The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
(1903-2012)
S

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SABADEL, O.F.M.Cap., Armando Pietro
(1850-1914)

Birth. November 14, 1850, Langogne, diocese of Lozère, France. His baptismal name was Blaíse Armand.

Education. Initial education in Langogne. Joined the Order of the Friars Minor Capuchin in the province of Lyon, February 2, 1873; he took the name Pie de Lagogne; professed in 1874. Obtained a doctorate in philosophy in the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1881.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 22, 1875. Lector of philosophy in his province. Secretary to the general procurator of his order in Rome, October 20, 1880. Qualificatore of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, May 30, 1892; consultor, June 21, 1900. Consultor of the S.C. of the Index, June 21, 1895. Consultor of the S.C. of the Council, March 31, 1898. Consultor of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, June 30, 1898. Participated in the reform of the Roman congregations in 1908. Spiritual director of the French community in Rome as well as of the Roman aristocracy. He was a friend of La Sapinière, the quasi-secret society which denounced presumed modernists to the Holy See under Pope Pius X.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Corinto, November 27, 1911. Consecrated, December 17, 1911, Sistine chapel, by Pope Pius X, assisted by Augusto Silj, titular archbishop of Cesarea, secret almoner of His Holiness, and by Agostino Zampini, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, sacristan of His Holiness.

Cardinalate. According to Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1915, Pope Pius X revealed that he had offered the cardinalate to Archbishop Sabadel but that he had declined the promotion. Consultor of the Pontifical Commission for the Codification of the Code of Canon Law. He published several works, among them Commento sul Decreto della S.C. dei Vescovi e Regolari Quemodmodium (several editions); Vita del Beato Cipriano da Viterbo (three editions); and a translation in French of Diurno quotidiano di Maria, published in Latin by Cardinal José de Calasanz Vives y Tutó, O.F.M.Cap.

Death. May 4, 1914, at the Capuchin general curia, Rome. The funeral was celebrated on May 7, 1914. His remains were interred in the Torre dei Cappuccini plot, next to the basilica of San Lorenzo fuori le mura, at Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 479-480; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, p. 141; Goichot, E. "Deux historiens à l'Académie." Revue d'histoire ecclésiastique, XXVII (1983), 34-63; 373-396.


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SABATTANI, Aurelio
(1912-2003)

Birth. October 18, 1912, parish of Pieve S. Andrea, Casal Fiumanese, diocese of Imola, Italy. Son of Luigi Sabattani and Argia Casadio. He was baptized on the folowing day, October 19, in the church of Pieve Sant'Andrea, by his uncle Father Angelo Sabattani with the name Aurelio Guido Antonio Gaspare. The other siblings were Francesco, who died in childhood; Maria Teresa; and Pier Giorgio.

Education. Initial education at home, from his mother and his uncle, the priest; elementary eduction at the local school, from 1917, under teacher Giuseppina Tabanelli. Received the first communion and the sacrament of confirmation on May 5, 1919, in the parish church of S. Giovanni Battista di Riolo, from Paolino Giovanni Tribbioli, O.F.M.Cap., bishop of Imola. Entered the Seminary of Imola, on October 23, 1922; received the clerical vestment in his native parish from Bishop Tribbioli, O.F.M.Cap. of Imola; concluded his ginnasiali education on July 15, 1927; entered the Regional Seminary Benedetto XV, Bologna, in October 1927; studied philosophy and theology until 1935 (master's in dogmatic theology); received the diaconate on Sunday October 28, 1934, in the cathedral basilica of Faenza, from Bishop Antonio Scarante of Faenza; in 1935, he was sent to study at Pontifical Institute "Utriusque Iure" ("S. Apollinare"), Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, summa cum laude; thesis: De vita et operibus Alexandri Tartagni de Imola, July 4, 1939); from 1935 to 1939, he alternated periods of study in Rome and periods of pastoral work in Riolo Terme. In 1939, he was called by Msgr. Amleto Todini to work in the Vatican Secretariat of State as aiutante di studio; and he was invited to take the esame di diplomacia, while at the same time, studying at the Studio Rotale to become an advocate at the Sacred Roman Rota in Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 26, 1935, episcopal chapel, Faenza, by Antonio Scarante, bishop of Faenza; he obtained dispensation for being younger than 24 years of age according to the canon law in force at the time. He celebrated his first mass on the following July 28, in the parish church of Riolo. Further studies in Rome, 1935-1939. Brief service in the Vatican Secretariat of State, 1939-1940; he had to return to his diocese because of family affairs (his mother died on July 13, 1940, his sister and brother were thirteen and eleven respectively and he felt that it was his duty to return home). Successively, 1940-1955, in Imola, diocesan chancellor, from October 15, 1940; faculty member of its seminary; diocesan counselor of Christian Teachers; cathedral canon; in Bologna, judge and official of the regional ecclesiastical tribunal; during the summer months of 1942-1947, worked at the Vatican Secretariat of State. Privy chamberlain supra numerum, September 30, 1943. Named auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, January 31, 1955. The cardinal vicar of Rome named him spiritual counselor of the Catholic Physicians Association of Rome, 1955-1965.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Giustiniana prima and appointed prelate of Loreto and pontifical delegate of its shrine, June 24, 1965. Consecrated, July 25, 1965, church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, by Cardinal Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, secretary of State, assisted by Francesco Carpino, titular archbishop of Sardi, secretary of the S.C. Consistorial, and by Benigno Carrara, bishop of Imola. President of the Episcopal Conference of the Marches. Secretary of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, July 13, 1971. Resigned the pastoral government of the prelature, September 30, 1971. Vicar of the cardinal archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1971. Pro-prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature and pro-president of the Vatican Court of Appeal, May 17, 1982.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 2, 1983. Received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Apollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine, February 2, 1983. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, February 3, 1983. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica and president of the Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's, February 8, 1983. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Resigned the prefecture, July 1, 1988. Cardinal protodeacon, November 26, 1990. Vicar general of Vatican City, January 14, 1991. Resigned the posts of archpriest, vicar and president, July 1, 1991. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years of age, October 18, 1992. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, April 5, 1993.

Death. April 19, 2003, in the morning, in his residence at the Palace of the Tribunal, in piazza Santa Marta, Vatican City. Buried in his family's tomb in Riolo Terme.

Bibliography. Cárcel Ortí, Vicente. "Aurelius Cardinalis Sabattani. Nota biographica." in Dilexit iustitiam : studia in honorem Aurelii Card. Sabattani. Città del Vaticano : Libreria editrice vaticana, 1984. (Studi giuridici ; 5), pp. XV-XX; Sabattani, Aurelio ; Cárcel Ortí, Vicente. Il cardinale Aurelio Sabattani (1912-2003) : omelie, discorsi e testimonianze. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2007; Ravaglia, Paolo. Ha amato la Chiesa. Una biografia del Cardinale Aurelio Sabattani (1912-2003). Imola : Il Nuovo Diario Messaggero, 2009.


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SAIGH, M.S.S.P., Maximos IV
(1878-1967)

Birth. April 10, 1878, Aleppo, Syria, then under Turkish domination. Son of Rizkallah Saigh and Catherine Turkmani. His first name was Amine Rizkallah. His last name is also listed as Saïgh, Saygh and Sayegh.

Education. Initial studies at the Franciscan primary school in Aleppo; he then entered the Diocesan Seminary of Saint'Anna in Jerusalem, where he comp[leted his secondary studies, from 1893 until 1903; he taught Arab literature at the seminary from 1903 until 1906. On July 28, 1905, he joined the Missionary Society of Saint Paul (Paulists), which had been founded by Msgr. Germanos Mouaccad in 1903; he took the name Joseph. He obtained the diploma of Hautes Études de Théologie et de Philosophie

Priesthood. Ordained, September 17, 1905, in the small church of Roumiet-el-Matn, by Melkite Patriarch Cyrill VII Sawaya of Antioch. Professor at the Seminary of Saint'Anna in Jerusalem, from 1905 to 1908. He then returned to the mother house of the society in Harissa. He preached retreats and missions, the special work of the Melkite Paulists. In 1908, he was named by Msgr. Mouaccad to assist in the Synod of the Greek Melkite Curch in Ain-Traz, Lebanon. Named director of the review Al-Maçarrat, he contributed with theological, apologetical and historical articles. Elected superior general of his religious society in 1912; occupied the post until his promotion to the episcopate.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Tyre of the Melkites and consecrated, August 30, 1919, Damascus, by Joseph Dimitrio Cadi, patriarch of Antioch of the Melkites, assisted by Ignace Homsi, titular bishop of Tarso of the Melkites, and by Flavien Khoury, archbishop of Homs of the Melkites. In 1921, the Holy See designated him as apostolic visitator to the Catholic Greek Melkite communities in North America; and later, as apostolic visitator to all the Melkite religious congregations. He reorganized and built numerous schools and churches and published several liturgical works. At the death of Patriarch Cadi, the Holy See named him Locum tenes or patriarchal apostolic vicar, sede vacante, from October 30, 1925 until November 10, 1926. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Beirut and Gibail of the Melkites, August 30, 1933. In 1935, in collaboration with the Paulist missionaries, he founded the Congregation of Sœurs Missionnaires de Notre Dame du Perpétuel Secours in Daroun-Harissa, Lebanon. Named assistant at the Pontifical Throne, May 25, 1943. Elected Melkite patriarch of Antioch by the Synod of Bishops of the Melkite Church, October 30, 1947; confirmed by the pope, June 21, 1948. He had the title ad personam of the sees of Alexandria and Jerusalem of the Melkites. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965; he spoke French instead of Latin at the council; he urged reconciliation between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches; he championed the Eastern tradition of Christianity and won a great deal of respect from Eastern Orthodox observers at the council and the approbation of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople Athenagoras I; he also spoke forcefully against the latinization of the Eastern Catholic Churches, and urged a greater receptivity to the eastern Christian traditions, especially in the area of ecclesiology; and successfully advocated use of vernacular languages for liturgical celebrations. He was the Spiritual Protector of the international Ecumenical Military and Hospitaller Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal patriarch in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta, February 25, 1965. He was promoted to the cardinalate very much against his wish; three times previously he had refused a red hat on the grounds that "for a Patriarch to accept a cardinalate is treason"; Patriarchal Vicar for the See of Alexandria, Caïro and the Sudan Elias Zoghby opposed the acceptance of a Roman cardinalate by the Melkite patriarch, stating that the leader of an Eastern Catholic church should not hold a subordinate Latin-rite office; and in protest, the vicar resigned his position. The church of S. Maria in Cosmedin was assigned to him for religious celebrations while in Rome, November 22, 1965 (1).

Death. Sunday November 5, 1967, at 3:10 a.m., of cancer, in Beirut. His embalmed remains were exposed in the chapel of the archbishopric of Beirut from that day until Wednesday, when the body was transferred to the cathedral of Saint-Élie. The funeral took place on Friday November 10, 1967, at 10 a.m., in that cathedral. In attendance were the president of the Republic; the president of the Chamber; the president of the Council; Cardinal Patriarch Paul Pierre Meouchi of Antioch of the Maronites; Cardinal Patriarch Ignace-Gabriel I Tappouni of Antioch of the Syrians; numerous civil authorities; and representatives of the Orthodox, Protestant and Muslim communities. After the funeral, the body was transferred to Damascus, Syria, and exposed in the cathedral of that city. The funeral took place on Friday, November 10, at 3 p.m. Pope Paul VI sent a message of condolence through Cardinal Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, secretary of State, and asked Msgr. Atonio Petti, chargé d'affaires ad interim of the nunciature in Syria, to be his personal representative at the funeral. In attendance were the diplomatic corps accredited before the Syrian government; representatives from the government; the army and the internal security; the entire Syrian hierarchy; a representative from Ecumenical Patriarch Athénagoras I; Syrian Orthodox Patriarch Jacob III in person; representatives of the Greek Orthodox patriarchate; the representative of the Latin patriarch of Jerusalem; as well as delegates from Protestant and Muslim communities; and an immense multitude of faithful. The homily was delivered by Bishop Joseph Tawil of Mira of the Melkites. At 8 p.m., on that same day, the body was taken in procession at the light of candles and deposited in the vault of the patriarchs and bishops, which had been built that year under the sacristy of the cathedral. Three years later, according to his will, his remains were transferred to and buried in a tomb that he had built in the mother house of the Sœurs de Notre-Dame du Perpétuel Secours in Daroun-Harissa, Lebanon.

Bibliography. Bird, Thomas E. Patriarch Maximos IV Saygh. Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press, 1964. (Men who make the Council, 6); Inglessis, Emilios. Maximos IV : l'Orient conteste l'Occident. Postfacé par Mgr Joseph Nasrallah. Paris : Ed. du Cerf, 1969. (Chrétiens de tous les temps ; 32).

Links. Discourses and Memoranda of Patriarch Maximos IV and of the Hierarchs of His Church at the Second Vatican Council, in English, Eparchy of Newton; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) The occupant of the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin from December 15, 1958 until June 26, 1967 was Cardinal Francesco Roberti.


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SALAZAR LÓPEZ, José
(1910-1991)

Birth. January 12, 1910, Ameca, archdiocese of Guadalajara, México.

Education. Seminary of Guadalajara, Guadalajara; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 26, 1934, Guadalajara. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Guadalajara, 1934-1961. Charged with the construction of the Conciliar Seminary of Guadalajara; member of its faculty, and prefect of studies, 1934-1944; vice-rector, 1944-1950; rector, 1950-1961. Apostolic visitor to the Seminaries of Puebla and Durango, 1958.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Prusiade and appointed coadjutor of Zamora, May 22, 1961. Consecrated, August 20, 1961, basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe, México City, by Cardinal José Garibi Rivera, archbishop of Guadalajara, assisted by Francisco Javier Nuño Guerrero, titular archbishop of Garella, coadjutor of Guadalajara, and by José Gabriel Anaya y Diez de Bonilla, bishop of Zamora. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Transferred to the diocese of Zamora, September 15, 1967. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Guadalajara, February 21, 1970. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the title of S. Emerenziana a Tor Fiorenza, March 5, 1973. President of the Episcopal Conference of México. Attended the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Attended the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the III General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, May 15, 1987. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, January 12, 1990.

Death. July 9, 1991, at 4 p.m., of a heart attack, at Santísima Trinidad Hospital, Guadalajara. He was exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Guadalajara the following day ; and buried in that same cathedral. On the occasion of the centenary of his birth, a monument was unveiled on the grounds of the parish "Santiago Apóstol de Ameca", his native birthplace, in January 2011.


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SALDARINI, Giovanni
(1924-2011)

Birth. December 11, 1924, Cantù, archdiocese of Milan, Italy. Eldest child of Mario Saldarini and Adele Carugati. The other siblings were Giuseppe and Palmira. He was baptized in the parish of S. Michele Arcangelo, Milan, on December 21, 1924; and received the sacrament of confirmation from Cardinal Alfredo Ildefonso Schuster, O.S.B., archbishop of Milan.

Education. Studied at S. Pietro Martire Seminary, Venegono, from 1938; later, at the Theological Faculty, Milan, where he obtained the license in Sacred Theology; and then, at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, where he obtained a license in Sacred Scriptures.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 31, 1947, cathedral of Milan, by Cardinal Schuster, O.S.B. Faculty member, archiepiscopal school, Desio, 1947-1949. Further studies, Rome, 1949-1952. Professor of Sacred Scriptures at the Seminary of Venegono, 1952-1967. Pastor of the parish of Santi Ambrogio e Simpliciano, in Carate Brianza, Milan, 1967-1974. Pastor of the parish of S. Babila, in the center of Milano, 1974-1983. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, April 24, 1979. Episcopal vicar for the first pastoral zone of Milan, which comprised 23 deanships and 180 parishes, March 17, 1982. Pro-vicar general in charge of the pastoral programs of the archdiocese of Milan, June 18, 1983. Major canon of the metropolitan chapter, September 22, 1983.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Gaudiaba and appointed auxiliary of Milan, November 10, 1984. Consecrated, December 7, 1984, Milan, by Cardinal Carlo Maria Martini, S.J., archbishop of Milan, assisted by Cardinal Giovanni Colombo, archbishop emeritus of Milan, and by Giulio Oggioni, bishop of Bergamo. His episcopal motto was Adiutor gaudii vestri. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Turin, January 31, 1989.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1991; received the red biretta and the title of Sacro Cuore di Gesù a Castro Pretorio, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, June 28, 1991. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese because of bad health, June 19, 1999. Since his resignation he resided in the parish of S. Francesco di Paola, via Montenapoleone 22, Milan. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, December 11, 2004.

Death. April 18, 2011, shortly after 7 p.m., in Clinica San Giuseppe, Milan. From that evening, the body of the cardinal was exposed in the parish church of S. Francesco di Paola, where he had resided since his retirement in 1999; around 11 p.m., it was visited by the archbishop of Milan, Cardinal Dionigi Tettamanzi, who prayed before it. The mortuary chapel in that church remained open until Tuesday April 19 in the afternoon. Also in that church, on Tuesday, at 6 p.m., presided by the archbishop of Milan, took place the recitation of the Holy Rosary and Holy Mass of suffrage was celebrated at 6:30. After the celebration of suffrage, the body was moved to the cathedral of Turin, where it was exposed and the funeral was held. The funeral, presided over by Archbishop Cesare Nosiglia of Turin, took place on April 20, 2011, at 3:30 p.m., in the metropolitan cathedral of Turin. Archbishop Nosiglia delivered the homily. The body of the cardinal was laid to rest, according to his will, in that cathedral, next to the altar dedicated to Blessed Pier Giorgio Frassati, the Turinese youth of the Catholic Action beatified in 1990 (1). Cardinal Tettamanzi was present at the funeral. Upon learning the news of the death of Cardinal Saldarini, Pope Benedict XVI prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to Archbishop Nosiglia of Turin.

Links. Photographs, arms and biography, in Italian, Santi e beati; biography, in English, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in Italian, archdiocese of Turin; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

CARDINALE GIOVANNI SALDARINI * 1924 + 2011
ARCIVESCOVO DI TORINO 1989 - 1999


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SALES, Eugênio de Araújo
(1920-2012)

Birth. November 8, 1920, farm Catuana (now a shelter for the elderly), Acari, diocese of Caico, Brazil. Son of Celso Dantas Sales, judge of the High Court, and Josefa de Araújo Sales. He was baptized on the day of his birth in the parish of Nossa Senhora da Guia in Acari. His younger brother, Heitor, was archbishop of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, from 1993 until 2003.

Education. Initial studies in a private school in Natal for a year, 1930; and at the Marist School of the same city from 1931 until 1935; then, he entered the Minor Seminary of São Pedro, Natal in 1936; in 1937, he was sent to the Major Seminary of Prainha, in Fortaleza, where he studied philosophy and theology until 1943.

Priesthood. Ordained, November 21, 1943, Natal, by Marcolino Esmeraldo de Souza Dantas, bishop of Natal. Pastoral ministry, Natal, 1943-1954.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tibica and appointed auxiliary of Natal, June 1, 1954. Consecrated, August 15, 1954, Natal, by José de Medeiros Delgado, archbishop of São Luis do Maranhão, assisted by Elizeu Simões Mendes, bishop of Mossoró, and by José Adelino Dantas, bishop of Caicó. Apostolic administrator, sede plena, of Natal, January 6, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Apostolic administrator of the archdiocese of São Salvador da Bahia, July 6, 1964. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of São Salvador da Bahia, October 29, 1968.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of S. Gregorio VII, April 30, 1969. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Brasília, May 5, 1970. Transferred to the metropolitan see of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, March 13, 1971. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Ordinary for the faithful of Oriental rite without their own ordinary, June 22, 1972. Between 1976 and 1982, he provided shelter to nearly 5,000 Brazilian opponents of the military regime as well as political refugees fleeing the dictatorships of Argentina and Chile; they were put up in 80 apartments rented by the archdiocese or received help to travel to other countries, mostly in Europe. Attended the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Attended the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; the First Plenary Meeting of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of Holy See, May 31, 1981 to 1993. Co-president of the Pontifmcal Council for Culture from 1982 until 1988. He was member of the Congregations for Catholic Education (1983-1989); for Oriental Churches (1983); for the Evangelization of Peoples (1983); for Divine Worship and Discipline of the Sacraments (1984); of the Prefecture for the Economical Affairs of the Apsotlic See (1991); and of the Pontifical Commission for the Revision of the Code of Canon Law. Attended the Second Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 23 to 26, 1982; the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the Third Plenary Meeting of the College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 21 to 23, 1985; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Special papal envoy to the 12th National Eucharistic Congress, Natal, October 6 to 13, 1991. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. President delegate of the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, November 16 to December 12, 1997, Vatican City. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, November 8, 2000. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, July 25, 2001. Apostolic administrator of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, July 25, 2001 to September 22, 2001. Resigned the office of ordinary for the faithful of Oriental rite without their own ordinary, October 3, 2001. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the coronation of the statue of "Nossa Senhora Aparecida" and the 150th anniversary of the definition of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception that took place in Aparecida, Brazil, September 8, 2004. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the centennial of the coronation of the image of "Nossa Senhora do Sameiro" and of the 150th anniversary of the definition of the Dogma of the Immaculate Conception. The celebrations took place in Braga, Portugal, on December 8, 2004. Cardinal protopriest, February 16, 2009. His immense concern for the poor and the social question was manifested by the establishment of pastoral plans for the incarcerated, for health, for workers, for domestics, for the anonymous, for minors, and for the Favelas (a settlement of jerry-built shacks lying on the outskirts of Brazilian cities).

Death. Monday July 9, 2012, at 10:30 p.m., of a myocardial infarction, in his sleep, at Residência Episcopal de Nossa Senhora da Assunção, in the neighborhood of Sumaré, in Rio de Janeiro. Successively, his body was embalmed at the Cemitério de Inhaúma, from where a cortège left to Centro do Rio. His body was laid out in state in the metropolitan cathedral of São Sebastião do Janeiro on Tuesday July 10, from noon. Masses were celebrated every two hours. The funeral, presided by Archbishop Orani João Tempesta, O. Cist., of Rio de Janeiro, took place on Wednesday July 11, at 3 p.m., as soon as Karl Romer, titular bishop of Colonnata, auxiliary emeritus of Rio de Janeiro and former secretary of the Pontifical Council for the Family, arrived in Brazil from Rome. The cardinal's brother, Heitor Sales, archbishop emeritus of Natal, was in Switzerland at the time of the cardinal's death, but returned to Brazil upon learning the news. The cardinal's death came quite unexpectedly. Despite his advanced age, he suffered from no diseases and kept himself active and updated by watching TV and reading several newspapers. The late cardinal was buried in the crypt of the metropolitan cathedral, which is a separate building in the cathedral grounds (1). Upon learning the news of his death, Pope Benedict XVI prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to Archbishop Tempesta (2). The governor of Rio de Janeiro, Sérgio Cabral, decreed three days of mourning in the state. He and the prefect of the city, Eduardo Paes, issued statements lamenting the death of the cardinal.

Link. Photograph and biography, in Portuguese, archdiocese of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Homenagem a Dom Eugenio por ocasião dos seus 90 anos, You Tube, 6 de novembro de 2010; Morre o cardeal dom Eugenio Sales, O Globo, 09/07/2012 23h58 - Atualizado em 10/07/2012 12h42; Eldest Cardinal passes away: Eugenio de Araújo Sales was named Cardinal by Paul VI, Rome Reports, 2012-07-10 16:28:42. Note: He was not the eldest but the most senior cardinal; Uma herança pautada na humildade e no amor à Igreja, Colaboração: Raquel Araujo, Arquidiocese de São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, 10/07/2012; Brazilian cardinal who attended Vatican II, helped poor, dies at 91 by Carol Glatz, Catholic News Service, Jul-10-2012.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

DOM EUGENIO DE ARAUJO CARDEAL SALES
ARCEBISPO DA ARQUIDIOCESE DE
SAO SEBASTIAO DO RIO DE JANEIRO
DE 24-04-1971 A 25-07-2001
ORDENACAO PRESBITERAL 21-11-1943
ORDENACAO EPISCOPAL 15-08-1954
"IMPENDAM ET SUPERIMPENDAR"
DESPENDEREI, E ME DESPENDEREI TODO INTEIRO
EM VOSSO FAVOR - 2 COR 12,15
* 08-11-1920
+ 09.07.2012

(2) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the site of the archdiocese of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro:

Exmo Revmo Dom Orani João Tempesta
Arcebispo de São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro

Recebi a triste notmcia do falecimento do Venerado Cardeal Eugenio de Araujo Sales, depois de uma longa vida de dedicagão à Igreja no Brasil, venho exprimir meus pêsames a si e aos bispos auxiliares, ao clero e comunidades religiosas, aos fiéis da Arquidiocese de São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, que por três décadas teve nele um intrépido pastor, revelando-se autêntica testemunha do Evangelho no meio do seu povo.
Dou graças ao Senhor por ter dado à Igreja tão generoso pastor que, nos seus setenta anos de sacerdócio e cinquenta e oito de episcopado, procurou apontar a todos a senda da verdade na caridade e do serviço à comunidade, em permanente atengão pelos mais desfavorecidos, na fidelidade ao seu lema episcopal: Impendam et superimpendar (gastarei e gastar-me-ei por inteiro por vós).
Enquanto elevo fervorosas preces para que Deus acolha na sua felicidade eterna este seu servo bom e fiel, envio a essa comunidade arquidiocesana, que lamenta perda dessa admirada figura, à Igreja no Brasil, que nele sempre teve um seguro ponto de referência e de fidelidade à Sé Apostólica e a quantos tomam parte nos sufrágios animados pela esperança da ressurreigão, uma confortadora bênção apostólica. "


An analogous telegram was sent by Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B, secretary of State.


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SALIÈGE, Jules-Géraud
(1870-1956)

Birth. February 24, 1870, Mauriac, diocese of Saint-Flour, France. Son of M. Saliège and Marie-Antoinette Monteil. He was the fourth of five children of a family of the rural bourgeoisie of his native city. His siblings were Marcelin, Antony, Marie and Léonie. His father died when he was twelve years old. He had two uncles who were priests and two aunts who were religious. His middle name is also listed as Gérauld.

Education. His maternal uncle, Father Jules Monteil, took charge of his education. He studied at the Minor Diocesan Seminary of Pleaux, Cantal (baccalaureate in philosophy). Then, he entered the Seminary of Issy-les-Moulineaux, Paris. He was noted for his oratory talent. Received the subdiaconate on December 22, 1894.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 21, 1895, chapel of the bishop of Saint-Flour. Faculty member of the Minor Diocesan Seminary of Pleaux, 1895-1903. Spiritual director at the Carmelite convent of Saint-Flour. He was never in charge of a parish. Faculty member of the Seminary of Saint-Flour, 1903-1907; its rector, 1917-1925. Honorary canon of the cathedral chapter of Saint-Flour, September 14, 1905; honorary vicar general, March 31, 1918. During the First World War, he was mobilized as a military nurse on August 5, 1914; he was attached to the 163rd Infantry Division. At his request, on May 5, 1916, he was given the function of voluntary chaplain in the sector of Esparges and Mount Cornillet. His conduct during the war earned him a citation of Order du Jour de l'Armée on August 23, 1917. At the end of 1917, at the request of Bishop Paul Lecœur of Saint-Flour, he was demobilized from the army; he had been affected by pepper gas.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Gap, October 29, 1925. Consecrated, January 6, 1926, cathedral of Saint-Flour, by Paul-Augustine Lecœur, bishop of Saint-Flour, assisted by Benjamin Roland-Gosselin, titular bishop of Mosinopoli, auxiliary of Paris, and by Hippolyte de La Celle, bishop of Nancy. His episcopal motto was Sub umbra illius. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Toulouse, December 17, 1928. On August 23, 1942, during the Second World War, he protested the deportation of the Jews and for this, he was later honored in the Yad Vashem (Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority) as a "Righteous among the Nations". By decree of August 7, 1945, he was named Compagnon de la Libération. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, October 15, 1945.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Pudenziana, May 17, 1946. On February 18, 1946, he was decorated with the Croix de la Libération by Pierre Bertaux, commissary of the French Republic. He was an enemy of all totalitarianisms: Communism, Fascism and Nazism. He had prepared his testament on April 4, 1943, and in it, he stated that he wanted a stone over his grave with the simple inscription: "Dilexit Ecclesiam".

Death. November 5, 1956, Toulouse, of a congestion (1). The funeral took place on November 10, 1956, in Saint-Étienne's metropolitan cathedral, Toulouse, celebrated by Cardinal Maurice Feltin, archbishop of Paris, and in the presence of all the other French cardinals; numerous archbishops and bishops; the prefect of Haute-Garonne; the honorary president of the French Republic, Vincent Auriol; the president of the honorary Council, Georges Bidault; and other official representatives. The body of the cardinal received military honors before the door of Saint'Anne of the metropolitan cathedral. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Toulouse (2). Shortly after the burial, his cardinal hat was hung from the ceiling of the cathedral over his tomb. In a small public garden, next to the metropolitan cathedral of Toulouse, a bronze bust of the cardinal was placed in November 1986, on the thirtieth anniversary of his death.

Bibliography. Le cardinal Saliège, archevêque de Toulouse. Actes du colloque des 3 et 4 novembre 2006 à l'occasion du cinquantième anniversaire de la mort du cardinal Saliège. Toulouse :Institut catholique de Toulouse, 2007; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 483-484; Chansou, Joseph. Sous l'épiscopat du cardinal Saliège : 1929-1956, contribution à l'histoire du diocèse de Toulouse. Toulouse (2, rue Deville, 31000) : J. Chansou, 1978; Chansou, Joseph. Sous l'épiscopat du cardinal Saliège : 1929-1956. Baziège : Pélé jeunes région, 2006; Clément, Jean-Louis. Monseigneur Saliège, archevêque de Toulouse : 1929-1956. Paris : Beauchesne, Impr. des Presses universitaires de France), 1994. Dissertation: Texte remanié de Th. doct. Histoire Paris IV 1990. (Bibliothèque Beauchesne, 23); Commémoration du XXXe anniversaire de la mort du Cardinal Saliège (1956-1986). [Toulouse] : Institut Catholique de Touluse, 1987. (Supplément au Bulletin de littératurue ecclésiastique; Chronique, no. 2, 1987; Variation: Chronique (Institut Catholique de Toulouse) ; 1987, no. 2). Other title: Commémoration du trentième anniversaire de la mort du Cardinal Saliège (1956-1986); Guitton, Jean. Le Cardinal Saliège. Paris : Bernard Grosset, 1957; Saliège, Jules Géraud. Spiritual writings [by] Cardinal Saliège; an anthology chosen and presented by Archbishop Garrone. Langley (Bucks.) : St. Paul Publications, 1966. Note: Originally published as Ècrits spirtuels. Paris, Grasset, 1960. Translated [from the French] by Malachy G. Carroll; Sandy, Isabelle ; Dufaur, Marguerite. De granit et de pourpre : le cardinal Saliège. Paris : Spes, 1957; Vié, Louis. Le cardinal Saliège, archevêque de Toulouse, 1870-1956. Toulouse : Semaine catholique, 1956. Note: "Articles ... publiés par la Semaine catholique de Toulouse, dans ses numéros des 11 et 18 nov. 1956".

Links. His arms, Araldica Vaticana; Monsignor Jules-Gérard Saliège, France, Yad Vashem The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority; Le cardinal Saliège, un Juste à lhonneur, La Croix, 11/7/12 - 16 H 47; Lo Yad Vashem onora il coraggio dellarcivescovo Saliège / A settant'anni dal rastrellamento nazista a Parigi, from L'Osservatore Romano, Il Sismografo, venerdì 13 luglio 2012; R.I.P la rafle du Vel dHiv, InfoCatho.be, 2012/07/17.

(1) These are the texts of telegrams of condolence, taken from Guitton, Le Cardinal Saliège, p. 323, sent in the name of Pope Pius XII to Archbishop Gabriel Marie Garrone, coadjutor of Tolouse:
Sa Sainteté douloureusement affectée décès trés regretté cardinal Saliège, recommande divine miséricorde âme éminent pasteur dont elle appréciait hautement zèle et énergie service Église. Envoie Votre Excellence, clergé et tout diocèse en deuil réconfort, paternelle Bénédiction apostolique.
By President René Coty of France:
Bien ému du décès du grand Prince de l'Église qui fut toujours et spécialement aux heures les plus sombres un modèle de patriotisme et de courage; je vous prie d'agréer pour vous-même, Monseigneur, et pour le diocèse de Toulouse, l'expression de ma sympathie profondément attristée
And by Cardinal Joseph Frings, archbishop of Cologne, Germany:
Du fond du coeur je m'unis au deuil du diocèse de Toulouse. Créé cardinal par le Saint-Père en même temps que S. Em. le cardinal Saliège, je n'ai cessé d'avoir pour l'extrême pénétration de son esprit, son héroïque patience, sa très profonde piété, un sentiment d'admiration. J'ai offert le Saint Sacrifice pour le repos de son âme.

(2) This is the inscription on his tomb, taken from Guitton, Le Cardinal Saliège, p. 330:

Julius Geraldus Saliège
Preb. Tit. S. Pudentianæ S. R. E. cardinalis
Archiepiscopus tolosanus, doctrina clarus et fortitudine
ovibus deditus, defensor civitatis
obiit nonis novembris an. MDCCCCLVI


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SALOTTI, Carlo
(1870-1947)

Birth. July 25, 1870, Grotte di Castro, diocese of Montefiascone, Italy. Son of Giuseppe Salotti and Orsola Capozzi.

Education. Seminary of Orvieto, Orvieto; Pontifical Roman Athenaeum S. Apollinare, Rome; Royal University, Rome. In the Italian Army, 1891-1894.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 22, 1894, Rome. Further studies, Rome, 1894-1897. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, 1897-1912. Faculty member of the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", 1902-1912. Assessor of the S.C. of Rites and subpromoter of the Faith, July 10, 1915; promoter, 1925; his role was to argue as persuasively as possible against the candidates for canonization (popularly known as "the devil's advocate"). Domestic prelate of His Holiness, July 20, 1915.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Filippopoli di Tracia, June 30, 1930. Consecrated, July 6, 1930, basilica of S. Cuore di Gesù a Castro Pretorio, Rome, by Cardinal Willem Marinus van Rossum, C.SS.R., prefect of S.C. for Propagation of Faith, assisted by Luigi Olivarès, S.D.B., bishop of Nepi e Sutri, and by Giovanni Rosi, bishop of Montefiascone. His episcopal motto was Labor pro Fide. Named secretary of the S.C. for Propagation of Faith and rector of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," July 3, 1930. Founder of the Scientifical Missionary Institute of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide."

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest and reserved in pectore, March 13, 1933; published, December 16, 1935; received the red hat and the title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, December 19, 1935. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites, September 14, 1938. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, December 11, 1939.

Death. October 24, 1947, from liver ailment, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Pietro Apostolo of Grotte di Castro.

Bibliography. Il Cardinale Carlo Salotti. Roma : Istituto Grafico Tiberino, 1935; Sturzo, Luigi. Il Cardinale Carlo Salotti, nelle sue memorie. Alba : Edizione Paoline, 1951.

Link. Portrait, photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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SAMASSA, József
(1828-1912)

Birth. September 30, 1828, Aranyosmarót, archdiocese of Esztergom (Gran), Austria-Hungary (now Zlazé Moravce, archdiocese of Bratislava-Trnava, Slovakia). Received the sacrament of confirmation, May 23, 1836.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Presbourg; at the Pazmaneum College, Vienna; and at the University of Vienna, where he earned a doctorate in theology on June 13, 1862. Received the insignias of the clerical character and the minor orders in 1846; the subdiaconate on July 20, 1852; and the diaconate on July 22, 1852.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 23, 1852, Esztergom. Faculty member of the Tyrnau archiepiscopal gymnasium, 1852-1855. Prefect of studies of the Central Seminary of Pest, 1855-1859. Professor of theology, Seminary of Esztergom, 1859-1861. Ordinary public professor of biblical studies of the New Testament, University of Pest, 1861-1867. Member of the Hungarian parliament; counselor of the Ministry of Cult and Public Education; and abbot of St. Helena de Földovár, 1869. Canon of of the metropolitan cathedral of Esztergom, 1870-1871. Belonged to the Deák Party. He was nominated to the see of Szepes by Emperor Francis Joseph I of Austria-Hungary on February 1, 1871.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Szepes (Spis, now Slovakia), June 26, 1871. Consecrated, July 30, 1871, Esztergom, by János Simor, archbishop of Esztergom, assisted by János Zalka, bishop of Györ, and by József Szabó, titular bishop of Nilopoli, auxiliary of Esztergom. His episcopal motto was Fructus honoris onus. Nominated by Emperor Francis Joseph I of Austria-Hungary to the metropolitan see of Eger on June 18, 1873. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Eger, July 25, 1873; on that same day he was granted the pallium. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, July 30, 1886. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1892.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 11, 1905 (1); the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief of December 11, 1905; received the red hat and the title of S. Marco, December 6, 1906, in forma privata, in the papal chapel.

Death. August 20, 1912, Eger. Buried, metropolitan cathedral, Eger.

Bibliography. Melloni, Alberto. Il conclave. Storia di una istitutzione. Bologna : Il Mulino, 2001, p. 79, n.45; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 8 and 23; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 82 and 504; Tusor, Péter. Purpura Pannonica : az esztergomi "bíborosi szék" kialakulásának elozminyei a 17. században = Purpura Pannonica : the "Cardinalitial See" of Strigonium and its Antecedens in the 17th Century. Budapest : Róma : Research Institute of Church History at Péter Pázmány Catholic University, 2005. (Collectanea Vaticana Hungariae, Classis I, vol. 3), pp. 209 and 329.

Links. Picture and brief biographical data, in Hungarian, Magyar Elektronikus Könyutár; and his photograph porraits and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


(1) According to Melloni, Il conclave. Storia di una istitutzione, p. 79, n.45, on September 19, 1894, he had defended the right of Austria-Hungary to use the veto in the conclave and, because of this, he had not received the red hat despite the strong pressure of the court of Vienna. Melloni cites as sources of this information, M. Scaduto, "I precedenti di una riforma e le leggi di Pio X sul Conclave" in La Civiltà Cattolica, XCV, 2 (1944), pp. 140-149 and 236-246; and Friedrich Engel-Jánosi, Österreich und der Vatikan 1846-1918, II, Die Pontifikat Pius X. und Benedikts XV. (1903-1918), Graz : Verlag Styria, 1958-1960, pp. 79-91.


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SAMORÈ, Antonio
(1905-1983)

Birth. December 4, 1905, Bardi, diocese of Piacenza, Italy. Son of Gino Samorè,a Carabiniere, and Giuseppina Basini. He had a sister, Jolanda, who was two years older than him. He was baptized on December 16, 1906 by Father Giuseppe Morini, parish priest of Bardi. He received the sacrament of confirmation from Giovanni Maria Pellizzari, bishop of Piacenza, on June 24, 1915.

Education. Entered the Seminary of Piacenza in October 1916; he earned a degree in theology from the Collegio Alberoni on June 29, 1929, with the thesis Prima sedes a nemine iudicatur, about the Petrine Primacy between the years 452 and 523; later, he also studied at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome where, in 1938, he obtained a doctorate in canon law with the thesis Concordatum inter Sanctam Sedem et Hispaniam anni 1717.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 10, 1928, Piacenza, by Ersilio Menzani, bishop of Piacenza. He said his first mass at the church of St. Lazarus the day after his ordination. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Piacenza, 1929-1932 as curate of the parish of San Savino. Attaché and secretary of the nunciature in Lithuania, 1932-1936 at the request of Antonino Arata, titular archbishop of Sardi, nuncio in that country. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, February 28, 1935; reappointed, March 3, 1939. Secretary of the nunciature in Switzerland, 1938. Staff member of the Secretariat of State, 1938-1947. Counselor of the apostolic delegation in United States of America, 1947-1950. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, February 27, 1947.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tirnovo and appointed nuncio in Colombia, January 30, 1950. Consecrated, April 16, 1950, basilica of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, by Cardinal Clemente Micara, bishop of Velletri, vicar general of Rome, assisted by Filippo Bernardini, titular archbishop of Antiochia di Pisidia, nuncio in Switzerland, and by Alberto Carinci, bishop of Boiano-Campobasso. Secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, February 7, 1953. Following Cardinal Domenico Tardini's death in 1961, he acted as director of Villa Nazareth, which had been founded by the late cardinal in 1946, occupying the post until his own death; he was the executor of Cardinal Tardini's will. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. He was present at the opening of the Inter-regional Seminary of Recife, Brazil, in 1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 26, 1967; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, June 29, 1967. President of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America, September 25, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Prefect of the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments, November 1, 1968. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Resigned the prefecture and appointed librarian and archivist of the Holy Roman Church, January 25, 1974; occupied the post until his death. Named bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, December 12, 1974. He celebrated the 50th anniversary of his priestly ordination at his native Bardi, in the presence of Cardinals Opilio Rossi and Mario Casariego in 1978. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Special papal representative before Argentina and Chile to peacefully resolve the border controversy between them, December 24, 1978; a "Treaty of Peace and Friendship" between the two countries was signed on October 18, 1984, in Casina Pio IV, in the Vatican gardens, in the presence of Cardinal Secretary of State Agostino Casaroli.

Death. February 3, 1983, shortly before 9 a.m., of a heart attack, at the Villa Flaminia Clinic, in Rome. Cardinal Agostino Casaroli, secretary of State, Archbishop Gabriel Montalvo and Monsignor Faustino Sainz Muñoz were at his bedside. His funeral mass, presided by Pope John Paul II, was celebrated at the patriarchal Vatican basilica. He was buried in a vault under the pavement of the sanctuary of the church of the Carmelite monastery of Vetralla, Viterbo. The remains of Cardinal Domenico Tardini rest in the same vault.

Bibliography. Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 437.

Link. His portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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SÁNCHEZ, José Tomás
(1920-2012)

Birth. March 17, 1920, Pandan, Catanduanes, diocese of Virac, Philippines. He came from an ordinary family and became a priest only after being sponsored by a bishop.

Education. Studied at Holy Rosary Seminary, Naga; and then, at St. Thomas University, Manila, where he earned a doctorate in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 12, 1946 in Naga City, for the diocese of Sorsogon. Successively, 1946-1968, he was assistant pastor of San Raphael parish, Sorsogon; and realized pastoral ministry in Legazpi, were he became vicar general. Faculty member, minor seminary of Sorsogon; St. Agnes Academy; lyceum of Albay; St. Thomas University, Legazpi; Holy Rosary Seminary, Naga.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Lesvi and appointed auxiliary of Cáceres, February 5, 1968. Consecrated, May 12, 1968, cathedral of San Jorge, Legazpi, by Carmine Rocco, titular archbishop of Iustinianopolis in Galatia, nuncio to the Philippines, assisted by Flaviano Ariola, bishop of Legazpi, and by Arnulfo Arcilla, bishop of Sorsogon. Named coadjutor, with right of succession, of Lucena, December 12, 1972. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Successor to the see of Lucena, September 25, 1976. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Nueva Segovia, January 12, 1982. Secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, October 30, 1985. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 22, 1986.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 28, 1991; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Pio V a Villa Carpegna, June 28, 1991. Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy and president of the Pontifical Commission for the Preservation of the Artistic and Historical Patrimony of the Church, July 1, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Attended the Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994, Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Special papal envoy to the 4th centennial celebration of the establishment of the diocese of Cebú, Philippines, April 21-28, 1995. Special papal envoy to the 4th centennial celebration of the establishment of the diocese of Nueva Segovia, Philippines, June 4 to 11, 1995. Special papal envoy to the closing of the 4th centennial celebration of the establishment of the diocese of Caceres, September 15, 1995. Resigned the prefecture of the Congregation for the Clergy, June 15, 1996. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, March 17, 2000. Opted for the order of priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, February 26, 2002. While in Rome, Cardinal Sánchez resided at Via Rusticucci 13. In April 2011, he returned to the Philippines. In May 2011, he appealed to family members of Philippine President Benigno Aquino to help "enlighten" the president over the country's Reproductive Health bill. He was admitted to the University of Santo Tomas Hospital in February 2012, suffering from pneumonia and an infection; he was released two weeks later.

Death. March 9, 2012, at 4:30 a.m., Philippine time, died from multiple organ failure at the Cardinal Santos Memorial Medical Center in San Juan City, where he had been confined for a week; he spent last hours in an artificial respirator. Upon learning the death of the cardinal, Pope Benedict XVI prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to Cardinal Ricardo Jamin Vidal, archbishop emeritus of Cebu (1). On Monday March 12, the funeral mass was celebrated at 10 a.m. and was presided over by Cardinal Vidal, who also delivered the homily. His remains were interred at a tomb specifically prepared for him in the crypt below the sanctuary of the Good Shepherd cathedral (2).

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles. "Philippine episcopology (IV)." Boletín Eclesiástico de Filipinas, LXV, 718-719 (September-October 1989), 674.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines; photographs, Araldica Vaticana; Power To Unite with Elvira Cardinal Jose T Sanchez, pt. 2, in English, You Tube; Power To Unite with Elvira Cardinal Jose T Sanchez, pt. 3, in English, You Tube; His Eminence José Tomás Cardinal Sánchez , video, You Tube; Jose T. Cardinal Sanchez Memorial Pavilion, The Cathedral-Shrine and Parish of the Good Shepherd, Diocese of Novaliches, Regalado Avenue, Fairview Park, Quezon City, Philippines.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the site of the Press Office of the Holy See:

TO HIS EMINENCE CARDINAL RICARDO J. VIDAL
ARCHBISHOP EMERITUS OF CEBU

HAVING LEARNED WITH SADNESS OF THE DEATH OF CARDINAL JOSI T, SANCHEZ, PREFECT EMERITUS OF THE CONGREGATION FOR THE CLERGY, I OFFER MY CONDOLENCES TO YOU, THE MEMBERS OF HIS FAMILY AND TO ALL THOSE WHO WILL JOIN YOU IN THE CELEBRATION OF THE MASS OF CHRISTIAN BURIAL. AS I RECALL WITH GRATITUDE THE LATE CARDINALS DEDICATED SERVICE TO THE LORD AS A PRIEST AND BISHOP IN HIS NATIVE COUNTRY, AS WELL AS OUR SERVICE TOGETHER IN THE ROMAN CURIA DURING THE PONTIFICATE OF BLESSED JOHN PAUL II, I WILLINGLY JOIN YOU IN COMMENDING HIS NOBLE SOUL TO OUR HEAVENLY FATHER. I PRAY THAT HIS WITNESS WILL INSPIRE OTHERS TO DEDICATE THEIR LIVES TO THE SERVICE OF THE LORD AND HIS HOLY CHURCH, ESPECIALLY IN THE PRIESTHOOD. TO ALL WHO MOURN THE DEATH OF CARDINAL SANCHEZ IN THE HOPE OF THE RESURRECTION, I WILLINGLY IMPART MY APOSTOLIC BLESSING AS A PLEDGE OF CONSOLATION AND PEACE IN OUR LORD JESUS CHRISTI.

BENEDICTUS PP. XVI

(2) This is the text of the inscription on his sarcophagus, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

José T. Card. Sánchez

Born: March 17, 1920
Priest: May 12, 1946
Bishop: May 12, 1968
Cardinal: June 28, 1991
Died: March 9, 2012

"Teach me your will." Ps.143: 10


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SANDOVAL ÍÑIGUEZ, Juan
(1933-

Birth. March 28, 1933, Yahualica, diocese of San Juan de los Lagos, México. His parents were Esteban Sandoval and María Guadalupe Íñiguez; they had twelve children; one of his brothers was a Guadalupan missionary in Korea.

Education. Initial studies at Colegio Amado Nervo, Yahualica; Seminary of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, November 11, 1945-1952 (secondary studies, humanities and first year of philosophy); Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1952-1961 (licentiate in philosophy and doctorate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, October 27, 1957, Rome, by Antonio Samorè, titular archbishop of Tirnovo, secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. Further studies, Rome, 1957-1961. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Guadalajara, 1961. In the Seminary of Guadalajara, 1961-1971, spiritual director; prefect of discipline; prefect of philosophy faculty; faculty member and prefect of students in Tapalpa. Vice-rector, with functions of rector, 1971-1980; named rector, August 22, 1980, occupied the post until 1988. Also, member and president of the presbyteral council; member of the archdiocesan board of government; member of the archdiocesan clergy commission.

Episcopate. Elected coadjutor bishop of Ciudad Juárez, March 3, 1988. Consecrated, April 30, 1988, by Manuel Talamás Camandari, bishop of Ciudad Juárez, assisted by Girolamo Prigione, titular archbishop of Lauriaco, apostolic delegate in México, and by Juan Jesús Posadas Ocampo, archbishop of Guadalajara. His episcopal motto is Servus. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Succeeded to the see of Ciudad Juárez, July 11, 1992. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Guadalajara, April 21, 1994.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the title of Nostra Signora di Guadalupe e S. Filippo Martire in Via Aurelia, November 26, 1994. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, November 6, 1995. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; its relator general. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. President-delegate of the Ninth General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Participated in the Fifth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Guadalajara was accepted by Pope Benedict XVI on December 7, 2011, in accordance with canon 401§1 of the Code of Canon Law. Apostolic administrator of the see until the installation of his successor, Cardinal José Francisco Robles Ortega, who took possession on February 7, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on March 28, 2013. On March 29, 2014, he was confirmed as member of the Pontifical Council for Culture until the expiration of his mandate.

Links. Photograph, arms and biography, in Spanish, archdiocese of Guadalajara; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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SANTOS, O.F.M., Alexandre José María dos
(1924-

Birth. March 18, 1924, Zavala, diocese of Inhambane, Moçambique.

Education. Studied at the Franciscan Minor Seminary, Amatongas; at the Missionaries of Africa's Seminary of Nyassaland, Malawi; and at the Franciscan Seminary of Varatojo, Lisbon. Joined the Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans); temporary profession, 1948; solemn profession, 1951.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 25, 1953, Lisbon. Pastoral ministry in the Franciscan missions of Inhabane, Moçambique, 1954-1972. Counselor, Franciscan custody of Moçambique and rector of the minor seminary in Vila Pery (Chimoio), 1972-1974.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Maputo (formerly Lourenço Marques), December 23, 1974. Consecrated, March 9, 1975, Sports Palace, Lourenço Marques, by Cardinal Agnelo Rossi, prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, assisted by Cardinal Laurean Rugambwa, archbishop of Dar-es-Salaam, and by Eduardo Muaca, bishop of Malanje. His episcopal motto is Servir e não ser servido.He founded and was the first president of Caritas Moçambique. He promoted closer relations with the ecclesiastical communities from the former Portuguese colonies of Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea Bissau, São Tomé and Principe.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Frumenzio ai Prati Fiscali, June 28, 1988. He is the first Moçambican native cardinal. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, February 22, 2003. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, March 18, 2004. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World".

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B., André and Charles N. Bransom. "Franciscan bishops." Franciscan Studies, XLVIII (1988), 315.

Links. Biography, in Portuguese, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in English, Press Office of the Holy See; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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SANTOS, Rufino Jiao
(1908-1973)

Birth. August 26, 1908, Guagua, Pampanga, diocese of San Fernando, Philippines. Son of Gaudencio Santos and Rosalia Jiao. Rufino was the fourth of seven children; his siblings were Manuel, Emiliano, Quirino, Clara, Jovita and Exequiela. He was baptized in the parish church of Guagua, one of the oldest in Papanga; his god father was Emilio Lagman, a close friend of the family. Shortly after the mother's death, the family moved to Manila in 1917.

Education. Manila Cathedral Parochial School, July 1, 1917-1921; "San Carlos" Seminary of Manila, June 15, 1921-927 (Latin, English, Spanish, Greek, philosophy); in 1927, he was granted a scholarship to study at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (baccalaureate in canon law, 1929; doctorates in theology, July 19, 1931; and canon law); while in Rome, he resided at Pontifical Collegio Pio-Latino-Americano.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 25, 1931, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome (he received a dispensation for not having yet reached the age for priestly ordination). He returned to the Philippines in February 1932. Assistant pastor of Imus, 1932-1934. Vice-chancellor of the archdiocese of Manila, 1934-1938. Superintendent of religious instruction, 1934-1938. Member, 1936-1937, of the Executive Committee of the International Eucharistic Congress, which took place in Manila in February 1937. Named financial secretary- treasured of the archdiocese of Manila in 1939. Arrested by the Japanese during the Second World War, he was sent to Fort Santiago on February 4, 1944; later transferred to the city jail in Azcarraga; and then to Montinlupa on October 12, 1994; he was sentenced to seven years of imprisonment to expire in 1951, for the "crime" of anti-Japanese propaganda, benefitting the enemy ; toward the end of July 1945, the sentence of imprisonment was suddenly changed, without explanations, to death by firing squad, together with several other Filipino and American civilians, to be carried out on February 5, 1945; providentially, the liberation forces of General Douglas MacArthur, which had landed in the Philippines a few days earlier, stormed the prison where Father Santos was interned, and freed him the day before he was going to be executed. Named vicar general of the archdiocese of Manila in July 1945.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Barca and appointed auxiliary of Manila, August 19, 1947. Consecrated, October 24, 1947, chapel of the University of Santo Tomás, Manila, by Michael James O'Doherty, archbishop of Manila, assisted by Gabriel Martelino Reyes, archbishop of Cebú, and by Mariano Madriaga, bishop of Lingayen. Reappointed vicar general of Manila, September 29, 1949. Apostolic administrator of the diocese of Lipa, December 10, 1949. Received the Grand Cross of the Magistral Grace of the Military Sovereign Order of Malta, February 1950. Apostolic administrator of Infanta, March 1950. Auxiliary bishop of Manila, December 2, 1950. Military vicar of the Philippines, December 10, 1951. Apostolic administrator of Manila, October 17, 1952. Secretary general of the First Plenary Council of Philippines, Manila, January 1953. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Manila, February 10, 1953.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 28, 1960; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria ai Monti, March 31, 1960. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. On June 29, 1973, he suffered his first stroke while reciting the rosary at Villa San Miguel; he was taken to Makati Medical Center; and later moved to San Juan de Dios Hospital. He never recovered from his condition. He was the first cardinal from the Philippines.

Death. September 3, 1973, peacefully, of heart failure after suffering a stroke a few months before his death, at San Juan de Dios Hospital, Manila. For one week, thousands of the faithful filed past his casket at the metropolitan cathedral of Manila; the funeral took place at noon on the following September 10. He was buried in the crypt of the metropolitan cathedral, near the tombs of his predecessors, Archbishops Michael James O'Doherty and Gabriel Martelino Reyes.

Bibliography. Acosta, Carmencita H. The life of Rufino Cardinal Santos. Manila: Printed at Kayumanggi Press, Quezon City, Philippines, 1973; Bransom, Charles. "Philippine episcopology (III)." Boletín Eclesiástico de Filipinas, LXV, 716-717 (July-August 1989), 576.

Link. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of his prison record, taken from Acosta, The life of Rufino Cardinal Santos, p. 44:

Form No. 12
Bureau of Prisons
Bilibid Prisons
Muntinlupa
Names, Rufino J. Santos
Prison Number, 1660-M
Father, Gaudencio
Mother, Rosalia (deceased)
Born in Guagua, Pampanga
Residence, 95 Arzobispo, Intramuros, Manila
Age, 36 years
Court, Court Martial Imperial Japanese Forces
Crime, Anti-Japanese propaganda benefitting the enemy
Sentence, 7 years imprisonment commencing August 25 [illegible] and expiring August 24, 1951
Number of Convictions, One.


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SANZ DE SAMPER Y CAMPUZANO, Ricardo
(1873-1954)

Birth. December 19, 1873, Santa Fe de Bogotá, Colombia. Son of Rodolfo Sanz de Samper and Teresa Campuzano. His first name is also listed as Riccardo; and his last name as Sanz y Samper only and as de Samper.

Education. Studied at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, from 1896 to 899.

Early life. Lieutenant of artillery. Secretary of the legation of Colombia in Paris. Received the clerical habit, June 21, 1895, Paris; the homily was delivered by Monsignor Alfredo Peri-Morosini, secretary of the nunciature in Paris, and future bishop and apostolic administrator of Canton Ticino, Switzerland.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 17, 1898, Rome. Privy chamberlain participantium of Pope Leo XIII, September 26, 1899. He was sent to Bilbao, Spain, from October 31, 1900 to November 8, 1900, as special papal delegate to bring a gift from the pope Our Lady of Begoña; the precious gift was a golden rosary in commemoration of the coronation of the image of the Virgin of Begoña, which had taken place on September 8, 1900. Prelate of His Holiness, February 11, 1902. He was sent to México to try to establish an apostolic delegation; arrived in México on March 18, 1902 and departed on July 10 of the same year. Named secretary of embassy, August 5, 1903. Privy chamberlain participantium of Pope Pius X, 1903-1914; for six years, interim master of chamber. Coppiere of His Holiness, 1905. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1910. In May 1910, with Msgr. Rodolfo Caroli, he participated in the reopening of the cathedral of Canton Ticino after its repair was finished. Protonotary apostolic supernumerary, July 10, 1910. Secretary of the S.C. Ceremonial, November 2, 1911. Master of Chamber of His Holiness, 1914-1921. Majordome of His Holiness and prefect of the Sacred Apostolic Palace, June 16, 1921 to October 1926; as majordome, he was one of the four prelati di fiocchetti and had ordinary audiences with the pope the first and third Tuesdays of each month. Governor of the conclave of 1922; he heard, from the outside, that in the Sistine Chapel the pope had been elected and ran to give the news to the Pontifical Family; as governor, he was the first, after the cardinals, to pay homage to the new Pope Pius XI. President of the Heraldic Commission of the Pontifical Court. President of the Ospizio dei Convertendi, Rome.

Cardinalate. According to Yves Chiron, Pie XI : 1857-1939 (Paris : Perrin, 2004), p. 130, in 1923 Pope Pius XI wanted to promote him to the cardinalate, but changed his mind when King Alfonso XIII of Spain insisted that he appoint cardinals from South America. The pope did not wish to appear to have been influenced by political considerations (1). In 1926, he was abruptly suspended from his position (2). He resigned the post in October 1928 and was named majordome emeritus (3). He testified for the Positio Summarium during the beatification process of Pope Pius X, which was published in 1949. He moved to Sanremo because of his deteriorating health.

Death. February 22, 1954, Sanremo. Buried in the Armea Cemetery of Sanremo.

Bibliography. Bravo Ugarte, José. Diócesis y obispo de la iglesia mexicana (1519-1965). Con un apéndice de los representantes de la S. Sede en México y viceversa. 2d ed. México : Editorial Jus, 1965. (Colección México Heorico, 39); Bravo Ugarte, José. Historia de México. México : Jus, 1941-1944, 3, II, 432. Contents: v. 1. Elementos prehispanicos.--v. 2. La Nueva Espaqa.--v. 3, I. Independencia, caracterización politica e integracisn social.--v. 3, II. Relaciones internacionales, territorio, sociedad y cultura; Gillow, Eulogio. Apuntes históricos. México : Impr. del. Sagrado Corazón de Jesús, 1899; "Liste générale alphabétique des protonotaires apostoliques, prélates de Sa Santité, camériers secrets et d'honneur, d'honneur 'extra urbem', chapelains communs, secrets, d'honneur'extra urbem', et autres collèges prélatices." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, XIV année, 1911, p. 633; XXIV, année, 1931, p. 771; and XXXIX année, 1936, p. 787.

Links. Portrait, medals of the Sede vacante 1922 and biographical data, in Italian (nos. 77-79); Château of Middes, Switzerland, which he bought in 1914 and where he resided until 1930; another site of Château of Middes.

(1) This the text of Chiron's book: En 1923, le roi d'Espagne, Alphonse XIII, au cours de la visite officielle qu'il fit au Vatican, demanda au pape de créer des cardinaux en Amérique du Sud, cette partie du confinent américain n'ayant qu'un représentant au sein du Sacré Collège (le cardinal Arcoverde). Pie XI prit mal cette ingérence. Alors qu'il envisageait de créer cardinal un autre Sud-Américain, Mgr Richard Sanz de Samper, son majordome du palais, prélat de la famille pontificale, il changea d'avis " pour ne pas paraître subir une pression d'un souverain ...". Ce n'est qu'en 1930 qu'un Sud-Amiricain sera cré cardinal. Il s'agira de Mgr Sebastian Leme da Silveira Cintra, archevêque de Rio de Janeiro.
(2) According to Chiron, Pie XI : 1857-1939, p. 130, note in note 2 : Dépêche de Doulcet, le 11 janvier 1924, AMAE, Saint-Siège, vol. 5, f. 69. Peut-être y avait-il aussi d'autres raisons ? Près de cinq ans plus tard, Mgr Sanz de Samper sera " brusquement " éloigné de sa charge, " sans aucune compensation ", et sans le traditionnel chapeau cardinalice attaché à la fonction au bout d'un certain nombre d'années de service (cf. dépêche de Fontenay, le 17 dicembre 1928, AMAE, Saint-Siège, vol. 5, f. 279-280).
(3) With the papal brief Provvida cura dei nostri Predecessori of December 16, 1926, Pope Pius XI suppressed the post of majordome and prefect of the Sacred Palace, dividing the duties between the master of chamber and the Administration of the Wealth of the Holy See (Niccolò Del Re, Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 681). In spite of this, Msgr. Samper's name continued to appear in Annuario Pontificio until 1954, as majordome emeritus of His Holiness; the post was never filled during those years; after his death in 1954, the post continued to be listed and remained vacant until October 29, 1958, when Pope John XXIII named Msgr. Federico Callori di Vignali, future cardinal, to occupy it; the appointment took place the day after the election of the pope; when Pope Paul VI reformed the Pontifical Household by the motu proprio Pontificalis Domus of March 28, 1968, the office was definitively suppressed and replaced by that of prefect of the Pontifical Household.


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SAPIEHA, Adam Stefan
(1867-1951)

Birth. May 14, 1867, castle of Krasiczyn, diocese of Przemysl, Poland, of a noble family. Youngest of the seven children of Adam Stanisław Count Sapieha-Kodeński and Princess Jadwiga Klementyna Sanguszko-Lubartowicz. He had four brothers, Władysław Leon, Leon Paweł, Paweł Jan, and Jan Piotr; and two sisters: Maria Jadwiga and Helena Maria. Baptized, May 19, 1867, by Father Antoni Kozański. His baptismal name was Adam Stefan Stanisław Bonfatiusz Józef. His last name is also listed as Sapieha-Kodeński. Relative of Cardinal Włodzimierz Czacki (1882). Related to Aleksander Sapieha, bishop of Vilnius (1667-1671); Paweł Sapieha, bishop of Samogitia (1715), and Józef Sapieha, bishop coadjutor of Vilnius.

Education. Wyższe Gimnasium, Lwow, 1886; Jagielloński University, Kraków; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (obtained a doctorate on July 10, 1896). Received the subdiaconate, May 27, 1893; and the diaconate, July 15, 1893.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 1, 1893, Rome by Jan Puzyna de Kosielsko, titular bishop of Memphis, auxiliary of Leopolis of the Latins. Pastoral ministry in diocese of Lemberg; professor at Wyższe gimnasium, Lwow, 1886; faculty member of its seminary, 1893-1897; vice-rector, September 23, 1897 to October 27, 1910. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Lemberg, 1902. Privy chamberlain participantium, February 23, 1906.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Kraków, November 27, 1911. Consecrated, December 17, 1911, Sistine Chapel, Vatican apostolic palace, by Pope Pius X, assisted by Augusto Silj, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Capadocia, secret almoner of His Holiness, and by Agostino Zampini, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, papal sacristan. Promoted to archbishop when Kraków was elevated to metropolitan see, October 28, 1925.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria Nuova e S. Francesca Romana, February 22, 1946.

Death. July 23, 1951, at 7:15 a.m., archbishop's palace, Kraków. Buried in Wawel cathedral, Kraków, near the altar of the confession of Sw. Stanisław (1).

Bibliography. Bogacz, Roman. Ksiaze niezlomny : kardynal Adam Stefan Sapieha. Kraków : Wydawn. UNUM, 2001; Boron, Piotr ; Kosior, Boleslaw ; Laszczak, Kazimierz. Adam Stefan ksiaze Sapieha 1867-1951 - kardynal, metropolita krakowski. Kraków : Komitet Obywatelski miasta Krakowa, 2001; Czajowski, Jacek. Kardynal Adam Stefan Sapieha. Wroclaw : Ossolineum, 1997; Machay, Ferdynand. Dwadziescia piec lat pasterzowania Ksiecia Metropolity Adama Stefana Sapiehy. Kraków : nakl. Komitetu Jubileuszowego, 1937. Other titles: 25 lat pasterzowania Ksiecia Metropolity Adama Stefana Sapiehy : 1912-1937; Jubileuszowa Ksiega Pamiatkowa 1912-1937; Nitecki, Piotr. Biskupi Kościoła w Polsce w latach 965-1999. Słownik biograficzny. Przedmowa Henryk Gulbinowicz. Warszawa : Instytut Wydawniczy "Pax", Warszawa 2000, col. 392-393; Ośko, Jan. Ksiąźę. Rzecz o kardynale Adamie Stefanie Sapieże. Ząbki: Apostolicum Wydawnictwo Księży Pallotynów Prowincji Chrystusa Króla: 2009; Pawlikowski, Tomasz. Adam Stefan Kardynal Sapieha. Lublin : Wydawn. "Test", 2004. (Ludzie niezwykli; Biblioteka im. sw. Jadwigi Królowe); Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 251-264; Przybyszewski, Bolesław. Adam Syefan Kardynal Sapieha : pasterz dobry, ksiaze niezlomny, 1867-1951. Lancut : Wydawn. De arte, 2002; Rożek, Michał. Kardynał Sapieha. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM 2007; Stepien, Stanislaw. Kardynal Adam Stefan Sapieha : srodowisko rodzinne, zycie i dzielo : praca zbiorowa. Przemysl : Poludniowo-Wschodni Instytut Nauk. w Przemyslu, 1995; Urban, Jacek. Pierwsze lata poslugi ksiecia-biskupa Adama Stefana Sapiehy w diecezji krakowskiej. Kraków : Wydaw. Naukowe Papieskiej Akademii Teologicznej, 2003; Wielopolska, Maria Jehanne. Biskup Sapieha w zupelnej zgodzie z prawem i co z tego za wniosek. [s. l.] : nakl. aut., Druk. Rotacyjna, 1937; Wolny, Jerzy ; Zawadzki, Roman Maria. Archidiecezja Krakowska za pasterzowania Adama Stefana Sapiehy : praca zbiorowa. Kraków : Polskie Towarzystwo Teologiczne, 1982. (Ksiega Sapiezynska; t. 1); Corporate name: Ecclesia Catholica. Archidiecezja Krakowska; Wolny, Jerzy ; Zawadzki, Roman Maria. Ksiega Sapiezynska : praca zbiorowa. 2 vols. Kraków : Polskie Tow. Teologiczne, 1982. Contents: t. 1. Archidiecezja krakowska za pasterzowania Adama Stefana Sapiehy -- t. 2. Dzialalnosc koscielna i narodowa Adama Stefana Sapiehy; Wróbel, Wieslaw. Troska biskupa Adama Sapiehy o wysiedlonych i uchodzcsw w latach 1914-1916. Kraków : Wydaw. Sw. Stanislawa BM Archidiecezji Krakowskiej, 1999.

Links. His photograph and genealogy, in Polish; and his portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

+
ADAM STEPHANUS
CARDINALIS
SAPIEHA
1867 - 1951


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SARAIVA MARTINS, C.M.F., José
(1932-

Birth. January 6, 1932, Gagos, diocese of Guarda, Portugal, the sixth of eight children of Antonio Saraiva and Maria da Natividade Martins. His younger sister, Cassiana, is a nun missionary in Angola.

Education. Entered the Minor Seminary in October 1944; joined the Congregation of the Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary (Claretians); Claretian Novitiate, Carvalhos; professed, August 22, 1950; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (licentiate in theology); Pontifical University "San Tommaso d'Aquino", Rome (doctorate in theology); University of Louvain, Louvain, Belgium (courses of specialization in theology); Free University "Gabriele d'Annunzio", Chieti (doctorate in philosophy).

Priesthood. Ordained, March 16, 1957, church of Sacro Cuore a Piazza Navona, Rome, by Ettore Cunial, titular archbishop of Soteropoli, second vice-gerent of Rome. Further studies, Rome, 1957-1958. Professor of metaphysics, Major Seminary of the Italian Claretian province, house of Marino, 1958-1959. Professor of fundamental theology and of sacramental dogmatic theology, "Claretianum", Pontifical Lateran University, Rome, 1959-1969. Professor of sacramental dogmatic theology, Pontifical Urbanian University, Rome, 1969-1988; dean of the Theological Faculty, 1974-1977; president of the dean's committee of the theological faculties of Rome, 1974-1977; rector "Magnifico" of the Pontifical Urbanian University, 1977-1980, 1980-1983, and 1986-1988. Awarded honorary doctorate in philosophy and letters by Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan, 1977. President of the committee of rectors of the pontifical universities and athenaeums of Rome, 1978-1983 and 1986-1988. Attended Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; its special secretary.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tuburnica and appointed secretary of Congregation for Catholic Education, May 26, 1988. Consecrated, July 2, 1988, basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, by Cardinal Agostino Casaroli, secretary of State, assisted by Jan Pieter Schotte, C.I.C.M., titular archbishop of Silli, secretary general of the Synod of Bishops, and by Giovanni Battista Re, titular archbishop of Vescovio, secretary of the Congregation for Bishops. His episcopal motto is Veritas in charitate. Member of the Pontifical Roman Academy "San Tommaso", November 24, 1989. Attended Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; by papal appointment. Named prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints on May 30, 1998. Attended Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; member of the postsynodal council.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Nostra Signora del Sacro Cuore, February 21, 2001. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the Fourteenth National Eucharistic Congress of Brazil, Campinas, July 19 to 22, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reappointed as prefect of Congregation for the Causes of the Saints, April 21, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Presided at a Eucharistic celebration at the patriarchal Vatican basilica and, as charged by His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI, read the Apostolic Letter with which the pope has inscribed in the book of Blesseds the Servant of God Cardinal Clemens August von Galen, October 9, 2005. His resignation from the post of prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints, for having reached the age limit, was accepted by the pope on July 9, 2008. On February 24, 2009, he was promoted by Pope Benedict XVI to the order of cardinal bishops with the title of the suburbicarian see of Palestrina. Special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the jubilar year for the 7th centennial of the devotion to Our Lady of Europe, which took place in Gibraltar on May 5, 2009. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the inauguration of the Shrine of Cristo Re, in Almada, Portugal, on May 17, 2009. Special papal envoy to preside over the election of the new minister general of the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans). The proceedings took place in Assisi, Italy, on June 4, 2009, on the occasion of the general chapter of that order. On September 23, 2010, he was granted the prize "Argil: uomo europeo", section "Valori e umanità", promoted dalla provincia di Frosinone, for his numerous scientific and cultural contributions concerning the saints of the 20th century. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on January 6, 2012. He was member of the Congregations for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments; and for Bishops, of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City; and of the Special Council for Europe of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops. On December 1, 2012, in Bari, he was awarded the Prize Caravella del Mediterraneo, promoted and organized by the association "Terra del Mediterraneo", in partnership with Europuglia, the portal for the promotion of the activities and projects of the Mediterranean Service of the Region of Puglia, Italy.

Links. Brief biographical entry in Portuguese, in Os Cardeais Portugueses, patriarcado de Lisboa; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Card Saraiva: John Paul II and Paul VI also considered stepping down, Rome Reports, 2013-02-19 15:30:08.


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SATOWAKI, Joseph Asajirô
(1904-1996)

Birth. February 1, 1904, Shittsu, archdiocese of Nagasaki, Japan.

Education. Seminary of Nagasaki, Nagasaki; Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum, Rome; Catholic University of America, Washington, United States of America..

Priesthood. Ordained, December 17, 1932, Rome. Successively, 1933-1941, in diocese of Nagasaki, pastoral ministry, procurator and episcopal chancellor. Apostolic administrator of Taiwan, 1941-1945. Rector, Seminary of Nagasaki, 1945-1947. Successively, 1945-1955, in the diocese of Nagasaki, pastoral ministry, vicar general, director of diocesan journal, faculty member of "Junshin School ".

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Kagoshima, February 25, 1955. Consecrated, May 3, 1955, church of Our Lady of the Martyrs, Nagasaki, by Maximilien de Furstenberg, titular archbishop of Palto, apostolic delegate in Japan, assisted by Paul Aijiro Yamaguchi, bishop of Nagasaki, and by Paul Yoshigoro Taguchi, bishop of Osaka. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Nagasaki, December 19, 1968. President of the Episcopal Conference of Japan. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Elected President of the Japanese Episcopal Conference in 1978.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1979; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria della Pace, June 30, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, February 1, 1984. During his episcopate, he founded the Nagasaki diocesan seminary in 1989; and the Sisters of Our Lady of the Annunciation, an indigenous congregation. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, February 8, 1990.

Death. August 8, 1996, of a brain tumor at St. Francis Hospital, Nagasaki. Buried, Akagi no bochi (cemetery of Akagi), Nagasaki, with the deceased priests of the archdiocese.


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SBARRETTI, Donato Raffaele
(1856-1939)

Birth. November 12 (1), 1856, Montefranco, archdiocese of Spoleto, Italy. Of a notable family. Son of Agostino Donato Flavio Sbarretti, a landowner, and Caterina Tazza. Nephew of Cardinal Enea Sbarretti (1877).

Education. Seminary of Spoleto, Spoleto (classics); Pontifical Roman Seminary "S. Apollinare", Rome (doctorates in theology and in utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Priesthood. Ordained, April 12, 1879, Rome, by Cardinal Raffaele Monaco La Valetta. Successively, from 1879 to 1893, further studies in Rome; pastoral ministry in Spoleto; minutante of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, section of affairs of the Americas; professor of moral theology and canon law at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide", from 1885; and staff member of the Secretariat of State. Canon of the chapter of the church of S. Maria ad Martyres, the Pantheon, Rome, 1893. Auditor in the apostolic delegation in United States, 1893-1900. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, November 11, 1895.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of San Cristóbal de La Habana, Cuba, January 9, 1900. Consecrated, February 4, 1900, Washington, by Sebastiano Martinelli, O.S.A., titular archbishop of Efeso, apostolic delegate in United States, assisted by Alfred Allen Paul Curtis, titular bishop of Echino, former bishop of Wilmington, and by John James Joseph Monaghan, bishop of Wilmington. His episcopal motto was Respice stellam voca Mariam. Promoted to titular archbishop of Gortina, September 16, 1901. Transferred to titular see of Efeso, December 16, 1901. Apostolic delegate extraordinary in the Philippines to negotiate the solution of the schismatic Iglesia Filipina Independiente of Fr. Gregorio Aglipay, February 15, 1902. The American government, wishing to negotiate the problems of the local church directly with the Holy See (which it did with the mission of William Howard Taft in 1902), declared him persona non grata and he never went to Manila. Apostolic delegate in Canada, December 26, 1902; he arrived in Ottawa in January 1903; travelled to Europe from September 1906 to June 1907; named also apostolic delegate to Terranove at the beginning of 1910. Left for Rome on April 7, 1910 to present the decrees of the First Plenary Council of Québec (2); never returned to Canada; submitted his official resignation on November 3, 1910. Secretary of S.C. of Religious, October 29, 1910. Assessor of the Supreme S.C. of Holy Office, June 8, 1914.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 4, 1916; received the red hat and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, December 7, 1916. Prefect of the S.C. of Council, March 28, 1919 to July 4, 1930. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, June 21, 1926 until June 20, 1927. Papal legate to the Plenary Council of Povilles, Molfetta, Italy, April 5, 1928; to the Plenary Council of Loreto, Italy, August 15, 1928. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, December 17, 1928. Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, July 4, 1930 until his death. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, December 16, 1935. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII.

Death. April 1, 1939, suffered a heart attack during the night; he was found dead in his bed in the morning by his servant, who went to awaken him, in Rome. Buried, temporarily in the cemetery church, Montefranco; later, according to his will, transferred to its parish church.

Bibliography. Code, Joseph Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Publishers Joseph Wagner, Inc., 1964, p. 437; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chornologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 254-257; Re, Niccolò del. "I cardinali prefetti della Sacra Congregazione del Concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), pp. 143-144.

Link. Biography, in Spanish Episcopologio de la Iglesia Católica en Cuba; and his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Code, Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964), p. 437, and LeBlanc, Dictionnaire biographiques des évêques catholiques du Canada, p. 254. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 202, indicates that he was born on November 10, 1856.
(2) He convoked the council on May 2, 1909 and presided over its sessions that were held from September 10 to November 1, 1909; 40 members, 124 theologians and several counselors took part; 688 decrees were issued by the council; they were promulgated on April 25, 1925 by Apostolic Delegate Pellegrino Francesco Stagni, O.S.M.


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SCAPINELLI DI LEGUIGNO, Raffaele
(1858-1933)

Birth. April 25, 1858, Modena, Italy.

Education. Seminary of Reggio-Emilia, Reggio-Emilia; Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, 1887. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1884. Further studies, 1884-1887. Professor of canon law, Seminary of Reggio-Emilia, 1887-1889. Staff member of the Secretariat of State, 1889-1891. Secretary of the nunciature in Portugal, July 25, 1891 until 1894. Auditor of the nunciature in Holland, February 13, 1894 unmtil 1905. Privy chamberlain supernumerario, May 3, 1889. Privy chamberlain de numero participantium, December 29, 1899; reappointed, August 51 1903. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, April 11, 1902. Faculty member of the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy. Secretary of the Commission for Administration of Wealth of Holy See, November 26, 1904. Domestic prelate, July 25, 1905. Protonotary apostolic supra numerum, August 29, 1905. In charge of the secretariat of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, December 16, 1907. Secretary of the Commission for Codification of Canon Law, 1908. Secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesisatical Affairs, March 18, 1908. Consultor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, April 23, 1908. Consultor of the S.C. Consistorial, November 4, 1908. Named nuncio in Austria-Hungary, January 27, 1912.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Laodicea, January 30, 1912. Consecrated, February 25, 1912, Matilda chapel, Vatican Apostolic Palace, by Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val, secretary of State, assisted by Vittorio Amedeo Ranuzzi de' Bianchi, titular archbishop of Tiro, master of chamber of His Holiness, and by Agostino Zampini, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, papal sacristan.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 6, 1915. Remained in Vienna until the end of 1916. Received the red hat and the title of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, December 7, 1916. Decorated with the grand cross of the Austrian Order of Sankt Stefan, 1916. Prefect of the S.C. of Religious, December 19, 1918 to March 6, 1920. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 24, 1924 until March 30, 1925. Papal legate to the Eucharistic Congress, Piacenza, Italy, April 30, 1926. Papal Datary, July 22, 1930 until his death.

Death. September 16, 1933, Forte dei Marmi, Massa Carrara. Buried in the chapel of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith in Campo Verano Cemetery, Rome.

Bibliography. Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, pp. 244-246.

Link. Biography, in German; and photographs, Araldica Vaticana.


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SCHEFFCZYK, Leo
(1920-2005)

Birth. February 21, 1920, Beuthen, archdiocese of Breslau, Germany (now Wroclaw, Poland).

Education. University of Breslau, Breslau; Philosophical-Theological Faculty, Freising; University of München, München (doctorate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, June, 29, 1947, Münich, by Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber, archbishop of München und Freising. Pastoral ministry in Grafing (vicar) and Traunwalchen (administrator). Subregent of Seminary in Königstein, 1948-1951. Faculty member, Philosophical-Theological Faculty, Königstein, 1952-1957. Habilitation (venia legendi) in theology, 1957. Professor of Dogmatic Theology, Philosophical-Theological Faculty, Königstein, 1957-1962; at the University of Tübingen, 1959-1965; at the University of München, 1965-1985. Member of Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, September 11, 1978. Member of the Pontifical International Marian Academy, 1980 and of the Pontifical Roman Theological Academy, 1980. Incardinated in the archdiocese of München und Freising after the jurisdictional reorganization of the former German dioceses in the East, January 1, 1999.

Episcopate. Declined to be promoted to the episcopate because of age.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Francesco Saverio alla Garbatella, February 21, 2001. Promoted to the cardinalate when he was over 80 years old, and thus, he did not have the right to participate in the conclave.

Death. December 8, 2005, Münich. In the morning of Tuesday, December 13, the body of the cardinal was taken to the metropolitan cathedral of Münich. Members of the religious family Das Werk, to which the cardinal belonged, held an all day long prayer guard in the cathedral. Cardinal Friedrich Wetter, archbishop of München und Freising, celebrated a pontifical requiem mass on Wednesday, December 14, at 10.30 a.m. in the metropolitan cathedral. The day of the funeral was Thursday December 15 at 11 a.m.; a pontifical requiem mass was celebrated in the parish church of Sankt Gallus in Bregenz, Vorarlberg, by Cardinal Joachim Meisner, archbishop of Cologne. The burial took place in the cemetery of the religious family "Das Werk" in the monastery of Thalbach, Bregenz, Austria.

Photograph, arms and bibliography on his homepage.


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SCHEID, S.C.I., Eusébio Oscar
(1932-

Birth. December 8, 1932, Luzerna, diocese of Joaçaba, Brazil. Son of Alberto Reinaldo Scheid and Rosália Joana Scheid. He was baptized on December 16, 1932.

Education. Joined the Congregation of Priests of the Sacred Heart of Jesus (Dehonians). Seminary of the Priests of the Heart of Jesus, Corupá; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in theology; specialty : Christology).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 3, 1960, Rome, by Inácio João Dal Monte, bishop of Guaxupé. Professor of theology, Christ the King Seminary and Northeast Regional Seminary, Recife, 1964-1965; of Dogma and Liturgy, Theological Institute of Taubaté, 1965-1981; of Religious Culture, Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo, 1966-1968. Coordinator of Catechesis, Taubaté, 1970-1974. Director of the Faculty of Theology in Taubaté.

Episcopate. Elected first bishop of São José dos Campos, February 11, 1981. Consecrated, May 1, 1981, São José dos Campos, by Carmine Rocco, titular archbishop of Giustinianopoli di Galazia, nuncio in Brazil, assisted by Geraldo de Morais Penido, archbishop coadjutor of Aparecida, and by Honorato Piazaera, bishop of Lages. His episcopal motto is Deus é bom. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Florianópolis, January 23, 1991. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; by papal appointment. Transferred to the metropolitan see of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, July 25, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Bonifacio ed Alessio, October 21, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Special papal envoy to the 15th Brazilian National Eucharistic Congress celebrated in Florianópolis, May 18 to 21, 2006. Named member of of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, February 3, 2007. Participated in the 5th General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. On February 27, 2009, the pope accepted his resignation from the pastoral government of the metropolitan archdiocese of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro. The pope named Orani João Tempesta, O. Cist., until then archbishop of Belém do Pará, as successor. Cardinal Scheid was apostolic administrator of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro until the installation of the new archbishop on April 19, 2009. Ceased as ordinary for Catholic faithful of Oriental rite resident in Brazil who do not have their own ordinary, July 28, 2010. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on December 8, 2012.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Portuguese, archdiocese of São Sebatião do Rio de Janeiro, second from the top of the page; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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SCHERER, Alfredo Vicente
(1903-1996)

Birth. February 5, 1903, Santa Teresinha, Bom Princípio, archdiocese of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Second child of Pedro Scherer and Anna Opermann. Distant relative of Cardinal Odilo Pedro Scherer (2007).

Education. Initial studies at Colégio Marista in Bom Princípio; then, studied at the Minor Seminary of São Leopoldo, Porto Alegre; later, at the Seminary of Porto Alegre; and finally, at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in theology, summa cum laude.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 3, 1926, in the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Basilio Pompilj, vicar general of Rome. From January 1, 1928 to 1933, he was private secretary to João Batista Becker, archbishop of Porto Alegre. On October 8, 1930, he accompanied the Gaúchas revolutionary forces to Rio de Janeiro as military chaplain. On January 29, 1934, he was named cooperator of the parish of Pedras Brancas, Guamba, in which his brother, Canon Estanislao Scherer, was the pastor. He also organized the parishes of Tapes and Barra do Ribeiro. On March 15, 1935, he was named vicar of the parish of São Geraldo, then a workers' neighborhood (Bairro Operário) of Porto Alegre.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Emeria and appointed auxiliary of Porto Alegre, June 13, 1946. His episcopal motto was Evangelizare misit me. His consecration was delayed because of the death of Archbishop Becker. Named vicar capitular of the archdiocese. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Porto Alegre, December 30, 1946. Consecrated, February 23, 1947, by Carlo Chiarlo, titular archbishop of Amida, nuncio in Brazil, assisted by José Baréa, bishop of Caxias, and by José Newton de Almeida Baptista, bishop of Uruguaiana. He took possession of his see on that same day. On the occasion of the Fifth National Eucharistic Congress celebrated in 1948 in Rio Grande do Sul - Porto Alegre, on the subject Social Action, he wrote a pastoral letter, entitled A Restauração Social. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of Nostra Signora de La Salette, April 30, 1969. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the Third General Conference of Latin American Episcopal Council, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979. Stabbed and robbed by unknown assailants, who left him in a ditch outside the city when he could not meet their demands for more money, on December 31, 1979. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, August 29, 1981. In a TV interview after his resignation, he said that he felt like a cardinal out of the cage. Provedor of the Fraternity of the Santa Casa de Misericordia until his death. On December 1, 1981, he received an honorary doctorate from the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS); and on the following December 19, the Ponche Verde Grand Cruz from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, February 5, 1983. Attended the Fourth General Conference of Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12-28, 1992. Member of the Instituto Histórico e Geográfico do Rio Grande do Sul.

Death. March 8, 1996, at 11:57 p.m., Porto Alegre. Buried at the right side of the altar of the metropolitan cathedral Nossa Senhora Mãe de Deus, Porto Alegre. On the occasion of the centenary of his birth, a 50¢ stamp was issued by the Empresa Brasiliera de Correios e Telegrafos. The "Hospital Dom Vicente Scherer" of Porto Alegre was named after him.

Bibliography. "Alfredo Vicente Scherer" in "Terceira parte, Bispos do Brasil-Republica, II, A" in "Diocesis e bispos do Brasil" by Apolônio Nóbrega, Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro, volume 222 (Janeiro-Março 1954), 212; Lorenzatto, António D. O cardeal gaúcho. Porto Alegre : Suliani Letra & Vida Editora : Est Edições, 2008; Moesch, Eduardo Pretto. Dom Vicente Scherer: a voz de um pastor. Porto Alegre: Padre Reus, 2007; Moesch, Eduardo Pretto. "Evangelizare misit me" (Lc 4,18) : o cardeal Alfredo Vicente Scherer (1903-1996), terceiro arcebispo de Porto Alegre (Brasil), e "a voz do pastor". Roma, 2006. Dissertation: Diss. Pontificia Univ. Gregoriana, 2006; Pizzato, Edy Job. Dom Vicente Cardeal Scherer no seu tempo. Porto Alegre : Edições Est, 2005; Santos, Manoel Augusto. Enviou-me para evangelizar : celebrando o centenàrio de nascimento do Cardenal Dom Alfredo Vicente Scherer (1903-2003). Porto Alegre : EDIPUCRS, 2003. Responsibility: Manoel Augusto Santos (organizador).

Links. Photograph, arms and biography, in Portuguese, Wikipedia; his arms and portrait, Araldica Vaticana; his bust, Wikimedia; Letter from His Holiness Pope Paul VI to Cardinal Scherer on the 50th anniversary of his presbyteral ordination (March 15, 1976), in Latin, The Holy See.


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SCHÖNBORN, O.P., Christoph
(1945-

Birth. January 22, 1945, Skalsko, diocese of Litomerice, Bohemia, Czechoslovakia. Son of Count Maria Hugo Damian Adalbert Josef Hubertus von Schönborn and Baroness Eleonore von Doblhoff. His baptismal name is Christoph Maria Michael Hugo Damian Peter Adalbert. His family moved to Austria in September 1945. Besides his native German, he also speaks English, French, Italian.

Education. Joined Order of Preachers in 1963. Studied at Dominican houses of studies in Walberberg, Bonn, Germany; at Le Saulchoir, Paris, where he earned a doctorate in theology; thesis on the Byzantine iconoclastic debate about whether sacred images should be forbidden or allowed; at the "École Practique de Hautes Études", La Sorbonne University, Paris; and at the "Institute Catholique", Paris. His thesis to fulfill the post-doctoral lecturing requirement as a professor was "The Icon of Christ or the Human Face of God".

Priesthood. Ordained, December 27, 1970, Vienna, by Cardinal Franz König, archbishop of Vienna. Further studies, 1970-1974. Chaplain to university students, Graz, Austria, 1973-1975. Faculty member, University of Fribourg, Switzerland, 1976-1991. Member of the International Theological Commission, 1980-1991; of the Foundation "Pro Oriente", 1984-1991. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; assistant to the special secretary. Faculty member, Superior Philosophical School of the Cisterciense Abbey of Heiligenkreuz, Vienna, Austria. Secretary of the commission of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith to edit the new Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1987-1992.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Sutri and appointed auxiliary of Vienna, July 11, 1991. Consecrated, September 29, 1991, metropolitan cathedral of Vienna, by Cardinal Hans Hermann Groër, O.S.B., archbishop of Vienna, assisted by Cardinal Franz König, archbishop emeritus of Vienna, and by Vojtech Cikrle, bishop of Brno. His episcopal motto is Vox autem dixi amicos. Promoted to archbishop coadjutor with right of succession of Vienna, April 13, 1995. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Vienna, September 14, 1995. Ordinary for the Byzantine-rite faithful residing in Austria, November 5, 1995. Preached the spiritual exercises for the pope and the Roman Curia, Lent 1996. Almoner of the Knights of the Austrian Order of the Golden Fleece.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of Gesù Divin Lavoratore, February 23, 1998. President of the Austrian Episcopal Conference, 1998-. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. He presided the First World Apostolic Congress on Mercy, which was held in Rome from April 2 to 6, 2008. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the millennium of the diocese of Pécs, Hungary, which took place on August 23, 2009. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the 450th anniversary of the formal renewal of the archbishopric of Prague, which took place on May 12, 2012. On September 18, 2012, the pope appointed him synodal father of the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 7 to 28, 2012, on the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of the Christian faith". Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013. On January 15, 2014, he was named member, for the next quiquennium, of the Commission of Cardinals overseeing the Institute for the Works of Religion (IOR). He was named member of the Pontifical Council for the Laity on February 6, 2014. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches for another quinquennium on February 19, 2014. On March 29, 2014, he was confirmed as member of the Pontifical Council for Culture until the expiration of his mandate.

Bibliography. Schönborn, Chrstoph. Sulla felicità. Meditazioni per i giovani. Bologna : Edizioni Studio Domenicano, 2012.

Links. Photograph, arms and biography, in German, archdiocese of Vienna; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; The Schönborn Site, in English; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Austrian cardinal cracks down on rebel priests by Michael Shields, Reuters/Chicago Tribune, 9:49 a.m. CDT, June 27, 2012; Cardinal Schönborn: Pope Francis has already changed church by Christa Pongratz-Lippitt, National Catholic Reporter, Feb. 7, 2014.


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SCHOTTE, C.I.C.M., Jan Pieter
(1928-2005)

Birth. April 29, 1928, Beveren-Leie, diocese of Brugge, Belgium.

Education. After finishing secondary school, he joined the Congregation of the Immaculate Heart of Mary (Missionaries of Scheut), Brussels, in 1946; received his formation at houses of studies of his congregation; at the Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium; and at The Catholic University of America, Washington, United States of America.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 3, 1952. After ordination, in 1953, he returned to school to study Chinese in anticipation of being sent to China as a missionary, but four years later he was assigned to his congregation's Theological Seminary at Louvain. Form 1963 to 1967, rector of the Immaculate Heart Mission Seminary, Washington, D.C., United States of America. Returned to Rome in 1967 and was named general secretary of his congregation; he occupied the post until 1972. Vice-president of the Commission of superiors general. Secretary of the Pontifical Council Iustitia et Pax, June 27, 1980. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; assistant to the French language group.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Silli and appointed vice-president of the Pontifical Commission Iustitia et Pax, December 20, 1983. Consecrated, January 6, 1984, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Durasamy Simon Lourdusamy, archbishop emeritus of Bangalore, secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. In the same ceremony was consecrated Polycarp Pengo, bishop of Nachingwea, future cardinal. His episcopal motto was Parare viam Domino pacis. Promoted to archbishop and appointed secretary general of the Synod of Bishops, April 24, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; secretary general. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; secretary general. President of the Office of Labor of the Apostolic See, April 14, 1989. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; secretary general. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Giuliano dei Fiamminghi, November 26, 1994. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 150th anniversary of the elevation of the diocese of St. Louis, United States of America, to metropolitan archdiocese, October 19, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998; the Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998; the II Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; secretary general. Special papal envoy for the consecration in Irkutsk, Russia, of the cathedral church of the Apostolic Administration of Oriental Siberia, September 8, 2000. Special papal envoy to the centennial celebrations of the National Eucharistic Congress of St. Louis, United States of America, June 15 to 16, 2001. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 150th anniversary of the reestablishment of the Catholic hierarchy in the Netherlands that took place in Utrecht, June 7, 2003. Resigned the post of secretary general upon reaching the age limit, February 11, 2004. Special papal envoy to the solemn celebrations of the 17th centennial of the martyrdom of St. Domnio, bishop, patron of the archdiocese of Split-Makarsk, Croatia, that took place in Split, May 6 and 7, 2004. Special papal envoy to the solemn closing celebrations of the year dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the proclamation of the Dogma of the Immaculate Conception, that took place in the National Shrine in Washington, D.C., United States of America, on December 8, 2004.

Death. January 10, 2005, Policlinic "Agostino Gemelli", Rome. Exposed in the chapel of S. Stefano degli Abissini, at the Vatican. His funeral mass, concelebrated by Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, dean of the College of Cardinals, togther with the other cardinals, took place at the patriarchal Vatican basilica, on January 14, 2005. Pope John Paul II presided over the exequial liturgy and delivered the homily and had the rite of the Ultima Commendatio and the Valedictio. Buried, temporarily, in the chapel of the canons of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. In the first week of January 2008, the mortal remains of the cardinal were moved to his definitive tomb in the church of S. Giuliano dei Fiamminghi, his deaconry. The transfer and burial were done privately. A mass for the eternal repose of his soul was celebrated on Sunday January 13, 2008 in that church.

Links. His photograph and biography, in Dutch, Wikipedia; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Notificazione: Capella Papale per le esequie del Signor Cardinale Jan Pieter Schotte, C.I.C.M., Office of Litugical Celebrations of the Supreme Pontiff, The Vatican; homily pronounced by Pope John Paul II during the funeral mass for the late cardinal, The Vatican.


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SCHRÖFFER, Joseph
(1903-1983)

Birth. February 20, 1903, Ingolstadt, Germany.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Eichstätt; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 28, 1928, Rome. Further studies, 1928-1931, Rome. Pastoral ministry among German exiles, 1931-1933. Faculty member, Superior School of Philosophy and Theology, Eichstätt, 1933-1941. Vicar general of Eichstätt, 1941-1948.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Eichstätt, July 23, 1948. Consecrated, September 21, 1948, Eichstätt, by Joseph Kolb, archbishop of Bamberg, assisted by Joseph Wendel, bishop of Speyer, and by Arthur Michael Landgraf, titular bishop of Eudocia, auxiliary of Bamberg. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Secretary of the S.C. of Seminaries and Universities, May 17, 1967. Promoted to the titular see of Voturno, January 2, 1968.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 24, 1976; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Saba, May 24, 1976. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979, Vatican City. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the jubilee of the cathedral of Cologne, Germany, August 15, 1980. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, February 20, 1983.

Death. September 7, 1983, Nürenberg, Germany. Buried in the cathedral of Eichstätt.


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SCHULTE, Karl Joseph
(1871-1941)

Birth. September 14, 1871, Haus Valbert, diocese of Paderborn, Germany. Son of Oswald Schulte and Antonetta Schlünder. Received the sacrament of confirmation, July 24, 1887.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Essen; and at the University of Tübingen, where he earned a doctorate in theology on March 5, 1903.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 22, 1895, Paderborn, by Hubert Theophil Simar, bishop of Paderborn. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Paderborn: vicar in Witten, 1895-1901; repetitor in Collegio Leonino and in the Major Seminary of Paderborn, 1901-1905; professor of theology, canon law, and apologetics in the Theological Faculty of Paderborn, 1905; official episcopal counselor, 1908.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Paderborn by its chapter, November 30, 1909; confirmed by the pope, February 7, 1910. Consecrated, March 19, 1910, cathedral of Paderborn, by Cardinal Anton Hubert Fischer, archbishop of Cologne, assisted by Michael Korum, bishop of Trier, and by Hermann Dingelstadt, bishop of Münster. Apostolic vicar of Anhalt, April 12, 1910. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Cologne, March 8, 1920.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 7, 1921; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati, March 10, 1921. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII.

Death. March 11, 1941, of a heart attack, Cologne. Buried in thr crypt of the archbishops in the metropolitan cathedral of Cologne.

Bibliography. Feckes, Carl. Scientia sacra : theologische Festgabe zugeeignet Seiner Eminenz dem hochwürdigsten Herrn Karl Joseph Kardinal Schulte, Erzbischof von Köln, zum fünfundzwanzigsten Jahrestage der Bischofsweihe 19. März 1935. Köln : J.P. Bachem ; Düsseldorf : L. Schwann, 1935. Contents : I. Beiträge zur historischen Theologie: ein Kirchenkalender aus der römischen Titelkirche der heiligen Vier Gekrönten / T. Klauser. Der griechisch-lateinische Text des Galaterbriefes in der Handschriftengruppe DEFG / K.T. Schäfer. Die Umwandlung des heidnischen in das christliche römische Stadtbild / A. Kalsbach. Alberts des Grossen Kommentar zum Hohenliede / H. Ostlender. Thomas von Aquin über Teilhabe durch Berührung / G. Söhngen. Das Gutachten des Aegidius Romanus über die Lehren des Petrus Johannis Olivi: eine neue Quelle zum Konzil von Vienne (1311 bis 1312) / J. Koch. Das Problem der Existenz in idealistischer und romantischer Philosophie und Religion / T. Steinbüchel. Notes : II. Beiträge zur systematischen Theologie: Der dogmatische Beweis aus der Liturgie / J. Brinktrine. Das Fundamentalprinzip der Mariologie: ein Beitrag zu ihrem organischen Aufbau / C. Feckes. Zur moraltheologischen Beurteilung der Tagträume / W. Schöllgen. Die iustitia socialis: ein Beitrag zur Klärung des Begriffes / W. Heinen. Modernes Rechtsdenken und kanonisches Recht / J. Klein; Hehl, Ulrich von. "Schulte, Karl Joseph (1871-1941)". Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1785/1803 bis 1945 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1983, pp. 680-682.

Links. Biography, in German; his portrait and brief biographical entry, in German, archdiocese of Cologne; his tomb in the metropolitan cathedral of Cologne; and his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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SCHUSTER, O.S.B., Alfredo Ildefonso
(1880-1954)

Birth. January 18, 1880, at Ospedale Santissimo Salvatore, Rome, Italy. Son of Giovanni Schuster and Maria Ana Tutzer. The father, twice a widower, was from Bavaria and thirty years older than the mother. He had a sister, Giulia, who entered the Order of Sisters of Charity of S. Vincenzo di Paul; and three half siblings from his father's second marriage. He was baptized two days after his birth with the name Alfredo Ludovico. He was kidnapped when he was a small child and returned quickly; the kidnapper was immediately arrested. As a boy, he served mass at the church of Teutonic Cemetery, next to St. Peter's basilica.

Education. Initial studies, ginnasiali and liceali at S. Paolo fuori le mura, November 1891; joined the order of St. Benedict at the novitiate of the monastery of S. Paolo fuori le mura, Rome, and took the name Ildefonso, November 13, 1898; professed, November 13, 1900; Pontifical Academy of S. Anselmo, Rome obtained a doctorate in philosophy, June 14, 1903; and shortly after, a doctorate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, March 19, 1904, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Respighi, archpriest of that basilica and vicar general of Rome. Community member of S. Paolo fuori le mura, 1904-1908; master of novices, 1908-1916; prior, 1916-1918. Procurator general of the Congregation of Monte Cassino, 1914-1929. Elected abbot-ordinary of the abbey nullius of S. Paolo fuori le Mura, Rome, April 6, 1918; received the abbatial blessing from Cardinal Basilio Pompilj, bishop of Velletri, vicar general of Rome, April 14, 1918, S. Paolo fuori le Mura. President of the Pontifical Oriental Institute, October 7, 1919 to July 4, 1922. Apostolic visitor to the seminaries of Lombardy Campania and Calabria, 1924-1928; recommended to Pope Pius XI the foundation of a major seminary for the archdiocese of Milan in Venegono. Between the end of November and beginning of December 1926, Abbot Schuster preached the spiritual exercises to Archbishop Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, future cardinal, pope and blessed, at S. Paolo fuori le mura.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Milan, June 26, 1929. On July 13, 1929, he took the oath of loyalty to the Italian State before King Vittorio Emmanuele III, according to the new concordat between Italy and the Holy See; he was the first Italian bishop to take the oath.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 15, 1929; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti, July 18, 1929. Consecrated, July 21, 1929, Sistine chapel, at the Vatican, by Pope Pius XI, assisted by Carlo Cremonesi, titular archbishop of Nicomedia, privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Agostino Zampini, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, sacristan of His Holiness. Papal legate to the centennial celebration of Our Lady of Caravaggio, August 15, 1932; to the 10th centennial celebration of Einsiedeln Abbey, Switzerland, March 21, 1934; to the inauguration of the new facade of Desio's cathedral, September 15, 1937. He was invested as a bailiff grand cross of honor and devotion of the Sovereign Order of Malta in 1933. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Assisi, Italy, August 2, 1951. Cardinal protopriest, June 12, 1952.

Death. Monday August 30, 1954, at 4:15 a.m., of heart ailment, Archiepiscopal Seminary Pio XI, Venegono Inferiore, near Milan. The funeral was celebrated by Cardinal Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, patriarch of Venice, future Pope John XXIII and blessed. Buried on September 2, 1954 in the metropolitan cathedral of Milan, next to his two immediate predecessors, Cardinals Andrea Carlo Ferrari and Eugenio Tosi, O.SS.C.A.

Beatification. The diocesan process was opened, August 30, 1957, by Giovanni Battista Montini, archbishop of Milan, future Pope Paul VI; it was concluded on October 31, 1963. When his tomb was opened for the recognition of the body, on January 28, 1985, it was found to be intact. He was beatified on May 12, 1996 by Pope John Paul II.

Bibliography. Basadonna, Giorgio. Cardinal Schuster. Un monaco vescovo nella dinamica Milano. Milan: Edizione Paoline, 1996; Belski Lagazzi, Ines. Il Cardinale Schuster. Torino Edizioni Paoline 1965; Il Cardinale Alfredo Ildefonso Schuster : avvio allo studio. Milano : Nuove edizioni Duomo, 1979. (Archivio ambrosiano; 38.); Il Cardinale Ildefonso Schuster, cenni biografici. Milano: Abbazia di Viboldone 1954; Cavaterra, Emilio. Salvate Milano : la mediazione del cardinale Schuster nel 1945. Milan : Mursia, 1995. (Testimonianze fra cronaca e storia ; 223); Cazzani, Eugenio. Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano. Nuova ed./ a cura di Angelo Majo, 2. ed. Milano : Massimo : NED, 1996. Note: Originally published 1955, now enlarged and updated, p. 289-292; Crippa, Luigi. Il servo di Dio A. Ildefonso Card. Schuster O.S.B. nel quarantesimo della morte, 1954-1994. Roma : Benedictina Editrice, 1994. (Sezione monastica ; 8). Contents: Alfredo Ildefonso Card. Schuster O.S.B saggio bibliografico / Luigi Crippa -- In margine alla biografia schusteriana: l'Abate Ildefonso Schuster nei ricordi di D. Anselmo Lentini monaco di Montecassino, novizio a S. Paolo fuori le mura (1919-20) / Mariano Dell'Omo -- Schuster-Lazzati: un esemplare rapporto spirituale / Armando Oberti -- Ritratto monastico di Ildefonso Schuster allo specchio delle sue "Lettere dell'amicizia" / Giuseppe Anelli -- Uso e ruolo della S. Scrittura nel pensiero del Card. Schuster / Agostino Rznzato -- La prima e la seconda dedicazione dellas Chiesa monastica delle Benedettine del SS. Sacramento di Milano nell'esperienza spirituale del Card. A. Ildefonso Schuster / Annamaria Valli -- Vita monastica, studio e lavoro nel pensiero del Card. Schuster / Massimo Lapponi -- L'opera del Cardinale Schuster nella storiografia monastica del novecento / Gregorio Penco -- Ildefonso Schuster storico di Farfa e della Sabina / Tersilio Leggio -- Il Card. Ildefonso Schuster: Santa Vittoria e Farfensi nel Piceno / Giuseppe Crocetti; Crivelli, Luigi. Schuster : un monaco prestato a Milano. Prefazione di Indro Montanelli. Cinisello Balsamo, Milan : San Paolo, 1996. (Tempi e figure ; 25); Garzonio, Marco. Schuster. Casale Monferrato : Piemme, 1996; Judica Cordiglia, Giovanni. Il mio cardinale. Milan: Istituto de Propaganda Libraria, 1955; Leccisotti, Tommaso. Il Cardinale Schuster. 2 vols. Milan: Scuola Tipografica S. Benedetto, 1969; Majo, Angelo. Storia della chiesa ambrosiana. 5 vols. 2nd ed. Milano : NED, 1983-1986, V, 19-24, 23, 37, 38, 45-48, 50-52, 54-69, 71-73, 76, 77, 80, 84, 88, 89, 91-93. 95, 98, 105 and 140; Nobili, Elena. "Lazione pastorale del Card. Schuster dalla guerra dEtiopia alle leggi razziali".Terra ambrosiana, n. 5, 2005; Nobili, Elena. La parabola di un'illusione. Il cardinal Schuster dalla guerra d'Etiopia alle leggi razziali. Milano: NED, 2005; Nobili, Elena. "Vescovi lombardi e consenso alla guerra: il cardinal Schuster", in LImpero fascista. Italia ed Etiopia (1935-1941). A cura di Riccardo Bottoni. Bologna : Il Mulino, 2008. Convegno internazionale di studio su "L'Italia e l'Etiopia 1935-1941, a settant'anni dall'impero fascista" (2006 : Milan, Italy). Note: Proceedings of the conference held in Milan, Italy, Oct. 5-7, 2006; Quattrocchi, Paul B. Al di sopra dei Gagliardetti : l'Arcivescovo Schuster : un asceta benedettino nella Milano dell'"èra fascista". Casale Monferrato, AL : Marietti, 1985; Rumi, Giorgio and Majo, Angelo. Il cardinal Schuster e il suo tempo. Introduzione di Virginio Rognoni. Milan : Massimo, 1979. (Collana Problemi del nostro tempo ; n. 44).

Links. Photographs and biography, in English; photographs amd biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; photographs and biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in Italian, Institut f|r Grenzgebiete der Wissenschaft; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Milano (III-XXI secolo), in Italian, archdiocese of Milan.


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SCHWERY, Henri
(1932-

Birth. June 14, 1932, quartier de la Zéneillère, in Saint-Léonard, diocese of Sion, Switzerland. Son of Camille-Louis Schwery and Marguerite Terroux. His baptismal name is Henri-Camille; his godparents were his sister Camillia and his brother Frédéic; and of his confirmation his brother Joseph. He is the youngest of eleven children. His parents and siblings watched over him and instilled in him a vocation to the priesthood.

Education. From 1939 to 1945, he attended the primary school at Saint-Léonard; then, he attended the Minor Seminary, Sion, where he studied humanities for six years; then, he studied philosophy for two years at the Lyceum-College of Sion; in 1953, he obtained the classical maturity type A, also including Latin and Greek; later, he studied theology at the Major Seminary of Sion; he continued his theological studies for two years at the French Seminary Sainte-Claire and at the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome; he completed his mémoir de licence on "La maternité divine d'aprè les théologiens modernes"; in 1957, he was recalled to Switzerland by the bishop of Sion for other studies; he attended the University of Fribourg, where he earned a university diploma in mathematics and theoretical physics.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 7, 1957, in the parish church of Saint-Léonard, by Nestor François Adam, bishop of Sion. Further studies in Fribourg, from July 10, 1957 until 1961, to obtain the habilitation to teach at the Lyceum-College of Sion. From 1958, he was chaplain of the Schola dei Pueri Cantores of Our Lady of Sion and ecclesiastical counselor of the Swiss Committee of Pueri Cantores. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Sion from 1961 until 1977. Chaplain of the Student Youth of Catholic Action, 1958-1966. Military chaplain, 1958-1977. Faculty member of the College-Institute, Sion, 1961-1972; he taught physics, mathematics, history of science and religion; he was its rector from 1972 until 1977. Director of the minor seminary of Sion from 1968 until 1972. Moderator of the diocesan synod from 1973 to 1976. He was also chaplain of two groups of the Foyers Notre-Dame in Sion. He preached in different parishes and directed spiritual exercises for the young and adults.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Sion (Sitten), July 22, 1977. Consecrated, September 17, 1977, Sion, by Nestor François Adam, bishop emeritus of Sion, assisted by Pierre Mamie, bishop of Lausanne, Genève et Fribourg, and by Otmar Mäder, bishop of Sankt Gallen. His episcopal motto is Spiritus Domini Gaudium et Spes. Member of the S.C. for Catholic Education from 1978 until 1983. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Honorary canon of the territorial abbey of Saint-Maurice d'Agaunne, September 22, 1989. President of the Conference of Swiss Bishops, 1983-1988.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1991; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Protomartiri a Via Aurelia Antica, June 28, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, December 2, 1993. Resigned the pastoral government of the diocese, April 1, 1995 (1); he was apostolic administrator of the diocese until the installation of his successor, Bishop Norbert Brunner. Special papal envoy to the 9th centennial celebration of the cathedral of Valence, France, August 5, 1995; to the celebration of the 750th anniversary of the Council of Lyon, Lyon, France, October 20 to 22, 1995; to the celebrations for the 150th anniversary of the apparition of "Notre Dame de la Salette," Grenoble, France, September 19, 1996. Grand prior of the Swiss Lieutenancy and chevalier de Grand Cross of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulcher of Jerusalem. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. He was member of the Congregations for the Causes of the Saints; for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, for the Clergy; and of the Pontifical Council for Social Communications. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on June 14, 2012.

Links. Photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; his photograph, arms and biography, in Italian, Cathopedia; his photograph and biography, in French, diocese of Sion; biography, in German, Conference of Swiss Bishops; biography, in German, Wikipedia; his photograph and biography by Father Einar Odden, in Norwegian, Den Katolske Kirke; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Discours du Saint-Père Jean-Paul II au Cardinal Henri Schwery et à un groupe de pèlerins du diocèse Swisse de Sion, Jeudi, 7 novembre 1991, The Vatican; Le Cardinal Henri Schwery, prêtre, évêque, cardinal. Un quart desiècle dépiscopat, edited by Theodor Wyder, Saint-Maurice : Éditions Saint-Augustin, 2002; Gli 80 anni del cardinale H. Schwery e il suo sguardo su Roma by Maurice Page, Apic, Giornale del Popolo, 6 juin 2012; Swiss Cardinal Henri Schwery turns 80, voting cardinals drops to 121, video, Rome Reports, 2012-06-15 13:19:17.

(1) On January 18, 1995, he sent a letter to the faithful announcing his resignation. This is a fragment of the letter, taken from Le Cardinal Henri Schwery, prêtre, évêque, cardinal. Un quart desiècle dépiscopat:
Chers diocésains, frères et soeurs,
Après longue et mure réflexion, ayant sollicité conseils et remarques, et m'étant confié à Dieu dans la prière, j'ai jugé bon de prier le Saint Père d'accepter ma demission comme éveque de Sion afin qu'il puisse confier notre diocese à un Pasteur dynamique et avisé. Le Saint Père a accepté ma démission. Elle entrera en viguer avec la prise de possession du diocese par mon successeur.
Parmi les raisons de cette décision, il convient de mentionner la fatigue, ainsi qu'une détérioration progressive de ma santé. Par ailleurs, au cours de ma 18ème année d'épiscopat, je mesure d'autant mieux l'opportunité d'un renuovellement à fréquence raisonnable des Pasteurs diocésains. La rapidité de l'évolution sociale et la nécessaire adaptation de la Pastorale semblent exiger tuojours davantage que les Eglises diocésaines prennent des élans renouvelés, sous des impulsions nouvelles inspirées par de nouveaux éveques.


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SCOLA, Angelo
(1941-

Birth. November 7, 1941, via Sant'Antonino, Malgrate, archdiocese of Milan, Italy. From a very poor family. Youngest of the two sons of Carlo Scola, a truck driver and a Socialist, and Regina Colombo, a housewife. The other child was Pietro, an elementary school teacher, who died in 1983. Besides his native Italian, he also speaks English, French, Spanish.

Education. Elementary and middle school in Malgrate, then, he attended the classical lyceum Manzoni of Lecco from 1955 to 1959; in 1958, in Lecco, he met Father Luigi Giussani, founder of the movement Communione e Liberazione, who exercised a great influence in Angelo's life. After the maturità, he registered himself in engineering at Politecnico di Milano. Before entering the seminary, between 1965 and 1967, he taught in high school. Abandoning the engineering career, he studied at the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan, where he obtained a doctorate in philosophy; thesis on Christian philosophy, 1967; while studying at the Catholic University, in 1965, he became a member of the presidency of the Italian Catholic Universitary Federation (FUCI), a federation of Catholic Italian University student groups, called by Cardinal Giovanni Colombo; in Milan, he did various odd jobs, among them, working as a proofreader at Mondadori publishing house; but he was also was involved with Communione e Liberazione and met Don Luigi Giussani, its founder, and with him he decided to become a priest; he studied at the Seminary of Saronno, Milan (theology); then, at the Seminary of Venegono, Milan (theology); and finally, at the University of Fribourg, Switzerland, where he obtained a doctorate in theology, with a thesis on St. Thomas Aquinas.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 18, 1970, Teramo, by Abele Conigli, bishop of Teramo-Atri. Further studies, Fribourg, Switzerland; Monaco; and Paris, France. Successively, until 1991, active collaborator of Communione e Liberazione; director of the Institute of Studies for the Transition (ISTRA), Milan; collaborator in the establishment and member of the executive committee of the Italian edition of Rivista Internazionale Communio; pastoral ministry in Italy and abroad; from 1979, research assistant to the chair of Political Philosophy, and later, assistant to the chair of Fundamental Moral Theology at the University of Fribourg, Switzerland; in 1982; later, professor of theological anthropology at the Pontifical John Paul II Institute for Studies on Marriage and the Family at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome; and later, professor of Contemporary Christology at the Faculty of Theology, Pontifical Lateran University, Rome. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30,1987, as an assistant to the special secretary.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Grosseto, July 20, 1991. Consecrated, September 21, 1991, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Bernardin Gantin, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, prefect of the Congregation for Bishops, assisted by Adelmo Tacconi, bishop emeritus of Grosseto, and by Abele Congli, bishop emeritus of Teramo-Atri. His episcopal motto is Sufficit Gratia Tua. Took possession of the diocese on the following September 28. Named rector magnifico of the Pontifical Lateran University and president of the Pontifical John Paul II Institute for Studies on Marriage and the Family, July 1995. Resigned pastoral government of the diocese, September 14, 1995. Promoted to the patriarchate of Venice on January 5, 2002; took possession of the patriarchate on the following Sunday March 3. Received the pallium from Pope John Paul II on June 29, 2002, at the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, October 21, 2003. In September 2004, he founded the Oasis International Studies and Research Centre, to promote better relations between Christians and Muslims. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Relator general of the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". Transferred to the metropolitan see of Milan on June 28, 2011. Cardinal Scola was apostolic administrator of Venice until September 7, 2011; then, he was succeeded as such by Beniamino Pizziol, bishop of Vicenza, former auxiliary of Venice, until the new patriarch was appointed. Cardinal Scola took possession of the metropolitan see of Milan by procurator (Monsignor Carlo Redaelli, vicar general) on September 9, 2011. He received the pallium from Pope Benedict XVI on September 21, 2011 in the Hall of the Consistory of the Apostolic Palace of Castelgandolfo. Named member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See on October 22, 2011. Named member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches on March 7, 2012. He is a prolific author who has published numerous works (1). Named member of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, April 21, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On July 20, 2013, he was named special papal envoy to the celebration of the 1700th anniversary of the Edict of Milan, which took place in Niš, Serbia, on September 20 and 21, 2013. He was named member of the Pontifical Council for the Laity on February 6, 2014. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, until the expiration of his term, on February 19, 2014. On March 29, 2014, he was confirmed as member of the Pontifical Council for Culture until the expiration of his mandate. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Clergy on June 9, 2014.

Bibliography. Tornielli, Andrea. Il futuro e la speranza. Vita e magistero del cardinale Angelo Scola. Milano : Piemme, 2011. (Incontri).

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, archdiocese of Milan; his bibliography, AngeloScola.it; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Milano (III-XXI secolo), in Italian, archdiocese of Milan; Cardinal Scola Is Going Back Home. To Milan by Sandro Magister, Chiesa; Ecco chi è il nuovo arcivescovo, Giugno 27, 2011, Vatican Insider, La Stampa, Milan; «Benedetto colui che viene nel nome del Signore» Il cardinale Angelo Scola è il nuovo Arcivescovo di Milano, archdiocese of Milan; "I miei dieci anni con Venezia", un'intervista di 'bilancio", video, in Italian, patriarchate of Venice; Scola, the theologian liked by Pope Ratzinger by Andrea Tornielli, in English, Vatican Insider, 06/22/2011; Cardinal Scola explains the last details from the World Meeting of Families, video, Rome Reports, 2012-05-22 18:38:11; Scola: è un dono del mondo a Milano by Luciano Moia, Avvenire, 28 maggio 2012; Cardinal Scola: Family 2012 was an extraordinary event that has left us with a huge responsibility, Vatican Insider, 06/ 4/2012; Cardinal Scola, intellectual from a humble background, Rome Reports, 2013-02-20 17:54:35; Il cardinale Scola e il ricordo di Costantino, Vatican Insider, 19/09/2013; Scola: non lasciamoci dominare dalla tecnologia. Dopo lo scambio degli embrioni, Avvenire, 24 aprile 2014.

(1) This is his bibliography taken from Tornielli, Il futuro e la speranza. Vita e magistero del cardinale Angelo Scola, p. 1885-188: La fondazione teologica della legge naturale nello Scriptum super Sententmms di San Tommaso d'Aquino, Universitätsverlag, Freiburg Schweiz 1982; L'alba della dignità umana. La fondazione dei diritti umani nella dottrina di Jacques Maritain, Jaca Book, Milano 1982; Avvenimento e Tradizione. Questioni di ecclesiologia, Jaca Book, Milano 1987; "Vivid las preguntas" (Ejercicios 87), Comunión y Liberación, Madrid 1987; Identidad y diferencia. La relación hombre-mujer, Ediciones Encuentro, Madrid 1989; "La Centesimus Annus. Note per la lettura, Conversazione tenuta a Lecco, 12 maggio 1991", Quaderni di Lavoro Politico; Hans Urs von Balthasar: Uno stile teologico, Jaca Book, Milano 1991; "Sarete liberi davvero". Lettera Pastorale, in Toscana oggi/Rinnovamento 10 (29-11-1992) 42 (Supplemento); "E tutti saranno ammaestrati da Dio". Nota Pastorale, in Toscana oggi/Rinnovamento 11 (5-12-1993) 44 (Supplemento); "Ed io che sono?" Un Vescovo parla ai suoi giovani, Nuova Compagnia Editrice, Forlì 1994; Crisi della libertà e vita familiare, Centro Studi S. Lorenzo-1 Portici Editore, Grosseto 1995; Libertà e realtà. Il realismo cristiano, Associazione Amici della Nuova Scuola, Lecco 1996; Questioni di antropologia teologica, Pontificia Università Lateranense-Istituto Giovanni Paolo II-Edizioni Ares, Milano 1996; Questioni di antropologia teologica. Seconda edizione ampliata, Pontificia Università Lateranense-Mursia, Roma 1997; Il mistero nuziale. 1. Uomo-Donna, Pontificia Università Lateranense-Mursia, Roma 1998; Ospitare il reale. Per un "idea" di Università, Pontificia Università Lateranense-Mursia, Roma 1999; Il mistero nuziale. 2. Matrimonio-Famiglia, Pontificia Università Lateranense-Mursia, Roma 2000; La persona umana. Antropologia Teologica, in collaborazione con G. Marengo e J. Prades López, Amateca v. 15, Jaca Book, Milano 2000; Uomo-donna. Il "caso serio" dell'amore, Marietti 1812, Genova 2002; Vagliate ogni cosa, trattenete ciò che è buono. Intervista con Hans Urs von Balthasar, Lateran University Press, Roma 2002; Il mistero nuziale: una prospettiva di teologia sistematica?, Lateran University Press, Roma 2003; Un anno dopo..., CID, Venezia 2003; Liberi davvero, Collana Fontana Vivace 1, CantagalliCID, Siena-Venezia 2003; Il volto missionario della parrocchia, Collana Fontana Vivace 2, Cantagalli-CID, Siena-Venezia 2003; L'esperienza elementare. La vena profonda del magistero di Giovanni Paolo II, Marietti 1820, Genova 2003; Ecclesiologia en perspectiva ecuménica, Subsidia 5, Facultad de Teologia San Dámaso, Madrid 2003; La gioia e la fretta, Collana Fontana Vivace 3, Cantagalli-CID, Siena-Venezia 2004; Contro la noia, Collana Fontana Vivace 4, CantagalliCID, Siena-Venezia 2004; Morte e libertà, Cantagalli, Siena 2004; Un pensiero sorgivo. Sugli scritti di Luigi Giussani, Marietti 1820, Genova 2004; Chi è la Chiesa? Una chiave antropologica e sacramentale per l'ecclesiologia, BTC 130, Queriniana, Brescia 2005; Voglia di vita, Collana Fontana Vivace 5, Cantagalli-CID, Siena-Venezia 2005; Eucaristia, incontro di libertà, Cantagalli, Siena 2005; Stupore eucaristico. Conversazioni dal Sinodo, San Paolo, Cinisello Balsamo 2006; Vagabondi o pellegrini, Collana Fontana Vivace 6, Cantagalli-CID, Siena-Venezia 2006; Tutto è vostro, Collana Fontana Vivace 7, Cantagalli-CID, Siena-Venezia 2006; Introduzione e Commento all'enciclica "Deus caritas est", Cantagalli, Siena 2006; Aspetti innovativi della riabilitazione neurologica: fondamenti antropologici delle implicazioni bioetiche, I.R.C.C.S. San Camillo, Venezia Lido 14 settembre 2006; Una nuova laicità. Temi per una società plurale, Marsilio, Venezia 2007; Il valore dell'uomo, Bompiani, Milano 2007 in collaborazione con G. Reale; La dottrina sociale della Chiesa: risorsa per una società plurale, Centro di Ateneo per la Dottrina Sociale della Chiesa. Contributi 1, Vita e Pensiero, Milano 2007; Come nasce e come vive una comunità cristiana, Marcianum Press, Venezia 2007; Vogliamo vedere Gesù, Marcianum Press, Venezia 2007; La dottrina sociale della Chiesa: risorsa per una società plurale, Edizioni Vita e Pensiero, Milano 2007; Dio? Ateismo della ragione e ragioni della fede, Marsmlio, Venezia 2008. In collaborazione con P. Flores D'Arcais; Uno sguardo su Albino Luciani, Marcianum Press, Venezia 2009; Il Padre Nostro, Cantagalli, Siena 2009; Religioni, verità, libertà, Lectio magistralis di S.E. il Cardinale Angelo Scola, Patriarca di Venezia, Fondazione Magna Carta, Roma 2009; Maria, la donna. I misteri della sua vita, Cantagalli, Siena 2009; La vita buona. Dialoghi su laicità, scienza e fede, vita e morte alla vigilia del Redentore, Messaggero, Padova 2009, in collaborazione con A. Cazzullo; Buone ragioni per la vita in comune. Religioni, politica, economia, Mondadori, Milano 2010; Non uccidere, Il Mulino, Bologna 2011, in collaborazione con A. Cavarero; Famiglia risorsa decisiva. Padova : Edizioni Messaggero, 2012.


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SEBASTIANI, Sergio
(1931-

Birth. April 11, 1931, Montemonaco, diocese of San Benedetto del Tronto, Ripatransone-Montalto, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Episcopal Seminary of Ascoli Piceno; at the Archiepiscopal Seminary of Fermo; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in theology; at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in canon law; and at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 15, 1956, Fermo. Further studies, Rome, 1956-1960. Secretary of nunciature in Perú, 1960-1962; in nunciature in Brazil, 1962-1966; auditor in nunciature in Chile, 1966-1967. Recalled to the Vatican as secretary of Cardinals Amleto Giovanni Cicognani and Jean Villot, secretaries of State, and later a head of the secretariat of the Sostituto, 1967-1974. Counselor of nunciature in France with special charge before the Council of Europe, 1974-1976. Prelate of honor, April 30, 1974.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cesarea di Mauritania and appointed pro-nuncio in Madagascar and Mauritius and apostolic delegate in La Reunion and the Comoro Islands, September 27, 1976. Consecrated, October 30, 1976, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Jean Villot, secretary of State, assisted by Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy, archbishop emeritus of Bangalore, secretary of the S.C. for the Evangelization of Peoples, and by Cleto Bellucci, archbishop de Fermo. Nuncio in Turkey, January 8, 1985. Secretary General of the Council of Presidency of the Central Committee for the Great Jubilee of the Year 2000, November 16, 1994. President of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See, November 3, 1997. Attended Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 19 to May 14, 1998; the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Eustachio, February 21, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reappointed as president of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See, April 21, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Participated in the 40th meeting of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, July 4, 2006. The pope accepted his resignation, presented for reason of limit of age, from the office of president of the Prefecture of the Economic Affairs of the Holy See on April 12, 2008. Opted for the order of cardinal priests in the consistory of February 21, 2011 and at his request his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on April 11, 2011.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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SEGURA Y SÁENZ, Pedro
(1880-1957)

Birth. December 4, 1880, Carazo, diocese of Osma, Spain. His parents were Santiago Segura Arroyo and Juliana Sáenz Camarero, both school teachers. He was baptized the day after his birth. He had three brothers: Quintín, a priest, Emiliano, and Vidal; and a sister, Elena.

Education. Secondary education at Piarist Colegio de San Pedro de Cardeña, incorporated to the Conciliar Seminary of Burgos, 1891 to 1894 (he studied three years of Latin); in September 1894, he entered the Pontifical Seminary of Comillas; there he studied two years of Latin; two of humanities and rhetoric; three of philosophy; four of theology and three of canon law, obtaining the highest grades; on December 26, 1906, he obtained a doctorate in theology; on July 16, 1908, in canon law; and on July 20, 1911, in philosophy.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 9, 1906. Pastoral ministry as economous of the parish of Salas de Bureba, in the archdiocese of Burgos, until September 22, 1909, when he was named professor of canon law at the Pontifical University of Burgos; he also taught Greek and sociology. Elected canon doctoral of the cathedral chapter of Valladolid in 1912. Professor of Decretales and member of Colegio de Doctores of the Faculties of Canon Law and Philosophy at the Pontifical University of Valladolid; he was also prefect of studies.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Apollonia and appointed auxiliary of Valladolid, March 14, 1916. Consecrated, June 13, 1916, Comillas, by Cardinal José María Cos Macho, archbishop of Valladolid, assisted by Vicente Santiago Sánchez de Castro, bishop of Santander, and by Julián de Diego y García Alcolea, bishop of Salamanca. Transferred to the see of Coria, July 10, 1920; took possession on October 12, 1920; entered the diocese the following 15th. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Burgos, December 20, 1926; took possession on February 2, 1927. Administrator of Coria, 1926-1927. At the death of Cardinal Enrique Reig y Casananova, archbishop of Toledo and primate of Spain, on August 25, 1927, King Alfonso XIII nominated Archbishop Segura for that see on October 31, 1927, in spite of the reservations that the young archbishop had. Transferred to the metropolitan and primatial see of Toledo, December 19, 1927; took possession on January 23, 1928; entered the archdiocese on the following day.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1927; received the red biretta from King Alfonso XIII on December 25, 1927, in the public chapel of the Royal Palace, Madrid; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, October 28, 1929. On February 14, 1929, the pope named Cardinal Segura pontifical director of the Catholic Action. Expelled from Spain by Interior Minister Miguel Maura of the Republican government, June 15, 1931. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, September 26, 1931, France. Arrived in Rome, December 20, 1931; he resided in the Eternal City for six years; he dedicated his ministry to the poor, specially in the Trastevere region. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Sevilla, September 14, 1937; took possession of the see, October 2, 1937. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. He was one of the few, if not the only, discordant voices of the Spanish Catholic Church which confronted the regime of Generalissimo Francisco Franco. His disagreements, in his last years, with the dictator were many and for several reasons. A decided conservative, he was opposed to religious toleration, especially towards Protestants and Franco's limited religious tolerance; and prohibited Sevilla Catholics from attending movies and dances. At the same time, he was a very influential opponent of collaboration with Nazi Germany during the Second World War. Cardinal protopriest, August 30, 1954.

Death. April 8, 1957, in the evening, of kidney ailment aggravated by circulatory difficulties, at the hospital "Nuestra Señora del Rosario", in Madrid, assisted by his chaplain, Santiago Guinea. Franco ordered that the late cardinal receive the honors of captain general. He was laid out in state at the archiepiscopal palace of Sevilla. The exequies were very solemn but without homily or funeral oration. Buried, Cerro del Sagrado Corazón, Sevilla, which he had built, beside his sister Elena, who had died in 1949.

Bibliography. Bastarrika, Iñaki. "Segura y Sáenz, Pedro." New Catholic Encyclopedia. Prepared by an editorial staff at the Catholic University of America. 19 vols. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1967-1996, p. 50; Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 78; Garriga, Ramón. El Cardenal Segura y el Nacional-Catolicismo. Barcelona: Editorial Planeta, 1977. (Espejo de España, 37); Gil Delgado, Francisco. Pedro Segura, un cardenal de fronteras. Madrid : Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 2001. (Biblioteca de autores cristianos ; 616); Martínez Requejo San Román, Jesús. El Cardenal Segura. Con prólogo de Ramiro de Maeztu. Madrid : Imp. Juan Bravo 3, 1932; Núñez Beltrán, Miguel Ángel. "El Cardenal Segura y su acción sinódico-conciliar en Sevilla: el Sínodo Diocesano 1943 y el Concilio Provincial de 1944." Anuario de Historia de la Iglesia andaluza, Vol. 1, (2008), 253-279.Nzqez Beltran, Miguel Angel. "El Cardenal Segura y su accisn sinsdico-conciliar en Sevilla: el Smnodo Diocesano 1943 y el Concilio Provincial de 1944." Anuario de Historia de la Iglesia andaluza, I (2008), 253-279; Sánchez, Santiago. Los papeles perdidos del Cardenal Segura, 1880-1957. Pamplona : Ediciones Universidad de Navarra, 2004. (Histórica / Ediciones Universidad de Navarra).

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; extensive biography, in Spanish, summary by José María Lorenzo Amelibia of the book Pedro Segura. Un cardenal de Fronteras, by Francisco Gil Delgado; LIBROS: Pedro Segura (El Cardenal de fronteras), Comentarios de Javier Nagore Yarnoz al libro de Francisco Gil Delgado; biography by J. M. Cuenca Toribio, in Spanish, Gran Enciclopedia Rialp; El Cardenal Pedro Segura y Sáenz (1880-1957), doctoral thesis by Santiago Martínez Sánchez, in Spanish; photograph and biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; his portrait, Corbis Images; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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SENSI, Giuseppe Maria
(1907-2001)

Birth. May 27, 1907, Cosenza, Italy. Sixth of the ten children of Hon. Francesco Sensi (member of the directoy of the Popular Party and president for many years of the Calabrese Catholic Action) and Marchioness Andreotti-Loria.

Education. Studied at the ginnasio of the Seminary of Cosenza from 1922 to 1929 (liceale studies); then, at the Pontifical Roman Seminary (philosophy and theology); at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in theology; at the Pontifical Athenaeum "S. Apollinare, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in canon law in 1932; wrote a thesis on Catholic cooperativism; and finally, at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, from 1933, where he studied diplomacy.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1929, Rome. Further studies, 1930-1932. Minutant in the S.C. of the Council, 1933-1934. Joined the diplomatic service of the Holy See, 1934. Secretary of the nunciature in Romania, 1934-1938. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, March 14, 1935. Secretary of the nunciature in Hungary, 1939. Auditor of the nunciature in Switzerland, 1940-1946. Counselor of the nunciature in Belgium 1946-1947. Domestic prelate of His Holiness (no date found). Attached to the Vatican Secretariat of State, 1947. Counselor of the nunciature in Czechoslovakia, 1947-1949. In charge of international Catholic organizations in the international section of the Vatican Secretariat of State, 1949-1953. Permanent observer of the Holy See before UNESCO, 1953-1956. Chief of the Holy See delegation to the UNESCO General Assembly, Montevideo, Uruguay, 1954.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Sardi and appointed nuncio in Costa Rica, May 21, 1955. Consecrated, July 24, 1955, Rome, by Cardinal Valerio Valeri, prefect of the S.C. for Religious, assisted by Carlo Confalonieri, titular archbishop of Nicopoli al Nesto, secretary of the S.C.for Seminaries and Universities, and by Egidio Vagnozzi, titular archbishop of Mina, nuncio in Philippines. Apostolic delegate in Jerusalem and Palestine, January 12, 1957. Nuncio in Ireland, May 10, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Nuncio in Portugal, July 8, 1967.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 24, 1976; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ss. Biagio e Carlo ai Catinari, May 24, 1976. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1978. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, May 27, 1987. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of Regina Apostolorum, June 22, 1987.

Death. July 26, 2001, in the Clinic "Pio XI, in Rome, where he had been interned for some time. Buried in the family chapel, cemetery of Colle Mussano, Cosenza.

Links. Photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Press Office of the Holy See; biography, in Polish, Wikipedia; photographs, Araldica Vaticana; Lettera di Giovanni Paolo II all'Em.mo Cardinale Giuseppe Maria Sensi per il 50ª di sacerdozio, in Italian, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 12 dicembre 1979.


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SEPE, Crescenzio
(1943-

Birth. June 2, 1943, Carinaro, diocese of Aversa, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Aversa (middle and ginnasiali studies); at the Pontifical Regional Seminary of Salerno (philosophy); at the Pontifical Major Roman Seminary, Rome (theology); at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in theology and a licentiate in canon law; at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in philosophy; and at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy). Besides his native Italian, he speaks English, French and Spanish.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 12, 1967, Aversa, by Antonio Cece, bishop of Aversa. Incardinated in the diocese of Aversa. Further studies, Rome. Assistant professor of sacramental theology, Pontifical Lateran University, Rome; in charge of dogmatic theology, Pontifical Urban University, Rome; published several works in theology (1). Further studies, Rome. Joined Vatican diplomatic service, 1972. Secretary of the nunciature in Brazil, 1972-1975. Called to the Secretariat of State by Giovanni Benelli, titular archbishop of Tusuro, substitute of the Secretariat of State, worked at first in the international section, particularly in charge of International Organizations and in the Office of Information and Documentation; later in the Office of "Informazione e Documentazione". Assessor for General Affairs of the Secretariat of State, 1987-1992. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, October 10, 1987.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Grado and appointed secretary of the Congregation for the Clergy, April 2, 1992. Consecrated, April 26, 1992, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Cardinal Franciszek Macharski, archbishop of Kraków, and by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, secretary of State. His episcopal motto is In nomine Domini. Secretary general of the Committee of the Great Jubilee of the Year 2000 and of its council of presidency, November 3, 1997. President of the Peregrinatio ad Petri Sedem, November 5, 1997 until July 2001.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Dio Padre misericordioso, February 21, 2001. Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples and grand chancellor of the Pontifical Urbanian University, April 9, 2001. Ceased as president of Peregrinatio ad Petri Sedem, July 25, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Special papal envoy to the solemn celebration of the 1950th anniversary of the arrival of St. Thomas the Apostle in India and the 450 years of the beginning of the mission of St. Francis Xavier. Both celebrations took place in Ernakulam, India, November 16 to 17, 2002. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the Third National Eucharistic Congress of Benin, Dassa-Zoumé, November 22 to 24, 2002. Special representative of the pope to confer the episcopal consecration to Father Wenceslao Padilla, C.I.C.M., titular bishop of Tharros, first apostolic prefect of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, August 29, 2003; the following day, he consecrated the new cathedral of Sts. Peter and Paul of Ulaanbaatar. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the Second American Missionary Congress, Guatemala City, November 25 to 30, 2003. Member of the Special Council for Asia of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, May 28, 2004. Received, at the Pontifical Urbanian University, Rome, the European prize "Stefano Borgia", November 11, 2004 (2). Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reappointed as prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples and grand chancellor of the Pontifical Urbanian University, April 21, 2005; occupied the post until May 20, 2006. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Named metropolitan archbishop of Naples, May 20, 2006; he was automatically elevated to cardinal priest, with his deaconry being elevated pro hac vice to title. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the "Asian Mission Congress", that took place in Chang Mai, Thailand, on October 19 to 22, 2006. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". On July 7, 2012, he was named pontifical legate for the consecration of the cathedral of the diocese of Karaganda, Kazakhstan, programmed for September 9, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Clergy on June 9, 2014.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, archdiocese of Naples; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Archbishop of Naples: Church must leave privileges aside and dedicate itself to the poor by Giacomo Galeazzi, Vatican Insider, 06/16/2012; Il cardinale Sepe: «Non vinca l'egoismo, denunciare sempre» by Antonio Maria Mira, Avvenire, 23 luglio 2012; Sepe: lottare contro abusi e prepotenzeChiesa, Avvenire, 14 agosto 2012.

(1) Among them, "La dimensione trinitaria del carattere sacramentale", published by the Pontifical Lateran University; and "Persona e storia. Per una teologia della persona", published by Edizioni Paoline.
(2) The prize is promoted by the diocese of Velletri-Segni and by the Center of Borgian Studies. Cardinal Stefano Borgia was the prefect of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide from 1802 to 1804; and in 2004, the bicentennial of his death was commemorated. As prefect, he valued the cultural aspect while constantly maintaining the missionary perspective.


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ŠEPER, Franjo
(1905-1981)

Birth. October 2, 1905, Osijek, diocese of Djakovo, Austria-Hungary, later Yugoslavia, now Croatia. In 1910, his family moved to Zagreb.

Education. Initial and ecclesiastical studies in Zagreb; in 1924, he went to Rome; resided in the Pontifical Collegio Germanico-Ungarico and in Collegio di S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorates in philosophy and theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, October 26, 1930, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, by Giuseppe Palica, titular archbishop of Filippi, vice-gerent of Rome; in the same ceremony was ordained Alojzije Stepinac, his predecessor in the see of Zagreb and future cardinal and blessed. Returned to Zagreb. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Zagreb and professor of religion in middle schools, 1930-1934. Secretary to the archbishop of Zagreb and diocesan official, 1934-1941. Rector of the Seminary of Zagreb, 1941-1951. Administrator of the parish of Christ the King, Zagreb, 1951-1954. When Cardinal Alojzije Stepinac was confined in his native town of Krašić, he was promoted to the episcopate.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Filippopoli and appointed coadjutor, sedi datus, of Zagreb, July 22, 1954. Consecrated, September 21, 1954, Zagreb, by Josip Antun Ujcić, archbishop of Belgrade, assisted by Franjo Salis-Seewis, titular bishop of Corico, auxiliary of Zagreb, and by Josip Lach, titular bishop of Dodona, auxiliary of Zagreb. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Zagreb, March 5, 1960. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Pietro e Paolo in Ostiense, February 25, 1965. Pro-prefect of the S.C. for the Doctrine of the Faith, January 8 to February 29, 1968; prefect, March 1, 1968 to November 25, 1981. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, August 20, 1969. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the II Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Papal legate to the 6th International Mariological and the 12th Marian Congresses, Zagreb, July 16, 1971. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinal, December 12, 1974 until May 24, 1976. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Special papal envoy to the commemoration of the 11th centennial of exchange of letters between Pope John VIII and Croat prince Branimiro, Nin, Zadar, Yugoslavia, September 2, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Special papal envoy to consecrate the new cathedral of the diocese of Mostar-Duvno, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Yugoslavia, September 14, 1980. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Resigned the prefecture, November 25, 1981. Two weeks later, he had to be hospitalized; at the moment of his death, his sister and one of the auxiliary bishops of Zagreb were with him.

Death. December 30, 1981, early in the morning, of a heart attack, polyclinic "Agostino Gemelli", Rome. The following day, his mortal remains were transferred to the church of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni and exposed until Saturday January 2, 1982, when they were moved to the patriarchal Vatican basilica for the funeral; Pope John Paul II presided it and concelebrated with the cardinals present in Rome; after the mass, the body of the late cardinal was taken again to the church of S. Girolamo degli Schiavone, where, in the afternoon, Archbishop Franjo Kuharić presided over a liturgical ceremony; later, the body was transferred to Zagreb; on Tuesday January 5, the funeral was celebrated in the metropolitan cathedral and then, he was buried next to the tomb of his predecessor, Cardinal Stepinac.

Bibliography. Pavicic, Darko. Tajna kardinala vozaca, ili, Kako sam u noci vidio dugu. Zagreb : ITD, 1997. Biographies of Cardinals Stepinac, Alojzije, 1898-1960; Kuharic, Franjo, 1919-2002; and Seper, Franjo, 1905-1981. Other title: Tajna kardinala vozaca; Kako sam u noci vidio dugu.

Link. His arms, Arladica Vaticana.


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SERAFINI, O.S.B.Cas., Domenico
(1852-1918)

Birth. August 3, 1852, Rome, Italy. Of an ancient and noble family. His parents were Luigi Serafini and Costanza Di Pietro. His grandfather on his mother's side, Giovanni, was a consistorial lawyer; and having become a widower, he was ordained a priest and named auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota by Pope Gregory XVI.

Education. Studied at Collegio Romano; then, he entered the Order of Saint Benedict Cassinese in 1871; professed, June 16, 1874, Subiaco. Studied at Benedictine houses of studies; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned doctorates in philosophy and in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 21, 1877, Subiaco. Member of the community of the abbey of Saint Benedict of Subiaco, 1877-1882; master of novices, 1889-1891; lector of theology; prior of the monastery of St. Scholastica, Subiaco, 1891-1892. General procurator of his order in Rome, 1892-1896. Elected abbot of the two monasteries of Subiaco and general abbot of the Benedictine Cassinese Congregation a Primaeva Observantia (called now of Subiaco), June 5, 1896.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Spoleto, April 19, 1900. Consecrated, May 6, 1900, Rome, by Cardinal Serafino Vannutelli, bishop of Frascati, grand penitentiary, assisted by Casimiro Gennari, titular archbishop of Lepanto, assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, and by Tommaso Granello, O.P., titular archbishop of Seluecia in Isauria, commissary general of the Holy Office. Apostolic delegate in México, January 4, 1904 (1). Consultor of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars until 1908. Consultor of the SS. CC. of Propaganda Fide and Consistorial in 1911. Assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, November 30, 1911. Transferred to the titular see of Seleucia Pieria, March 2, 1912; published in the consistory of the following December 2.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1914; received the red hat and the title of S. Cecilia, May 28, 1914. Took possession of the title on the following June 23. Member of the SS. CC. Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, (May 28, 1914); of the Holy Office (November 8, 1914); of Propaganda Fide, Latin and Oriental Rites (November 25, 1914); and of the Pontifical Biblical Commission (October 19, 1914). Protector of the Daughters of Mary Immaculate of Guadalupe (June 21, 1914); of the Institute of Pious Mothers of Ovada (December 14, 1914); of the Capuchin Sisters of the Franciscan Third Order, called of the Divina Pastora of Sarrá, diocese of Barcelona (March 14, 1915); of the Benedictines of the Perpetual Adoration of the Most Holy Sacrament of Ronco, diocese of Novara (April 22, 1915). Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Prefect of the S.C. of Religious, January 27, 1916. Pro-prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of Faith, February 26 until March 24, 1916; prefect, March 24, 1916 until his death. President of the Pontifical Seminary of Ss. Pietro e Paolo for the Foreign Missions, Rome, March 29, 1916. Protector of the Pontifical North American College, Rome, April 5, 1916 until his death. Protector of the Scottish College of Rome, April 15, 1916 until his death. He resided at the Benedictine convent of S. Anselmo all'Aventino, Rome.

Death. March 5, 1918, Rome. The funeral took place in the church of S. Ignazio, Rome. Buried in the chapel of the S.C. for the Propagation of Faith, in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. On December 1, 1919, his remains were transferred to the monastery of Saint Benedict in Subiaco and buried in the north transept, before the altar of the Blessed Sacrament (2).

Bibliography. "Em. Serafini (Domenico), Benédictin, préfect de la Propaganda" in "Nécrologe" Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1919. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1918, p. 853; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 12, 22 and 338; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, p. 527

Links. Biography by Ekkart Sauser, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; biography, in English, Wikipedia.

(1) This is according to Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 12; Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, VIII, 527, indicates that he was appointed on January 6, 1904.
(2) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, taken from a photograph kindly provided by Mr. Mark West, from London, England:

A     XP     Ω
HEIC · IN · CHRISTO · QUIESCUNT
OSSA · ET · CINERES
CARD. DOMINICI SERAFINI
QUI · HUIUS · PROTOCOENOBII
ALTERIUS · VELUT · PARENTIS · NOMINE · FULGET · ET · MERITO
PRAECEPTA · MAGISTRI
DIEM · MONACHUS · NOCTEMO · FACESSIT
ABBAS · ET · SUPREMUS · CONGR · MODERATOR
SODALES · EXEMPLO · DUXIT · PRAEIVIT · CONSILIO · FOVIT
SPOLETINORUM · ARCHIEPISCOPUS
FORMA · GREGIS · MITISSIMO · INNOCUIT · FACTUS · ET · ANIMO
S · SEDIS · IN · MEXICANA · REP · DELEGATUS
RECTI · TENAX · SOLLERS · EXCUBUIT
NE · QUID · ECCLESIAE · IURA · CAPERENT · DETRIMENTUM
PRESBYTER · CARDINALIS
FIDEI · PROPAGANDAE · PRAEFECTUS
E · RE · QUID · FORET · ALACER · INYUENS · PROMPTUS · EDICENS
REL · CHRISTIANAE · CAUSSAM · IMPENSE · EGIT
MISSIONES · APUD · EXTEROS
NOVO · ROBORE · AUXIT · SOLIDAVITQUE
----------------------------------------- · ----------------------------------------
AVE · PARENS · PIENTISSIME · VALE · IN · PACE
TIBI · VIRTUS · CESSIT · NUNQUAM
NULLA · TE · DIES · NOSTRO · EXIMET
----------------------------------------- · ----------------------------------------
NATUS · III · NON · AUG · A · MDCCCLII                         ARCH · SPOELTIN · XIII · KAL · MAI · AN ·MCM
H · MON · PROF · XVI · KAL · IUL · A · MDCCCLXXIV       DELEG · APOST · PRID · NON · AN · AN · MCMXIV
SAC · INIT · XII · KAL · NOV · A · MDCCCLXXVII             PRESB · CARDIN · VIII · KAL · IUN · A · MCMXIV
ABBAS · GEN · NON · IUN · AN · MDCCCXCVI                DEC · ROMAE · III · NON · MART · A · MCMXVIII

----------------------------------------- · ----------------------------------------
UT · TANTI · PATRIS · FILIORUMQ · MIRANTIUM
VOTIS · FIERET · SATIS
EIUS · EXUVIAE
ROMA · ET · NECROP · HUC · TRANSLATAE
KAL · DEC · A · MCMXIX


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SERAFINI, Giulio
(1867-1938)

Birth. October 12, 1867, Bolsena, diocese of Orvieto, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Orvieto; at the Roman-Pio Seminary, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law; and at Collegio Leonino, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 6, 1890. Further studies, Rome, 1890-1895. Faculty member of the Seminary of Orvieto, 1895-1901; rector, 1897-1901 Rector of the Roman-Pio Seminary, June 14, 1901. Faculty member of the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum S. Apollinare, 1901-1907. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, January 7, 1904. Canon of the chapter of S. Maria ad Martyres, the Pantheon, Rome.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Pescia, March 4, 1907. Consecrated, May 26, 1907, altar of the Chair of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Pietro Respighi, vicar general of Rome, assisted by Salvatore Fratocchi, bishop of Orvieto, and by Giovanni Battista Scotti, bishop of Osimo e Cingoli. Remained as rector of Roman-Pio Seminary, which was united in 1913 to the Roman Lateran Seminary. Transferred to the titular see of Lampsaco before taking possession of the diocese of Pescia, December 16, 1907. Apostolic visitor to the seminaries of Marches, 1908; of Fano and Fermo, 1912. Prefect of studies of the Pontifical Roman Seminary, October 20, 1908. Canonist of the Sacred Apostolic Penitentiary, December 21, 1915. Secretary of the S.C. of Council, October 28, 1923.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 30, 1930; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, July 3, 1930. Prefect of the S.C. of the Council, July 4, 1930 until his death. President of the Pontifical Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of Code of Canon Law, 1930 until his death.

Death. July 16, 1938, of uremia, after suffering a heart attack in his Vatican apartment five days before his death, in Rome. Buried, basilica of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome.

Bibliography. Curotte, A. Le cardinale Serafini. Montréal, 1938; Franciolini, G. Il cardinale Giulio Serafini. Cortona, 1939; Re, Niccolò del. "I cardinali prefetti della Sacra Congregazione del Concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), pp. 144-145.

Link. His photograph and portrait, in Araldica Vaticana.


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SERÉDI, O.S.B., Jusztinián György
(1884-1945)

Birth. April 23, 1884, Deáki, archabbey of Saint Martin of the Sacred Pannonhalma, Hungary (now Diakovce, archdiocese of Bratislava-Trnava, Slovakia). He was the youngest of the eleven children of Mihály Szapucsek (he Magyarized the last name to Serédi) and Julia Oroszlán. One of his brothers, Mihály, also became a Benedictine monk. His last name is also listed as Szeredy.

Education. Initial education from Vicar Gulyás Elek; from 1895, he attended the Catholic high school in Bratislava; motivated by the example of his brother, he joined the Order of Saint Benedict on August 6, 1901, Pannonhalma; took the name Jusztinián; professed on July 10, 1905. Received his formation at Benedictine houses of studies in Hungary and Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 14, 1908, abbey church of Pannonhalma. Member of the community of the abbey of Pannonhalma. In the Fall of 1908, he returned to Rome as professor of canon law at the International Collegio S. Anselmo. He assisted Cardinal Pietro Gasparri in the preparation of the new Code of Canon Law, which was published on May 27, 1917. In 1918, he was for a short time pastor of a military camp in Esztergom (1). Procurator general of his order in Rome; and counselor to the Hungarian legation in Rome, 1920-1927.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Esztergom, November 30, 1927. Consecrated, January 8, 1928, Sistine chapel, at the Vatican, by Pope Pius XI, assisted by Carlo Cremonesi, titular archbishop of Nicomedia, privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Agostino Zampini, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, sacristan of His Holiness. His episcopal motto was Non recuso laborem. Enthroned the following January 28. Prince primate and senator of Hungary by his own right, when he became archbishop of Esztergom, primatial see of Hungary.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1927; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Andrea e Gregorio al Monte Celio, December 22, 1927; during the consistory, the pope called him the "Benjamin" of the Sacred College of Cardinals, because the cardinal, at forty three, was the youngest member of the Sacred College. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Budapest, September 16, 1928. He was strongly opposed to Nazism, issuing a statement in 1934 saying no Catholic priest could support its principles. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. He led the church in Hungary in its opposition to the attack on the Jews. At the end of the Second World War, he was carried off as a hostage by the Nazis just before the Soviet armies took Budapest (2). He founded the Pontifical Institute of Hungary and did much to expand the Hungarian holdings of the Vatican Library.

Death. Holy Thursday March 29, 1945, at 2 p.m., of a heart attack, in his library, in Esztergom. His auxiliary bishop, Zoltán Lajos Meszlényi, titular bishop of Sinope, administered the last sacraments. His funeral was held in the crypt of the then nearly destroyed metropolitan and primatial cathedral of Esztergom, by Angelo Rotta, titular archbishop of Tebe, nuncio to Hungary. Buried in that cathedral.

Bibliography. Beke, Margit. Esztergomi érsekek 1001-2003. Budapest : Szent Istvan Tarsulat, 2003, pp. 389-395; "E. Seréredi (Justinien-Georges)" in "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p.99-100; Tusor, Péter. Purpura Pannonica : az esztergomi "bíborosi szék" kialakulásának elozminyei a 17. században = Purpura Pannonica : the "Cardinalitial See" of Strigonium and its Antecedens in the 17th Century. Budapest : Róma : Research Institute of Church History at Péter Pázmány Catholic University, 2005. (Collectanea Vaticana Hungariae, Classis I, vol. 3), pp. 210 and 330.

Links. Photographs, portrait and biography, in Hungarian, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in Hungarian, Portá Történelem; bibliography and biography, in Hungarian, second entry on page, Magyar Katolikus Lexikon; Dr. Serédi Jusztinián életrajza, in Hungarian, Temesvári Pelbárt Ferences Gimnázium és Kollégium; Serédi Jusztinián, akiböl majdnem pápa lett, in Hungarian, szentek.wordpress.com; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; 125 éve született Serédi Jusztinián, archdiocese of Esztergom-Budapest.

(1) During the difficult years of the First World War, although he was far from his homeland, he did not forget the suffering Hungarian prisoners of war in the camps. Although not personally exposed to them, he taught Hungarian to the Italian military chaplains so that they could understand his compatriots. He also edited a prayer book, which was delivered to the camps along with other educational and entertaining books.
(2) According to Beke, Esztergomi érsekek 1001-2003, p. 393, the cardinal was diabetic and the fact that the city was besieged by the Red Army, made it impossible for him to get his dose of insulin, leading eventually to his death.


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SÉVIN, Hector-Irénée
(1852-1916)

Birth. March 22, 1852, Simandre-sur-Suran, diocese of Belley, France.

Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Belley; and at the Major Seminary of Belley. Received the subdiaconate on December 19, 1874; and the diaconate on May 22, 1875.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 7, 1876, Belley, by Jean-Joseph Marchal, bishop of Belley. Subdirector of the institute for the deaf and mute, Bourg (Ain), 1875-1876. Professor of Greek, dogmatic theology, Sacred Scriptures, and ecclesiastical history, Seminary of Belley in Bourg, 1876-1889; its rector, 1889-1891. Honorary canon of the cathedral chapter of Belley, 1888-1891; titular canon, 1891-1908. Director of the educational institutions and ecclesiastical conferences of the diocese of Belley, 1891-1908. Vicar general of the diocese of Belley, 1904.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Châlons, February 11, 1908; took possession of the see on the following March 19. Consecrated, April 5, 1908, cathedral of Belley, by Cardinal Louis-Henri Luçon, archbishop of Reims, assisted by Gaspara-Marie Latty, archbishop of Avignon, and by François Labeuche, bishop of Belley. Enthroned on the following April 14; published in the consistory of April 29. His episcopal motto was Dona mihi populum meum. Promoted to metropolitan see of Lyon, December 2, 1912; on that same day he was granted the pallium; the see is united to that of Vienne and has the title of primate of the Gauls. Took possession of the see on December 8, 1912; and was enthroned the following December 19.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1914; received the red hat and the title of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, May 28, 1914; took possession of the title on May 30. He was named member of the SS. CC. Consistorial and of Studies on May 28, 1914. Protector of the International Sacerdotal League Pro Pontifice et Ecclesia (February 13, 1915). Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV.

Death. May 4, 1916, after suffering for four days from peritonitis, at hôpital Saint-Joseph in Lyon. His obsequies took place on the followig May 11 in the metropolitan cathedral of Lyon, in the presence of three cardinals, twenty two archbishops and bishops, two mitered abbots, and civil and military authorities. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Saint-Jean-Baptiste of Lyon.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 491-492; "Em. Sevin (Hector Irénée)" in "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1916. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1915, p. 125; "Em. Sevin (Hector Irénée). archev. de Lyon, primat des Gaules in "Nécrologe", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1917. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1916, p. 805-806 Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 13, 25, 118 and 233.

Links. Chronology, in French, Wikipedia; Cardinal Sévin lying in state, 1916, Wikimedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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SFEIR, Nasrallah Boutros
(1920-

Birth. May 15, 1920, Reyfoun, diocese of Sarba of the Maronites, Lebanon. His first name is also listed as Nasr Allah; as Nasrallah Pierre (Boutros); and his last name as Sufayr.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Saint Maron, Gahzir; and at Saint Joseph's University, Beïrut, where he obtained licenciates in philosophy and theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 7, 1950. From 1951-1955, pastoral ministry in Reyfoun and secretary of Maronite diocese of Damas. From 1956-1961, secretary of the Maronite patriarchate, Bkérké; professor of translation in literature and philosophy at the Marist Brothers Maronite School, Jounieh.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tarso of the Maronites and appointed patriarchal vicar of Antioch of the Maronites, Lebanon, June 19, 1961; confirmed by Pope John XXIII, June 23, 1961. Consecrated, July 16, 1961, Bkerké, by Paul Pierre Meouchi, patriarch of Antioch of the Maronites, assisted by Jean Chedid, O.A.A.M., titular bishop of Arca in Fenicia of the Maronites, patriarchal vicar, and Michel Doumith, bishop of Sarba of the Maronites. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Spiritual counselor to the Sovereign Order of Malta, 1980. Elected patriarch of Antioch of the Maronites, April 19, 1986, Bkerké. Received the ecclesiastica communio from Pope John Paul II, May 7, 1986. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; member of its general secretariat, 1987-1990. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. President of the Assembly of Patriarchs and Catholic Bishops of Lebanon.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal patriarch, November 26, 1994; received the red biretta, November 26, 1994. Attended the Special Assembly for Lebanon of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 26 to December 14, 1995; one of its three presidents delegate. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, May 15, 2000. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". He was one of the presidents delegate ad honorem to the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for the Middle East, which took place from October 10 to 24, 2010, in Vatican City, on the theme "The Catholic Church in the Middle East, communion and testimony. 'The multitude of those who have become believers have only one heart and only one soul' (Acts 4,32)". Resigned the office of patriarch of Antioch of the Maronites in accordance to canon 126 § 2 of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches (CCEO) on February 26, 2011.

Bibliography. Sufayr, Nasr Allah ; Moubarac, Youakim. Le patriarcat maronite et la question libanaise dans les textes de Sa Béatitude le patriarche Mâr Nasrallah-Pierre Sfeir : anthologie. Réunie, traduite et présentée par Y. Moubarac. Paris : Cariscript, 1990. Notes: Translations from Arabic. Title on cover: La question libanaise dans les textes du patriarche Sfeir. Other title: Selections. French. 1990; Question libanaise dans les textes du patriarche Sfeir.


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SHAN KUO-HSI, S.J., Paul
(1923-2012)

Birth. December 3, 1923, Puyang, Hopeh, diocese of Taming (Daming), China. His last name is also listed as Shàn Guóxǐ (1).

Education. Studied philosophy at the Regional Seminary Saint Joseph, Chiughsien, from 1944 to 1946; and at the Jesuit Philosophical Institute, Berchmans College, Manila, Philippines, from 1946 until 1951, where he obtained a licentiate in philosophy (PhL); completed his theological formation at Bellarmine College, Baguio, Philippines, from 1952 to 1956 , where he obtained a licentiate in sacred theology (STL); completed his formation at the Jesuit Theologate of Novaliches, Philippines, from 1956 to 1957. Joined Society of Jesus on September 11, 1946, in Peking; took religious vows on September 12, 1948 in Peking; and the final vows on February 2, 1963, in the Jesuit novitiate in Thuduc, Vietnam. He also studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, from 1959 to 1961, where he earned a doctorate in spiritual theology. Besides Mandarin, his first language, he also spoke Latin, English, French, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 18, 1955, Baguio. Further studies, Novaliches, 1955-1957. Director of the Chinese section of Sacred Heart School, Cebu, 1957-1959. Further studies in Rome from 1959 to 1961. Minister of the house and socius of the master of novices, Thuduc, Vietnam, 1961 to 1963 . Master of novices and rector of Manresa House, Changhua, Taiwan, 1963-1970. Rector of St. Ignatius Institute, Taipei, 1970-1976. President of the Catholic Schools Association, Taiwan, 1972-1976. President of the Kuangchi Program Service, 1976-1979. Episcopal vicar of Taipei, 1976-1979.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Hwalien, Taiwan, November 15, 1979. Consecrated, February 14, 1980, by Matthew Kia Yen-wen, archbishop of Taipei, assisted by Stanislaus Lokuang, archbishop emeritus of Taipei, and by Joseph Kuo Joshih, archbishop emeritus of Taipei. His episcopal motto was Instaurare omnia in Christo. He was installed on February 14, 1980. In 1981, he was elected president of the Episcopal Commission for Evangelization of the Chinese Regional Episcopal Conference. In that same year, he was named member of the office for social communications of the Federation of Episcopal Conferences of Asia (Fabc). In 1983, he was elected episcopal organizer of the celebrations marking the 400th Anniversary of the arrival of Father Matteo Ricci, S.J., in China. Between 1983 and 1985, he was president of the office for inter-religious dialog of the Fabc; and from 1985 to 1991, he headed its office for social communications. Elected president of the Regional Episcopal Conference of China in 1987; he was reelected for three terms until 1999. In 1987, he became member of the central committee of the Fabc. On January 25, 1991, he was named president of the National Council of Churches in Taiwan. He was transferred to the see of Kaohsiung on March 4, 1991; he was installed the following June 17.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of S. Crisogono, February 21, 1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 19 to May 18, 1998; relator general; member of the post-synodal council, May 8, 1998; he was instrumental in the invitation made to two China mainland bishops to attend the synod but they were not allowed to attend by the Chinese government and two chairs were left empty during the sessions of the assembly. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years older December 3, 2003. By papal appointment he attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Resigned the pastoral government of the diocese in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law on January 5, 2006. He had just been diagnosed with cancer; he continued to direct retreats and hold conferences, promoting evangelization on both Taiwan and China. He was member of the S. C. for the Evangelization of the Peoples; of the Pontifical Councils of Health Workers and for the Legislative Texts; of the Special Council for Asia of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops; and of the Commission for the Church in China. He was honorary chairman of Fu Jen Catholic University, which is located in New Taipei City. In October 2012, the Tzu Chi Foundation, the largest Buddhist charity in Taiwan, was going to grant him an award. He never forgot that he was a son of the Church in mainland China and always prayed for it and offered to the Holy See his valuable contribution of advice and reflection. He was heavily involved on the front of evangelization and interreligious dialogue, with a strong focus on the formation of priests and a laity well prepared. Great were his social activities with many initiatives on behalf of the poor, the sick, the elderly, exploited women, and prisoners. The cardinal intervened several times, even publicly, asking the government of Taiwan to reduce the gap between the rich and the poor and to abolish the death penalty. In recent years, he had visited all the dioceses of the island of Taiwan to offer his testimony as a terminally ill patient in the light of faith, trying to instill in people the courage to face the challenges that life presented.

Death. August 22, 2012, at 6:42 p.m., of multiple organ failure brought on by acute pneumonia, secondary to his long standing cancer, in Cardinal Tien Hospital in New Taipei. His last act was celebrating mass, only a few hours before his death, on the liturgical feast of the Queenship of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the hospital where he was a patient for a serious condition. A short time later he died to the singing of Salve Regina chanted by the counselor and chargé d'affaires of the apostolic nunciature, Monsignor Paul Fitzpatrick Russell, the archbishop of Taipei, John Hung Shan-chuan, S.V.D., and various other collaborators. Upon learning of the death of the cardinal, Pope Benedict XVI prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to Bishop Peter Liu Cheng-Chung of Kaohsiung (2). President Ma Ying-jeou and Premier Sean Chen also extended their condolences to the bishops of Taiwan. The body was brought back to Kaohsiung by Bishop Liu earlier in the day from Taipei. The body laid in repose in the parish of the Holy Family. Three requiem masses were celebrated every day in the funeral chapel. The Straits Exchange Foundation, which handles Taiwan-China affairs in the absence of official ties, said the government contacted Cardinal Shan's family in China and helping to arrange their trip to attend the funeral. The funeral took place in the chapel of St. Dominic Catholic High School, in that city, attended by thousand of people. The mass was presided over by Bishop Peter Liu of Kaohsiung and concelebrated by numerous bishops and priests. Among them Cardinal Joseph Zen Ze-kiung, S.B.D., bishop emeritus of Hong Kong; Cardinal John Tong Hon, current bishop of Hong Kong; Savio Hon Tai-Fai, S.D.B., titular archbishop of Sila, secretary of the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith; and Monsignor Paul Fitzpatrick Russell, counselor and chargé d'affaires of the nunciature in China (Taiwan), who read a message from Pope Benedict XVI. In accordance with the late cardinal's wishes, the chapel was simply decorated with candles and crucifixes, and flower bouquets were not accepted. Cardinal Shan had said in his will that as he took a vow of poverty throughout his life, his departure from this world should not be in any sense luxurious. The relatives of the late cardinal from the Popular Republic of China were allowed to attend. President Ma Ying-jeou of Taiwan also attended the ceremony and paid tribute to Cardinal Shan's religious dedication.The cardinal said in his will that his funeral should be a simple affair, held "as the poor people would" and that the chapel should be decorated only with candles, the Bible and crucifixes, he added. He also indicated that his epitaph should include the words "Born in Christ, lived in Christ, died in Christ, forever belongs to Christ". After the funeral, the body of the late cardinal was buried in the local Catholic cemetery in a simple coffin on a site no bigger than 1 ping (3.3 square meters) in compliance with his will. A foundation will be established in the cardinal's memory to assist the disadvantaged people to continue his dedication to Taiwan's less fortunate.

Bibliography. Brender, Andreas ; Kierein-Kuenring, Mandred D. Catholic Hierarchy in China since 1307. Cluj-Napoca, 2012, pp. 171 and 288; "Shan Kuo-hsi Paul, S.I." in Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1999. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1999, p. 83*;

Link. Photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in Italian, The Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in Spanish, aciprensa; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Cardinal Paul Shan dies at age 88 by Chen Ching-fang and Jamie Wang, Focus Taiwan, The Central News Agency, 2012/08/22 22:27:36; Morto il cardinale di Taiwan Paul Shan Kuo-Hsi, Chiesa, Avvenire, 22 agosto 2012; Leading Catholic figure Cardinal Paul Shan passes away by Yang Chiu-ying and Jake Chung, Taipei Times, Thu, Aug 23, 2012; Card Paul Shan, the great evangeliser and unifier of the Church in China, has died, AsiaNews, 08/23/2012 03:25; Card. Gracias: prayers for Card. Paul Shan, joyful and dedicated servant of the Church, AsiaNews, 08/23/2012 10:14; Taiwan remembers Card. Shan, communicator of the faith, even during illness by Xin Yage, Asia News, 08/23/2012 12:34; Pope's sorrow for the death of Card Paul Shan Kuo-hsi, AsiaNews, 08/23/2012 13:18; Funeral of late cardinal set for Sept. 1 by Wang Shu-fen, Chang Che-fon, Emmanuelle Tzeng, Hsu Chih-wei, Chen Hung-chin and Kendra Lin, Focus Taiwan, The Central News Agency, 2012/08/23 17:57:41; Cardinal Paul Shan "belongs forever to Christ": the funeral on 1 September, Agenzia Fides, news.va, 23/08/2012; The Pope's condolences on the death of Cardinal Paul Shan Kuo-hsi, L'Osservatore Romano, news.va, 2012-08-24; Burial Mass for late Catholic Cardinal Shan set for Sept. 1, Taipei Times, Fri, Aug 24, 2012; Chinese cardinal who considered cancer "A blessing", dies in Taiwan by Gerard O'Connell, Vatican Insider, 08/23/2012; El cardenal jesuíta Paul Shan, de Taiwan, será enterrado el 1 de septiembre, Internacional, Ecclesia, 23 agosto, 2012; Pope and the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples condole death of Cardinal Shan, Agenzia Fides, 24/08/2012; Cardinal of Taiwan, Paul Shan Kuo-Hsi, passes away at 89, Rome Reports, 2012-08-24 15:02:58; Card. Shan's work for youth of Taiwan and mainland China by Xin Yage, AsiaNews, 08/24/2012; Pope Benedict XVI sends condolences for Cardinal by Loa Iok-sin, Taipei Times, Sat, Aug 25, 2012Card. Zen remembers Card. Paul Shan, brother, teacher and now protector from Heaven by Card. Joseph Zen Ze-kiun, Asia News, 08/27/2012 10:45; Tributes for Taiwan cardinal, The Tablet, 28 August 2012.

(1) This is in Hanyu Pinyin, the official system to transcribe Chinese characters into Latin script in the People's Republic of China, Republic of China (Taiwan), and Singapore.
(2) This is the text of the telegram published by the Press Office of the Holy See:

The Most Reverend Peter Liu Cheng-chung
Bishop of Kaohsiung

I was deeply saddened to learn of the death of Cardinal Paul Shan Kuo-hsi, Bishop Emeritus of Kaohsiung. With gratitude to Almighty God, I recall his years of dedicated service there, as well as his ministry as Bishop of Hwalien and as President of the Chinese Regional Bishops Conference. I offer you, the clergy, religious and lay faithful of those Dioceses, and indeed the entire Church in Taiwan, my condolences and the assurance of my prayers. In joining you and all who mourn him, including his Jesuit confreres, I commend his priestly soul to the infinite mercy of God our loving Father. To all assembled for the solemn funeral Mass, and as a pledge of peace and consolation in the Lord, I cordially impart my Apostolic Blessing.

Benedictus PP. XVI


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SHEHAN, Lawrence Joseph
(1898-1984)

Birth. March 18, 1898, Baltimore, United States of America. Son of Thomas Patrick Shehan and Anastasia Dames Schofield.

Education. Studied at Saint Charles College, Ellicott City, Maryland; at Saint Mary's Seminary, Baltimore; and at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 23, 1922, Rome, by Giuseppe Palica, titular archbishop of Filippi, vice-gerent of Rome. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Baltimore, 1923-1939; 1947-1953; and in the archdiocese of Baltimore and Washington, 1939-1947. Assistant director of Catholic Charities, Washington, D.C., 1929-1936. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, May 17, 1939. Director of Catholic Charities, Washington, D.C., 1936-1945.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Lidda and appointed auxiliary of Baltimore and Washington, November 17, 1945. Consecrated, December 12, 1945, St. Patrick's church, Washington, by Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, titular archbishop of Laodicea di Frigia, apostolic delegate in United States, assisted by Peter Leo Ireton, bishop of Richmond, and by John Michael McNamara, titular bishop of Eumenia, auxiliary of Baltimore and Washington. Named auxiliary bishop of Baltimore when the see was separated from Washington, March 15, 1947; vicar general, February 25, 1948. Transferred to the see of Bridgeport, August 25, 1953. Promoted to titular archbishop of Nicopoli al Nesto and appointed coadjutor of Baltimore, with right of succession, September 29, 1961. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Baltimore, December 8, 1961. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of S. Clemente, February 25, 1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29-October 29, 1967. President of Central Committee for International Eucharistic Congresses. Papal legate to the 40th International Eucharistic Congress, Melbourne, Australia, January 25, 1973. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, April 2, 1974. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, March 18, 1978.

Death. August 26, 1984, at 8 p.m., of complications related to his age, at Mercy Hospital, in Baltimore. Buried in Mary Our Queen metropolitan cathedral, Baltimore.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. ; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 272; Shehan, Lawrence. A blessing of years: the memoirs of Lawrence Cardinal Shehan. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1982.

Link. Photograph, arms and biography, in English, archdiocese of Baltimore; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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SHIRAYANAGI, Peter Seiichi
(1928-2009)

Birth. June 17, 1928, Hachioji, archdiocese of Tōkyō, Japan. He was baptized the following day by Fr.Meirand, M.E.P.

Education. In March 1945, he obtained the diploma at Gyosey (Stella Maris) Junior School, as minor seminarist of the archdiocese of Tōkyō; in March 1951, he graduated at Sophia University, Tōkyō; in 1954, he finished the specialization in theology; later he obtained a doctorate in philosophy; further studies at the Pontifical Urbanian University, Rome (doctorate in canon law, June 1960).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1954, Tōkyō. Pastoral ministry in archdiocese of Tōkyō, 1954-1957; 1960-1967. Further studies, Rome, 1957-1960.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Atenia and appointed auxiliary of Tōkyō, March 15, 1966. Consecrated, May 8, 1966, Tōkyō, by Mario Cagna, titular archbishop of Eraclea di Europa, internuncio in Japan, assisted by Laurentius Satoshi Nagae, bishop of Urawa, and by Luke Katsusaburo Arai, bishop of Yokohama. His episcopal motto was Caritas Christi urget nos. Promoted to titular archbishop of Castro and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Tōkyō, November 15, 1969. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Tōkyō, February 21, 1970. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. President of the Episcopal Conference of Japan, 1983-1992. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the title of S. Emerenziana a Tor Fiorenza, November 26, 1994. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, February 17, 2000. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on June 17, 2008.

Death. December 30, 2009, at 6:45 a.m. (Tōkyō time), suddenly, of cardiac infarction, at Loyola House, the home for the Jesuit aged priests, in Tōkyō's Nerima Ward, where he was recuperating. Cardinal Shirayanagi was hospitalized at the beginning of August 2009 for cardiac arrhythmia, then suffered a light cerebral hemorrhage, but recovered well after three months of rehabilitation. On December 23, he moved to Loyola House. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Benedict XVI prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to Archbishop Peter Takeo Okada of Tōkyō. A prayer vigil took place on January 4, 2010, at 6 p.m. The funeral of the late cardinal was celebrated on January 5, 2010, at St. Mary's cathedral, Tōkyō. The body of the cardinal was cremated following the Japanese custom. Following his cremation, the traditional "Bone Ceremony" was celebrated at the Fuchū Cemetery of Tōkyō, where he was laid to rest beside other members of the clergy.

Link. His photograph, arms, chronology, death and funeral, in English, archdiocese of Tōkyō; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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SIBILIA, Enrico
(1861-1948)

Birth. March 17, 1861, Anagni, Italy. Of an ancient family. Son of Achille Sibilia and Lucrezia Gianuzzi. He was baptized in the parish church of S. Angelo, in Agnani, with the names Enrico, Ulderico and Vincenzo.

Education. Started his education at the Seminary of Anagni, Anagni (classics); in 1918, the bishop of Anagni sent him to Rome to study at the Pontifical Roman Seminary; he finished his formation in 1890, having obtained doctorates in philosophy, theology and utroque iure, both canon and civil law; among his professors was Felice Cavagnis, future cardinal. Besides his native Italian, he spoke English, French, Portuguese and Spanish.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 8, 1884, at the cathedral of Segni, by his uncle Biagio Sibilia, bishop of Segni (1); he received dispensation for being one year younger than the canonical age to be ordained. Honorary canon of the cathedral chapter of Anagni. Entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See, April 1890. Auditor of the apostolic delegation in Colombia, September 20, 1890 to 1895 (2); chargé d'affaires, 1895-1897, during the absence of the apostolic delegate. Decorated with the rank of grand official of the Order of the Busto del Libertador by the Republic of Venezuela. Honorary chamberlain of His Holiness, December 21, 1894. Auditor of the internunciature in Brazil, August 2, 1897 to July 1901; he arrived in Rio de Janeiro on October 7, 1898, after having spent a brief period in Italy; on February 14, 1901, the internunciature in Brazil was elevated to nunciature. Auditor of the nunciature in Belgium from July 21, 1901 to September 1902. Official knight of the Order of Léopold I of the kingdom of Belgium. Auditor of the nunciature in Spain from August 18, 1902 to July 29, 1908; during the time he was in Spain, he was ablegato to bring the red biretta to the new Cardinals Sebastiano Herrero y Espinosa de los Monteros, Orat., archbishop of Valencia, in June 1903; Marcello Spínola y Maestre, archbishop of Sevilla, in April 1905; Aristide Rinaldini, papal nuncio in Spain, in April 1907. Decorated with the Order of Isabel la Católica (encomienda de número) on June 1, 1903. Decorated with the Order of Carlos III (encomienda de número) on July 13, 1903. Comendador de número of the Civil Order of Alfonso XII of Spain. Privy chamberlain sopranumerario on August 3, 1903. Honorary canon of the cathedral chapter of Anagni on December 23, 1905. Named apostolic delegate and extraordinary envoy to Chile, July 29, 1908.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Side, July 30, 1908. Appointed internuncio in Chile when the apostolic delegation was elevated to that rank, August 31, 1908 (3). Consecrated, October 11, 1908, chapel of Collegio Pio Latino Americano, Rome, by Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val, secretary of State, assisted by Enrique Almaraz y Santos, archbishop of Sevilla, and by Ángel Jara, bishop of San Carlos de Ancud. He arrived in Chile on November 4, 1908. Received the medal of first class of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Chile. During his mission in Chile there were a few anticlerical incidents, some of which directly affected him. Returned to Rome in September 1913 and spent a period of rest in Anagni. Named assistant at the Pontifical Throne on April 22, 1914. Vicar of Cardinal Vincenzo Vannutelli, archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, 1916-1922; he took possession of the post on January 14, 1917. Counselor of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, May 20, 1919. Nuncio in Austria, December 16, 1922; he arrived in Vienna on February 22, 1923. During his nunciature, a concordat between the Holy See and Austria was signed on June 15, 1933. Decorated with the grand cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Austria.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1935; the papal ablegato who brought the red biretta to Vienna was Msgr. Francesco Sibilia, provost of the cathedral chapter of Anagni and brother of the neo-cardinal; received the red biretta in the metropolitan cathedral of Sankt Stefano, Vienna from Wilhelm Miklas, president of Austria, December 21, 1935; and received the red hat and the title of S. Maria Nuova from the pope, June 18, 1936. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Opted for order of cardinal bishops and suburbicarian see of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, December 11, 1939. On November 11, 1944, he was named protector of Collegio Teutonico and of the church of S. Maria dell'Anima, both in Rome. Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals in February 1948.

Death. August 4, 1948, in the morning, in the house of his family in Anagni. The funeral was celebrated on the following August 6 in the cathedral of Anagni by Bishop Giovanni Battista Piasentini. In attendance were Father Jean-Baptiste Janssens, superior general of the Society of Jesus and numerous fathers from the Jesuit curia; Msgr. Giovanni Battista Montini, from the secretariat of State; the minister of Austria before the Holy See, Dr. Rudolf Kohlruss; and several other dignitaries as well as the bishops of Veroli, Ferentino, Segni and the auxiliary of Sabina. After the funeral, the casket was transferred to the church of the nuns of S. Chiara and buried in its crypt (4). At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals. On August 11, 1948, a solemn capella cardinalizia, die septima, was celebrated in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome; the mass was celebrated by Alfonso Camillo de Romanis, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, papal sacristan; at the end of the mass, Cardinal Eugène Tisserant, sub-dean of the College of Cardinals, imparted the final absolution in the name of the pontiff; in attendance were Cardinals Giuseppe Pizzardo, Benedetto Aloisi Masella, Alessandro Verde, Pietro Fumasoni Biondi, Nicola Canali, Giovanni Mercati and Giuseppe Bruno; representatives of the papal court and the diplomatic corps accredited before the Holy See; as well as other ecclesiastical and civil dignitaries, members of the nobility and religious orders.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1958, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1958, p. 82; Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 685; De Marchi, Giuseppe. Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956. Pref. di Antonio Samoré. Roma : Edizioni di Storia e letteratura, 1957, pp. 50 and 88; "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1936, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1937, p. 109; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, p. 342; Sibilia, Salvatore. Il cardinale Enrico Sibilia, un diplomatico della Chiesa (1861-1948). Roma, Tip. della Pace, 1960. (Publicazioni di Salvatore Sibilia su Anagni, 14); Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, pp. 254-257.

Link. Photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 342; Sibilia, Il cardinale Enrico Sibilia, un diplomatico della Chiesa (1861-1948), p. 8; and Squicciarini, Nunzi apostolici a Vienna, p. 254. Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église p. 685, says that he was ordained on September 22, 1883.
(2) This is according to Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église p. 685; Squicciarini, Nunzi apostolici a Vienna, p. 254, indicates that he was named on November 5, 1890.
(3) According to De Marchi, Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956, p. 88, the decision was communicated to the president of Chile on November 24, 1908. Squicciarini, Nunzi apostolici a Vienna, p. 254, says that November 25, 1908 was the date in which the change of rank took place.
(4) This is the text of his epitaph inscribed on the pavement of the church of S. Chiara, taken from Sibilia, Il cardinale Enrico Sibilia, un diplomatico della Chiesa (1861-1948), p. 124:

HIC IACET NOBILIS VIR
HENRICUS S. R. E. CARD. SIBILIA
EPISCOPUS SABIN. ET MANDEL.
QUI
POST XLV ANNO IN POTIFICIIS LEGATIONIBUS
ET XII IN CARDINALATU
MISERATIONEM DIVINAM
EXPECTAT
REQUIEM AETERNAM PRECAMINI


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SIDAROUSS, C.M., Stephanos I
(1904-1987)

Birth. February 22, 1904, Caïro, Egypt.

Education. Joined the Congregation of the Mission (Lazarists); received his formation in houses of studies of his Order in France.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 22, 1939, Dax, France. Faculty member of the Seminary of Evreux, and the scholasticates of Dax and Montmagny, France, 1939-1946. Director of the Ecclesiastical Institute of Catholic Copts, Tantah, Egypt, 1946-1947.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Sas and appointed auxiliary of Coptic patriarchate of Alexandria, August 9, 1947. Consecrated, January 25, 1948, Alexandria, by Marc II Khouzam, patriarch of Alexandria of the Copts, assisted by Alexandros Scandar, bishop of Assiut of the Copts, and by Pierre Dib, bishop of Caïro of the Maronites. Elected patriarch of Alexandria of the Copts, May 10, 1958. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal patriarch, February 22, 1965; received the red biretta, February 25, 1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, February 22, 1984. Resigned the patriarchate, May 24, 1986.

Death. August 23, 1987, Caïro. Buried, Notre Dame d'Egypte Cathedral, Madinat an Nasr, Al Qahirah, Egypt.

Link. Photograph and biography by Eman Bonnici, Find a Grave; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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SILJ, Augusto
(1846-1926)

Birth. July 9, 1846, Calcara di Visso, diocese of Norcia, Papal States (later Italy). First cousin of Cardinal Pietro Gasparri (1907). His last name is also listed as Sili.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Norcia; and at the Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome, where he earned doctorates in philosophy and utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 4, 1874, patriarchal Lateran basilica, by Cardinal Costantino Patrizi, bishop of Ostia and Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals and vicar general of Rome. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome; rector of the hospice "Dei Convertendi"; apostolic delegate of the Shrine of Our Lady of Pompeii. Consultor of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, October 19, 1901. Consultor of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, January 16, 1902. Consultor of the Pontifical Commission for the Codification of Canon Law, 1904. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, July 7, 1906.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cesarea, December 26, 1906. Named privy almoner of His Holiness, December 31, 1906. Consecrated, January 13, 1907, church of S. Apollinare, Rome, by Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val, secretary of State, assisted by Pietro Gasparri, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Ercolano Marini, bishop of Norcia. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, May 24, 1907. Consultor of the S.C. of the Council November 4, 1908. President of the Pontifical Commission for Works of Religion. Vice-camerlengo of Holy Roman Church, December 6, 1916.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1919; received the red hat and the title of S. Cecilia, December 18, 1919. His creation was an exception made to canon 232 § 3 of the Code of Canon Law, that forbids anyone having a cousin in the Sacred College of Cardinals to be a cardinal. Pontifical vicar of the Shrine of Our Lady of Pompeii and its annex, February 6, 1920. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, March 20, 1920. Participated in conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. He was member of the SS. CC. of the Council, Religious, Seminaries and Universities of Study, and the Fabric of St. Peter's basilica. Protector of the Daughters of Mary Immaculate of Reggio Calabria (July 17, 1920); of the Archconfraternity of the Angels Custodian (March 21, 1921); of the Sisters Pious Workers Conceptionists of Ascoli Piceno (April 24, 1921); of the Sisters Angeliche founded by Antonio Maria Zaccaria (October 5, 1921); of the Eucharistic League for peace in society by the return of humanity to Jesus Christ (December 17, 1922).

Death. Saturday February 27, 1926, unexpectedly, in Rome. The funeral mass, celebrated by Giuseppe Palica, titular archbishop of Filippi, vice-gerent of Rome, assisted by the clerics of the Pontifical Chapel, took place in the basilica of S. Cecilia, Rome. After the mass, Cardinal Vincenzo Vannutelli, bishop of Ostia and Palestrina, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, imparted the absolution. Buried in the tomb of his family in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome; he wished to be buried in Ussita, next to the baptismal font of the church of S. Andrea.

Bibliography. "Augusto Sili" in Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1926. Roma : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1926, p. 47; "Em. Sili (Auguste)" in "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1924. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1923, p.121; L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, LX, n. 49 (19,986) (February 28, 1926), p. 3; and LX, n. 50 (19,987) (March 1-2, 1926), p. 3; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 18, 22 and 98.

Link. Photographs and biography, in Italian, Istituto "A. Aveta", Suore Domenicane di Pompei.


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SILVA, Augusto Álvaro da
(1876-1968)

Birth. April 8, 1876, Recife, diocese of Olinda, Brazil. Son of Raimundo Honorato (or Honório) da Silva and Amélia Elisa Ramos. Received the sacrament of confirmation on January 5, 1894.

Education. Primary studies at Colégio Pestalozzi in Rio de Janeiro; prpearatory course in Ginásio Pernambucano; then, studied at the Seminary of Olinda. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure on January 6, 1894; the minor orders on October 25, 1896; the subdiaconate on February 6, 1898; and immediately after, the diaconate.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 5, 1899, Olinda. Named master of ceremonies in the cathedral of Olinda in November 1899. From 1900, he was vicar of the parish of São Pedro in Olinda; spiritual director of the Seminary of Olinda; vicar of the parish of São José in Recife; pastor of the cathedral of Olinda; and pastor of the parish of Maranguape. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, September 30, 1908.

Episcopate. Elected first bishop of Floresta, May 12, 1911. Consecrated, October 22, 1911, by Luis Raimundo da Silva Brito, archbishop of Olinda, assisted by Francisco de Paula Silva, C.M., bishop of São Luís do Maranhão, and by Joaquim António d'Almeida, bishop of Natal. His episcopal motto was Per Crucem ad lucem. During his episcopate in Floresta, he founded a school, a newspaper, Alto Sertão, and a seminary. Transferred to the see of Barra do Rio Grande, June 25, 1915. Promoted to the metropolitan see of São Salvador da Bahia, December 18, 1924. Took possession of the see on May 21, 1925. In September 1933, he organized and presided over the First National Eucharistic Congress, which was celebrated in São Salvador da Bahia, the oldest diocese of the country. Also in that year, he was involved in the Caso dos Perdões, when he tried to reform several religious communities. In August 1935, he received the title of Roman count. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, February 22, 1936. In 1943 he consecrated the archdiocese to the Immaculate Conception. He celebrated the second archdiocesan synod of Bahia. Decorated with the Ordem Nacional do Mérito.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Angelo in Pescheria, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, January 15, 1953. Attended the First General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Rio de Janeiro, July 25 to August 4, 1955. Papal legate to the 6th National Eucharistic Congress of Brazil, celebrated in Belém, August 10 to 16, 1957; as such, he crowned the image of Nossa Senhora de Nazaré. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. He was a poet and a journalist and published several books under the pseudonym of Carlos Neto. He founded Jornal Era Nova and Semana Católica.

Death. August 14, 1968, São Salvador da Bahia. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of São Salvador da Bahia. At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals. On January 1, 1970, the Legislative Assembly of the State of Bahia granted him posthumously the title of Cidadão Baiano. In 1985, Colégio Estadual Augusto Álvaro da Silva was founded in his honor in São Salvador da Bahia.

Bibliography. "Augusto Alvaro da Silva" in "Terceira parte, Bispos do Brasil-Republica, Os cinco primeiros cardeais" in "Diocesis e bispos do Brasil" by Apolônio Nóbrega, Revista do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro, volume 222, Janeiro-Março 1954, 194-196.

Links. Photograph, arms and biography, in Portuguese, Wikipedia; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Visita do Cardeal Dom Augusto Álvaro da Silva Fotos Antigas de Ruy Barbosa, BA; bishops and archbishop of São Salvador da Bahia, Arquidiocese de São Salvador da Bahia.


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SILVA HENRÍQUEZ, S.D.B., Raúl
(1907-1999)

Birth. September 27, 1907, Talca, Chile. He was the sixteenth of the nineteen children of Ricardo Silva, a farmer and industrialist, of an old family of Portuguese origin that had established itself in Chile at the beginning of the 17th century. Five of the children died in infancy.

Education. tudied at the Catholic University of Chile, Santiago de Chile, where he earned a doctorate in law. Joined the Pious Society of St. Francis de Sales (Salesians of Don Bosco) on January 28, 1930, in Santiago de Chile; studied at the Salesian Philosophate, Santiago de Chile; and at the Pontifical Salesian Athenaeum, Turin, Italy, where he obtained doctorates in theology and canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 3, 1938, Turin. Faculty member of the International Salesian Theological School, Santiago-Cisterna, 1938-1943. Director of the Salesian school "Manuel Arriaráan Barros", La Cisterna; and of the school "Patrocinio de San José", Santiago de Chile, 1943-1951. Founder and president of the Federation of Catholic Schools, 1945. Founder of the journal Rumbos, Santiago de Chile. Director of the International Salesian Theological School, Santiago-Cisterna, 1951-1957. Organized the First Congress of Consecrated Life, 1953. President of the Chilean delegation to the Congress of Consecrated Life, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1956. Director of the professional school "Gratitud Nacional" and of the lyceum "San Juan Bosco", 1957-1959. Organizer and first director of the Catholic Chilean Institute of Migration; and national president of "Cáritas Chile"; vice-president of "Cáritas International".

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Valparaíso, October 24, 1959. Consecrated, November 29, 1959, cathedral of Valparaíso, by Opilio Rossi, titular archbishop of Ancira, nuncio in Chile, assisted by Emilio Tagle Covarrubias, titular archbishop of Nicopoli al Nesto, auxiliary of Santiago de Chile, and by Vladimiro Boric Crnosija, S.D.B., bishop of Punta Arenas. His episcopal motto was Caritas Christi urget nos. Promoted the to metropolitan see of Santiago de Chile, May 14, 1961.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 19, 1962; received the red hat and the title of S. Bernardo alle Terme, March 22, 1962. President of "Cáritas International", Rome, October 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Papal legate to the International Mariological-Marian Congress, Higüey, Dominican Republic, February 2, 1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Received the "Human Rights Prize" from the Latinamerican Jewish Congress, 1971. Established the Committee of Cooperation for Peace in Chile, 1973, followed by the Vicariate of Solidarity to defend and promote human rights in Chile during the politico-military crisis. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Received the "Human Rights Prize" from the Organization of the United Nations, December 11, 1978. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979. Received the "Foundation Bruno Kreisky" prize for his defense of human rights, Vienna, Austria, October 19, 1979. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, May 3, 1983. Founder of the "Blas Cañas" University. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, September 27, 1987. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992.

Death. April 9, 1999, Salesian retirement house "Felipe Rinaldi", zone of La Florida, in the outskirts of Santiago, after failing to recover from a bout of pneumonia complicated by a kidney disorder. Exposed in the church of San Juan Bosco, Santiago; and buried in the crypt of the metropolitan cathedral of Santiago (1).

Bibliography. Aguilar, Mario I. "Cardinal Raúl Silva Henríquez, the Catholic Church, and the Pinochet Regime, 1973-1980 : Public Responses to a National Security State." Catholic Historical Review, LXXXIX, 4 (October 2003), 712-731; Benítez Soto, Eduardo. Monseñor Raúl Silva Henríquez, 1961. Octavo Arzobispo de Santiago. Santiago, Chile: Editorial Salesiana, 1982 (Serie Arzobispos de Santiago); Pinochet de la Barra, Oscar. El Cardenal Silva Henríquez: luchador por la justicia. Santiago de Chile: Editorial Salesiana, 1987.

Links. Photographs and biography, in Spanish, archdiocese of Santiago de Chile; his arms and photographs, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

CARDENAL RAUL SILVA HENRÍQUEZ
EL AMOR DE CRISTO NOS URGE
27 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1907      9 DE ABRIL DE 1999


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SILVESTRINI, Achille
(1923-

Birth. October 25, 1923, Brisighella, diocese of Faenza, Italy. From a family of the middle bourgeoisie. Second of the three sons of Davide Silvestrini, a merchant, and Maria Gambaretti, a school teacher. His uncle Ludovico Silvestrini was a priest and for many years vice-rector and economous of the diocesan seminary of Brisighella.

Education. Initial studies at the school of Brisighella, where his mother was a teacher; then, he did his middle, ginnasiali and liceali studies at the Institute "Evangelista Torricelli" in Faenza; in October 1943, he entered the Seminary of Faenza; in 1944, the seminary was transferred to Villa di Mezzano because Faenza was bombarded by the Allied planes; some students, like Achille, went to live with their families; the seminary reopened in Faenza on March 5, 1945; in 1946, entered the Faculty of Letters and Philosophy of the University of Bologna, where he obtained in 1948 a doctorate in classic letters with a thesis entitled Lo Statuto fondamentale degli Stati di Santa Chiesa promulgated by Pope Pius IX; sent to Rome in 1948, he was inscribed in the Pontifical Seminary for juridical studies Sant'Appollinare, and attended the Pontifical Lateran University, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law; at university, he was condisciple of Fathers Dino Monduzzi and Pio Laghi, future cardinals; then in 1952, he entered the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, to study diplomacy.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 13, 1946, cathedral of Faenza, by Giuseppe Battaglia, bishop of Faenza. He celebrated his first mass in Brisighella, assisted by his uncle don Ludovico and the archpriest. Further studies, 1946-1953. Joined the Vatican diplomatic service, section of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, Secretariat of State, on December 1, 1953; in charge of affairs of Vietnam, China, Indonesia, and Southeast Asia in general. In 1955, he formed part of the section of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, directed by Monsignor Domenico Tardini. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, December 1, 1957; October 28, 1958. Personal secretary of Cardinals Domenico Tardini and Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, secretaries of State, 1958-1969. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, December 21, 1965. In the Council for Public Affairs of the Church, 1969-1979; in charge of the section for international organizations, peace, disarmament, and human rights; traveled to Moscow with Agostino Casaroli, titular archbishop of Cartagine, secretary of the Council for Public Affairs of the Church, to deliver the instrument of adhesion of the Holy See to the Treaty on proliferation of nuclear weapons, 1971; delegate adjunct for Consultations of Helsinki to prepare the Conference on European Security and Cooperation, 1972; participated in all the phases of the conference in Helsinki and Geneva; adjunct chief of the delegation to the Reunion of Belgrade for the verification and development of the Final Act of Helsinki, 1977; head of the Holy See delegation to the United Nations Conference on peaceful use of nuclear energy, Geneva, 1971, and to the Conference on compliance with the Treaty on Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Geneva, 1975. Under-secretary of the Council for Public Affairs of Church, July 28, 1973. Faculty member of the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy. Chaplain of His Holiness, December 1, 1977.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Novaliciana and appointed secretary of the Council for Public Affairs of the Church, May 4, 1979. Consecrated, May 27, 1979, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Dourasamy Simon Lourdusamy, archbishop emeritus of Bangalore, secretary of the S.C. for the Evangelization of the Peoples. In the same ceremony was consecrated John Joseph O'Connor, future archbishop of New York and cardinal. His episcopal motto is Crux fidelis arbor una nobilis. Head of the Vatican delegation for the revision of Lateran Concordat with the Italian government, 1979-1984. He was Vatican representative to the Meeting for European Security and Cooperation, Madrid, 1980-1983; to Malta, 1981; to the crisis in Falkland Islands, Buenos Aires, 1982; to Nicaragua and El Salvador, 1983; to Haiti for the modification of concordat, 1984; to the tenth anniversary of the signing of the final document of the Conference on European Security and Cooperation, Helsinki, 1985; to Malta for the agreement on religious schools, 1985; to Lebanon and Syria, 1986; to Malta for matters concerning church-state relations, 1986; to Poland, 1987.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Benedetto fuori Porta S. Paolo, June 28, 1988. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, July 1, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches and grand chancellor of the Pontifical Oriental Institute, May 24, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Attended Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Lebanon, Vatican City, November 16 to December 14, 1995; president delegate. Special envoy to the concluding celebrations of the Fourth centenary of Union of Brest, Lviv, Ukraine, October 9to 14, 1996. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, January 9, 1999. Papal representative to the funeral of King Hussein, Amman, Jordan, February 8, 1999. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Special papal envoy to the solemn jubilar celebration of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, exarchate monastery of S. Maria di Grottaferratta, Italy, September 7, 2000. Resigned the prefecture of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, November 25, 2000. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 25, 2003. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the 4th centennial of the arrival in Lithuania of the brief Quae ad sanctorum, of Pope Clement VIII, which authorized the celebration of the Feast of Saint Casimir in Poland and in Lithuania, Vilnius, Lithuania, May 9, 2004. President of "Fondazione Sacra Famiglia di Nazareth", established by Cardinal Domenico Tardini.

Bibliography. Gordini, Gian Domenico. Due vite per la chiesa : i cardinali Pio Laghi e Achille Silvestrini celebrano quest'anno il giubileo sacerdotale. Faenza : Diocesi di Faenza-Modigliana, 1996, 25-38.

Link. Photograph and biography, in Englisg, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Il secondo tempo del Concilio by Filippo Rizzi, Avvenire, 25 ottobre 2013.


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SIMONIS, Adrianus Johannes
(1931-

Birth. November 26, 1931, Lisse, diocese of Rotterdam, Holland. He was the eldest of eleven siblings. His father was a dentist.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Hageveld from 1945 to 1951; at the Major Seminary of Warmond from 1951 to 1957; at the Pontifical University of San Tommaso d'Aquino (Angelicum), Rome; and at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, where he earned a doctorate cum laude in Sacred Scripture, with a thesis: concerning Jesus as the good shepherd in the gospel of Saint John. Received the diaconate on September 22, 1956, from Johannes Petrus Huibers, bishop of Haarlem, in the chapel of the Major Seminary, Warmond.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 15, 1957, cathedral of Saint Laurentius aan de Westzeedijk, Rotterdam, by Martinus Antonius Jansen, first bishop of Rotterdam. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rotterdam, 1957-1959: curate of the parish of Saint Victor in Waddinxveen; and a year later, curate of the parish Holy Martyrs Gorinchem in Rotterdam. Further studies, Rome, 1959-1966. From 1966 to 1970, pastor of the parish of Blessed Sacrament in The Hague; and chaplain in the Red Cross Hospital. Designated by the episcopate as a participant in the third, fourth and sixth sessions of the pastoral council, 1966-1971, in Noordwijkerhout. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Rotterdam, March 1969.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Rotterdam, December 29, 1970. Consecrated, March 20, 1971, cathedral of Saints Laurentius and Elisabeth, Rotterdam, by Cardinal Bernard Jan Alfrink, archbishop of Utrecht, assisted by Petrus Joannes Moors, bishop of Roermond, and Johannes Willem Maria Bluyssen, bishop of 's-Hertogenbosch. His episcopal motto is Ut cognoscant te. Promoted to archbishop coadjutor, with right of succession, of Utrecht, June 27, 1983. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Utrecht, December 3, 1983.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of S. Clemente, May 25, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. President of the Episcopal Conference of Holland. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005; by papal appointment. On April 14, 2007, Pope Benedict XVI accepted his resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Utrecht, Holland, presented in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law; the cardinal was apostolic administrator of the see until the installation of his successor on January 26, 2008. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on November 26, 2011.

Links. Photograph, arms and biographical information, in Dutch, archdiocese of Utrecht; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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SIN, Jaime Lachica
(1928-2005)

Birth. August 31, 1928, New Washington, diocese of Kalibo, Philippines. The 14th of 16 children of a Chinese merchant, Juan Sin, and a Filipino woman, Maxima Reyes Lachica. He was educated in the faith by his mother, a woman of great religiosity who converted her husband to the Catholic faith before their marriage. He had a sense of humor about his name, often referring to his residence as "the house of Sin."

Education. In 1941 he entered the Minor Seminary of St. Vincent Ferrer in Jaro, where he stayed for only a few months as the War of the Pacific and the Japanese occupation of the Philippines forced him to seek refuge with his family in the mountains for three years; St. Vincent Ferrer Archdiocesan Seminary, Jaro.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 3, 1954, Jaro, by Antonio Frondosa, bishop of Capiz. His first pastoral endeavor was to visit each one of the hundreds of small widespread parishes and to inspire vocations for the new St. Pius X Seminary, 1954-1957. First rector of St. Pius X Seminary, Roxas City, 1957-1967; he also served as principal, dean of studies, professor and diocesan consultant. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, February 26, 1960.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Obba and appointed auxiliary of Jaro, February 10, 1967. Consecrated, March 18, 1967, cathedral of Roxas City, by Antonio Frondosa, bishop of Capiz, assisted by Juan Nilmar, titular bishop of Zapara, coadjutor with right of succession of Davao, and by Manuel S. Salvador, titular bishop of Nasbinca, auxiliary of Cebú. Apostolic administrator, sede plena, of Jaro, June 20, 1970. Promoted to titular archbishop of Massa Lubrense and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Jaro, January 15, 1972. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Jaro, October 8, 1972. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Manila, January 21, 1974. Vice-President of the Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines January 1974.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 24, 1976; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria ai Monti, May 24, 1976. President of the Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines, January 1977; re-elected, July 1979 to 1981. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; member of the general secretariat, 1977 - 1980. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; the First Plenary Meeting of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; member of the general secretariat, 1980-1983. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, May 31, 1981. Hosted the visit of Pope John Paul II to Philippines, 1981. President delegate, Jubilee Celebration Fátima, Portugal, 12 to 13 October 1981. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; member of the general secretariat, 1983-1986; membership extended until 1987 in the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. He played a decisive role in the "people power'' uprising that culminated with the overthrow of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Hosted the second visit of Pope John Paul II to Philippines for the celebration of the Youth World Day, January 15, 1995 at Rizal Park, Manila, with the participation of four million people, the largest Christian gathering ever in history. In 2001, he led large street protests that provoked the fall of President Joseph Estrada, who was accused of corruption and misrule. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Manila for having reached the age limit was accepted, September 15, 2003. Apostolic administrator of the archdiocese of Manila, September 15, 2003 until November 21, 2003. He received several awards for his defense of human rights as well as thirty honorary degrees from colleges and universities throughout the world. Did not participate in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI, for reasons of health. Given the Golden Palm of Jerusalem, the highest award of service of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem on April 28, 2005, at Villa San Miguel, Mandaluyong City. Cardinal Sin was the first Filipino to receive this award.

Death. June 21, 2005, at 6:17 a.m., at the Cardinal Santos Medical Center in San Juan, Metro Manila. Buried in the crypt beneath Manila's metropolitan cathedral on Tuesday, June 28, 2005, beside the tomb of Archbishop Gabriel B. Reyes, the first Filipino archbishop of Manila. Cardinal Rufino Jiao Santos, the first Filipino to be promoted to the cardinalate, is also buried in that crypt. On February 25, 2011, as part of a program of the 25th People Power revolution anniversary in Manila, a monument commemorating Cardinal Jaime Sin was unveiled in the presence of Philippine President Benigno Aquino and Cardinal Gaudencio Rosales, archbishop of that city.

Bibliography. Bautista, Felix B. Cardinal Sin and the miracle of Asia : a biography. Manila : Vera-Reyes, Inc., 1987; Bransom, Charles. "Philippine episcopology (IV. 1961-1970)." Boletín Eclesiástico de Filipinas, LXV, 718-719 (September-October 1989), 672.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English (Britannica); photograph, coat of arms and biography, in English, archdiocese of Manila; and his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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SINCERO, Luigi
(1870-1936)

Birth. March 26, 1870, Trino Vercellese, archdiocese of Vercelli, Italy. His brother Giuseppe was a canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Liberian basilica; and another brother, Costanzo, was a lawyer.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Vercelli; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome; at the Pontifical Roman Academy of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Rome; at Collegio Lombardo, Rome, where he was classmate of Carlo Perosi and Mario Nasalli Rocca di Corneliano, future cardinals; and at the University of Turin, Turin.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 24, 1892, Rome. Further studies, 1892-1894. Vice-rector of the Pontifical Lombard College, Rome, 1894. Faculty member of the Seminary of Vercelli and canon theologian of its cathedral, 1894-1908. Auditor of the Sacred Romon Rota, October 20, 1908. Secretary of the Pontifical Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law, October 18, 1917. Secretary of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1919. Assessor of the S.C. Consistorial, October 12, 1920. Secretary of the conclave of 1922.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 23, 1923; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, May 25, 1923. Papal legate to the solemn translation of the bodies of two saint bishops of Crema, October 4, 1923; to the Plenary Council of Abruzzi, Chieti, May 4, 1924; and to the Plenary Council of Salerno, April 6, 1925. Pro-secretary of the S.C. for the Oriental Church, February 6, 1926; secretary, February 3, 1927. Papal legate to the centennial celebrations of Saint-Hubert, Namur, Belgium, May 18, 1927. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, December 17, 1928.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Petra di Palestina, January 11, 1929. Consecrated, January 13, 1929, Sistine chapel, at the Vatican, by Pope Pius XI, assisted by Carlo Cremonesi, titular archbishop of Nicomedia, privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Agostino Zampini, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, sacristan of His Holiness. His episcopal motto was Sincero cordes servire Deo. Camerlengo of the SacredCollege of Cardinals, June 30, 1930 until March 18, 1933. Papal legate to the centennial celebrations of Saint Emeric, Budapest, Hungary, August 6, 1930. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and suburbicarian see of Palestrina, March 13, 1933. Papal legate to the Eucharistic Congress of Agrigento, Sicily, Italy, May 1, 1934. President of the Pontifical Commission for the Codification of the Oriental Canon Law, November 23, 1934. President of the Pontifical Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law, December 12, 1934. President of the Pontifical Commission for the Redaction of the Code of Oriental Canon Law, July 16, 1935.

Death. February 7, 1936, of paralysis, a week after suffering a stroke at his residence in Rome. His funeral mass was celebrated at the basilica of S. Andrea della Valle, Rome. Buried in the cemetery of Trino Vercellese.

Bibliography. Del Re, Niccolò. "Luigi Sincero" in La Sacra Congregazione per le Chiese Orientali. Nel cinquantesimo della fondazione (1917-1967). Grottaferrata, Roma : Tipografia Italo-Orientale "San Nilo", 1969, p. 86-88; Sincero, Luigi. La legge 29 giugno 1906 e gli enti ecclesiastici. Studio giuridico per incarico di s.e. Monsignor Teodoro dei conti Valfrè di Bonzo, Arcivescovo di Vercelli. Torino : Unione tipografico-editrice, 1906; Sincero, Luigi. Prima lettera pastorale di Sua Em. il Card. Luigi Sincero, vescovo della diocesi di Palestrina, segretario della Sacra congregazione orientale. Roma : Tipografia "Madre di Dio," 1933.

Link. His arms and photographs, Araldica Vaticana.


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SIRI, Giuseppe
(1906-1989)

Birth. May 20, 1906, parish of S. Maria Immacolata, Genoa, Italy. Son of Nicolò Siri and Giulia Bellavista.

Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Genoa from October 16, 1916 to 1917; at the Major Seminary of Genoa from 1917 to 1926; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, from 1926 to 1929, where he obtained a doctorate summa cum laude in theology; while studying in Rome, he resided at the Pontifical Lombardian Seminary.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 22, 1928, cathedral of Genoa, by Cardinal Carlo Dalmazio Minoretti, archbishop of Genoa. Further studies and patoral ministry, Rome, 1928 to fall 1929. Chaplain at the parish of S. Zita and at "Opera Giosuè Signore", Genoa. Professor of dogmatic theology at the Archiepiscopal Seminary of Genoa, 1930-1946; of fundamental theology, for one year; and pastoral ministry in Genoa, 1930-1944. Preacher, conferencist and professor of religion at the lyceums "D'Oria" and "Mazzini, 1931-1936. Prosynodal examiner at the archiepiscopal curia, 1936. Rector of Collegio Teologico S. Tommaso d'Aquino, 1937.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Liviade and appointed auxiliary of Genoa, March 14, 1944. Consecrated, May 7, 1944, cathedral of S. Lorenzo, Genoa, by Cardinal Pietro Boetto, S.J., archbishop of Genoa, assisted by Amedeo Casabona, bishop of Chiavari, and by Francesco Canessa, titular bishop of Sarepta. His episcopal motto was Non nobis Domine. Named pro-vicar general of the archdiocese on September 8, 1944. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Genoa, May 14, 1946; took possession of the see on May 29, 1946.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria della Vittoria, January 15, 1953. President of the Italian Apostolate of the Sea, 1955; later, its director general. Bailiff Grand Cross of Honor and Devotion of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, May 1956. Papal legate to the 4th centennial celebration of the death of St. Ignatius, Loyola, July 19, 1956; to the religious celebrations of the International Exposition of Brussels, Belgium, July 24, 1958. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Pope John XXIII named him first president of the Italian Episcopal Conference on October 12, 1959; occupied the post until 1965. As papal legate, celebrated the wedding ceremony of King Badouin I of Belgium and Doña Fabiola de Mora y Aragón, cathedral of Brussels, December 15, 1960. Decorated with the grand cross of the Order of Leopold, Belgium. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965; member of its board of presidency, 1963-1965. Decorated with the grand cross of the order of Merit of the Italian Republic, May 1963. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the second Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinal, Vatican City, 1982. Cardinal protopriest, September 18, 1982. Bailiff grand cross of justice of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of St. George of the Bourbons of the Two Sicilies, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; as special guest. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, May 20, 1986. Became archbishop of Genoa-Bobbio when the two sees were united, September 30, 1986. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, July 6, 1987. Retired to Villa Campostano, Albaro. He was the last cardinal elector created by Pope Pius XII.

Death. May 2, 1989, Villa Campostano, Albaro. The funeral took place in the metropolitan cathedral of S. Lorenzo, Genoa, where he was buried. His tomb is in the chapel of S. Giuseppe, in the south aisle of the cathedral, against the south wall (1).

Bibliography. Buonasorte, Nicla. Siri : tradizione e Novecento. Bologna : Il mulino, 2006. (Testi e ricerche di scienze religiose / Istituto per le scienze religiose, Bologna ; nuova ser., 37; Variation: Testi e ricerche di scienze religiose (Istituto per le scienze religiose di Bologna) ; nuova ser., 37); Doldi Marco. Giuseppe Siri. Il Pastore 1946-1987. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2006; Gheda, Paolo. Siri, la Chiesa, l'Italia. Genova-Milano : Marietti, 2009; Grone, Mario. Accanto al "mio" Cardinale Giuseppe Siri. Genova: Marietti, 1999; Lai, Benny. Il papa non eletto : Giuseppe Siri, cardinale di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome: Laterza, 1993. (I Robinson); Spiazzi, Raimondo. Il Cardinale Giuseppe Siri, arcivescovo di Genova dal 1946 al 1987. Bologna : Edizione Studio Domenicano, 1990.

Link. Photographs, texts, bibliography and biography, in Italian, "Cardinal Giuseppe Siri" site; and photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Siri, pastore della Chiesa e "presidio del lavoro" by Miriana Rebaudo, Vatican Insider, 5/05/2014.

(1) This is the inscription in his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

GIUSEPPE CARDINALE SIRI
A   20.5.1906     Ω   2.5.1989
ARCIVESCOVO DI GENOVA
1946     1987


sladkevicius4.jpg

SLADKEVIČIUS, M.I.C., Vincentas
(1920-2000)

Birth. August 20, 1920, Guroniai, parish of Šv. Jurgio in Žasliai, diocese of Kaišiadorys, Lithuania. He was the youngest of the five children of Mykolas Sladkevičius and Uršule Kavaliauskaite, a family of farmers; the other siblings were Ona, Emilija, Jonas and Marija. He was baptized in that parish church. His father died when he was nine years old.

Education. Initial education at the elementary school in in Žasliai, in 1926; in 1932, he went to the Gymnasium of Kaišiadorys; in 1933, to the Catholic Gymnasium of Kaišiadorys; in 1934, to the Jesuit Gymnasium of Kaunas; from 1939 to 1944, he studied at the Theological Faculty of Kaunas, where he obtained a licentiate in theology in 1944.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 25, 1944, Kaunas, by Juozapas Skriveckas, archbishop of Kaunas. Incardinated in the diocese of Kaišiadorys. On April 10, 1944, he celebrated his first mass at the parish of Šv. Jurgio in Žasliai. From 1944 to 1948, he was chaplain in the parish of Švč. Trejybés in Kietaviškése; in the parish of Švč. M. Marijos Émimo ị dangų in Merkiné; in the parish of Kristaus Atsimainymo in Aukštadvaris; in the catheral-parish of Kristaus Atsimainymo in Kaišiadorys; in the parish of Šv. Jono Krikštytojo in Čiobiškis; in the parish of Švč. Trejybés in Nedzingéje; in the parish of Šv. Juozapo in Šešiuoliuose; and in the parish of St. Šv. Jono Krikštytojo in Kuktiškése. From 1948 to 1952, he was parish priest of Švč. M. Marijos Émimo ị dangų in Inturkéje. In 1952, he was named prefect of the Theological Seminary in Kaunas, as well as lecturer of dogmatics. In 1956, he was named named canon of the cathedral chapter of Kaišiadorys.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Abora and auxiliary, sedis datus, of Kaišiadorys, November 14, 1957. Consecrated, December 25, 1957, in secret, in the kitchen of the parish-house of Šv. Antano Paduviečio, in Birštonas, by Teofilius Matulionis, bishop of Kaišiadorys, without co-consecrators. His episcopal motto was Fac Meum Signum in Bonum. In March 1958, he was expelled from his office by the Soviet authorities. Until 1959 he lived in a private flat in Kaunas. Impeded from exercising his episcopal ministry by the government, he resided in Neumunélio Radviliškis, diocese of Panevėž ys, under virtual house arrest from 1963 to 1982; from 1970, he was allowed to administer the sacraments in private in the parish of Švč. M. Marijos in Nemunélio Radviliškis. In 1975, he joined the Congregation of the Marian Clerics of the Immaculate Conception in secret and took the final vows. In 1976, he was sent to Pabiržé, diocese of Panevéžys, until 1982; in 1980, he was allowed to celebrate the mass privately in the parish of Švč. Trejybés. Appointed apostolic administrator ad nutum Sanctae Sedis of Kašiadorys, July 15, 1982. Elected president of the Episcopal Conference of Lithuania, April 27, 1988.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of Spirito Santo alla Ferratella, June 28, 1988. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Kaunas, March 10, 1989. He received the pallium from Pope John Paul II on June 29, 1989, at the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. On September 6, 1993, he welcomed Pope John Paul II to Kaunas. The Holy Father referred to the cardinal as a "diligent servant of God who can undoubtedly be considered the 20th century's model of morals, service to God, truth and humanness". In 1993, he received the honorary citizenship of Kaunas. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, for having reached the age limit, on May 4, 1996. In 1998, he was decorated with the merit cross, first class, of the Order of Merit of "Vytautas Magnus" of the Republic of Lithuania.

Death. May 28, 2000, after suffering from prostate cancer for seven years, in his apartment at Valančius gatve 6, Kaunas, while receiving the last rites. The funeral was celebrated in the metropolitan cathedral-basilica of Kaunas on Thursday June 1, 2000; his remains were buried in that same cathedral-basilica (1). On June 2, 2001, in commemoration of the first anniversary of his death, in Kaunas, at M. Valančiaus gatve 6, a memorial exposition was opened in the apartment where he lived from 1990-2000. In 2001, a street in the city of Kaunas was named "Kardinolas Vincentas Sladkevicius". In 2003, a stamp with his portrait was issued by the Republic of Lithuania. In 2006, a coin with his portrait was also issued by the Republic of Lithuania.

Bibliography. Laurinavičius, Jonas. Guronys: Kardinolo Vincento Sladkevičiaus tévišké. Kaišiadorys, 1995; Laurinavičius, Jonas.Kaišiadorių krašto ž monés: 100 biografijų. Kaišiadorys : Kaišiadorių Muziejus, 2002; Laurinavičius, Jonas. Kilnus artimo meilés liudytojas (Kardinolas Vincentas Sladkevičius). Kaišiadorys, 2001; Petraitiene, Irena. Kardinolas : Jo Eminencijos Vincento Sladkevičiaus laikas ir asmenybe. Kaunas : Santara, 2000; Sladkevičius, Vincentas. Laimékime gerumu: Kardinolo V. Sladkevičiaus mintys. Compiled by Jonas Laurinavičius. Kaišiadorys, 2001; Sladkevičius, Vincentas. Padaryk mane gerumo ženklu: prisiminimai apie kardinolą Vincentą Sladkevičių. Compiled and prepared by Irene Petraitiené. Kaunas, 2003.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

S.R.E. CARDINALIS
VINCENTAS
SLADKEVICIUS
ARCHIEPISCOPUS
METROPOLITA
KAUNENSIS 1920 - 2000

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SLIPYJ, Josyf
(1892-1984)

Birth. February 17, 1892, Zazdrist, Ternopil, archdiocese of Lviv of the Ukrainians, Ukraine, Russia. Son of Ivan Kobernytskyi-Slipyj and Anastasia Dychkovska. His given name was Josyf Ivanovyce. His last name is also listed as Slipyj-Kobernyckyj-Dyckovskyj.

Education. Primary education in Zazdrist; secondary education in Ternopil; Lviv University, Lviv; resided in the diocesan seminary of Lviv; University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, 1914-1917; 1918 (doctorate in philosophy, 1918); further studies in Rome, 1918-1922.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 30, 1917, Lviv, by Andrej Šeptyc'kyj, O.S.B.M., archbishop of Lviv of the Ukrainians. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Lviv, 1922-1939. Professor of theology at the Seminary of Lviv, 1922-1925; its rector, 1926; one of the founding members of the Theological Academic Society of Lviv; began publishing the quarterly Bohoslovia (Theology), September 3, 1922; edited it until 1939. Dean of the Theological Faculty of the Theological Academy; its rector, February 22, 1928. Member of the Krylos, the advisory and administrative body of the Lviv-Halych metropolitanate; also archdeacon of the metropolitan's personal entourage; and later, a mitrat, archpriest entitled to wear a miter.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Serne and appointed coadjutor of Lviv, with right of succession, November 25, 1939. Consecrated, December 22, 1939, chapel of the metropolitan residence, Lviv, by Andrej Šeptyc'kyj, O.S.B.M., archbishop of Lviv of the Ukrainians, assisted by Nicolas Czarnetskyj, C.SS.R., titular bishop of Lebedo, apostolic visitor for the Slavs of Byzantine rite outside Ruthenian dioceses, and by Nikita Budka, titular bishop of Cadi, auxiliary of Lviv of the Ukrainians. In 1941, he participated with Metropolitan Šeptyc'kyj in the Proclamation of the Restoration of the Ukrainian State and took part in the proceedings of the National Assembly as an official envoy of the metropolitan; afterwards, he became a leading member of the Council of Seniors. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Lviv of the Ukrainians, November 1, 1944; the Russians had just re-occupied Lviv. Imprisoned in Siberia by the Communist regime, 1945-1963; arrested by the Soviets on the night of April 11, 1945 along with the entire Ukrainian Catholic episcopate; first, sentenced to eight years of forced labor in 1946, together with him, Bishops Hryhory Khomyshyn, Nicholas Charnetsky, C.SS.R., Nikita Budka and Ivan Liatyshevsky were sentenced to long periods of imprisonment and hard labor for "treason" for their refusal to submit to the Russian Orthodox patriarch (1); twice was in danger of death; taken to Moscow and sentenced for a second time: five years in Siberia, 1953 (2); third sentence, four years of forced labor, 1958 (3); fourth sentence, deported for life to Mordovia, 1962. Through the intervention of Pope John XXIII and President John F. Kennedy of the United States of America, he was released on January 26, 1963, and sent to Rome on February 9, 1963. Attended the last three sessions of the Second Vatican Council, 1963-1965. Promoted to the rank of archbishop major, December 23, 1963.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965 (4); received the red biretta and the title of S. Atanasio, February 25, 1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, February 17, 1972. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Accepted the title of patriarch of Kyiv-Halyč given by his church in 1975; the refusal of Popes Paul VI and John Paul II to recognize the patriarchal title strained their relations; his two successors, Cardinals Myroslav Ivan Lubachivsky and Lubomyr Husar, have only used the title of archbishop major. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980.

Death. Friday September 7, 1984, late in the morning, of bronchial pneumonia, in his apartment in S. Sofia Ukrainian University, Rome. Pope John Paul II visited the basilica of S. Sofia, where the body of the cardinal was lying in state, before his departure for Canada. On Wednesday September 12, 1984, a funeral was held with the participation of members of the Ukrainian Catholic hierarchy led by Archbishop Major Myroslav Ivan Lubachivsky of Lviv, successor to the late cardinal; the following day, a four-hour solemn pontifical liturgy was celebrated with the participation of more than seventy priests in front of the basilica; Archbishop Major Lubachivsky delivered the eulogy and Myroslav Stefan Marusyn, titular archbishop of Cadi, secretary of the Congregation for the Eastern Churches, spoke in Italian; Cardinal Carlo Confalonieri, dean of the College of Cardinals, represented the pope in the funeral, delivered a eulogy and imparted the final absolution; also in attendance were Yanoslav Stetsko, prime minister of Free Ukraine and leader of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists; and Mykola Livytsky, president of the Ukrainian National Council; as well as the representatives of different political parties. The body of the cardinal was buried in the basilica of S. Sofia, Rome. When the body was removed from the niche in the basilica's crypt, it was found to be incorrupt and was placed in a glass coffin in the same crypt. The cardinal was posthumously rehabilitated by the Ukrainian government on April 17, 1991. His body was transferred to Lviv on August 27, 1992, and buried in the crypt of St. George's cathedral on September 7, 1992. In his will he had asked to be buried, when the situation permitted it, in the patriarchal cathedral of St. Sofia in Kyiv.

Bibliography. Choma, Giovanni ; Pessa, Giuseppe. Josyf Slipyj : padre e confessore della Chiesa Ucraina martire. Roma : Aiuto alla chiesa che soffre, 1990. Responsibility: Mons. Giovanni Choma ; elaborazione del testo italiano è stata curata dal prof. Giuseppe Pessa; Choma, Ivan. Josyf Slipyj: vinctus Christi et defensor unitatis. Roma : Universitas Catholica Ucrainorum S. Clementis Papae, 1997. (Universitas Catholica Ucrainorum S. Clementis Papae, v. 87; Variation: Ukraïns'kyi katolyts'kyi universytet im. Sv. Klymentiia Papy v Rymi, v. 87); His Beatitude, Josyf Cardinal Slipyj, confessor of the faith, patriarch of the Ukrainian Catholic Church, 17. 2. 1892-7. 9. 1984. Edited by Stephen Oleskiw. London ; New York : Ukrainian Central Information Service, 1984; Hryn'okh, Ivan ; Slipyi, Iosyf. Vvedennia do tvoriv kard. Iosyfa, Verkhovnoho Arkhyiepyskopa. [s.l.] : Suchasnist', 1988. (Biblioteka prolohu i suchasnosty, ch. 181). Note: Text partially in English./ "Collection of prefaces from Opera omnia kyr Josephi (Slipyj-Kobernyckyj-Dyckovskyj) archiepiscopi maioris et cardinalis"; John Paul II. Letter of His Holiness Pope John Paul II to Josyf Cardinal Slipyj : on the occasion of the announcement of the Millenium of Christianity in Ukraine. Boston : Harvard University Ukrainian studies Fund, 1980s. Note: At head of title: Millennium of Christianity in Rus'-Ukraine; Josyf Cardinale Slipyj, 1892-1984 : una Imitazione di Cristo. Rome : [s.n.], 1985. Notes: "Numero speciale dell'Eco Dell'Amore, Periodico bimestrale, numero 2, marzo 1985"--Cover./ Cover title./ "Aiuto alla Chiesa che soffre"--Cover; Khoma, Ivan. Iosyf Slipyi : otets' ta ispovidnyk Ukraons'koï muchenyts'koï TSerkvy. Uniform title: Josyf Slipyj. Pereklad M. Kovalko, M. Malatsko. Rym : Vyd-vo oo. Saleziian--Tovarystvo sv. Sofiï, 1992; Loidl, Franz. Josyf Kardinal Slipyj und seine ukrainische Kirche. Wien : Wiener Kath. Akad., 1987. (Miscellanea / Wiener Katholische Akademie, Arbeitskreis für Kirchliche Zeit- und Wiener Diözesangeschichte ; Reihe 3, Nr. 182; Variation: Wiener Katholische Akademie.; Arbeitskreis für Kirchliche Zeit- und Wiener Diözesangeschichte.; Miscellanea ; Reihe 3, Nr. 182); A memento of a visit of His Beatitude Archbishop Major Joseph VII Cardinal Slipyj ; May 17-19, 1973. Pittsburgh : Pittsburgh Regional Reception Committee, 1973; Pelikan, Jaroslav Jan. Confessor between East and West. Grand Rapids : William B. Erdmans, 1990; Slipyj, Josyf. Kerk der martelaren : Een bericht van kardinaal Josyf Slipyj over de Oekraïense Katholieke Kerk na 35 jaren vervolging. Westerlo : Kerk in Nood [etc.], 1981. (Echo der Liefde. 1981 ; nr. 2); Slipyj, Josyf. Slovo Patriarkh Iosyfa : dokumenty, materialy, svitlyny 1917-1984. L'viv : Gerdan, 2003. Note : At head of title: Kul'turno-mystets'kyi fond im. Mytropolyta Andreia Sheptyts'koho, L'viv. Ukraï'ns'kyi katolyts'kyi universytet im. sv. Klymentiia Papy, Rym. Postuliatsiini TS entr Ukraïns'koï Hreko-Katolyts'koo TSerkvy, L'viv. TSentral'nyi Derzhavnyi Istorychnyi Arkhiv Ukraïny, L'viv; Slipyj, Josyf. Tvory Kyr Josyfa verchovnoho archyepiskopa i kardynala = Opera omnia Kyr Josephi (Slipyj - Kobernyckyj - Dyckovskyj) archiepiscopi maioris et cardinalis. Rym : Ukraïns'kych Katolyc'kyj Universytet im. Sv. Klymenta Papy, 1968- . (Editiones Universitatis Catholicæ Ucrainorum S. Clementis Papae. II, Opera omnia. Note(s): Ook o.d.t.: Tvory Josyfa patrijarcha i kardynala; en: Tvory patrijarcha i kardynala Josyfa./ Lit.opg. Other titles: Opera omnia Kyr Josephi (Slipyj - Kobernyckyj - Dyckovskyj) archiepiscopi maioris et cardinalis; Tvory Josyfa patrijarcha i kardynala; Tvory patrijarcha i kardynala Josyfa; Slipyi, Iosyf. Zavishchannia blazhennishoho patriiarkha Iosyfa = Testament of Patriarch Josyf Slipyj. Vinnipeg : [IA. Barvins'kyi], 1984. Named Corp: Catholic Church -- Byzantine rite, Ukrainian. Note : Vidbytka z tyzhnevyka "Postup." Other title: Testament of Patriarch Josyf Slipyj; Sviatochnyi benket na poshanu Patriiarkha Pomisnoï Ukraïns'koï Katolyts'koï TSerkvy, ïkh Blazhenstva Blazhennishoho Kyr Iosyfa Kardynala Slipoho : nedilia, 10 chervnia, 1973, Niu Iork "Amerikana." Corp Author : Hromads'kyi komitet metropolii Niu Iorku dlia vshanuvannia Arkhyiepyskopa Pomisnoï Ukraïns'koï Katolyts'koo TSerkvy Blazhennishoho Kyr Iosyfa. Niu Iork : The Committee, 1973. Other title : Testimonial banquet in honor of the Patriarch of the Ukrainian Catholic Church His Beatitude Joseph Cardinal Slipyj; Vitoshyns'ka, Ol'ha. Podorozhi blazhennishoho Kyr Iosyfa VII, 1968-1970 u svitli chuzhoï presy (romanized form) De itineribus S. beatitudinis Josephi VII Cardinalis Slipyj annis 1968-1970 peractis; atque sub lumine ephemeridum illustratis. Rym ; Paryzh ; Romae ; Parisiis, 1972. (Pratsi Ukraïnskoho bohoslovs'koho naukovoho tovarystva, t. 20 ; Variation: Ukraïns'ke bohoslovs'ke naukove tovarystvo.; Prats ; t. 20). Responsibility: de itineribus S. Beatitudinis Josephi VII Cardinalis Slipyj, annis 1968-1970 peractis ; atque sub lumine ephemeridum illustratis.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, The Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Church, second from the top; and photograph and biography, in English, Institute of Church History of hte Ukranian Catholic University, (this site indicates that he was secretly created a cardinal in 1949 and proclaimed in 1965); photograph, arms, statue and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his image (mosaic), photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Cardinal Joseph Slipyj (1892-1984) an Imitation of Christ, in English, St Michael's Ukrainian Catholic Parish Montreal; Life of Cardinal Josyf Slipyj (Життя Патрiарха Йосифа Слiпого), in Ukranian, YouTube; Josyf Slipjy, the plot of "Inter"(Йосиф Слiпий. Сюжетна "Iнтерi"), in Ukranian, YouTube; speech by Cardinal Josyf Slipyj, video, in Ukranian, YouTube; Kardynał Josyf Slipyj, video, YouTube; photographs, YouTube; The sculpture of Patriarch Josep in Chicago, YouTube.

(1) In March 1946, the Russian authorities organized a fake "sobor" (formal gathering or council of bishops, church officials, and monastic and lay representatives morally representing the whole particular church and dealing with matters of faith, morality, rite, and canonical and cultural life) in Lviv, which was attended, under coercion, by some priests and faithful, but without a single member of the episcopate of the Ukrainian Catholic Church. This "sobor" declared annulled the decision of the Sobor of Brest of 1596, which had declared the union of the Ukrainian Catholic Church with Rome, and also "united" the Ukrainian Catholic Church with the Russian Orthodox Church.
(2) From Central Siberia, the metropolitan corresponded clandestinely with ecclesiastical and lay faithful of the Catholic Church, wrote pastoral letters and issued directives to Ukrainian Catholic priests who were scattered throughout Siberia, the Urals and Kazakhistan.
(3) In 1957, on the 40th anniversary of his priesthood, Pope Pius XII sent Metropolitan Slipyj a personally written letter giving him his blessing; the letter did not reach its destination but instead gave the public prosecutor an opportunity to accuse the prelate of links with the pope and as a result, he was again brought to trial in 1958 and sentenced to further time of forced labor.
(4) The first two sites linked above indicate that he had been created cardinal and reserved in pectore by Pope John XXIII in the consistory of March 28, 1960: To Pray Again as a Catholic: The Renewal of Catholicism in Western Ukraine, note 12; Years of Imprisonment Could Not Break Slipyj's Indomitable Fidelity; and Cardinal Joseph Slipyj (1892-1984) an Imitation of Christ, section Exile and Prophet : A granite formation. Josyf Cardinale Slipyj, 1892-1984 : una Imitazione di Cristo, p. 12, also says that he was created cardinal and reserved in pectore by Pope John XXIII on that date, along with two other prelates. The pope died without publishing their names.


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SODANO, Angelo
(1927-

Birth. November 23, 1927, Isola d'Asti, diocese of Asti, Italy. He is the second of the six children of Giovanni and Delfina Sodano; Giovanni was a Christian Democrat deputy in the Italian Parliament for three terms from 1948 until 1963. The other siblings were Assunta, Piero, Maria and Ausilia.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Asti; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in theology); at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in canon law; and at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy).

Priesthood. Ordained, September 23, 1950, Asti, by Umberto Rossi, bishop of Asti. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Asti and professor of dogmatic theology at its seminary, 1950-1959. Successively, 1959-1968, further studies, Rome; secretary of the nunciatures in Ecuador, Uruguay and Chile. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, June 16, 1962. Chaplain of His Holiness, June 21, 1963. Official in the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church, 1968-1977.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nova di Cesare and appointed nuncio in Chile, November 30, 1977. Consecrated, January 15, 1978, cathedral of S. Secondo, Asti, Italy, by Cardinal Antonio Samorè, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, librarian and archivist of the Holy Roman Church, assisted by Agostino Casaroli, titular archbishop of Cartagine, secretary of the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church, and by Nicola Cavanna, bishop of Asti. is episcopal motto is Ut unum sint. Secretary of the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church, May 23, 1988; after the reorganization of the Roman Curia, secretary of the section for the relations with the States, in the Secretariat of State, March 1, 1989. President of the Pontifical Commission for Russia. Vatican representative to the meeting of ministers of foreign affairs of the Conference on European Security and Cooperation held in Vienna, Copenhagen, New York and Paris. Pro-secretary of State, December 1, 1990 until June 29, 1991.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1991; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Nuova, June 28, 1991. Secretary of State, June 29, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. Papal legate to the celebration of the 75th anniversary of the apparition of Our Lady, Fátima, Portugal, May 13, 1992. Special papal envoy to the Day of Holy See, Universal Exposition of Sevilla 1992, Sevilla, Spain, June 29, 1992. Papal envoy to the funeral of Cardinal Frantisek Tomásek, archbishop emeritus of Prague, Czech and Slovak Federative Republic, Prague, August 12, 1992. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992; one of its three president delegates. Bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Albano, retaining in commendam the title of S. Maria Nuova, January 10, 1994. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Papal legate to the closing of the 8th centennial celebration of St. Anthony's birth, Padova, Italy, December 8, 1995; to the closing of the 7th centennial celebration of the shrine of Loreto, Italy, December 10, 1995. Papal legate to the 46th International Eucharistic Congress, Wroclaw, Poland, May 24 to June 1, 1997. Special papal envoy to the funeral of Mother Teresa, Calcutta, India, September 13, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Papal legate to the World Day of the Sick, Loreto, Italy, February 11, 1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998. Papal legate to the celebrations of the 750th anniversary of the Duomo of Cologne, Germany, August 15, 1998; to the closing ceremonies of the Continental Youth Encounter, Santiago de Chile, Chile, October 10 to 11, 1998; to the 350th celebrations marking the Peace of Westphalia, in Osnabrück and in Münster, Germany, October 24, 1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998. Papal legate to the closing celebration of the European Youth Meeting, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, August 4 to 8, 1999. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Papal legate at the ceremony for the reopening to worship of the Upper Basilica of St. Francis of Assisi, and the consecration of its new papal altar, Assisi, Italy, November 28, 1999; at the dedication of the Church of the Immaculate Conception of Mary, Moscow, Russia, December 12, 1999. Papal legate to the celebrations for the millennium of the archdiocese of Gniezno, Poland, held in that city, March 12, 2000; at the celebrations of the Fifth Centennial of the Evangelization of Brazil, Porto Seguro on April 26, 2000. Papal legate at the celebrations for the millennium of St. Stephen of Hungary, Budapest, August 20, 2000. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Papal legate to the dedication of the new cathedral of Tirana, Albania, January 26, 2002. Elected vice-dean of the College of Cardinals, November 30, 2002. Papal legate to the solemn celebration of the 700th anniversary of the death of Pope Boniface VIII; the sacred rite took place in the cathedral of Anagni, Italy, October 12, 2003. Papal legate to the solemn celebration of the 500th anniversary of the election of Pope Julius II (1503-1513); the sacred rite took place on November 30, 2003, in Savona, the native city of that pontiff. Papal legate to the solemn closing of the encounter of Central European Catholics (Mitteleuropäischer Katholikentag 2003/2004), Shrine of Mariazell, Austria, May 22 to 23, 2004. Personal representative of the pope to the state funeral of former President Ronald Reagan, June 11, 2004, National Cathedral, Washington, D.C., United States of America. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reappointed secretary of State, April 21, 2005. Bestowed on Pope Benedict XVI the ring of the Fisherman in the ceremony of the beginning of his pontificate, April 24, 2005. Elected dean of the College of Cardinals, April 27, 2005; and bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Ostia, proper of the dean, retaining the title of the suburbicarian see of Albano and the title, in commendam, of S. Maria Nuova, April 30, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. On June 22, 2006, the pope accepted, according to canon 354 of the Code of Canon Law, his resignation as secretary of State, asking him to remain in the post until September 15, 2006, with all inherent faculties of that office. Presided over the 40th meeting of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, July 4, 2006. Papal legate to the celebrations of the freedom of Hungary that took place in Budapest, Hungary, on October 22 and 23, 2006. Papal legate to the solemn celebrations of the opening of the 90th anniversary of the apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Fátima, Portugal, which took place in Fátima, on May 12 and 13, 2007. Awarded, on June 5, 2007, a doctorate ad honorem in jurisprudence, by the Università Europea di Roma, the first conferred by that institution founded in 2005 by the Legionnaires of Christ. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, November 23, 2007. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church"; by papal appointment. Pontifical legate to the solemn celebrations of the Millennium of Lithuania, which took place in Vilnius, on July 6, 2009. Member, by papal appointment, of the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City. Headed the Vatican delegation to the funeral of Patriarch Pavle, head of the Serbian Orthodox Church, celebrated in the morning of November 19, 2009, in the cathedral of St. Sava in Belgrade. Was to have been papal representative of Pope Benedict XVI in the ceremony that was held to commemorate the victims of the plane crash in Smoleńsk, which took place on April 17, 2010 in Warsaw and to the funeral of Lech Kaczyński, president of Poland, and his wife Maria, who were among the victims, on April 18, 2010 in Kraków, but was not able to travel to Poland because of the ashes of the Icelandic volcano. Józef Kowalczyk, titular archbishop of Eraclea, apostolic nuncio in Poland, read the text of the homily that the cardinal had prepared for the president's funeral. Pontifical legate to the celebrations of the 11th Eucharistic Congress of Spain, which took place from May 27 to 30, 2010, in Toledo. Pontifical legate for the consecration of the cathedral of the diocese of Karaganda, Kazakhstan, which took place on September 9, 2012. On September 18, 2012, the pope appointed him synodal father of the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 7 to 28, 2012, on the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of the Christian faith". Bestowed on Pope Francis the ring of the Fisherman in the ceremony of the beginning of his pontificate, March 13, 2013.

Bibliography. Sodano, Angelo. Verso le origini. Una genealogia episcopale. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2008; Sodano, Angelo. Chiesa e riforma. Una Chiesa da amare. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2014.

Links. , in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms and photographs, Araldica Vaticana; Nel solco delle Beatitudini la testimonianza di don Giacomo Tantardini, Omelia del cardinale Angelo Sodano, decano del Collegio cardinalizio, nella santa messa esequiale, Roma, Basilica di San Lorenzo fuori le Mura, 23 aprile 2012, 30 Giorni, tratto dal n. 05 - 2012; Sodano: riforma dai singoli alla Chiesa, interview by Roberto Rotondo, Avvenire, 4 giugno 2014; n eminent distorsion of history by George Weigel, The Pilot, 7/16/2014.


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SOLDEVILLA Y ROMERO, Juan
(1843-1923)

Birth. October 20, 1843, Fuentelapeña, diocese of Zamora, Spain. Son of Francisco Soldevila and Gregoria Romero. He was baptized on October 22, 1843, by Father Juan Guinaldo, in the parish church of Santa María de los Caballeros, Fuentelapeña. His godfather was Blas Romero.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Valladolid; at the Seminary of Toledo; at the Central Seminary of Santiago de Compostela, where he obtained a doctorate in theology in 1868; and at the Seminary of Tuy, where he obtained a degree in canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 28 (or 29), 1867, Valladolid (a título de su patrimonio), by Cardinal Juan de la Cruz Ignacio Moreno y Maisonave, archbishop of Valladolid celebrated his first mass in the parish church of Nuestra Seqora de la Antigua, Valladolid, on the following December 30. Further studies, Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, 1867-1868. Curate economous in three parishes in the archdiocese of Valladolid. Pastor of the parish of San Nicolá, and later of the parish of Santiago, both in Valladolid. Secretary of chamber and government to the bishop of Orense, 1875-1883; cathedral canon, 1883; member of the Provincial Junta of Beneficence; member of Diocesan Junta for the Reconstruction of Churches. Royal Preacher and knight of Royal American Order of Isabel la Católica. Cathedral canon of Valladolid, 1883-1889; archpriest, 1887-1889. Secretary capitular; secretary of the Diocesan Synod and of the Provincial Council, 1886-1887; synodal examiner; member of the Junta of assistance to victims of the cholera epidemic, 1885; member of the board of directors of Casa de Beneficencia, of the Caja de Ahorros and Monte de Piedad.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tarazona, February 14, 1889. Consecrated, April 28, 1889, cathedral of Valladolid, by Benito Sanz y Forés, archbishop of Valladolid, assisted by Mariano Miguel Gómez Alguacil, bishop of Vitoria, and by Cesáreo Rodrigo y Rodríguez, bishop of Orense. Apostolic administrator of Tudela, 1889-1901. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Zaragoza, December 16, 1901; he succeeded Cardinal Antonio Marí Cascajares y Azara, who had been preconized but died before taking possession of the see. Took possession of the see on March 21, 1902.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1919; he pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief of December 15, 1919; received the red biretta from King Alfonso XIII of Spain, December 25, 1919; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria del Popolo, April 22, 1920; took possession of the title on the following May 2. Named member of the SS. CC. of the Discipline of the Sacraments, Religious, Rites, and the Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's bailica, on April 22, 1920. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. After the election of the new pope, he made known a message from King Alfonso XIII in which the monarch expressed his wish to present his homage and that of his people to the new pontiff.

Death. Assassinated near the convent of Casablanca, in Zaragoza, June 4, 1923; he was shot and killed while visiting a monastery near Zaragoza; the cardinal was seated in his automobile, with his secretary, when the attack was made by a band of unidentified men; the chauffeur was killed and the secretary seriously wounded. The assassination of the cardinal, by the anarchist group Los Solidarios, was the outcome of a labor dispute. After learning the news, Pope Pius XI sent his condolences to the archdeacon of the cathedral chapter of Zaragoza and to the nuncio in Madrid. The obsequies, presided by Cardinal Enrique Reig y Casanova, archbishop of Toledo and primate of Spain, and in the presence of three archbishops and nine bishops, took place on the following June 8, with military honors, in the metropolitan cathedral of Zaragoza. His body was buried in the basilica of the Blessed Virgin Mary of El Pilar, Zaragoza (1).

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 55; "Em. Soldevilla y Romero (Jean)" in "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1922. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1921, p. 101; "Em. Soldevilla y Romero (Jean)" in "Nécrologie", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1924. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1923, p. 835; L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, XIII, n. 126 (June 6, 1923), p. 3; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 18 and 24.

Links. Photographs and biography by Juan Carlos Polo, in Spanish, Municipio de Fuentelapeña, Zamora, Spain; photograph and biography, in German, Wikipedia; his portrait and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, which was kindly provided by Mr. Mark West, London, England:

R. I. P.
IN PACE DOMINI
D. DOCTOR. JOANNES
CARDINALI[S]
SOLDEVILLA ROMERO
ARCHIEPISCOPUS. CAESARAUGUSTANVS
MORTUUS. EST. DIE. IV. MENSIS. JUNII. ANNI. MCMXXIII
ORATE PRO EO


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SPELLMAN, Francis Joseph
(1889-1967)

Birth. May 4, 1889, Whitman, archdiocese of Boston, United States. Son of William Spellman and Ellen Conway.

Education. Studied at Fordham College, New York; and at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 14, 1916, Rome, by Giuseppe Cappetelli, titular patriarch of Constantinople, vice gerent of Rome. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Boston, 1916-1918; 1932-1939. Vice-chancellor of the archdiocese of Boston, 1918-1922. Editor of The Boston Pilot, 1924-1935. Attaché in the Secretariat of State, 1925-1932. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, October 4, 1926.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Sila and appointed auxiliary of Boston, July 30, 1932. Consecrated, September 8, 1932, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli, secretary of State, assisted by Giuseppe Pizzardo, titular archbishop of Nicea, secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Francesco Borgongini-Duca, titular archbishop of Eraclea di Europa, nuncio in Italy. Promoted to the metropolitan see of New York, April 15, 1939. Named, in addition, military vicar of United States Armed Forces, December 11, 1939.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, February 22, 1946. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Manila, Philippines, November 1, 1956. Ordinary of the newly erected ordinariate of the armed forces, September 8, 1957. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Papal legate to the Central American Eucharistic Congress, Guatemala, January 29, 1959. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965; member of its board of presidency, 1962-1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI.

Death. December 2, 1967, New York. Although he once expressed to have the funeral of a simple priest, he was laid out in state for five days in St. Patrick's metropolitan cathedral. Hundreds of thousands of New Yorkers filed past the catafalque in tribute. The funeral mass was concelebrated by nine cardinals, two archbishops, seven bishops and one priest, the late cardinal's nephew, the Rev. John J. Pegnam, a Navy chaplain who had been on a ship stationed off South Viet Nam. President Lyndon B. Johnson; Vice President Hubert Humphrey; Senators Robert Kennedy and Jacob Javits, both of New York, Governor Nelson Rockefeller of New York, Mayor John Lindsay of New York; Arthur Goldberg, U.S. ambassador to the United Nations; and more than one hundred Catholic bishops and almost fifty Protestant, Orthodox and Jewish clerics were present at the cathedral. Among them was Archbishop Iakovos, Orthodox Primate of North and South America, who was invited to sit on an elevated, canopied throne in the sanctuary. It was the first time that an Orthodox prelate had been so honored in New York. The body of the cardinal was buried in the crypt of that metropolitan cathedral (1).

Bibliography. Cooney, John. The American pope. The life and times of Francis Cardinal Spellman. New York : Times Books, 1984. Gannon, Robert I. The Cardinal Spellman story. London : R. Hale, 1962; Steibel, Warren. Cardinal Spellman. The man. With an Introduction by Francis Cardinal Spellman. New York : Appleton-Century, 1966.

Link. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the inscription in his tomb, kindly provided by Mr.Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

FRANCIS CARDINAL SPELLMAN
ARCHBISHOP
MILITARY VICAR
1939 - 1967


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ŠPIDLÍK, S.J., Tomáš
(1919-2010)

Birth. December 17, 1919, Boskovice, Moravia, Czechoslovakia (now Czech Republic).

Education. Studied at the University of Brno, Moravia, academic year 1938-1939 (philosophy); all universities in Czechoslovakia were closed by Germany on November 11, 1939. Entered the Society of Jesus; novitiate in Benesov near Prague, 1940; occupied by the Nazis in 1942, the novitiate was transferred to Velehrad, Moravia. Took religious vows, September 24, 1942; finished his philosophical studies in Velehrad, 1942-1945; studies interrupted at later times because of forced youth labor; after finishing his philosophical studies he was prefect of Velehrad's secondary school, 1945-1946, fulfilling the period called magister in the Society of Jesus; Czech and Russian languages. Sent to Maastricht, Holland, for his theological studies. Pontifical Oriental Institute, Rome (doctorate, June 1955).

Priesthood. Ordained, August 22, 1949, Maastricht. Finished his third probation period as a Jesuit in Florence, 1950-1951. Called to Rome to ministry at Vatican radio in the programs broadcast to the countries behind the Iron Curtain, 1951. For thirty-eight years, spiritual director of the Pontifical Nepomuceno Seminary, the former Bohemian Seminary. Professor of patristic and Eastern spiritual theology at various universities in Rome and around the world from June 1955. In the academic year 1989-1990, he became a professor emeritus. In 1989 he was chosen "Man of the Year, 1990" by the American Bibliographical Institute of Raleigh, North Carolina, United States, and, a year later, the same institute chose him as "The most admired person of the decade". On July 26,1992, the city of Uh. Brod, Czechoslovakia, awarded him honorary citizenship. He was invited to Russia many times. In April 1994, on the occasion of the publication of his Russian Ideas, the city of Troyes, France, awarded him the medal of the city as a commemoration of honorary citizenship. In 1993, the Society of Byzantine Studies, St. Petersburg, Russia, named him an honorary member. In the 1994-1995 academic year, he was named the first holder of the seat of Eastern Theology at the Pontifical Oriental Institute; the inaugural lecture, "The Person's Return to Eastern Spirituality", was held on November 14, 1994. He preached the Spiritual Exercises for the pope and the Roman Curia in March 1995, encouraging the pope to write the encyclical Ut Unum Sint on ecumenism. Received a doctorate honoris causa from the University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, May 1997, as one of the greatest authorities on theology and Eastern spirituality; and in December 1997, he received another one from the theological department of the University of Olomouc, Czech Republic. In October 1998, Václav Havel, president of the Czech Republic, decorated him with the medal of the Order of Masaryk, one of the highest honors of the country. In May 1999, the University of Prague conferred on him a doctorate honoris causa. Consultor of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints. Consultor of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life. A prolific writer, he was an expert on the spirituality of Eastern Christianity (1).

Episcopate. Requested to be dispensed from the requirement of episcopal ordination and the dispensation was granted by Pope John Paul II.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Agata de' Goti, October 21, 2003. Promoted to the cardinalate when he was over 80 years old, and thus, he did not have the right to participate in the conclave. Addressed the cardinals at the opening of the conclave in the Sistine Chapel, April 18, 2005.

Death. Friday April 16, 2010, at 9 p.m., in Centro Ezio Aletti, Rome, where he had resided since 1991. The Centro is attached to the Pontifical Oriental Institute. The body of the cardinal was exposed in the chapel of the Centro, via Paolina 25, until the evening of Monday April 19. The exequial mass took place on Tuesday April 20, at 11:30, in the papal basilica of Saint Peter at the Vatican, and was presided by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, and concelebrated by nineteen other cardinals present. At the end of the ceremony, Pope Benedict XVI went to the basilica and addressed those present. The pontiff presided over the Ultima Commendatio and the Valedictio. After the ceremony, the body of the late cardinal was transported to Velehrad, in Moravia, Czech Republic, a place particularly loved by him because its relation to the evangelization of Saints Cyril and Methodius, and because it is a crossroad of peoples and culture. Upon learning of the death of the cardinal, the pope prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to Father Adolfo Nicolás Pachón, superior general of the Society of Jesus, order to which the late cardinal belonged. The body of the cardinal arrived in Olomouc in the evening of April 21, 2010. The body was exposed in the chapel of Loreto, in the metropolitan cathedral of St. Wenceslas, Olomouc. On April 29, at 6 p.m., a mass was celebrated in the cathedral. The last farewell to the deceased cardinal took place on Friday April 30, at 4 p.m., in a mass celebrated in the Basilica of the Assumption and St. Cyril and Methodius, in Velehrad. The pontifical requiem mass was presided over by Archbishop Jan Graupner of Olomouc. Then the remains of the late cardinal were buried in the Royal Chapel, in that basilica.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Lipaonline; photograph and biography, also in Italian, Centro Aletti; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is a list of some of his works, taken from his first biography in Italian, linked above: A due polmoni. Dalla memoria spirituale d'Europa, 1999; A partire dalla persona. Una teologia per la nuova evangelizzazione, 1994; L'arte di purificare il cuore, 1999; Il cammino dello Spirito, 1995; Conosci Cristo?. Attualità della sua Persona, 1997; Conosci il Padre?, 1998; Conosci lo Spirito?, 1997; La fede secondo le icone, with Marko Ivan Rupnik, 2000; L'idea russa. Un'altra visione dell'uomo, 1995; Lezioni sulla Divinoumanità 1995; La Madre di Dio, 2002; Narrativa dell'immagine, with Marko Ivan Rupnik, 1996; Noi nella Trinità, 2000; Pregare nel cuore. Iniziazione alla preghiera, 2006; La preghiera, secondo la tradizione dell'Oriente cristiano, 2002; Il professor Ulipispirus e altre storie, 2005; Lo starets Ignazio: un esempio di paternità spirituale, 2001; L' "uomo di Dio", 2003; Il vangelo delle feste. Riflessioni sul vangelo domenicale e festive, 2003; Il vangelo di ogni giorno. Riflessioni sul vangelo del tempo ordinario, 2001; La saggia civetta e le sue storie, 2004; Alle fonti dell'Europa. Miscellanea I, 2004; L'eucarestia farmaco di immortalità, 2005; Conosci il Padre, Cristo e lo Spirito?, 2005; "Sentire e gustare". Letture per gli Esercizi, 2006; In principio era l'arte: Alle Fonti dell'Europa. Miscellanea II, 2006; "Maranathà". La vita dopo la morte, 2007; Una conoscenza integrale. La via del simbolo, with Marco Ivan Rupnik, 2010.


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SPÍNOLA Y MAESTRE, Marcelo
(1835-1906)

Birth. January 14, 1835, at 6 a.m., Isle of San Fernando, diocese of Cádiz, Spain. His parents were Juan Spínola y Osorno, marquis of Spínola, and Antonia Maestre y Osorno; they had eight children, of which four died in infancy; the other four were Soledad, Marcelo, Rafael and Rosario. He was baptized the following day in the military parish of San Fernando by the military chaplain of the second batallion of the Real Cuerpo de Artillería de la Marina and received the names Marcelo Rafael José María de los Dolores Hilario. His last name is also listed as Espínola.

Education. Initial studies in the school of San Fernando, directed by priests, 1843-1845; Colegio Santo Tomás, Cádiz, 1845-1846 (Latin, Spanish and French grammar and basic philosophy); school of Motril, where the father had been transferred, 1846-1847 (mathematics); school in Granada, 1847-1848 (physics, chemistry and natural history); año de ampliación or "preu" in Valencia, 1848-1849 (history of philosophy and Latin and Spanish literature); University of Valencia, Valencia, 1849-1852 (first three years of law); University of Sevilla, Sevilla, October 1, 1852 to 1856 (licentiate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, June 29, 1856).

Early life. Opened a law office in Huelva, offering free services to the poor; later, moved to Sanlúcar de Barrameda when his father was transferred to that city as chief of the port. Decided to follow his sacerdotal vocation with the counsel of Canon Diego Herrero y Espinosa de los Monteros; studied theology and moral privately, at home. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure on May 29, 1863, in the church of the nuns of Santa María de las Dueñas, Sevilla, from Calixto Castillo y Ornedo, auxiliary bishop of Sevilla and elected bishop of León; the minor orders on the following day from the same bishop; and then the subdiaconate on December 19, 1863; and the diaconate on February 20, 1864.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 21, 1864, in the chapel of the archiepiscopal placa, Sevilla, by Luis de la Lastra y Cuesta, archbishop of Sevilla. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Sevilla, 1864-1869, chaplain of the church de la Merced, Sanlúcar de Barrameda; Canon of the cathedral chapter of Cádiz, 1869-1871. Parish priest of San Lorenzo, March 17, 1871 to May 28, 1879. Penitentiary canon of the cathedral chapter of Sevilla, 1879-1880.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Milos and appointed auxiliary of Sevilla, December 16, 1880. Consecrated, February 6, 1881, cathedral of Sevilla, by Cardinal Joaquín Lluch y Garriga, O.C.C., archbishop of Sevilla, assisted by Manuel María González y Sánchez, bishop of Jaén, and by Mariano Miguel Gómez Alguacil y Fernández, bishop of Vitoria. His episcopal motto was Omni possum in eo. Transferred to the diocese of Coria, November 10, 1884. Founder of the order of Esclavas del Divino Corazón, 1885. Transferred to the diocese of Málaga, June 10, 1886. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Sevilla, December 2, 1895. Senator of the Spanish kingdom, 1891 to 1894, and 1898 until his death.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 11, 1905. He died before going to Rome to receive the red hat and the title.

Death. January 20, 1906, at noon, Sevilla. Exposed in Salón San Fernando in the archiepiscopal palace. He received honors of capitán general. Buried in the crypt of the Sagrario in the metropolitan cathedral of Sevilla. On January 24, 1913, his remains were transferred to a new mausoleum built in the chapel of Dolores in the same cathedral.

Beatified. March 29, 1987, Vatican City, by Pope John Paul II.

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 48; Javierre, José María. El arzobispo mendigo : biografía de Marcelo Spínola. Madrid : Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1974. (Biblioteca de autores cristianos. Minor ; 33); Javierre, José María. Don Marcelo de Sevilla. Barcelona : J. Flors, 1963.

Links. Portrait and biography, in Spanish, Hermandad Sacramental de la Soledad; his statue and biography, in Spanish, Sevillapedia; his statue and biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; El Beato Isleño, Cardenal Spínola by Quintín Dobarganes Merodio, in Spanish, islabahia.com; Bandera Beato Marcelo Spínola , in Spanish, Hermandad Sacramental de la Soledad; photographs, arms and biography, in Spanish, Hermandad del Desconsuelo; his statue, image and biography, in Catalan, Wikipedia; basrelief in the façade of the church of S. Lorenzo, Sevilla, where he was pastor, La Sevilla que no vemos; photograph, portraits and arms, Araldica Vaticana; and Colegio Cardenal Spínola, San Isidro, Argentina; his statue, metropolitan cathedral of Sevilla, Wikipedia; Beato Marcelo Spínola y Maestre by Isabel Orellana Vilches, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, Madrid, 19 de enero de 2014.

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STAFFA, Dino
(1906-1977)

Birth. August 14, 1906, Santa Maria in Fabriago, diocese of Imola, Italy. Son of Domenico Staffa and Emilia Gualandi.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Imola from November 3, 1917 to 1922 (licensa ginnasiale); at the Pontifical Regional Seminary "Benedetto XV," Bologna (philosophy and theology); at the time, the rector was Monsignor Marcello Mimmi, future cardinal; at the Theological Faculty, Bologna, where he obtained a doctorate in theology; and at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome (utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Priesthood. Ordained, May 25, 1929, Imola, by Paolino Giovanni Tribbioli, O.F.M.Cap., bishop of Imola. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Imola, 1929-1931. Further studies in Rome, 1931-1933. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, 1933-1950. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, January 4, 1936; reappointed, March 3, 1939. Professor of history of canon law at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, 1941-1944. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, November 20, 1944. Secretary of the S.C. of Seminaries and Universities, December 18, 1958.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, September 3, 1960. Consecrated, October 28, 1960, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John XXIII, assisted by Diego Venini, titular archbishop of Adana, privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Benigno Carrara, bishop of Imola. In the same ceremony were consecrated future Cardinals Pericle Felici, titular archbishop of Samosata, secretary general of the Second Vatican Council; and Egano Righi-Lambertini, titular archbishop of Doclea, nuncio in Lebanon. His episcopal motto was Lex tua lux mea. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Named pro-prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, April 7, 1967.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 26, 1967; received the red biretta and the title of Sacro Cuore di Gesù Cristo Re, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, June 29, 1967. Named prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, March 26, 1969. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Opted for the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, May 24, 1976.

Death. August 7, 1977, Rome. He was originally buried in his family's tomb in the cemetery of Massa Lombarda, Imola. At a later date, his remains were transferred to the parish church of S. Gabriele Arcangelo in Lugo di Romagna, which he had built in memory of his nephew, and placed in a specially constructed marble sarcophagus.

Bibliography. De Magistris, Luigi. "Mons. Dino Staffa, arcivescovo tit. di Cesarea di Palestina, segretario della S. Congregazione dei Seminari e della Università degli Studi." La Pontificia Università lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, , pp. 226-227; Grocholewski, Zenon. "Vita e attività del Card. Dino Staffa". Apollinaris, LI (1978), 203-242; Gualandi, D. ; Staffa, A ; Tampieri, I. Il Cardinale Dino Staffa : Memorie e scritti. Ravenna : Grafiche Morandi, Fusignano, 1979.

Link. His arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.


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STAFFORD, James Francis
(1932-

Birth. July 26, 1932, Baltimore, United States of America. He was the only child of Francis Emmett and Mary Dorothy Stanton. His father was the owner of a successful furniture store.

Early life. He moved from Loyola High School in 1950 to Loyola College in Baltimore with the intent of pursuing a career in medicine, but in 1952, the violent death of a friend caused him to rethink his future and to enter St. Mary's Seminary in Baltimore.

Education. Loyola College, Baltimore; Saint Mary's Seminary, Baltimore (licenciate in arts); Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (licentiate in theology); Catholic University of America, Washington (master in social welfare).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 15, 1957, at the North American College, Rome, by Martin John O'Connor, titular bishop of Tespia, rector of the North American College. In the same ceremony was ordained Edward Michael Egan, another future cardinal. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Baltimore, 1958-1962. Further studies, 1962-1964. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Baltimore, 1964-1966. Director of Archdiocesan Catholic Charities, Baltimore, 1966-1976. Concurrently, 1966-1976, member of the pastoral council, of the Planning Team for Total Christian Education; member and president of the presbyterial council; archdiocesan consultor; and acting episcopal vicar. Chaplain of His Holiness, July 28, 1970.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Respetta and appointed auxiliary of Baltimore, January 19, 1976. Consecrated, February 29, 1976, cathedral of Mary Our Queen, Baltimore, by William Donald Borders, archbishop of Baltimore, assisted by Cardinal Lawrence Joseph Shehan, former archbishop of Baltimore, and by Thomas Austin Murphy, titular bishop of Appiaria, auxiliary of Baltimore. In the same ceremony was consecrated Philip Francis Murphy, titular bishop of Tacarata, auxiliary of Baltimore. His episcopal motto is In principium erat Verbum. Vicar general of Baltimore, 1976-1982. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Transferred to the see of Memphis, November 17, 1982. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Denver, May 30, 1986. President of the Pontifical Council for the Laity, August 20, 1996 until October 4, 2003. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, August 20, 1996. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Gesù Buon Pastore alla Montagnola, February 21, 1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998; the Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998; the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Special papal envoy to the dedication of the new cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, in the archdiocese of Los Angeles, United States, September 2, 2002. Penitentiary major, October 4, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Special papal envoy to the solemn celebrations for the dedication of the new altar of the recently-restored co-cathedral of the archdiocese of Baltimore, United States of America, November 4 to 12, 2006. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, March 1, 2008. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". On June 2, 2009, Pope Benedict XVI accepted his resignation, because of age limit, from the post of penitentiary major. The pope named Fortunato Baldelli, titular archbishop of Bevagna, until then nuncio in France, to succeed him. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on July 26, 2012.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 171; Spalding, Thomas W. "Stafford, James Francis." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyła years. Detroit, MI : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, p. 416.

Links. Biography, in English, archdiocese of Baltimore; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Card. James Stafford will soon turn 80. Cardinal electors down to 120, video, Rome Reports, 2012-07-25 17:59:58; El cardenal Stafford cumple 80 años, ya son 120 los cardenales con menos de 80 añños. Lista de cardenales ordenada por fechas de nacimiento, Revista Ecclesia, posted 26 julio, 2012..


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STEPINAC, Alojzije
(1898-1960)

Birth. May 8, 1898, Krašić, archdiocese of Zagreb, Croatia, Austria-Hungary Empire (later Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes; then Yugoslavia; now Croatia). The fifth of the eight children of Josip Stepinac and Barbara Penić. The following day he was baptized with the names Alojzije Viktor in the parish church of the Most Holy Trinity.

Education. Studied at the School of Agriculture, Zagreb; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 26, 1930, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, by Giuseppe Palica, titular archbishop of Filippi, vice-gerent of Rome; in the same ceremony was ordained Franjo Šeper, his successor in the see of Zagreb and future cardinal. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Zagreb and official of its chancery, 1931-1934.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nicopsi and appointed coadjutor of Zagreb, with right of succession, May 28, 1934. Consecrated, June 24, 1934, Zagreb, by Anton Bauer, archbishop of Zagreb, assisted by Ivan Šarić, archbishop of Vhrbosna, and by Quirinus Bonefačić, bishop of Split. His episcopal motto was In te Domine speravi. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Zagreb, December 7, 1937. Arrested by the Communist regime, September 1946. Sentenced to 16 year imprisonment, October 11, 1946; under house arrest in Krašić, 1951-1960.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; never allowed to go to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. Impeded from participating in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII, for being under house arrest. For years, he suffered from polycythemia, a rare blood disorder, necessitating regular forced bleeding.

Death. February 10, 1960, becoming weaker and weaker, he passed away in the early afternoon, after suffering a thrombosis, under house arrest, in the little rectory bedroom of the village of Krasic, near his birthplace, with praying nuns at his side. Confused guards inadvertently allowed the sacristan to ring the church bell announcing the death of the cardinal. He was buried in the metropolitan cathedral, Zagreb; later, his remains were transferred to a new tomb in the same cathedral. Pope John XXIII celebrated a requiem mass at the patriarchal Vatican basilica in the presence of twenty eight cardinals, the diplomatic corps accredited before the Holy See and thounsands of faithful.

Beatification. He was beatified, as a martyr, on October 3, 1998 by Pope John Paul II in the Shrine of Marija Bistrica, Zagreb.

Bibliography. Barbour, Hugh C. ; Batelja, Juraj. Luce lungo il sentiero della vita : una biografia spirituale del Beato Luigi Cardianle Stepinac. Zagreb : Postulazione del Beato Alojzije Stepinac, 1998. Uniform title: Svjetlo na putu zivota; Batelja, Juraj. Rendere testimonianza alla fede : vita e programma pastorale del cardinale Alojzije Stepinac. Roma : Pontificia Universitas Gregoriana, Facultas theologiae, Institutum spiritualitatis, 1984. Dissertation: Proefschrift Rome (excerpta ex dissertatione); Batelja, Juraj. Sluga Bozji Alojzije Stepinac : spomen zbirka iz ostavstine Sluge Bozjega Alojzija Stepinac. Zagreb Nadbiskupski Duhovni Stol, 1995; Batelja, Juraj. Zivjeti iz vjere : duhovni lik i pastirska skrb kardinala Alojzija Stepinac. Zagreb : Nadbiskupski Duhovni Stol, 1990; Bauer, Ernest. Aloisius Kardinal Stepinac : ein Leben f|r Wahrheit, Recht und Gerechtigkeit. Recklinghausen : Bitter ; Wien : Herold, 1979; Istranin, Neki. Stepinac : un innocente condannato. Vicenza : L.I.E.F., 1982; Landercy, Mathilde. Le cardinal Stepinac : martyr des droits de l'homme. Paris : Apostolat des Éditions, 1981; M. Raymond, Father, O.C.S.O. The man for this moment. Staten Island, N.Y. : Alba House, 1971. Notes: Half-title: The life and death of Aloysius Cardinal Stepinac. Other title: Life and death of Aloysius Cardinal Stepinac; Mattei, Giampaolo. Il cardinale Alojzije Stepinac : una vita eroica nella testimonianza di quanti con lui sono stati vittime della persecuzione nella Jugoslavia comunista. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore romano, 1999. (Quaderni de L'Osservatore romano ; 43; Variation: Quaderni dell'Osservatore romano ; 43); O'Brien, Anthony Henry. Archbishop Stepinac, the man and his case. Foreword by John C. McQuaid. Westminster, Md. : Newman Bookshop, 1947; Pavicic, Darko. Tajna kardinala vozaca, ili, Kako sam u noci vidio dugu. Zagreb : ITD, 1997. Biographies of Cardinals Stepinac, Alojzije, 1898-1960; Kuharic, Franjo, 1919-2002; and Seper, Franjo, 1905-1981. Other title: Tajna kardinala vozaca; Kako sam u noci vidio dugu; Pattee, Richard. The case of Cardinal Aloysius Stepinac Milwaukee : The Bruce Publishing Co., 1953.

Links. Photographs and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and biography, in Coratian, Wikipedia; Homily of the Holy Father Pope John Paul at Marija Bistrica for the Beatification of the Venerable Servant of God Cardinal Alojzije Stepinac, 3 October 1998, Libreria Editrice Vaticana; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Alojzije Stepinac - Moja je savjest čista 1/4, You Tube, Mar 18, 2010; Alojzije Stepinac - Moja je savjest čista 2/4, You Tube, Mar 18, 2010; Alojzije Stepinac - Moja je savjest čista 3/4, You Tube, Mar 18, 2010; Alojzije Stepinac - Moja je savjest čista 4/4, You Tube, Mar 18, 2010; Alojzije Stepinac - Video Biografija - Sječanja na Poznate Hrvatske Velikane, You Tube, May 8, 2012; Pravednik Stepinac (The Righteous Road of Stepinac), You Tube, Feb. 25, 2012; Stepinac Dokumentarac 1991, You Tube, Feb. 27, 2013; Beato Luis (Aloizije Viktor) Stepinac by Isabel Orellana Vilches, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, Madrid, 10 de febrero de 2014.


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STERZINSKY, Georg Maximilian
(1936-2011)

Birth. February 9, 1936, Warlack, district of Heilsberg, East Prussia, then diocese of Ermland, Germany (now Worławki, Powiat Olsztyński, Poland). His family was forced to move to Erfurt, Thuringia, Germany, in 1946, after the Second World War. His father was a brick maker; his mother died when he was eleven years old. He had five siblings. Later, the family lived in Bad Berka.

Education. Primary education in Jommendorf, East Prussia, after the escape to Thuringia; secondary education in Rönnebeck (Mark), Hauteroda and Erfurt. From 1954 to 1960, he studied at the Regional Seminary of Erfurt; later, he attended the Seminary of Neuzelle. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure, February 8, 1959, in the collegiate church of Sankt Marien in Neuzelle, from Ferdinand Piontek, vicarius capitularis of the archdiocese of Breslau; the subdiaconate, November 8, 1959; and the diaconate November 15, 1959, also from Ferdinand Piontek, then titular bishop of Barca.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1960, cathedral Sankt Marien, Erfurt, by Josef Freusberg, titular bishop of Adrianopoli di Epiro, auxiliary of Fulda. Incardinated in the diocese of Fulda, Germany. From 1960 to1962, he was chaplain of. Sankt Elisabeth in Eisenach; from 1962 to 1964, prefect and assistant at the Regional Seminary of Erfurt; from 1964 to 1966, together with Joachim Meisner, later cardinal and his predecessor in the see of Berlin and archbishop of Cologne, chaplain of Sankt Marien in Heiligenstadt; and from 1966 to 1981, parish priest at St. John Baptist in Jena. From 1981 to 1989, he was vicar general of the Bischöfliches Amt of Erfurt-Meiningen. Director of the diocesan ecumenical commission; diocesan director and counselor of St. Benno of Lipsia publishing house. On March 8, 1982, he was named prelate of honor of His Holiness.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Berlin by its cathedral chapter, May 28, 1989. Election confirmed by Pope John Paul II, June 24, 1989. Consecrated, September 9, 1989, in the cathedral of Sankt Hedwig, Berlin, by Joachim Wanke, titular bishop of Castello di Mauritania, apostolic adminsitrator of the Bischöfliches Amt of Erfurt-Meiningen, assisted by Johannes Kapp, titular bishop of Melzi, auxiliary of Fulda, and by Wolfgang Weider, titular bishop of Uzita, auxiliary of Berlin. His episcopal motto was Deus semper maior. Took possession of the see on the same day and celebrated his first pontifical mass in West-Berlin on September 10, 1989, in Sankt Matthias (Berlin-Schöneberg). In this time, the diocese of Berlin was separated in an east part (German Democratic Republic) and a west part (Germany). President of the Episcopal Conference of Berlin (German Democratic Republic) from November 7, 1989 until its suppression on November 24, 1990. From 1990, he was member of the Episcopal Conference of Germany; chairman of the commission for the East Germany Region (1990-1996); member of the ecumenical commission (1990-1996); chairman of the commission of marriage and family (1991-2011); vice-chairman of the commission for immigration (1996-2011); and vice-chairman of the pastoral commission (1999-2011).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1991; received the red biretta and the title of S. Giuseppe all'Aurelio, June 28, 1991. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Berlin, June 27, 1994, when that ecclesiastical province was established. Received the pallium from Pope John Paul II on June 29, 1995, at the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Member of the Congregation for Catholic Education (1991-2011); member of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People (1995-2011); and member of the Pontifical Council for Dialog with Non-Believers (1991-1994). In 2000, he was decorated with the Great Cross of Merit, with Star and Sash of Merit, of the Federal Republic of Germany. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Resigned from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Berlin in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law on February 24, 2011.

Death. June 30, 2011, early in the morning, in Sankt Hedwig-Krankenhaus, Berlin-Mitte, after a long and painful illness. Exposed from July 6 to 9, 2011, in a chapel of the metropolitan cathedral of Sankt Hedwig, Berlin. The requiem mass for Cardinal Sterzinsky, 8th (arch)-bishop of Berlin took place on Saturday, July 9, 2011, at 3.00 p.m., in that cathedral. The burial rite was headed by Bishop Weider, auxiliary emeritus of Berlin. Following the funeral, he was buried in the crypt of the cathedral, where his predecessors Bishop Christian Schreiber, Bishop Nikolaus Bares, Cardinal Konrad von Preysing, Bishop Wilhelm Weskamm and Cardinal Alfred Bengsch are also buried.

Bibliography. Pilvousek, Josef. "Sterzinsky, Georg Maximilian."Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1945 2001 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Unter Mitwirkung von Franz Xaver Bischof ... [et al.] ; herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 2002, p. 97-98.

Links. Photograph and biographical data, in German, archdiocese of Berlin, at the bottom of the page; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana; photographs of the funeral and burial, archdiocese of Berlin.


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STICKLER, S.D.B., Alfons Maria
(1910-2007)

Birth. August 23, 1910, Neunkirchen, archdiocese of Vienna, Austria. He was the second of the twelve children of Mikeal Stickler and Teresa Schachner; his father owned a book binding business.

Education. Initial studies in Nenunkirchen; an uncle, who was a priest, sent him to the Salesian school in Vienna; there he met Fr. Giovanni Cagliero, S.D.B., future cardinal; joined the Pious Society of St. Francis de Sales (Salesians of Don Bosco); entered the Salesian novitiate in Ensdorf, Germany, August 1, 1927; first religious profession, August 15, 1928; Salesian house of study in Heleneberg, near Trier, Germany, for a year; teacher for three years in the Salesian school in Vienna, where he had studied; at the same time, concluded in scientific studies in 1931; studied philosophy from 1931 until 1933, while still teaching; in 1933, went back to Germany to study theology; in 1935, he was sent to Turin to continue his theological formation; and a year later, to Rome to finish them; Institute Utriusque Iuris, Pontifical Athenaeum of S. Apollinare, Rome; Pontifical Lateran University, Rome; studied under Dr. Stephan Kuttner; doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, in July 1940.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 27, 1937, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome. Further studies, Rome, 1937-1940. Faculty member, canon law faculty, Salesian University, Turin, 1940-1953; dean, 1953-1958 (the university was moved to Rome in 1957); rector, 1958-1966; president of the Institutum Altioris Latinitis, 1965-1968. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1963-1965, as expert. Prefect of the Apostolic Vatican Library, March 25, 1971. Vice-president of the International Association of History of Laws and Institutions. Member of numerous legal and historical academies. Awarded a doctorate in law, honoris causa, by the Universities of Münich, Germany; and Innsbruck and Salzburg, Austria.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Bolsena and appointed pro-librarian of Holy Roman Church, September 8, 1983. Consecrated, November 1, 1983, Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Rosalio José Castillo Lara, titular archbishop of Precausa, pro-president of the Pontifical Commission for the Revision of the Code of Canon Law. His episcopal motto was Omnia et in omnibus Christus. Pro-archivist of Holy Roman Church, July 9, 1984.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, May 25, 1985. Librarian and archivist of the Holy Roman Church, May 27, 1985; resigned posts, July 1, 1988. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, August 23, 1990. Opted for the order of priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, January 29, 1996. Among his most important works are Historia iuris canonici latini (1950); and Sacerdotium et regnum nei decretisti e primi decretalisti (1953). He also initiated the series Studia Gratiana and Studia et textus historiae iuris canonici (1).

Death. December 12, 2007, at 7:30 p.m., in his apartment in the Palace of the Holy Office, Vatican City. The exequies for the late cardinal, presided by Pope Benedict XVI, took place on Friday December 14, 2007, at 5 p.m., in the Altar of the Chair of the papal Vatican basilica. The pope delivered the homily. Several cardinals concelebrated with the pope; the two main concelebrants were Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the Cardinalitial College, and Cardinal Giovanni Battista Re, prefect of the Congregation for Bishops. After the funeral, the body of the late cardinal was buried, around 7 p.m., in the cemetery of the Salesian community in the catacomb of S. Callisto in Rome (2). His remains will be transferred to his deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro when the building of the definitive tomb is finished. A memorial stone placed in that church commemorates the cardinal (3). At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Bibliography. Dias, João S. Clá. Cardinal Stickler: Salesian, erudite and librarian of the Holy Catholic Church. Mount Kisco, N.Y.: The Foundation for a Christian Civilization, 1987; Mejía, Jorge María. "Alfons Maria Stickler.: in I cardinali bibliotecari di Santa Romana Chiesa : la quadreria nella Biblioteca apostolica vaticana. Città del Vaticano : Biblioteca apostolica vaticana, 2006. (Documenti e riproduzioni ; 7), p. 343; Studia in honorem eminentissimi cardinalis Alphonsi M. Stickler. Curante Rosalio Iosepho Castillo Lara. Roma : LAS, 1992. (Studia et textus historiae iuris canonici ; 7).

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This are his published works between 1943 and 1990, taken from Studia in honorem eminentissimi cardinalis Alphonsi M. Stickler, p. XXI-XXVIII:
1942. De Ecclesiae potestate coactiva materiali apud Magistrum Gratianum, in Salesianum 4/1942, p. 1-23; 97-119.
1944. De potestate gladii materialis Ecclesiae secundum "Quaestiones Bamber-genses" ineditas (Cod. Ms. Can. 17 Bibl. Bambergen.), in Salesianum 6/1944, p. 113-140.
1947. Der Schwerterbegriff bei Huguccio, in Ephemerides Iuris Canonici 3/1947, p. 201-242; Il potere coattivo materiale della Chiesa nella riforma gregoriana secondo Anselino da Lucca, in Studi Gregomni, Vol. II, Roma 1947, p. 235-285.
1948. Il "Gladius" nel registro di Gregorio VII, in Studi Gregoriani, Vol. III, Roma 1948, p. 89-103; Magistri Gratiani sententia de potestate Ecclesiae in Statum, in Apollinaris, 21/1948, p. 36-111.
1949. Concerning the political theories of the medieval canonists, in Traditio 7/ 1949-1951, p. 450-463.
1950. Historia Iuris Canonici Latini. Vol. I, Historia Fontium, Augustae Taurinorum 1950, pp. XVI-468.
1951. De historiographia iuridico-canonica hodierna breves observationes, in Salesianum 13/1951, p. 554-559; Il "gladius" negli atti dei concili e dei RR. Pontefici sino a Graziano e Bereardo di Clairvaux, in Salesianum 13/1951, p. 414-445; Graziano e il suo "Decretum", in Ecclesia, 1951, p. 416-420; Der heilige Don Bosco und die Reinheit der Jugend, in Der Seelsorger 21/1951, p. 403-409; in Didascalia 7/1953, p. 391-397.
1952. Centenario Grazianeo e diritto canonico classico nel Convegno di Bologna-Camaldoli-Roma, in Salesianum 14/1952, p. 590-597; Conventus Iuris Canonici VIlI exacto saeculo ex quo decretum a Gratiano editumfuit, in Monitor Ecclesiasticus 77/1952, p. 347-360; Prospectus diversarum formarum professionis consiliorum evangelicorum, in Acta et Documenta Congressus Generalis de Statibus perfectionis, vol. I, Roma 1952, p. 500-506; Vergessene Bologneser Dekretisten, in Salesianum 14/1952, p. 476-503.
1953. "Sacerdotium et Regnum" nei Decretisti e primi Decretalisti. Considerazioni metodologiche di ricerca e testi, in Salesianum 1511953, p. 575-612; Studia Gratiana post octava Decreti saecularia. Collectanea historiae Iuris Canonici, curantibus G. Forchielli et A.M. Stickler, Voll. I-XIV, Bononiae MCMLIII-MCMLXVIII; curantibus + G. Forchielli et A.M. Stickler, Voll. XV-XXIV, Romae MCMLXXII-MCMLXXXIX.
1954. Le compagnie alla luce degli ultimi Documenti pontifici, Torino 1954; De primatu romano historia collectionum iuris canonici illustrato, in Monitor Ecclesiasticus 79/1954, p. 409-425; "Imperator Vicarius Papae...". Die Lehren der franözsisch-deutschen Dekretistenschule des 12. und beginnenden 13. Jahrh. über die Beziehungen zwischen Papst und Kaiser, in Mitteilungen des Institut fiir Österreichische Geschichtsforschung 62/1954, p. 165-212 ; Intorno a una nuova storia del diritto canonico, in Revista Española de Derecho Canónico 9/1954, p. 479-505; Sacerdozio e regno nelle nuove ricerche attorno ai secoli XII e XIII nei decretisti e decretalisti fino alle decretali di Gregorio IX, in Miscellanea Historiae Pontificiae 18/1954, p. 1-26.
1955. L'Associazione dei divoti di Maria Ausiliatrice, in L'Immacolata Ausiliatrice. Relazioni commemorative dell'Anno Mariano 1954 (Accademia Mariana Salesiana 3), Torino 1955, p. 295-312; Decretisti bolognesi dimenticati, in Studia Gratiana, Vol. III (1955), p. 375-410.
1956. Decretistica Germanica adaucta, in Traditio 12/1956, p. 593-605; Monumenta iuris canonici. De textuum iuridicorum Corpore edendo, in Monitor Ecclesiasticus 81/1956, p. 494-500; Studia et Textus Historiae ]uris Canonici, curante Alphonso M. Stockler, Vol. 1, Augustae Taurinorum 1956; Voll. 2-4, Z|rich 1964-1967; Voll. 5-6, Roma 1984-1985.
1957. Der Konkordatsgedanke in rechtsgeschichtlicher Schau, in Österreichisches Archiv für Kirchenrecht 8/1957, p. 25-38; Die Reformationsbewegungen des XVI. Jahrhunderts als verfassungsrechtliche Revolutionen, in Österreischisches Archiv für Kirchenrecht 8/1957, p. 38-48.
1958. Iter helveticum, in Traditio 14/1958, p. 462-484.
1959. Alanus Anglicus als Verteidiger des monarchischen Papsttums, in Salesianum 21/1959, p. 346-406; Problemi di ricerca e di edizione per Uguccione da Pisa e nella Decretistica classica (Congrès de Droit Canonique Médiéval), in Bibliographie de la Revue d'Histoire Ecclésiastique 33/1959, p. 346-406.
1960. Die Bedeutung der klassischen Kanonistik für die Geschichtswissenschaft des Mittelalters, in XIe Congrès International Historique, 1960, p. VI, 98-100.
1962. Das Mysterium der Kirche im Kirchenrecht, in Mysterium Kirche in der Sicht der theologischen Disziplinen, Vol. II, Salzburg 1962, p. 571-647; Pontificia Universitas Romana, in Seminarium N.S. 14/1962, p. 651- 670;.
1964. La continenza dei diaconi nel primo millennio della Chiesa, in Salesianum 26/1964, p. 275-302; Lo sviluppo della dottrina sui poteri nella Chiesa Universale: momenti essenziali tra il XVI e il XIX secolo. A proposito di un libro recente, in Seminarium N.S. 16/1964, p. 652-673.
1965. Der Dekretist Willelmus Vasto und seine Anschauungen über das Verhaltnis der beiden Gewalten, in Études d'Histoire du Droit Canonique dédiées à Gabriel LeBras, Vol. I, Paris 1965, p. 705-728; Ordines Iudiciarii, in Dictionnaire de Droit Canonique, VII, Paris 1965, col. 1132-1143; Uguccione da Pisa, in Dictionnaire de Droit Canonique, VII, Paris 1965, col. 1355-1362.
1966. Il Decretista Laurentius Hispanus, in Studia Gratiana, Vol. IX (1966), p. 461-549.
1967. Die Glossa Duacensis zum Dekret Gratians, in Speculum Iuris et Ecclesiarum (W.M. Poöchl), Wien 1967, p. 385-392; Zur Entstehungsgeschichte und Verbreitung des Dekrets-Apparats "Ordinaturus Magister Gratianus", in Studia Gratiana, Collectanea Stephan Kuttner II. Vol. XII (1967), p. 111-141; Zur Kirchengewalt in den Glossen der Hs. 3905B Bibl. Nat. Paris, Miscellanea André Combes II, in Divinitas 11/1967, p. 459-470.
1968. Kirchenrechtsgeschichte, in Sacramentum Mundi, Vol. II, Freiburg-Basel-Wien 1968, col. 1251-1267.
1969. Universitatswesen, in Sacramentum Mundi, Vol.. IV, Freiburg-Basel-Wien 1969, col. 1081-1104; Die Zweigliedrigkeit der Kirchengewalt bei Laurentius Hispanus, in Ius Sacrum, Paderborn 1969, p. 181-206.
1970. Le esperienze storiche nei vari periodi della vita nel diritto canonico. Diritto e Pastorale nella storia della Chiesa, in Monitor Ecclesiasticus 95/1970, p. 242-263 De notione et conceptu status religiosi sub aspectu historico, in Acta Conventus internationalis Canonistarum 21-25 mali 1968 Romae celebrati, Città del Vaticano 1970, p. 376-392; Nota storica sul celibato dei chierici "in sacris", in Conferenza Episcopale Italiana, Atti della VI Assemblea Generale, Roma, 6-11 aprile 1970, Foglio di Lavoro N. 2, Roma 1970, p. 490-501; in L'Ossewatore Romano, 2-3 marzo 1970, p. 2, e 4 marzo 1970, p. 2.; Studi Gregoriani. Per una storia della "Libertas Ecclesiae", a cura di Alfons M. Stickler ed altri, Voll. VIII-XIII, Roma 1970-1989; Tratti salienti nella storia del celibato, in Sacra Doctrina 60/1970, p. 585-620.
1971. Ergäntzungen zur Traditionsgeschichte der Dekretistik, in Bulletin of MedievalCanon Law, N.S. vol. I, Berkeley 1971, p. 73-79; L 'évolution de la discipline du célibat dans l'Église en Occident de la fin de l'âge patristique au Concile de Trente, in Sacerdoce et célibat. Études historiques et théologiques, Publiées par Joseph Coppens, Gembloux-Louvain 1971, p. 373-442 (traduzione inglese, vedi 1972; traduzione italiana, vedi 1975); La funzione della scienza storica di diritto canonico nella codificazione pio-benedettina e per la riforma attuale del diritto canonico, in L 'Année Canonique 15/1971, p. 525-550; La genesi degli apparati di glosse dei decretisti, presupposto fondamentale della critica del loro testo, in La critica del testo, Atti del secondo Congresso Internazionale della Società Italiana di Storia del Diritto, Firenze MCMLXXI, p. 771-781.
1972. The evolution of the discipline of celibacy in the Western Church from the end of the Patristic Era to the Council of Trent, in Priesthood and Celibacy, a cura di J. Coppens, Milano-Roma 1972, p. 503-597; Importanza e funzione della cultura nella Chiesa e nelle Istituzioni ecclesiastiche di oggi, in Rivista di Pedagogia e Scienze Religiose 10/1972, p. 304-316; Der Kaiserbegriff des Bernardus Compostellanus Antiquus, in Studia Gratiana, Voi. XV (1972), (Post scripta), p. 105-124; La proprietà fondiaria della Chiesa nella società medievale, in Miscellanea Historiae Ecclesiasticae, IV, Congrès de Moscou, Août 1970, Édité par Robert Peters (Bibliothèque de la Revue d'Histoire Ecclésiastique, Fascicule 56), Louvain 1972, p. 3-42; La "sollicitudo omnium Ecclesiarum" nella canonistica classica, in Comunione interecclesiale - Collegialità - Primato - Ecumenismo, Acta Conventus Internationalis de Historia sollicitudinis Omnium Ecclesiarum, Romae 1967, Curantibus Iosepho D'Ercole, Alphonso M. Stickler (Communio 12-13), Roma 1972, p. 547-586.
1974. Papal infallibility - a thirteenth-century invention? Reflexion on a recent work (Tierney), in The Catholic Historical Review 60/1974, p. 427-441 (traduzione italiana, in Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia 28/ 1974, p. 583-594); Die Zweigliedrigkeit der Kirchengewalt bei Franz Schmier (1689-1728), in Festschrift Nikolaus Grass, I, Innsbruck 1974, p. 349-360.
1975. Die Begegnung der Zivilisationen in Europa um 1300, in XIV International Congress of Historical Sciences, San Francisco, August 22-29, 1975; La bipartición de la potestad eclesiástica en su perspectiva histórica, in Ius Canonicum 15/1975, p. 45-74; La Bolla "Copiosus in Misericordia" di Papa Gregorio XIII, in Oratorium 6/1975, p. 29-34; Il Diritto nella Storia della Chiesa. Visione d'insieme, in Seminarium N.S. 1,5/1975, p. 749-766; Evoluzione della disciplina del celibato nella Chiesa d'Occidente dalla fine dell'Età Patristica al Concilio di Trento, in Sacerdozio e Celibato. Studi storici e teologici, Pubblicati a cura di Joseph Covppens, Milano 19.75, p. 505-601; Infallibility - A Rejoinder to Prof. Tierney, in The Catholic Historical Review 61/1975, p. 274-279 (traduzione italiana, in Rivista di Stoffa della Chiesa in Italia 29/1975, p. 230-234); Il Papa e la Curia Romana, in Il Vaticano e Roma Cristiana, Città del Vaticano 1975, p. 3-29; Persona e ordinamento nella storia della Chiesa, in Atti del II Congresso Internazionale di Diritto Canonico 1973, Milano 1975, p. 130-137.
1976. Introduction aux travaux du Colloque, in Conservation et reproduction des manuscrits etimprimés anciens. Colloque international organisé par la Bibliothèque Vaticane 21-24 oct. 1975, a cura di Alfons M. Stickler (Studi e Testi, 276), Città del Vaticano 1976, p. 80-84; La norma canonica nel primo millennio della Chiesa. III Congresso Internazionale di Diritto Canonico, Pamplona, in Ius Canonicum 16/ 1976, p. 15-38; Ursprung und gegenseitiges Verhältnis der beiden Gewalten nach den Miniaturen des Gratianischen Dekrets, in Studia Gratiana, Mélanges G. Fransen II., Vol. XX (1976), p. 339-359.
1977. La Biblioteca Vaticana come punto d'incontro e di nuove aperture alla cultura europea dal 1870 al 1914, in Archivio della Società Romana di Storia Patria 6/1977, p. 95-99; Il Giubileo di Bonifacio VIIL Aspetti giuridico-pastorali (Quaderni della Fondazione Camillo Caetani, 2), Roma 1977.
1978. Nome e potere del Papa eletto in un trattato di Galgano Borghese (Ms. Vat. lat. 4129), in Miscellanea in onore di Monsignor Martino Giusti, Prefetto dell'Archivio Segreto Vaticano, Vol. II (Collectanea Archivi Vaticani, 6), Città del Vaticano 1978, p. 367-380; Rezension zu H. Fuhrmann, Einflufl u. Verbreitung der Pseudo-isidori-schen Fälschungen (voll. I un. II), in Archiv für katholischen Kirchenrecht 147/1978, p. 619-628.
1979. Georg Denzler, Das Papsttum und der Amtszölibat: Review Article; A New History of Papal Legislation on Celibacy, in The Catholic Historical Review 65/1979, p. 76-84; La norma canonica nel primo millennio della Chiesa, in La norma en el Derecho Canónico, Actas del III Congreso Internacional de Derecho Canónico, Pamplona, 10-15 de octubre de 1976, Vol. I, Pamplona 1979, p. 39-62.
1980. Enrico da Susa: la sua personalità, in Segusium 16/1980, n. 16, p. 45-48; Le pouvoir de gouvernement: pouvoir ordinaire et pouvoir délégué, in L 'Année Canonique 24/1980, p. 69-84; Prêface à: Cochini Christian, S.I., Origines Apostoliques du célibat sacerdotal (Le sycomore, série Horizon, 7), Paris - Namur [1980], p. 3-7; L'"utrumque ius" nella dottrina dei glossatori riguardante le relazioni tra Chiesa e Stato, in Il Diritto Comune e la Tradizione giuridica europea, Perugia 1980, p. 417-431.
1982. Das Buch: Seine Aufgabe, seine Gefdhrdung, seine Bewahrung, seine Rettung, in Sonderbeilage zum Gutenberg-Jahrbuch 1982, p. 43-51; De potestatis sacrae natura et origine, in Periodica de re morali canonica liturgica 71/1982, p. 65-91; Il diritto canonico nella pastorale di San Bernardino da Siena, in Atti del Simposio internazionale Cateriniano-Bernardiniano, Siena 17-26 aprile 1980, Siena 1982, p. 835-843; Introduzione a: Cistellini Antonio (ed.), Collectanea vetustorum et fundamentalium documentorum Congregationis Oratorii sancti Philippi Nerii (Testi e Studi Oratoriani, II), Brescia 1982, p. V-VIII; Le grandi linee di sviluppo degli stati giuridici delle persone nella Chiesa, in Monitor Ecclesiasticus 10711982, p. 190-206.
1983. Die kirchliche Regierungsgewalt in der klassischen Kanonistik: Einheit der Träger und Unterscheidung der Funktionen, in ZRG Kan. Abt. 100/ 1983, p. 267-291; La "potestas regiminis": visione teologica, in Il nuovo Codice di Diritto Canonico: novità, motivazione e significato. Atti della Settimana di Studio 26-30 aprile 1983 ("Utrumque Ius": Collectio Pontificiae Universitatis Lateranensis, 9), Roma 1983, p. 63-74.
1985. Die Ekklesiologie des Dekretisten Huguccio v. Pisa, in Proceedings of the sixth International Congress of Medieval Canon Law (Monumenta Iuris Canonici, Series C, voi. 7) Città del Vaticano 1985, p. 333-349; Ehrle, Franz, in The Encyclopedia of Library and [nformation Science, Vol. 38, Supplement 3, New York 1985, p. 145-153; Teologia e diritto canonico nella storia, in Salesianum 47/1985, p. 691-706.
1986. Gesù Cristo, Sacerdote, Re e Profeta del Popolo di Dio attraverso il suo Cuore, in Atti del Quinto Convegno Sacerdotale internazionale della Lega Sacerdotale Mariana, tenutosi a Mariazeli dal 6 all' 11 settembre 1986, p. 57-74; Theologie und Kirchenrecht in ihrer geschichtlichen Bezogenheit. Eirt Grundsatzelement zum Verständnis des neuen kirchlichen Gesetzbuches, in Heiligenkreuzer Studienreihe, Band 4, Heiligenkreuz 1986, p. 130-148 (In italiano anche in Salesianum 47/1985, p. 691-706; Teologia e Diritto Canonico [Studi Giuridici XII], Città del Vaticano 1987, p. 17-32.
1988. A 25 anni dalla Costituzione apostolica "Veterum Sapientia" di Giovanni XXIII. Rievocazione storica e prospettive, in Salesianum 50/1988, p. 367-377; Il Vescovo nella Città, in Il Vescovo e la sua Chiesa. Celebrazioni del 750 compleanno di S.E. Mons. Gilberto Baroni, Reggio Emilia 1988, p. 17-34.
1989. "Lex et Iustitia" nell' "utrumque ius": Radici antiche e prospettive attuali, in Atti del VII Colloquio internazionale Romanistico-Canonistico, Roma 12-14 maggio 1988, Prolusione, Roma 1989, p. 1-11; I presupposti storico-giuridici della Riforma Gregoriana e dell'azione personale di Gregorio VII in Studi Gregoriani, Vol. XIII, La Riforma gregoriana e l'Europa. Congresso internazionale in occasione del 90 Centenario della morte di Gregorio VII, Salerno 20-25 maggio 1985, Roma 1989, p. 1-15; Riforma della Curia: aspetto storico, in La Curia Romana. Aspetti ecclesiologici, pastorali, istituzionali. Per una lettura della "Pastor Bonus", Testo e commenti ( Quaderni de "L'Osservatore Romano", 10), Città del Vaticano 1989, p. 97-102.
1990. Le Riforme della Curia nella storia della Chiesa, in La Curia Romana nella Cost. Ap. "PastorBonus" (Studi Giuridici XXI), Città del Vaticano 1990, p. 1-15; The Vatican Hebrew Manuscript Collection against the background of the history of the Vatican Library, in Harvard Library Bulletin 1990.

(2) This is the inscription in his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

Card. ALFONS M. STICKLER
N. AUSTRIA 23.8.1910        M. ROMA 12.12.2007

(3) This is the text of the inscription on the stone, kindlky provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:
+
A       Ω
Cardinale ALFONS MARIA STICKLER
Neunkirchen 23 VIII 1910 - Roma 12 XII 2007


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STRITCH, Samuel Alphonse
(1887-1958)

Birth. August 17, 1887, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America. Son of Garret Stritch, manager of Sycamore Mills in Nashville, and Katherine O'Malley. He had two brothers, Robert and Eugene, and five sisters.

Education. Studied at Saint Gregory's Preparatory Seminary, Cincinnati; and at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, residing at the Pontifical North American College, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 21, 1910, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Respighi, vicar of Rome. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Nashville, 1910-1916. Secretary to the bishop of Nashville, 1916-1917. Diocesan chancellor of Nashville, 1917-1921. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 10, 1921.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Toledo, Ohio, August 10, 1921. Consecrated, November 30, 1921, cathedral of St. Francis de Sales, Toledo, by Henry Moeller, archbishop of Cincinnati, assisted by John Baptist Morris, bishop of Little Rock, and by Thomas Edmund Molloy, bishop of Brooklyn. His episcopal motto was Deus meus adjutor meus. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Milwaukee, August 26, 1930. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Chicago, December 27, 1939.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 18, 1946; received the red hat and the title of S. Agnese fuori le mura, February 22, 1946. President of the 9th National Catechetical Congress, Chicago, September 14, 1951. Pro-prefect of the S.C. for Propagation of Faith, March 1, 1958 until his death. Because his right arm had an occlusion of its main artery, it had to be amputated above the elbow; after the operation, he suffered a stroke on May 18, 1958, and died eight days later.

Death. May 26, 1958, at 7.35 pm, in the "Sanatrix Clinic", Rome. His body was first laid out in state at the North American Pontifical College until being transferred to the church of S. Ignazio where a funeral mass was celebrated with Cardinal Eugène Tisserant, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, giving the final absolution. His body was later flown to the United States of America. An estimated 48,000 walked past his bier as he was laid out in state at the Holy Name Cathedral. The solemn pontifical requiem mass was said read at that cathedral by Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, titular archbishop of Laodicea di Frigia, apostolic delegate to the United States of America. Cardinals Francis Joseph Spellman, Edward Aloysius Mooney and James Francis McIntyre were in attendance, along with 100 other prelates. Some 8000 people participated in the requiem mass and cortege which followed to the cemetery. He was buried on June 3, 1958, in the bishops' chapel, Mount Carmel Cemetery, Hillside, archdiocese of Chicago. His successors Cardinals John Patrick Cody and Joseph Louis Bernardin are also buried in that chapel.

Bibliography. Buehrle, Marie Cecilia. The Cardinal Stritch story. Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Co., 1959; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 278-279; Thornton, Francis Beauchesne. Our American princes. The story of the seventeen American cardinals. New York : G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1963, pp. 186-200; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, p. 372.

Links. His photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of Milwaukee; his photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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SUÁREZ RIVERA, Adolfo Antonio
(1927-2008)

Birth. January 9, 1927, San Cristóbal de las Casas, México. Son of Adolfo Suárez Solórzano and Alicia Rivera. He had five brothers and sisters.

Education. Studied at the Conciliar Seminary of Chiapas, San Cristóbal de las Casas (humanities, for four years); at the Archdiocesan Seminary of Xalapa (philosophy, for one year); at the Pontifical Seminary of Montezuma, New Mexico, United States of America (philosophy, for three years); at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (theology, for four years; licenciate in theology); and at the Latinamerican Catechetical Institute, Santiago de Chile, Chile, 1962 (catechesis, for one year).

Priesthood. Ordained, March 8, 1952, chapel of the Pontifical Collegio Pio Latinoamericano, Rome, by Alfonso Carinci, titular archbishop of Seleucia di Isauria, secretary of the S.C. of Rites. Successively, further studies, Rome; in Chiapas: spiritual director and faculty member, diocesan seminary; major official and secretary of episcopal curia; diocesan assessor of the Christian Family Movement and of the Catholic Action Youth; director of the diocesan office for catechesis; pastoral ministry; vicar general.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tepic, May 14, 1971. Consecrated, August 15, 1971, by Carlo Martini, titular archbishop of Abari, apostolic delegate in México, assisted by José Salazar López, archbishop of Guadalajara, and by Samuel Ruiz García, bishop of Chiapas. Attended the III General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979. Transferred to the see of Tlalnepantla, May 8, 1980. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Monterrey, November 8, 1983. President of the Mexican Episcopal Conference, 1988-1991 and 1991-1994; during his presidency the Church obtained juridical recognition; and the diplomatic relations between México and the Holy See were reestablished. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Apostolic administrator sede vacante of Ciudad Victoria, November 3, 1994 to December 1995.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the title of Nostra Signora di Guadalupe a Monte Mario, November 26, 1994. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, January 25, 2003. Did not participate in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI, for reasons of health. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old, January 9, 2007.

Death. March 23, 2008, at 1:25 a.m., of a brain hemorrhage, Hospital Murguerza, Monterrey. His body was exposed in the Minor Seminary of Monterrey, where hundreds of faithful paid their respects. On March 24, 2008, a funeral mass was celebrated in the basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Monterrey and later, he was buried in the area of the crypts of the metropolitan cathedral of Monterrey, which is under the main altar; it was built in the 1970s and there repose the remains of all the bishops and archbishops of Monterrey as well as the remains of Fr. Raymundo Jardón, whose process of beatification was initiated by Cardinal Suárez Rivera; the remains of the cardinal were placed at 6:30 p.m. in the crypt next to the one of the 8th archbishop of Monterrey, Alfonso Espino y Silva, who ordered the construction of the crypts. On March 31, 2008, the municipality of San Cristóbal de las Casas granted him the medal of merit "Manuel Velasco Suárez".


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SUENENS, Leo-Jozef
(1904-1996)

Birth. July 16, 1904, at 6:30 a.m., in the clinic of the Sisters of Maternal Charity, Ixelles, archdiocese of Mechelen, Belgium. Son of Jean-Baptiste Suenens and Jeanne Jannsens. He was baptized in the church of Sainte-Croix, the parish of the maternity clinic, by a priest-uncle. He was an only child and lost his father when he was four. From 1911 to 1912, he lived with his mother in the parish house of the uncle who had baptized him at Klein-Villebroek.

Education. Studied at "Institut Sainte-Marie", Schaerbeek; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1920-1927; 1927-1929, where he obtained doctorates in theology and philosophy; and a master's degree in canon law; while in Rome, he resided in the Pontifical Belgian College, Rome 1920-1927, and he was a college's librarian.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 4, 1927, Mechelen, by Cardinal Jozef-Ernest van Roey, archbishop of Mechelen. Further studies in Rome, 1927-1929. Professor at the "Institut Sainte-Marie", Schaerbeek, 1929. Professor of philosophy at the Minor Seminary of Mechelen, 1930-1940. Military chaplain with the 9th artillery regiment of the Belgian Army in southern France, May-August 1940. Vice-rector of the University of Louvain, August 1940; acting rector when Msgr. Honoré van Waeyembergh, the rector, was arrested by the Germans on June 5, 1944, just before the liberation of Belgium; the Germans included Msgr. Suenens' name on a list of thirty hostages who were to be executed; the Allies arrived just before the order would have been carried out. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, October 2, 1941.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Isinda and appointed auxiliary of Mechelen and vicar general, November 12, 1945. Consecrated, December 16, 1945, metropolitan cathedral of Mechelen, by Cardinal Jozef-Ernest van Roey, archbishop of Mechelen, assisted by Étienne Joseph Carton de Wiart, bishop of Tournai, and by Jan van Cauwenbergh, titular bishop of Sinao, auxiliary of Mechelen. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Mechelen, November 24, 1961. The name of the see was changed to Mechelen-Brussels, December 8, 1961.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 19, 1962; received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, March 22, 1962. Military vicar of Belgium, February 2, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965; member of its board of presidency, 1963-1965. President of the Episcopal Conference of Belgium. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, l967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Extraordinary papal envoy to the millennium celebrations of Saint Ulderich's death, Augsburg, Germany, June 10, 1973. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, October 4, 1979. Participated in the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, July 16, 1984. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; special guest.

Death. May 6, 1996, of a thrombosis, in a clinic of Brussels. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Mechelen alongside his immediate predecessors Cardinals Jozef-Ernest van Roey and Pierre-Lambert Goossens (1).

Bibliography. Hamilton, Elizabeth. Suenens : a portrait. Garden City, N.Y. : Doubleday, 1975; Lesourd, Paul ; Ramiz, Jean-Marie. Leon Josef Cardinal Suenens. Notre Dame, IN : University of Notre Dame Press, 1964. (The men who make the council, 2); Suenens, Leon-Joseph. Memories and hopes. Translated by Elena French. Dublin : Veritas, 1992. Note: First published in 1991 by Librairie Arthème Fayard, Paris, France.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


(1) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici from Malta:

LEO JOS. CARD. SUENENS
I ARCHIEP. MECHL.- BRUX.
1961 - 1980
+ 6 MAII 1996


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SUHARD, Emmanuel-Célestin
(1874-1949)

Birth. April 5, 1874, Brains-sur-les-Marches, diocese of Laval, France. Son of Emmanuel Suhard and Jeanne Marsollier; his father died a month after his birth. He was baptized the same day of his birth by Abbé Lambert in the parish church of Brains; the godfather was Célestin Marsollier and the godmother, Anne Suhard. He received his first communion on June 1, 1884; and was confirmed in 1885 in the church of La Roë.

Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Mayenne, diocese of Laval; at the Grand Seminary of Laval; at the Pontifical French Seminary, Rome; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained doctorates in philosophy and theology and a licentiate in canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 18, 1897, in the private chapel of Cardinal Lucido Maria Parocchi, vicar of Rome. Further studies, 1897-1899; returned from Rome in June 1899. Named professor of philosophy at the Grand Seminary of Laval, September 30, 1899; professor of theology, 1912 until his promotion to the episcopate; its vice-rector, 1917-1928. Titular canon of the cathedral chapter of Laval, 1919.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Bayeux and Lisieux, July 6, 1928. Consecrated, October 3, 1928, cathedral of Laval, by Eugène-Jacques Grellier, bishop of Laval, assisted by Florent de La Villerabel, bishop of Annecy, and by Constantin Chauvin, bishop of Évreux. is episcopal motto was In fide et lenitate. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Reims, December 23, 1930.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1935; received the red hat and the title of S. Onofrio, December 19, 1935. Papal legate to the inauguration of the cathedral of Reims restored after the First World War, June 29, 1938. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Paris, May 11, 1940. The Germans searched the archiepiscopal palace and detained the cardinal in it, June 26 to 29, 1940. The Assembly of Cardinals and Archbishops of France established the "Mission de France" on July 24, 1941, which had been planned by the cardinal. On July 1, 1943, he founded the "Mission de Paris". On Christmas Day 1948, he celebrated the first televised mass from Notre Dame cathedral, Paris, in the program "Le Jour du Seigneur".

Death. May 30, 1949, at 2:20 a.m., Paris. The funeral took place in the metropolitan cathedral of Notre-Dame of Paris. In attendance were Cardinals Achille Liénart, bishop of Lille, and Jozef-Ernest van Roey, archbishop of Malines. Also present were Angelo Roncalli, titular archbishop of Mesembria, nuncio in France, and various archbishops and bishops of France. His remains were buried in the crypt of the archbishops in that metropolitan cathedral on June 8, 1949. His memorial tablet is in the north-east corner of the ambulatory in that cathedral (1)

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 497-498; Guérend, Jean-Pierre. Cardinal Emmanuel Suhard, archevêque de Paris (1940-1949). Temps de guerre, temps de paix, passion pour la mission. Paris, Cerf, 2011. (L'histoire à vif ; Variation: Histoire à vif). Contents: Préface d'Émile Poulat 13. L'IPREUVE: 1 - 15 mai 1940, le Cardinal arrive à Paris dans la guerre 25; 2 - Le professeur aux " idées larges " 51; 3 - Du "Magnificat" de la Libération au "Te Deum" de la Victoire 75. L'AFFRONTEMENT: 4 - L'archevêque et le théologien 119; 5 - "Le sang appelle le sang" 163; 6 - Le combat contre le nazisme 205. L'AUDACE: 7 - Tout pour la Mission 243; 8 - Les "encycliques" de l'archevêque de Paris 287; 9- "Je veux laisser un sillage" 313; Temps de guerre, temps de paix, passion pour la Mission 335. Chronologie 339. Sources de la vie et de l'oeuvre du cardinal Emmanuel Suhard 355. Bibliographie 357. Index des noms de personnes 361. Remerciements 367; Vinatier, Jean. Le Cardinal Suhard (1874-1949), l'évêque du renoveaux missionaire en France. Paris : Centurion, 1984.

Links. Photographs, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; A bishop in a mission land by Gian Maria Vian, director, L'Osservatore Romano, 2012-07-09.

(1) This is the text of the inscription in the tablet, kindly provided by Mr. Mark West, from London:

SON ÉMINENCE LE CARDINAL
EMMANUEL SUHARD
ARCHEVÊQUE DE PARIS
1874 - 1940 - 1949
In fide et lenitate


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SUQUÍA GOICOECHEA, Ángel
(1916-2006)

Birth. October 2, 1916, Zaldivia, diocese of San Sebastián, Spain. One of the thirteen children of José Ignacio Suquía y Justa Goicoechea.

Education. Studied at the School of the Brothers of Christian Schools (La Salle), Beasain, 1925-1927; at the Minor Seminary of Saturrarán, Motrico, Guipúzcoa, 1927-1931; at the Major Seminary of Vitoria, 1931-1936; when the Spanish Civil War started in 1936, he was destined to the fort of Guadalupe as soldiers' instructor; in 1939, he travelled to the Benedictine monastery of Maria Laach, Germany, to study liturgy but when the Second World War started in that same year, he quickly returned to Spain; finally, he also studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1946-1949, obtaining a doctorate in theology with the highest grades, with the thesis: "La santa Misa en la espiritualidad de San Ignacio de Loyola".

Priesthood. Ordained, July 7, 1940, chapel of the Seminary of Vitoria. Successively, 1940-1946, pastoral ministry in the diocese of Vitoria; counselor of the Young Men Catholic Action; director of houses of spiritual exercises in Madrid and Bilbao. Further studies, Rome, 1946-1949. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Vitoria, 1949-1951; faculty member of its seminary, 1951-1955; rector, 1955-1965. Faculty member of the School of Social Assistants and of the Center of Superior Religious Studies; counselor of the Catholic National Association of Propagandists; director of the Diocesan Secretariat for spiritual development of the city of Vitoria; canon penitentiary of the cathedral of Vitoria, 1954-1966; vice-president of the Institute of Spirituality, Pontifical University of Salamanca; pastoral ministry in Cuba as chaplain of the Brothers of Christian Schools (La Salle) and director of the house of spiritual exercises of Santa María del Rosario, in the province of La Habana.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Almería, Spain, May 17, 1966; consecrated, July 16, 1966, in an open esplanade, Almaerí, by Antonio Riberi, titular archbishop of Dara, nuncio in Spain, assisted by Lorenzo Bereciartúa, bishop of San Sebastián, and by Francisco Peralta y Ballabriga, bishop of Vitoria. Transferred to the see of Málaga, November 28, 1969. Promoted to metropolitan see of Santiago de Compostela, April 13, 1973. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Transferred to the archbishopric of Madrid, April 12, 1983.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of Gran Madre di Dio, May 25, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. President of the Spanish Episcopal Conference from 1987 until 1993. Special papal envoy to the Bolivarian Marian Eucharistic Congress, Lima, Perú, May 7-15, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Special papal envoy to the 4th centennial celebration of St. John of God's death, Segovia, Spain, December 14, 1990. Named metropolitan archbishop of Madrid, when the archbishopric was established as a metropolitan see. July 23, 1991. Papal legate to the closing ceremonies of the Ignatian Year, shrine of Loyola, San Sebastián, Spain, July 31, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, July 28, 1994. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 2, 1996.

Death. July 13, 2006, at 1:45 a.m., after a long illness and complications related to old age, at his home in San Sebastián, Spain. His burial took place on Saturday July 15, 2006, in the chapel of San Isidro, in the metropolitan cathedral of Santa María la Real de la Almudena, Madrid (1).

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 127.

(1) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici from Malta:

ANGEL CARDENAL SUQUIA GOICOECHEA
DEL TITULO DE LA EXCELSA MADRE DE DIOS
1916 - 2006
OBISPO DE ALMERIA 1966 - 1969 Y DE MALAGA 1969 - 1973
ARZOBISPO DE SANTIAGO 1973 - 1983
ARZOBISPO DE MADRID 1983 - 1994


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ŚWIĄTEK, Kazimierz
(1914-2011)

Birth. October 21, 1914, Valga, then archdiocese Minsk-Mohilev (Russian Empire), now apostolic administration of Estonia (Republic of Estonia). Son of Polish immigrants Jan Świątek and Weronika Kromplewska. He was baptized in the parish of Sāpju Dievmātes, Riga. In 1917, when he was three years old, he was deported with his mother, his older brother Edward and his younger sister Izabela to Siberia; they remained there until 1922. His father died in 1920 in the Polish-Russian war, defending the city of Vilnius against the Bolsheviks. From 1922, he lived with his mother and siblings for a short time in Duksztach; then, in Baranowicze, Poland.

Education. Primary and secondary education in Baranowicze; finished at the gymnasium Tadeusz Reytan in 1932. Entered the Major Seminary of St. Thomas Aquinas, Pinsk, Belarus, Soviet Union, on September 8, 1933, influenced by Zygmunt Łoziński, bishop of Pinsk from 1925 to 1932.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 8, 1939, cathedral of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary in Pinsk, by Kazimierz Bukraba, bishop of Pinsk, a few months before invading Soviet forces occupied eastern Poland, where his parish was located. Incardinated in diocese of Pinsk. From April 21, 1939 to April 21, 1941 he was curate and later, after he was called as chaplain of the Polish Army in May 1939, administrator of the parish in Pruž any, diocese of Pinsk. On April 21, 1941, he was arrested and kept in the Brest prison, where in the course of two months he was interrogated fifty-nine times and sentenced to death. He stayed for two months isolated on death row, awaiting his execution. On June 21, 1941, he was released by the people of the town, taking advantage of the disorder caused by the German offensive. Father Świątek walked back to his parish, but found it occupied by the Gestapo, which made it difficult for him to exercise his priestly ministry. When the offensive of the Soviet Red Army was approaching in 1944, he stayed with his parishioners. He was again arrested on December 17, 1944 and sent to prison in Minsk, where he spent five months. On July 21, 1945, he was sentenced to ten years of forced labor and five years of deprivation of civil rights. In September 1945, he was interned in the Marwinsk labor camp in eastern Siberia, where he stayed for two years; seeing that he was able to hold the work and the cold, they transferred to him on December 3, 1947 to the field of Workuta, in the Arctic, where he worked in construction sites, with a terrible cold and very little food. He was freed, June 16, 1954. Pastor of the cathedral of Pinsk, December 1, 1954 until April 11, 1989. Chaplain of His Holiness, February 2, 1988. Vicar general of the diocese of Pinsk, April 11, 1989. On October 29, 1990, he was received by Pope John Paul II. in the Vatican, who called him "a man of legend".

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Minsk-Mohilev and named apostolic administrator ad nutum Sanctae Sedis of Pinsk, April 13, 1991. Consecrated, May 21, 1991, cathedral of Pinsk, by Tadeusz Kondrusiewicz, titular archbishop of Ippona Zarito, apostolic administrator of European Russia, assisted by Władysław Jedruszuk, titular bishop of Clisma, apostolic administrator of the Polish territory of the diocese of Pinsk, and by Edward Kisiel, titular bishop of Limata, apostolic administrator of the Polish territory of the archdiocese of Vilnius. His episcopal motto was Mater Misericordiae. Received the pallium from Pope John Paul II. on June 29, 1991, at the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the title of S. Gerardo Maiella, November 26, 1994. He was older than 80 years when created a cardinal and, therefore, never had the right to participate in the conclave. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. In 2000 he was decorated with the order Ecce Homo (Odznaczeni Orderem Ecce Homo), a Polish church decoration, intended for those who prove the truth of their actions words: "This man is proud." On September 27, 2004, Pope John Paul II awarded him the Fidei Testis (Witness of Faith) prize, conferred by the "Pope Paul VI Institute" in recognition of heroism in living the faith. On June 14, 2006, the pope accepted the resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Minsk-Mohilev that he had presented in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. He continued to carry out the office of apostolic administrator ad nutum Sanctae Sedis of Pinsk until June 30, 2011. On November 23, 2006, M. Jacques Chirac, president of France, decorated him with the order of a commander of the Legion of Honor (L'Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), as the man, who for the citizens of France, embodies the history of the Belarusian people from the last seventy years. The cardinal resigned the presidency of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of Belarus on June 14, 2006, since he was no longer a diocesan bishop; he was elected for the first time on February 11, 1999, and served for three year terms until his resignation. On May 19, 2010, he broke a leg and after a refracture on March 8, 2011, his condition was very serious. On April 7, 2011, an operation was necessary, and since then, the cardinal was unconscious and in a coma. He was the first cardinal of Belarus and the oldest cardinal of the Church who headed a diocese.

Death. July 21, 2011, at 9.00 a.m., in the Central Hospital in Pinsk. At the moment of his death, his nephew, who is a physician in the Central Hospital in Pinsk and was on duty that morning; and Valeriy Kravets, his driver and assistant for 35 years, were with him. A first requiem mass took place on Saturday, July 23, 2011, at 1.00 p.m., in the cathedral of Minsk. After the ceremony the body of the late cardinal lay in state until the last mass in this cathedral took place. Then the remains were transferred to Pinsk. The requiem mass in Pinsk took place on Monday July 25, 2011, at noon, in front of the cathedral of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, presided by Cardinal Stanisław Dziwisz, archbishop of Kraków, Poland, as representative of the pope. Concelebrants were Cardinal Jānis Pujats, archbishop emeritus of Riga, Latvia, and Tadeusz Kondrusiewicz, archbishop of Minsk-Mohilev and apostolic administrator ad nutum Sanctae Sedis of Pinsk. Also present were all the bishops of Belarus and bishops from Poland and the Ukraine. Before the burial rite, Archbishop Kondrusiewicz delievered very emotional words to the late cardinal and payed high respects to a "real servant of God". Then, the coffin was brought by six priests in a procession into the cathedral, accompanied by the bishops and the clergy. The body of the cardinal was buried in a marble sarcophagus in the crypt of that cathedral.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Revue des ordinations épiscopales. Mango, Fla. : Charles N. Bransom, 1994, no. 1-2, p. 9; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 423-426.

Links. Photograph, arms and biography, in English, Catholic.by, Roman Catholic Church in Belarus; photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; Belarus: Cardinal who survived the gulag has died, in English, Independent Catholic News; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; photo gallery of the funeral and burial in the cathedral of Pinsk, Catholic.by.


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SZOKA, Edmund Casimir
(1927-

Birth. September 14, 1927, Grand Rapids, United States of America. Son of Casimir Szoka and Mary Wolgat, Polish immigrants.

Education. Studied at Saint Paul's Seminary, Grand Rapids; at Saint John's Interdiocesan Seminary, Plymouth (bachelor of arts); at the Sacred Heart Seminary, Detroit (theology); and at the Pontifical Urbanian University, Rome (licentiate in canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 5, 1954, St. Peter cathedral, Marquette, by Thomas Lawrence Noa, bishop of Marquette. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Saginaw and secretary to its bishops, 1954-1962; accompanied Bishop Thomas Lawrence Noa to the first session of the Second Vatican Council, 1962; chaplain at the Sawyer Air Force base, 1956. Further studies, Rome, 1957-1959. In Saginaw, official of the diocesan ecclesiastical tribunal, 1960-1971; assistant to the chancellor secretary, 1962-1969; pastoral ministry, 1962-1971. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, November 14, 1963. Vicar for religious and vicar general of Marquette, 1968-1971; chancellor, 1971.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Gaylord, June 11, 1971. Consecrated, July 20, 1971, Our Lady of Mount Carmel cathedral, Gaylord, by Cardinal John Francis Dearden, archbishop of Detroit, assisted by Charles Alexander Salatka, bishop of Marquette, and by Joseph Crescent McKinney, titular bishop of Lentini, auxiliary of Grand Rapids. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Detroit, March 21, 1981. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Andrea e Gregorio al Monte Celio, June 28, 1988. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of Holy See, 1989. President of the Prefecture for Economic Affairs of the Holy See, January 22, 1990 to October 15, 1997. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, April 28, 1990. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Special papal envoy to the National Catechetical Congress, Manila, Philippines, December 5 to 8, 1990. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. Special papal envoy to the Holy See's Day, International Exposition, Taejon, South Korea, September 19, 1993. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the 400th anniversary of the martyrdom of 26 Japanese saints, Nagasaki, Japan, February 5, 1997. President of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City, October 14, 1997. Special papal envoy to the ceremonies of the reconsecration of the cathedral of Minsk, Belarus, October 21, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 13, 1998; the Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998. Special papal envoy to the concluding celebrations for the 450th anniversary of the first evangelization of Japan, in Kagoshima, October 11, 1999. Special papal envoy to the millennial celebrations of archdiocese of Wrocław, Poland, June 24, 2000. President of the Governatorato for the State of Vatican City, February 22, 2001. Papal delegate to the inauguration of the "Pope John Paul II Cultural Center" in Washington, United States, March 21-22, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reappointed president of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City, April 21, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005; by papal appointment. On June 22, 2006, the pope accepted, according to canon 354 of the Code of Canon Law, his resignation as president of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City and president of the Governatorato of the same state, asking him to remain in the posts until September 15, 2006, with all inherent faculties of those offices. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on September 14, 2007.

Bibliography. Carson, Thomas. "Szoka, Edmund Casimir." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyła years. Detroit, MI : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, p. 417-418.

Link. His arms Araldica Vaticana.

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