM
C.SS.R,S.C.DE PROP. FIDE PRAEF.
NATVS 3 SEPT. 1854 VITA FVNCTVS 30 AVG. 1932
AETATS SVAE
AO 78


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ROUCO VARELA, Antonio María
(1936-

Birth. August 24, 1936, Villalba, diocese of Mondoñedo-Ferrol, Spain. Son of Vicente Rouco and María Eugenia Varela; he was from Santa María del Burgo, Lugo, and she from Bahía Blanca, Argentina; he died very young and she died ten years later, never having recovered from the loss; besides the cardinal, they had Visitación, who still lives in Villalba; Jose, who lives in Canarias; and Manuel and Eugenia, deceased.

Education. Studied Latin, humanities and philosophy at the Seminary of Mondoñedo, 1946-1954; then, from 1954 to 1958, at the Pontifical University of Salamanca, where he obtained a licentiate in theology, in June 1958; and finally, from 1959 until 1964, studied theology and canon law at the University of Münich, Germany, where he earned a doctorate in canon law on July 25, 1964, with the thesis Iglesia y Estado en la España del siglo XVI.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 28, 1959, in the old cathedral, Salamanca, by Francisco Barbado y Viejo, O.P., bishop of Salamanca. Celebrated his first mass on April 1, 1949, in the parish church of Santa María de Villalba. Further studies, Münich, 1959-1964. Faculty member of the Seminary of Mondoñedo (fundamental theology and canon law), 1964-1966.Faculty member, University of Münich and pastoral ministry with Spanish immigrants in Münich, 1966-1969. Faculty member, Pontifical University of Salamanca, 1971-1976; vice-rector, 1972-1976; pastoral ministry with university students in Salamanca. Counselor of the National Catholic Association of Propagandistas, 1972-1976. Peritus of the Pastoral Council of Galicia, 1974-1976.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Gergi and appointed auxiliary of Santiago de Compostela, September 17, 1976. Consecrated, October 31, 1976, cathedral of Plasencia, by Angel Suquía Goicoechea, archbishop of Santiago de Compostela, assisted by Maximino Romero de Lema, titular archbishop of Cittanova, secretary of the S.C. for the Clergy, and by Oskar Sater, titular bishop of Rubicon, auxiliary of Freiburg in Breisgau. His episcopal motto is In ecclesiae communione. Apostolic administrator ad nutum Sanctae Sedis, of Santiago de Compostela, June 11, 1983. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Santiago de Compostela, May 9, 1984. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Madrid, July 28, 1994. Grand chancellor of the Theological Faculty "San Dámaso", Madrid, September 19, 1996.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, February 21, 1998. President of the Spanish Episcopal Conference, March 2, 1999 to March 8, 2005. Special papal envoy to the Ninth Spanish National Eucharistic Congress, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, May 26 to 29, 1999. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; relator general. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Special papal envoy to the conclusive ceremonies of the Pilgrimage of European Youth, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, August 7 to 8, 2004. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, December 16, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Special papal envoy to the solemn celebrations for the Fifth centennial of the birth of of St. Francis Xavier that took place in Javier, Spain, on April 7, 2006. On March 4, 2008, he was elected president of the Spanish Episcopal Conference for the 2008-2011 triennium; and on March 1, 2011, for the triennium 2011-2014; he ceased as president on March 12, 2014. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". Special papal envoy to the conclusive ceremonies of the Pauline Year observed on June 29, 2009, in Syria. Hosted the Twenty Sixth World Youth Day, Madrid, August 15-21, 2011. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013. On March 29, 2014, he was confirmed as member of the Pontifical Council for Culture until the expiration of his mandate.

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 141.

Links. Biography, in Spanish, archdiocese of Madrid; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; one hundred bibliographic entries of his works, WolrdCat; Carta del cardenal Rouco Varela al Papa Benedicto XVI en el primer aniversario de la JMJ 2011 Madrid, Ecclesia, posted 16 agosto, 2012 by editor in Iglesia en España.


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ROULEAU, O.P., Felix-Raymond-Marie
(1866-1931)

Birth. April 6 (1), 1866, Isle-Verte, diocese of Rimouski, Canada. His father was a farmer; his mother was of Scottish descent. His baptismal name was Félix. His first name is also listed as Raymond-Marie only.

Education. Primary studies in the local school; Seminary of Rimouski, Rimouski, 1879-1885 (classics); received the soutane, September 1885; suffering from consumption, he was cured after making a promise and for this reason, he entered the Order of Preachers, December 8, 1886, Dominican Novitiate, Saint-Hyacinthe; took the name Raymond-Marie; first vows, August 3, 1888; final vows, August 4, 1891; studied theology at the Dominican monastery of Corbara, Corsica (it was the refuge of the French Dominicans expelled from the metropolitan territory); he had Fathers Gardeil and Sertillanges as professors.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 31, 1892, Corte, Corsica, by Paul-Mathieu de la Foata, bishop of Ajaccio. Returned to Canada in 1894 after having obtained the grade of lector in theology. Professor and master of novices at the Dominican Novitiate, Saint-Hyacinthe, 1894-1897; director of studies, 1897-1898; regent of studies, 1898-1900. Prior of the Dominican convent of Ottawa, 1900-1909; regent of studies, 1900-1919; professor of moral and pastoral theology, Sacred Scriptures and canon law; director of spiritual retreats; defender of the matrimonial bond. Accompanied Archbishop Joseph-Thomas Duhamel of Ottawa to the Plenary Council of Québec of 1909 as a theologian. Received the title of master in Sacred Theology on June 12, 1909. Counselor in the apostolic delegation in Canada. Ardent defender of the Franco-Ontarian minority in dispute over Réglament XVII. Dominican provincial in Canada, July 2, 1919 until 1923.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Valleyfield, March 9, 1923. Consecrated, May 22, 1923, cathedral of Ste-Cécile, Valleyfield, by Pietro di Maria, titular archbishop of Iconio, apostolic delegate in Canada, assisted by Félix Couturier, O.P., bishop of Alexandria, and by Georges Gauthier, titular bishop of Filippopoli di Arabia, apostolic administrator of Montréal. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Québec, July 9, 1926.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1927; received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, December 22, 1927. Decorated with the grand cross of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre, February 11, 1929. Honorary member of the Permanent Committee of the International Eucharistic Congresses, November 18, 1930. He was dangerously bruised and cut when a blowout crashed his automobile into a ditch near Levis in 1930; he received last rites but later convalesced.

Death. May 31, 1931, suddenly, of angina pectoris; in the archiepiscopal palace of Québec; he had suffered from angina for several years. The funeral was celebrated on June 6, 1931, by Andrea Cassulo, titular archbishop of Leontopoli di Augustamnica, apostolic delegate in Canada, in the metropolitan cathedral basilica of Québec; it was attended by twenty archbishops and bishops from Canada. His remains were buried in that metropolitan cathedral basilica.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1939, p. 81; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 786-788; "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 117; "Necrologie." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, pp. 917-918.

Link. His photograph, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to LeBlanc, Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada, p. 786; and "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1931, p. 117; Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939, p. 81, says that he was born on April 4, 1866.


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ROVÉRIÉ DE CABRIÈRES, François-Marie-Anatole de
(1830-1921)

Birth. August 30, 1830, Beaucaire, diocese of Nîmes, France. He was the youngest of the four children of Marquis Eugène de Cabrières and Yvonne-Guillemette Du Vivier de Fay-Solignac. The other siblings were Artus, François-Marie Humbert and Raymond. His first name is also listed as Anatole-François-Marie; and his last name as de Cabrières only.

Education. Initial studies at home under a private tutor, M. Paccalin; Collège de l'Assomption, Nîmes; Seminary of Saint-Sulpice, Paris. Received the diaconate on December 28, 1852.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 25, 1853, bishop's chapel, Nîmes, by Jean-François-Marie Cart, bishop of Nîmes. From 1853 to 1874, pastoral ministry in diocese of Nîmes; director of the Minor Seminary of Nîmes; director of Collège de l'Assomption, 1855-1859; honorary canon, January 26, 1859; secretary to Bishop Claude-Henri Plantier of Nîmes, November 1859; and honorary vicar general, January 5, 1864. On January 21, 1871, he was named, by ministerial decree, titular canon of the chapter of Nîmes. He collaborated with articles in Reuve Catholique du Languedoc, Annales catholiques du Midi and Semaine religieuse de Nîmes et du diocese, among other publications.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Montpellier, January 16, 1874. Consecrated, March 19, 1874, cathedral of Nîmes, by Claude-Henri Plantier, bishop of Nîmes, assisted by Julien Meirieu, bishop of Digne, and by Gaspard Mermillod, titular bishop of Ebron, auxiliary of Lausanne et Genève. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, April 27, 1875 and June 23, 1890. Granted the right to use the pallium, July 15, 1890. During the national crisis of the separation of the state and the church, 1905-1906, his role went beyond the borders of his diocese. He sympathized with and supported Action Française.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 27, 1911; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria della Vittoria, November 30, 1911. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. During the First World War, he was one of the major artisans of Union Sacrée. The king of the Belgians bestowed on him the grand cross of the Ordre de la Couronne on August 9, 1919. Named chevalier of the Lágion d'Honneur, July 14, 1921.

Death. December 21, 1921, at 6:30 a.m., of pulmonary congestion, Montpellier. The funeral mass was celebrated by Cardinal Louis-Joseph Maurin, archbishop of Lyon. The body of the late cardinal was buried in the chapel of St. Vincent de Paul in the cathedral of Montpellier. At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 477-478; Cholvy, Gérard. Le cardinal de Cabrières (1830-1921); un siècle d'histoire de la France. Paris, Éditions du Cerf, 2007; Janvier, Marie-Albert. Le cardinal de Cabrières; éloge funèbre prononcé à la cathédrale de Montpellier le 31 janvier 1922. Paris : P. Lethielleux, 1922; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 11 and 24; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, p. 394; Rovérié de Cabrières, François-Marie-Anatole de. Le Cardinal Cabrières. Paris : Le Bonne Presse, 1944.

Link. His photograph, Araldica Vaticana.


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ROY, Maurice
(1905-1985)

Birth. January 25, 1905, parish of Notre-Dame, Québec, Canada. His father was dean of the faculty of law at Laval University and judge of the Court of Magistrates; his mother was a descendant of the poet Napoléon Legendre; they had three children. His first cousin, Fr. Henri Roy, was the founder of the Pius X Secular Institute; and he later accompanied him to Rome following his elevation to the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Education. Initial studies at home; Seminary of Québec, Québec, 1915-1923 (classics; obtained the Prince of Wales Prize in philosophy in 1923); Grand Seminary of Québec, Québec (theology); University of Laval, Québec (doctorate in theology, 1927); Pontifical Angelicum Athenaeum, Rome (doctorate in philosophy, 1929); La Sorbonne University and Catholic Institute, Paris, 1929-1930 (philosophy and letters); pastoral ministry in the banlieue rouge of Paris.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 12, 1927, basilica of Québec, by Joseph-Simon-Hermann Brunault, bishop of Nicolet. Further studies, 1927-1930. Professor of dogmatic and sacramental theology and apologetics at the Grand Seminary of Québec, 1930-1939; secretary of the Faculty of Philosophy, 1930-1934. Chaplain of the students of the University of Laval, 1935-1937. Chaplain, with the rank of captain, of the 22nd Royal Regiment, 1939; he served in Great Britain, Italy, France, Belgium, Holland and Germany, 1939-1943. At the same time, he climbed the echelon of the military hierarchy: major as chaplain of group, May 1941; lieutenant-colonel as chaplain of the First Corps of the army, August 1941; and colonel as chaplain of the First Canadian Army, 1945. He returned to Québec in 1945 and resumed his teaching position at the Grand Seminary; in December 1945, he became its superior.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Trois-Rivières, February 22, 1946. Consecrated, May 1, 1946, cathedral-basilica of Notre-Dame de Québec, by Cardinal Jean-Marie-Rodrigue Villeneuve, O.M.I., archbishop of Québec, assisted by Albini Lafortune, bishop of Nicolet, and by Arthur Douville, bishop of St-Hyacinthe. His episcopal motto was In nomine Jesu. Military vicar of Canada, June 8, 1946. Chaplain general and ordinary of the Canadian armies, June 8, 1946; occupied the post until his promotion to the see of Québec. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Québec, June 2, 1947. Military vicar of Canada, February 17, 1951 until March 12, 1982; visited the battle front of Korea. Pope Pius XII erected Québec as the primatial see of Canada on January 24, 1956, and he became the primate. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of Nostra Signora del SS. Sacramento e Ss. Martiri Canadesi, February 25, 1965. President of the Council for Laity and of the Pontifical Commission Iustitia et Pax, January 6, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. President of the Pontifical Committee for the Family, January 11, 1973. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Ceased as president of the commission, December 16, 1976. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 20, 1981. Resigned the military vicariate, March 12, 1982. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, January 25, 1985.

Death. October 24, 1985, Québec Hospital, Québec, in his sleep. His funeral was celebrated by Cardinal Louis-Albert Vachon, archbishop of Québec, in the cathedral basilica of Notre-Dame de Québec. Buried in the crypt of that cathedral basilica. He had had the crypt rebuilt in 1959 to bury the mortal remains of all the bishops and archbishops of Québec after François de Laval, first bishop of Québec.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2202. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 793-795.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

+ MAURICE ROY
CARDINAL-PRETRE DE LA SAINTE EGLISE ROMAINE
PRIMAT DU CANADA
NE A QUEBEC LE 25 JANVIER 1905
DECEDE A QUEBEC LE 24 OCTOBRE 1985

EVEQUE DE TROIS-RIVIERES DE 1946 A 1947
ARCHEVEQUE DE QUEBEC DE 1947 A 1981


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RUBIANO SÁENZ, Pedro
(1932-

Birth. Tuesday September 13, 1932, Cartago, Colombia.

Education. Studied at the Major Seminary of Popayán (philosophy); at the University of Laval, Québec, Canada (theology); at The Catholic University of America, Washington, United States of America (Catechetics); and at "Instituto Tecnológico Superior Los Andes de Estudios Sociales" (LADES), Santiago de Chile, Chile (social doctrine of the Church).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 8, 1956, at the chapel of Seminary San Pedro, Cali, by Julio Caicedo y Téllez, archbishop of Cali. Pastoral ministry, Cali, 1956-1971, as vicar cooperator of the parish of "San Fernando Rey"; pastor and founder of the parishes of "San Pedro Claver" and of "Nuestra Seóora de la Providencia"; chaplain of the military school of aviation "Marco Fidel Suárez"; chaplain of the national school "Santa Librada"; chaplain of the Clinic "Nuestra Señora de los Remedios", treasurer and pastoral vicar of the archdiocese of Cali; vice-rector of the Major School "Santiago di Cali".

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cúcuta, June 2, 1971. Consecrated, July 11, 1972, Cali, by Angelo Palmas, titular archbishop of Vibiana, nuncio in Colombia, assisted by Alberto Uribe Urdaneta, archbishop of Cali, and by Alfredo Rubio Díaz, archbishop of Nueva Pamplona. His episcopal motto is Caritas Christi urget nos. Promoted to archbishop coadjutor, with right of succession, of Cali, March 26, 1983. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Cali, February 7, 1985. President of the Episcopal Conference of Colombia, 1990-1993 and 1993-1996. Apostolic administrator of Popayán, April 1990 to January 1991. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Transferred to the metropolitan and primatial see of Bogotá, December 27, 1994.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of Trasfigurazione di Nostro Signore Gesù Cristo, February 21, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. President of the Colombian Episcopal Conference, 2002-2005 and 2005-2008. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Participated in the Fifth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. Resigned the pastoral government of the metropolitan see of Bogotá in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law, on July 8, 2010. He was apostolic administrator of the archdiocese until the installation of his successor, Archbishop Rubén Salazar Gómez, on August 13, 2010. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on September 13, 2012.

Links. Photograph and biographical data, in Spanish, archdiocese of Bogotá; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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RUBIN, Władysław
(1917-1990)

Birth. September 20, 1917, Toki, archdiocese of Lviv of the Latins, Poland. Son of Ignace Rubin and Tekla Saluk. He had five siblings; one of them was Jan Kazimierz. Baptized on September 22, 1917, in the church of the Discovery of the Holy Cross, in Toki, by Father Wacław Zakrzewski.

Education. Jan Kazimiers University, Lviv; University of Saint Joseph, Beïrut, Lebanon; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome. During the Second World War, he was arrested and interned in a forced labor camp. Released, he joined the Polish Army.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 30, 1946, Beïrut, by Rémy-Louis Leprêtre, O.F.M., titular archbishop of Rusio, vicar apostolic of Aleppo. Pastoral ministry with Polish refugees, Roumy, Lebanon, 1946-1949. Further studies, 1949-1953, Rome. Pastoral ministry among Polish refugees throughout Italy, 1953-1958. Rector of the Pontifical Polish College, Rome, 1959-1964.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Serta and appointed auxiliary of Gniezno, Poland, and delegate of the primate of Poland for the spiritual care of Polish emigrés, November 17, 1964. Consecrated, November 29, 1964, church of S. Andrea al Quirinale, Rome, by Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński, archbishop of Gniezno and Warsaw, primate of Poland, assisted by Karol Wojtyła, archbishop of Kraków, and by Stefan Bareła, bishop of Częstochowa. Rector of the church and residence of St. Stanisław, Rome, 1964-1967. Secretary general of the Synod of Bishops, February 27, 1967. Participated in the Fist Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, January 27 to February 13, 1979, Puebla, México.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Santa Maria in Via Lata, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Prefect of the S.C. for the Oriental Churches, June 27, 1980. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; member of the general secretariat, 1980-1983. Special papal envoy to the commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the union of the Malankar Church with the Catholic Church, Kottayam, India, December 26 to 29, 1980. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Resigned the prefecture, October 30, 1985. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated, pro illa vice, to title, November 26, 1990.

Death. Wednesday November 28, 1990, after a long illness, Vatican City. Buried in the pro-cathedral of Lubaczow, archdiocese of Lviv of the Latins, Poland.

Bibliography. "25 (dwadzieścia pięć) -lecie święceń kapłańskich J.E. ks. Biskupa Władysław Rubina," Wrocławskie Wiadomości Kościelne, 26 (1971), p. 346-349; J.E. "Kardynał Rubin prefektem rzymskiej kongregacji." Więż, (1980), nr 7/8, p. 265-266; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 335-343; Szetelnicki, Waclaw. Lwowianin na drogach swiata, Władysław. Roma : [s.n.], 1985. Responsibility:Przedmowa ... Mariana Jaworskiego.

Link. His portrait, Araldica Vaticana.


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RUFFINI, Ernesto
(1888-1967)

Birth. January 19, 1888, San Benedetto Po, diocese of Mantua, Italy. Fifth of the eight children of Giovanni Ruffini and Domenica Gentilini. He was baptized on February 22, 1888. Received the sacrament of confirmation on May 30, 1896; and the first communion on Palm Sunday 1898.

Education. Seminary of Mantua, Mantua, 1898-1910; took the vow of chastity in 1902; renew the vow perpetually, with the consensus of his spiritual director, on June 21, 1904; Pontifical Theological Faculty of Northern Italy, Milan (licentiate in theology, September 17, 1910); resided at Collegio Leoniano, Rome, 1010-1913; during this time, his spiritual director was Msgr. Vincenzo Tarozzi, future servant of God; Pontifical Academy of S. Tommaso, Rome (licentiate in philosophy, January 19, 1911); Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome (diploma to teach Biblical Science, Summer 1913).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 10, 1910, chapel of the Incoronata, cathedral of Mantua, by Paolo Carlo Origo, bishop of Mantua. Further studies, 1910-1913. Took part in the first study travel to the Holy Land organized by the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, November 6 to 15, 1913. Faculty member of the Pontifical Athenaeum of Major Roman Seminary, Rome, 1913-1930. Faculty member of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," 1917-1929. In 1924, he was named diocesan delegate for Rome of the Missionary Union of the Clergy; examiner of the Roman clergy; and substitute for censorship of books in the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, March 1, 1927. Secretary of the S.C. of Seminaries and Universities, Otober 28, 1928. Prefect of studies of the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, 1930; its rector magnifico, 1931. Protonotary apostolic, June 15, 1931. President of the Academy of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Rome. Member of the papal delegation to the International Eucharistic Congress celebrated in Buenos Aires, Argentina in 1934. Founder of the Medical-biological Union "S. Luca", Rome, 1944.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Palermo, Sicily, October 11, 1945. Consecrated, December 8, 1945, church of S. Ignazio, Rome, by Cardinal Giuseppe Pizzardo, prefect of S.C. for Seminaries and Universities, assisted by Francesco Borgongini Duca, titular archbishop of Eraclea di Europa, nuncio in Italy, and by Domenico Menna, bishop of Mantua. His episcopal motto was Firmiter stat.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Sabina, February 22, 1946. Apostolic administrator of the eparchy of Piana degli Albanesi, January 3, 1947. Apostolic administrator sede vacante of Trapani, April 8 to November 10, 1947; and again, December 17, 1950. Apostolic administrator sede vacante of Mazara del Vallo, August 18, 1948. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress and to the Congress of Sacerdotal Vocations, Rosario, Argentina, September 6, 1950; received a doctorate honoris causa in law from the University of Buenos Aires. Papal legate to the Second Sicilian Plenary Council, Palermo, December 20, 1951. Founder of the Missionary Social Assistants, March 25, 1954. Received a doctorate honoris causa in philosophy from the University of Palermo on June 9, 1956. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965; member of its board of presidency, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Honorary citizen of Palermo, November 4, 1964.

Death. Sunday June 11, 1967, at 11 a.m., unexpectedly, of a heart attack, after having voted in the regional elections and while he was preparing to celebrate mass in Bonagia, one of the poorest areas of Palermo; he received the last rites (1). On Monday June 12, at 8 p.m., the body was placed in a zinc casket, which was placed inside another one of mahogany; according to his will, a Bible was placed inside the casket; a lead tube containing a eulogy was also placed in the casket (2). Exposed in the archiepiscopal palace of Palermo; the funeral, celebrated by Filippo Aglialoro, titular bishop of Germa di Galazia, auxiliary and vicar general of Palermo, took place in the metropolitan cathedral of Palermo on Tuesday June 13, at 5:30 p.m; Cardinal Ermenegildo Florit, archbishop of Florence, imparted the final absolution; twenty archbishops and bishops were in attendance, besides the mayor and councilmen of Palermo and other civil dignitaries. Buried, according to his will, next to the altar of the Madonna, on the left side, in the shrine of "Madonna dei Rimedi", Palermo (3).

Bibliography. Gambio, Emmanuele. Il pastore sulla breccia, Ernesto card. Ruffini. Roma : Ancora, 1967; Petralia, Giuseppe. Il cardinale Ernesto Ruffini, arcivescovo di Palermo. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1989.

Links. Photographs, bibliography and extensive biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Text of his spiritual testament, taken from Gambio, Il pastore sulla breccia, Ernesto card. Ruffini, p. 263:

   Innanzitutto ringrazio di tutto cuore il Signore per i molteplici favori e grandi doni che mi ha elargito, specialmente chiamandomi al Sacerdozio e alla pienezza del Sacerdozio; ci vorrà l'eternità perchè io possa effondere meno inadeguatamente la mia riconoscenza per gli innumerevoli benefizi ricevuti dalla misericordia di Dio per la mediazione della mia dolcissima Madre celeste, Maria Santissima.
   Ringrazio pure tutti coloro che mi hanno aiutato con l'opera, con l'esempio, con la preghiera.
   Chiedo umilmente perdono al Signore dei miei peccati, delle offese recateGli e delle negligenze commesse nel suo servizio.
Professo fede fermissima a quanto il Signore ha rivelato e la Santa Chiesa Apostolica Romana propone da credere.
   Ho consacrato molti anni allo studio della Sacra Scrittura e confesso di averne tratto sempre maggior conferma della mia Fede e impulso a bene operare.
Rinnovo la mia profunda, commossa devozione alla Ss. Eucaristia e alla Madonna, alla quale mi sono consacrato con un voto speciale da più di cinquanta anni.
   Approvo pienamente e confermo con entusiasmo gli altri tre voti, da me emessi con l'approvazione del veneratissimo Mons. Vincenzo Tarozzi (+ 1918), di castità perfetta, di umiltà (non cercare mai onori, ed accettarli soltanto quando risultassero con certezza di maggior gloria di Dio) e di perfezione.
   Chiedo umilmente perdono a quanti avessi offeso, recato loro molestia, o dato cattivo esempio. Per parte mia non ho nulla da perdonare: amo tutti coloro che ho conosciuto, e raggiungendo per divina bontà il Paradiso, tutti porterò con me e mi interesserò della loro salvezza eterna, onde stare poi sempre in loro compagnia beatamente.
   Ho sempre amato la povertà -- sono fin da giovane Sacerdote Terziario Cappuccino -- e godo di morire senza proprietà alcuna di beni immobili, povero per i miei poveri, che tanto da vicino mi rappresentano Gesù Cristo, mio dolce Salvatore.
   Il Seminario e i Sacerdoti hanno formato la pupilla dei miei occhi. Se i Sacerdoti saranno tutti buoni, uomini di orazione e perfettamente obbedienti al loro Arcivescovo, faranno miracoli e l'Archidiocesi di Palermo (con l'Eparchia), attesa l'eccezionale bontà del suo popolo, diventerà presto esemplare sotto ogni aspetto.
   Dopo il Seminario e il Clero mi sta sommamente a cuore l'Istituto delle Assistenti Sociali Missionarie, da me fondato. Credo mi sia stato ispirato dalla Madonna, che ne è e ne sarà sempre la suprema Direttrice e Moderatrice: esso risponde certamente a una grande necessità dei tempi nostri nel vasto campo dell'apostolato cristiano. Considero le Assistenti Sociali Missionarie vere Madri Sociali nel nome del Redentore divino Gesù Cristo. Esse potranno entrare in tutti i settori sociali, per portare ovunque lo spirito dell'Evangelo e per preparare innumerevoli anime al sacro ministero dei Sacerdoti. È però assolutamente necessario che siano animate tutte e singole di grande spirito di orazione, di mortificazione e di carità.
   Desidero essere sepolto -- se nulla oster` -- nella Chiesa della Madonna dei Rimedi, presso l'altare della Madonna, a sinistra di chi La guarda.


(2) This is the text of the eulogy (taken from Gambio, Il pastore sulla breccia, Ernesto card. Ruffini, p. 251-252), which was composed by Msgr. Salvatore Cambria, chancellor of the archiepiscopal Curia, and subscribed by Filippo Aglialoro, titular bishop of Germa di Galazia, auxiliary and vicar general of Palermo, by the metropolitan chapter and by the civil authorities and others:

ERNESTUS RUFFINI, die XIX m. ianuarii anni millesimi octingentesimi octuagesimi octavi in oppido vulgo " S. Benedetto Po " dioecesis Mantuanae natus, inde a pueritia sacerdotalia munera percupiit.
    Studiorum curriculo emenso et laurea doctorali donatus, die decima m. iulii a. MCMX primum sacrum litavit. Castitatem ex voto inde a teneris annis illaesam servavit et coluit, pietate in Deum enituit, eximia devotione erga Beatissimam Virginem flagravit.
    A Sancto Pio X, cui apprime carus fuit, integra valetudine donatus, ipse munus docendi Sacram Scripturam in Pont. Seminario ad Lateranum accepit, quod postea in Pont. Athenaeo Urbaniano cumulavit, donec a Pio Pp. XI "a Secretis Sacrae Congregationis de Seminariis et Studiorum Universitatibus" renuntiatus fuit. Quo in munere multa egregia navavit ad studia ecclesiastica provehenda, eiusque opera et ingenio prodiit Const. Apost. "Deus scientiarum Dominus".
    Quem virum, tantis decoratum animi ornamentis, Pius XII Pontifex Maximus, anno MCMXLV, in lesto Divinae Maternitatis, ad cathedram S. Mamiliani evexit, asserens se nihil melius habere in Urbe ut Panormum ditaret. Inter Purpuratos Patres cooptatus, die XXXI m. martii anni subsequentis Fanormum venit ac, inenarrabili laetitia exceptus, omnium animos sibi devinxit, immo ipse devinctus est. Felix enim urbs, teterrimo bello vix exstincto, innumera vulnera prae se ferebat, ubique erat squalidior egestas. Propterea effecit ut Fanormum re "felicis urbis" appellationem iterum consequeretur.
    Boni Pastoris officio optime functus est; quater universam archidioecesim lustravit; ministerium verbi, doctrina et facundia, mire exercuit; Seminarium Archiepiscopale, sive maius sive minus, novis aptisque aedificiis ditavit, ac, ad peculiarem institutionem neo-mystarum, Institutum Pastorale a sancto Curato d'Ars nuncupatum, excitavit et amplificavit; inopes effusa caritate et summa liberalitate fovit.
    In postulationes temporum intentus, Institutum saeculare " Assistenti Sociali Missionarie " fundavit, quod, rite ab Ecclesia probaturo, fines archidioeceseos cum praetergressum esser, peculiarem apostolatum exercet in plures dioeceses Italiae, Hispaniae et Americae Latinae.
    Compiorati Erm.mi Praesulis alacritas omnino mira fuit, tum in partes Ecclesiae tum in partes ad societatem hominum pertinentes. Erectis nato quadraginta novis paroeciis, affabre a fundamentis viginti ecclesias paroeciales et domus canonicas excitavit, ne verbum dicamus de ecclesiis refectis et de cura in cathedralem ecclesiam impensa.
    Praeclara monumenta caritatis ipsius erga egenos exstant quae italice nuncupantur : Villaggio Card. Ruffini - Istituto Angelo Custode - Casa della Gioia.- Villaggio dell'Ospitalità - Casa della Serenità - Centro di formazione professionale et alia. Omnibus compertum est qua alacritare interfuit Concilio Oecumenico Vaticano II, ut Christi Ecclesia, ad novum renata vigorem, efficaciore virtute salutiferum suum munus expleret.
    Die XI m. iulii a. MCMLXVII, lato suffragio ad renovandum concilium (assemblea) regionis siculae, profecturus ad sacrum faciendum in oratorio loci vulgo "Bonagia", repentino morbo correptus, sacramentis Ecclesiae refectus, pitssime animare Deo reddidit hora undecima, comploratus ab universa archidioecesi et ab bominibus cuiusvis gradus.
    Ut Summi Pontificis utar verbis "ut bonus miles Christi in acri occubuit".
    Christus ipse, intercedente Deipara Virgine, quam semper in ore et in corde gessit, Patri ac Pastori desideratissimo ianuam superni regni patefaciat, eique praemia promerita impertiat.


(3) This is the text of his epitaph, composed by the cardinal and included at the end in his spiritual testament, taken from Gambio, Il pastore sulla breccia, Ernesto card. Ruffini, p. 263:

+ ERNESTO CARDINALE RUFFINI
Arcivescovo di Palermo e Amministratore Apostolic di Piana degli Albanesi
19-1-1888     11-6-1967
« Tanto amó la Madonna in vita che ha voluto essere sepolto accanto a Lei »


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RUGAMBWA, Laurean
(1912-1997)

Birth. July 12, 1912, Bukongo, diocese of Bukoba, Tanganyika (now Tanzania). When he was born, his family was still pagan, from the Nsiba tribe; his father was from the clan that gave chiefs to the tribe. If he had become chief, he could have had three or four wives. His surname meant "future celebrity". When he was seven years old, his father converted to Christianity; and soon after, his mother also converted. He started studying catechism at the Kagondo Mission of the White Fathers (African Missionaries) when he was eight. He was baptized on March 19, 1921, and took the name Laurean, in the Kagonodo Mission.

Education. Under the care of the White Fathers, during his primary education at the Mission of Rutabo, he learned to read and write his native dialect, besides English, Latin, Italian and Swahili; then, studied at the Regional Grand Seminary of Katigondo, Uganda, also of the White Fathers; and at the Scientific Missionary Institute "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, where he obtained a doctorate, magna cum laude, in canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 12, 1943, Katigondo, by Burcardo Huwiler, M. Afr., titular bishop of Vazari, apostolic vicar of Bukoba. Parish ministry in Rutabo, 1944-1948. Further studies, Rome, 1948-1951.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Febiana and appointed vicar apostolic of Lower Rugera, December 13, 1951. Consecrated, February 10, 1952, Rutabo, by David Matthew, titular archbishop of Apamea di Bitinia, apostolic delegate to Western Africa, assisted by Joseph Kiwanuka, M.Afr., titular bishop of Tibica, vicar apostolic of Masaka, and by Joseph Blomjous, titular bishop of Bubasti, vicar apostolic of Mwanza. His episcopal motto was Mater boni consilii. He was the first African bishop to be consecrated in East Africa. Transferred to the see of Rutabo when it became a diocese, March 25, 1953. During his episcopate in Rutabo, he founded the Rubya and Mugana Hospitals, the Major Seminary of Ntungamo, and a secondary school for girls which carries his name.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 28, 1960; received the red hat and the title of S. Francesco d'Assisi a Ripa Grande, March 31, 1960. Transferred to the see of Bukoba, June 21, 1960. In 1961, he received an honorary doctorate in laws from the University of Notre Dame, Indiana, United States of America. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Dar-es-Salaam, December 19, 1968. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, July 12, 1992. During his episcopate in Dar-es-Salaam, he built the first Catholic hospital in Ukonga, founded a religious order for women, the Little Sisters of St. Francis of Assisi, and twenty elementary schools. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, July 22, 1992. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994. In November 1996, he went to Rome to attend the 50th anniversary of Pope John Paul II's priestly ordination. He introduced in Dar-es-Salaam religious from different congregations both men and women, who helped him to open many parishes in the predominantly Moslem city. He built its first Catholic hospital at Ukonga. He was the first cardinal from Tanganyika (now Tanzania).

Death. December 8, 1997, at 10:15 pm, Dar-es-Salaam. Pope John Paul II sent a message of condolence to Polycarp Pengo, archbishop of Dar-es-Salaam, in which he described the late cardinal as "the first cardinal among all Africa's children and a close colleague of myself and my predecessors." He was laid out in state at St. Joseph's Cathedral in Dar-es-Salaam, where solemn funeral mass was celebrated on the following Saturday December 13. Buried temporarily in the church of Kashozi, the first mission in Bukoba Rural District. In 2012, his remains were transferred to the cathedral of Bukoba, which was under repairs, to coincide with the centenary of his birth. His remains were permanently laid to rest at the cathedral of Bukoba on October 6, 2012.

Bibliography. Senier, Richard M. Laurean Cardinal Rugambwa. Notre Dame, IN : University of Notre Dame Press, 1965. (The men who make the council, 21).

Links. His photograph and biography, in English, RCNet, biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; By the Treshhold of Eternity, a funeral poem by Father Stanislaus Mutajwaha, in English, RCNet, his portrait by Chumin Yu, chunmingarts; Cardinal Rugambwa to be 'permanently buried' by Joas Kaijage, The Citizen correspondent, The Citizen, Saturday, 13 August 2011; Preps for Rugambwa's re-burial get underway by Joas Kaijage, The Citizen correspondent, The Citizen, Sunday, 17 June 2012 10:32.


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RUINI, Camillo
(1931-

Birth. February 19, 1931, Sassuolo, diocese of Reggio Emilia, Italy. His father was a medical doctor.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Reggio Emilia; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 8, 1954, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. Further studies, Rome, 1954-1957. Faculty member, Seminary of Reggio Emilia, 1957-1968. Faculty member, Interdiocesan Theological Seminary of Modena-Reggio Emilia, 1968-1986; director, 1968-1977. Faculty member, Academic Theological Seminary of Bologna, 1977-1983. In the diocese of Reggio Emilia, diocesan assessor of the Catholic physicians; episcopal delegate for the Catholic Action; episcopal vicar for lay apostolate; president of the Diocesan Cultural Center "Giovanni XXIII"; president of the diocesan consult for school pastoral, 1975-1986.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Nepte and appointed auxiliary of Reggio Emilia, May 16, 1983. Consecrated, June 29, 1983, Reggio Emilia, by Gilberto Baroni, bishop of Reggio Emilia, assisted by Francesco Tarcisio Bertozzi, bishop of Faenza, and by Renato Spallanzani, bishop of Palestrina. His episcopal motto is Veritas liberabit nos. Secretary general of the Episcopal Conference of Italy, June 28, 1986. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; member of the general secretariat, 1990-1994. Promoted to the rank of archbishop and appointed pro-vicar general of Rome and pro-archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran archbasilica, January 17, 1991. President of the Italian Episcopal Conference, 1991- .

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1991; received the red biretta and the title of S. Agnese fuori le Mura, June 28, 1991. Vicar general of Rome, archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran archbasilica, and grand chancellor of the Pontifical Lateran University, July 1, 1991. Member of Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of Holy See, July 15, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. President of the Peregrinatio ad Petri Sedem, December 29, 1992 until November 8, 1997. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Special papal envoy to the opening of celebrations of the 4th centenary of the shrine of the Blessed Virgin of Ghiara, Reggio Emilia, Italy, April 29, 1996. Resigned the presidency, May 2, 1996. Papal legate to the 23rd National Eucharistic Congress, Bologna, September 20 to 28, 1997. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the synod of the dioceses of Belarus, Minsk, September 29 to 30, 2000. Papal legate for the closing of the Holy Door at the Lateran basilica, January 5, 2001. Confirmed by the pope as president of the Italian Episcopal Conference for another quinquennial term, March 6, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Special papal envoy to the 24th Italian Eucharistic Congress, Bari, May 21 to 29, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Confirmed by the pope as president of the Italian Episcopal Conference, donec aliter provideatur, February 14, 2006. On March 7, 2007, Pope Benedict XVI accepted his resignation, upon having reached the age limit, to the charge of president of the Italian Episcopal Conference. Special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the "Missioni Cittadine Europee", Budapest, Hungary, September 16 to 22, 2007. Resigned the posts of vicar general of His Holiness for Rome and archpriest of the papal Lateran archbasilica for having reached the age limit, June 27, 2008. Named president of the International Commission of Inquiry on Medjugorje, March 17, 2010. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on February 19, 2011.

Bibliography. Ruini, Camillo ; Galli, Andrea. Intervista su Dio. Le parole della fede, il cammino della ragione. Milano : Mondadori, 2012. (Saggi).

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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