The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
(1903-2011)
T

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TAURAN, Jean-Louis
(1943-

Birth. April 5, 1943, Bordeaux, France. His baptismal name is Louis-Pierre. He received sacrament of confirmation on June 5, 1955, from Paul-Marie-André Richaud, archbishop of Bordeaux, future cardinal.

Education. Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (licentiates in philosophy and theology; and doctorate in canon law, 1973); Catholic Institute, Toulouse; Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome. Besides his native French, he speaks Spanish, English and Italian.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 20, 1969, Bordeaux, by Marius Maziers, archbishop of Bordeaux. Parish pastor in the archdiocese of Bourdeaux. Entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See in 1975. Secretary in the nunciature in the Dominican Republic, 1975-1978. Secretary in the nunciature in Lebanon, 1979-1983. Staff member in the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church from July 1983. Participated in special missions in Haiti, 1984; Beirut and Damascus, 1986. Member of the Holy See delegation to the meetings of the Conference on European Security and Cooperation; Conference on Disarmament, Stockholm, Sweden; Cultural Forum, Budapest, Hungary, and its successive meetings in Vienna.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Telepte and appointed secretary of the Secretariat of State for the Relations with the States, December 1, 1990. Consecrated, January 6, 1991, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Giovanni Battista Re, titular archbishop of Vescovio, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Justin Francis Rigali, titular archbishop of Bolsena, secretary of the Congregation for Bishops. His episcopal motto is Veritate et Caritate. In the same ceremony were consecrated future Cardinals Vinko Puljić, Francisco Javier Errázuriz Ossa, of the Fathers of Schönstatt, and Julián Herranz Casado.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Apollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine, October 21, 2003. Archivist and Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, November 24, 2003. Took part, as representative of the pope, in the inauguration of the new Holocaust History Museum at Yad Vashem Mausoleum, Jerusalem, on March 15, 2005. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Special papal envoy to the central celebrations of the Extraordinary Jubilee Year of the diocese of Le Puy-en-Velay, France, that took place on May 29, 2005 in the cathedral basilica of Notre Dame du Puy. Attended the Tenth General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005; by papal appointment. Named president of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialog on June 25, 2007; assumed the post on September 1, 2007. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". Special papal envoy to the conclusive ceremonies of the Pauline Year observed on June 29, 2009, in Turkey. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World". Special papal envoy to celebration of the millennium of the Abbey of Saint-Pierre de Solesmes, France, which took place on October 12, 2010. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for the Middle East of the Synod of Bishops, October 10 to 24, 2010, Vatican City; elected member of the Special Council for the Middle East of the Secretariat General of the Synod of Bishops, October 23, 2010. On November 23, 2010, he received a doctorate honoris causa from the Institut Catholique de Paris. Confirmed by Pope Benedict XVI in the office of cardinal proto deacon in the consistory of February 21, 2011. Several years ago, he began to suffer from what was diagnosed as Parkinson's disease. On June 19, 2012, he was confirmed for five years as president of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. As cardinal protodeacon, he announced the election of the new pope and his papal name. He imposed the pallium on the new pope at the inauguration of the Petrine ministry of the pontiff on March 19, 2013. On April 15, 2013, he was named special papal envoy to the celebrations of the fourth centennial of the arrival of the icon of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Budslau, Belarus, which took place July 5 and 6, 2013, in the National Shrine that is in the territory of the archdiocese of Minsk-Mohilev. On June 26, 2013, the pope appointed him member of the Pontifical Commission concerning the Institute for the Works of Religion (Vatican Bank). On August 24, 2013, he was named special papal envoy to the celebrations of the first centennial of the archdiocese of Lille, France, which took place on October 26 and 27, 2013. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for Bishops on December 16, 2013. On January 15, 2014, he was named member, for the next quiquennium, of the Commission of Cardinals overseeing the Institute for the Works of Religion (IOR). Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches for another quinquennium on February 19, 2014. On March 15, 2014, he was named special papal envoy to the consecration of the Shrine of Saint Augustine of Hippo in Annaba (once known as Hippo Regius), Algeria, recently restored, programmed for May 2, 2014, in the centennial of its elevation to the rank of basilica. On March 29, 2014, he was confirmed as president of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialog and as member of the Pontifical Council for Culture. Opted for the order of cardinal priests on June 12, 2014 and his deaconry, S. Apollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine, was elevated pro hac vice to title. At the same time, he ceased as cardinal protodeacon.

Bibliography. Jore, Alexander. Épiscopologe Français de 1592 à 1973. Mis à jour et continué jusqu'en 2004. Complément de l'article "France" du Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie Ecclésiastiques t. XVIII, colonnes 161 à 532. Pro-Manuscripto, 25 - III- 2004, no. 3319.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana; Aver visto il Papa che prega, Appunti e riflessioni del cardinale Jean-Louis Tauran, presidente del Pontificio Consiglio per il Dialogo interreligioso, in Italian, (Testo raccolto da Giovanni Cubeddu) 30 Giorni, tratto dal n. 05 - 2012; Le cardinal Tauran prend la défense de la jeune Pakistanaise accusée de blasphème, La Croix, 25/8/12 - 14 H 32; Cardinal Tauran in charge of pronouncing "Habemus Papam", video, Rome Reports, 2013-03-06 17:06:48; Cardenal anuncis el "­Habemus Papam!" luchando contra el Parkinson, ACI, 21 Mar. 13 / 12:21 pm.


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TERRAZAS SANDOVAL, C.SS.R., Julio
(1936-

Birth. March 7, 1936, Vallegrande, diocese of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia.

Education. Joined the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer (Redemptorists) in Chile, 1952; Redemptorist Seminary of San Bernardo, Chile; Novitiate of Salta, Argentina; religious profession, 1957; Redemptorist Institute, Córdoba, Argentina (philosophy and theology); EMACAS University, France (social pastoral).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 29, 1962. Superior of the Redemptorist community of Vallegrande; vicar foraneo until 1978.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Apisa maggiore and appointed auxiliary of La Paz, April 15, 1978. Consecrated, June 8, 1978, church of Santo Nombre de Jesús, Vallegrande, by Cardinal José Clemente Maurer, C.SS.R., archbishop of Sucre, assisted by Giuseppe Laigueglia, titular archbishop of Elie, nuncio in Bolivia, and by Jorge Manrique Hurtado, archbishop of La Paz. His episcopal motto is Servidor de todos. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Transferred to the see of Oruro, January 9, 1982. Attended the Second Extraordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8,1985. President of the Episcopal Conference of Bolivia, 1985-1991 and 1998-2005; also, its vice-president. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, February 6, 1991. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992; the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of S. Giovanni Battista de' Rossi, February 21, 2001. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the Tenth National Eucharistic Congress of Argentina that took place in Corrientes, September 2 to 5, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Elected president of the Episcopal Conference of Bolivia, 2006; reelected, 2009. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On May 25, the pope accepted his resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, in accordance to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. He was succeeded by Sergio Alfredo Gualberti Calandrina, until then archbishop coadjutor of that same archdiocese. Confirmed as member of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America on January 15, 2014.

Links. Photograph and biographical data, in Spanish, archdiocese of Santa Cruz de la Sierra; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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TETTAMANZI, Dionigi
(1934-

Birth. March 14, 1934, Renate, archdiocese of Milan, Italy. One of the three children of Egidio Tettamanzi and Giuditta Ciceri, who died at 101 in February 2012. The other siblings were Antonio and Giovanna.

Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Seveso, Milan; at the Seminary of Venegono Inferiore, (licentiateship in theology); and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 28, 1957, Milan, by Giovanni Battista Montini, archbishop of Milan. Further studies in Rome, 1957-1960. Successively, in Milan: pastoral ministry; faculty member, Minor Seminary of Masnago and of Seveso San Pietro, 1960-1966. Faculty member, Seminary of Venegono, 1966-1986; faculty member, Lombard Pastoral Institute; member, Scientific Committee of International Center of Studies on the Family; judge of the Regional Ecclesiastical Tribunal of Lombardy; ecclesiastical assistant of the Catholic Physicians Association; ecclesiastical consultant of the National Federation of Catholic Family Counselors; chaplain in Turate for more than 15 years. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; expert. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; assistant to the special secretary. Rector of the Pontifical Lombardian Seminary, September 11,1987 until 1989. President of the Administrative Council of the Catholic newspaper Avvenire, April 28, 1989.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Ancona-Osimo, July 1, 1989. Consecrated, September 23, 1989, Milan, by Cardinal Carlo Maria Martini, archbishop of Milan, assisted by Carlo Maccari, archbishop of Ancona-Osimo, and by Bernardo Citterio, titular bishop of Floriana, auxiliary of Milan. Secretary general of the Italian Episcopal Conference, ad quinquenium, March 14, 1991. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, April 6, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Genoa, April 20, 1995. Vice-president of the Italian Episcopal Conference, May 25, 1995.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Ambrogio e Carlo, February 21, 1998. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; president of the commission for the message. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, March 6, 2000. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Milan, July 11, 2002. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. On June 28, 2011, the pope accepted the resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Milan, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. The pope named Cardinal Angelo Scola, until then patriarch of Venice, to succeed him. Cardinal Tettamanzi was apostolic administrator of Milan until the taking of possession (by procurator Carlo Redaelli, auxiliary bishop and vicar general of Milan) of his successor on September 9, 2011. On July 23, 2012, he was named apostolic administrator of the diocese of Vigevano, vacant due to resignation on July 21, 2012 because of health of Bishop Vincenzo Di Mauro, until the taking of possession by the new bishop. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, until the expiration of his term, on February 19, 2014. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on March 14, 2014.

Bibliography. Valli, Aldo Maria. Voi mi sarete testimoni : [Dionigi Tettamanzi arcivescovo a Milano]. Milano : Rizzoli, 2009. (Rizzoli best; Variation: Rizzoli best). Note: Contains brief biography of D. Tettamanzi (1934-).

Links. His photograph, biography, pastoral activities, homilies, interventions, leters and message, and discourses, in Italian; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Milano (III-XXI secolo), in Italian, archdiocese of Milan; 8 settembre 2011 - Pontificale di Santa Maria Nascente in Duomo Milano, in Italian, farewell mass of Cardinal Tettamanzi, You Tube; 8 settembre 2011 - Omelia del card. Tettamanzi , in Italian, homily of Cardinal Tettamanzi, You Tube; Nuovo Amministratore Apostolico, Comunicato Stampa, diocese of Vigevano, 24 luglio 2012; Il card. Tettamanzi sarà l'amministratore apostolico della diocesi di Vigevano, Chiesa, Avvenire, 24 luglio 2012; Cardinal hopes for upcoming beatification of Pope Paul VI, CNA/EWTN News, Aug 10, 2012 / 12:01 pm.


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TODEA, Alexandru
(1912-2002)

Birth. June 5, 1912. Teleac, archdiocese of Făgăraş and Alba Julia, Romania. Of a peasant family. His parents were Gheorghe and Maria Todea. He was the thirteenth of sixteen children.

Education. Studied at Lyceum "Sfântul Vasile cel Mare", Blaj; he later attended the Pontifical Urban Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide", Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in theology.

Sacred orders. Received the subdiaconate as well as the diaconate on December 11, 1938 from Bishop Iuliu Hossu of Cluj-Gherla in the chapel of Collegio Pio Romeno, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 25, 1939, in the chapel of Collegio Pio Romeno, Rome, by Alexander Evreinoff, titular archbishop of Pario, ordaining prelate for the Byzantine Catholics in Rome. Further studies, 1939-1940, Rome. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Făgăraş and Alba Julia, 1940 until the Catholic Church of Byzantine-Romanian rite was suppressed in 1948. He was arrested several times between 1945-1948 and escaped.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Cesaropoli and appointed auxiliary of Făgăraş and Alba, July 4, 1950. Consecrated, November 19, 1950, secretly, not during a mass, sacristy of the cathedral of Sfântul Iosif, Bucarest, by Joseph Schubert, titular bishop of Ceramussa, apostolic administrator of Bucarest, with see in Blaj; without co-consecrators. His episcopal motto was Bucuros maă voi cheltui şi pe mine, pentru sufletele voastre. On January 31st, 1951, he was captured by the political police of the Gheorghiu-Dej communist regime, Securitate. He was sentenced to hard labor for life, following a trial in 1952 when the prosecutor initially requested death penalty. In 1964, based on the amnesty given for political detainees, and after spending 14 years in the hardest communist prison, he was pardoned, released, and placed under house arrest. In 1986, the Greek-Catholic Episcopal Conference held a secret meeting and elected him as its head. The Greek-Catholic Church gained its freedom in 1989 and confirmed him in his post a year later. He had spent a total of 16 years in jail and 27 years under house arrest during the period of the communist regime. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Făgăraş and Alba Julia of the Romanians, March 14, 1990. President of the Episcopal Conference of Romania, March 16, 1990-1994. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; member of its general secretariat, 1990-1994.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1991; received the red biretta and the title of S. Atanasio a Via Tiburtina, June 28, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, June 5, 1992. Suffered a stroke that left him paralyzed and confined to a wheel chair, 1992. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, July 20, 1994. Honorary member of Academiei Române.

Death. May 22, 2002, while recovering in a hospital in the Transylvanian city of Targu Mures, ten years after being paralyzed by a stroke. Buried in the crypt of the Most Holy Trinity metropolitan cathedral of Blaj (Fagaras si Alba Iulia) (1).

Links. Photograph and biography, in Romanian, Wikipedia; photograph and biographical information, in Romanian, no. 75 Mari români; photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

+
ALEXANDRU
CARDINAL
TODEA
1912 - 2002


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TOMKO, Jozef
(1924-

Birth. March 11, 1924, Udavské, diocese of Kosice, Czechoslovakia (now Slovakia).

Education. Initial studies at the local primary school; secondary education in Michalovce, 1935-1943; Theological Faculty of Sts. Cyril and Methodius, Bratislava, 1943-1944; in the fall of 1945, he was sent to Rome; resided at Collegio St. John Nepomuceno; studied at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorates in theology, canon law and social sciences; dissertation: De Sancti Spiritus inhabitatione secundum B. Petrum de Tarantasia, 1951). After 1948, he was unable to return to Czechoslovakia because of the persecution by the Communist government.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 12, 1949, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. Pastoral ministry in the dioceses of Rome and Porto e Santa Rufina, 1950-1979. Economous, vice-rector and rector, Pontifical Nepomucenus College and residence, Rome, 1950-1965. Faculty member, International University Pro Deo, Rome, 1955-1956. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, December 5, 1959; August 3, 1963. Entered the service of the Holy See, 1962 as adjunct, Book Censorship Section, S.C. for the Doctrine of the Faith; adjutant of study; capo ufficio of doctrinal section, 1966. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; special secretary. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, June 17, 1970. Faculty member, Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1970-1978. Undersecretary of the S.C. for Bishops, 1974. Co-founder of the religious journal of the Institute of Saints Cyril and Methodius, Rome.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Doclea and appointed secretary general of the Synod of Bishops, July 12, 1979. Consecrated, September 15, 1979, Sistine Chapel, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagaste, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Andrew Gregory Grutka, bishop of Gary, United States. His episcopal motto is Ut Ecclesia aedificitur. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; the Fifith Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; secretary general. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; secretary general. Pro-prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, April 24, 1985.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Gesù Buon Pastore alla Montagnola, May 25, 1985. Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples and grand chancellor of Pontifical Urbanian University, May 27, 1985 until April 9, 2001. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Special papal envoy to the celebration honoring the martyrs of Uganda, Kampala, June 3, 1986. Special papal envoy to the Third Latin American Missionary Congress, Bogotá, Colombia, July 5 to 8, 1987. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Special papal envoy to the centennial celebration of the evangelization of Mali, Bamaco, November 15 to 20, 1988; to the celebration of the centennial of the pilgrimage to the National Marian Shrine of Notre-Dame de la Délivrance de Poponguine, Dakar, Sénégal, December 8, 1989. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Special papal envoy to the Fourth Latin American Missionary Congress, Lima, Perú, February 3 to 8, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. Special papal envoy to the centennial celebration of the establishment of the Catholic Church in Cameroun, December 1 to 8, 1991. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Special papal envoy to the celebration of 150th anniversary of the evangelization of the kingdom of Tonga, South Pacific, November 1992; to the centennial celebration of the evangelization of the archdiocese of Accra, Ghana, August 22, 1993. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 150th anniversary of the evangelization ot the Fiji Islands, Polynesia, August 15, 1994. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Member of the Presynodal Council for the Special Synod of Asian Bishops, September 1995. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Sabina, January 29, 1996. Special papal envoy for the closing ceremonies of the first of centennial of the evangelization of Namibia, Windhoek, December 8, 1996; to the ceremonies for the 150th anniversary of the erection of the diocese of Port-Louis, Mauritius, October 26, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 19 to May 18, 1998; president delegate; member of post-synodal council, May 8, 1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998. Special papal envoy to the Sixth Latin American Missionary Congress and the First American Missionary Congress, Paraná, Argentina, September 28 to October 3, 1999. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Named president of the Pontifical Committee for the International Eucharistic Congresses, October 23, 2001. Special papal envoy to the solemn promulgation of the Acts of the First Plenary Council of the Church in Slovenia, Ljubljana, May 18, 2002. Special papal envoy to the ceremony of the translation of the relics of Blessed Bishop Teodor Romzha, Uzhorod, Ukraine, June 28, 2003. Presided the delegation of the Holy See to the Inter-religious Congress, Astana, Kazakhstan, September 23-24, 2003. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, March 11, 2004. Papal legate to the celebrations of the 48th International Eucharistic Congress that took place in Guadalajara, México, October 10 to 17, 2004. Reappointed as president of the Pontifical Committee for the International Eucharistic Congresses, April 21, 2005. Special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the Slovakian National Eucharistic Congress that took place in Bratislava-Petržalka on September 18, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the First Universitarian International Eucharistic Congress that took place in Murcia, Spain, on November 9 to 13, 2005. Retired as president of the Pontifical Committee for the International Eucharistic Congresses on October 1, 2007. Papal legate to the celebrations of the 49th International Eucharistic Congress that took place in Québec, Canada, from June 15 to 22, 2008. Special papal envoy to the conclusive ceremonies of the Pauline Year observed on June 29, 2009, in Greece. Special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the 150th anniversary of the evangelization of Taiwan, which took place in Taipei on November 22, 2009. Special papal envoy to the celebrations marking the third centenary of the consecration of the cathedral of Minsk, Belarus, which took place on October 9, 2010. On July 2, 2011, he was named special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the jubilar year for the 600th anniversary of the "eucharistic miracle of Ludbreg", Croatia, to take place at the Shrine of Ludbreg, diocese of Varaždin, on September 4, 2011. On July 23, 2011, Pope Benedict XVI named him special papal envoy to the celebration for the centennial of the dedication of the cathedral of the Immaculate Conception in Moscow, Russian Federation, programmed for September 25, 2011. Member of the Commission of Cardinals to investigate the leak of reserved and confidential documents on television, in newspapers and in other communications media, April 24, 2012. Special papal envoy to the solemn jubilar celebration that took place in Lviv, Ukraine, on September 8, 2012, on the occasion of the 600º anniversary of the archiepiscopal and metropolitan see of Lviv of the Latins. On June 7, 2014, he was named special papal envoy to the 25th anniversary of the recovered freedom of the Greek-Catholic eparchy of Mukachevo, programed at the Major Seminary of Uzhhorod, Ukraine, on June 28, 2014.

Link. Photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph, arms and biography, in Slovak, Catholic Church of Slovakia; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Presentaron a Benedicto XVI los resultados de la investigación sobre las cartas robadas by H. Sergio Mora, in Spanish, Zenit, el Mundo visto desde Roma, 18-06-2012; Lombardi: Commission is carrying out full scale investigation into Vatican document leaks by Alessandro Speciale, Vatican Insider, 06/18/2012; Card. Tomko: Understanding for Pope, age takes its toll on body, Rome Reports, 2013-02-12 18:44:44; I migliori anni della mia vita. Il cardinale Jozef Tomko racconta il suo lungo servizio alla Chiesa, L'Osservatore Romano, 02 luglio 2014.


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TONINI, Ersilio
(1914-2013)

Birth. July 20, 1914, Centovera di San Giorgio Piacentino, diocese of Piacenza, Italy. From a family of humble farmers. He was the third of the five children of Cesare Tonini and Celestina Guarnieria.

Education. Entered the Minor Seminary of Piacenza in 1925; then, studied at the Seminary of Piacenza; and later, at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome, where he obtained degrees in civil and canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 18, 1937, Piacenza, by Ersilio Menzani, bishop of Piacenza. Vice-rector of the Seminary of Piacenza, 1937-1939. Further studies, Rome, 1939-1943. From 1943 to 1969, in the diocese of Piacenza, professor of Italian, Latin and Greek at the seminary and similtaneously ecclesiastical assistant of FUCI (Federation of Catholic Italian University Students) and of the Laureati Catolici; director of the weekly Il nuovo giornale. Named pastor of the parish of Salsomaggiore on December 14, 1953; occupied the post for many years; he built the Oratorio Don Bosco; and at the same time was spiritual assistant to the students of Collegio di Castelnuovo Fogliano of the Catholic University. Named privy chamberlain supernumerary of His Holiness on November 6, 1959; confirmed on May 11, 1963. Named rector of the Seminary of Piacenza in September 1968.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Macerata e Tolentino and appointed apostolic administrator sede vacante of Cingoli, Recanati and Treia, April 28, 1969. Consecrated, June 2, 1969, by Umberto Malchiodi, archbishop-bishop of Piacenza, assisted by Agostino Casaroli, titular archbishop of Cartago, secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Carlo Colombo, titular bishop of Victoriana, auxiliary of Milan. His episcopal motto was In fide vivo Fili Dei. Promoted to metropolitan see of Ravenna and also named bishop of Cervia, November 22, 1975 (1). Both circumscriptions were united on September 20, 1986. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Apostolic administrator of Rimini, 1988-1989. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, October 27, 1990. Preached Vatican Lent spiritual exercises, February 1991 with the theme "La Chiesa della speranza per questo nostro tempo". In 1991, he was among the protagonists of the television program "I dieci comandamenti all'italiana", by Enzo Biagi. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the title of SS. Redentore a Val Melaina, November 26, 1994. He was older than 80 years when created a cardinal and, therefore, never had the right to participate in the conclave.

Death. July 28, 2013, in his sleep, at 2 a.m., at Opera Santa Teresa del Bambino Gesù in Ravenna. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Francis sent a telegram of condolence to Archbishop Lorenzo Ghizzoni of Ravenna-Cervia (2). Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., secretary of State, sent an analogous telegram (3). The body was be exposed in the major church of Santa Teresa, of the Opera. The funeral took place on Tuesday July 30 in the metropolitan cathedral of S. Apollinare of Ravenna. Cardinal Dionigi Tettamanzi, archbishop emeritus of Milan, represented the Holy See. He also concelebrated the mass, presided over by Archbishop Ghizzoni, who also delivered the homily, with the participation of several bishops and dozens of priests. One thousand faithful filled the cathedral. Then the body was brought to the Monumental Cemetery of Ravenna and placed in one of the tombs reserved for the archbishops. In his will, the late cardinal left all his possessions to the Opera of Santa Teresa. At the time of his death, he was the oldest living member of the College of Cardinals. On July 23, 2014, the remains of the cardinal were taken to the restored cathedral, just below the Chapel of Sant'Andrea, and permanently buried, along with other archbishops.

Bibliography. Ersilio Tonini, arcivescovo emerito di Ravenna, cardinale: comunicare col cuore : ritratto, intervista, testimonianze. [A cura di] Giuseppe Zois. Clusone (BG): Ferrari, 1994; Severini, Paola. Ersilio Tonini : comunicatore di Dio. Cinisello Balsamo (Milano) : San Paolo, 1999.

Links. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Ersilio Tonini compie 95 anni «A Dio dirò: grazie» by Marina Corradi, in Italian, Avvenire, 20 luglio 2009; L'Intervista Cardinale Ersilio Tonini, You Tube, uploaded by ravennawebtv on July 20, 2010; Cardinale Ersilio Tonini - Sul senso della vita, You Tube, uploaded by riflession on Feb 23, 2011; Lo stupore per la vita. Il Cardinale Ersilio Tonini, grazie agli insegnamenti della madre, è capace ancora oggi di stupirsi per il dono della vita, You Tube, uploaded by LaStoriaSeiTu on Jan 18, 2012; La grande storia e lo stupore dell'alba narrati da Ersilio Tonini by Marina Corradi, in Italian, Avvenire, 13 luglio 2012; Il cardinale Tonini: la fede, buttarsi nelle braccia di Dio , in Italian, Avvenire, 25 maggio 2013; È morto il cardinale Ersilio Tonini by Giacomo Galeazzi, in Italian, Vatican Insider, 28/07/2013; Erede e testimone della grande tradizione popolare cristiana by Marina Corradi, in Italian, Avvenire, 28 luglio 2013; Cardinal Ersilio Tonini passes away at 99, Rome Reports, 2013-07-29 12:56:57; Tonini e la capacità di incontrare laltro by Quinto Cappelli, Avvenire, 28 agosto 2013; Le spoglie del card. Tonini nel Duomo di Ravenna, Avvenire, 16 luglio 2014.

(1) He earned fame as archbishop of Ravenna, when he left his comfortable quarters in the archbishop's palace to minister to the poor derelicts and addicts in the streets and help out caring for the sick at the Saint Teresa Institute, where he resided until his death. For this, he became known as "The Mother Teresa of Ravenna".
(2) This is the text of the telegram taken from the Press Office of the Holy See:
A Sua Eccelenza Rev.ma
Mons. Lorenzo Ghizzoni
Piazza Arcivescovado, 1
48121 Ravenna
Ho appreso con dolore la mesta notizia della morte del Signor Cardinale Ersilio Tonini, Arcivescovo emerito di Ravenna-Cervia, e nell'elevare fervide preghiere a Dio perché conceda il riposo eterno a questo zelante e generoso Pastore, mi unisco spiritualmente al cordoglio di codesta comunità diocesana dove egli esercitò con sollecitudine il ministero episcopale. Ricordo con ammirazione la sua feconda e molteplice attività apostolica, dapprima quale zelante presbitero del clero piacentino, in seguito come Vescovo di Macerata e Tolentino e poi come sollecito e amabile Arcivescovo di codesta Arcidiocesi, animato dal desiderio di annunciare Cristo attraverso un linguaggio semplice e incisivo e una autentica e coerente testimonianza di vita agli uomini e le donne del nostro tempo.
Nell'esprimere le mie sentite condoglianze a Lei, al clero, alle comunità religiose e a tutti i fedeli di codesta cara Arcidiocesi, di cuore imparto la confortatrice Benedizione Apostolica con un pensiero speciale per coloro che lo hanno amorevolmente assistito in questi ultimi anni.

Franciscus PP.

(3) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Press Office of the Holy See:
A Sua Eccellenza Rev.ma
Mons. Lorenzo Ghizzoni
Piazza Arcivescovado, 1
48121 Ravenna
Appresa la notizia della morte dell'Em.mo Cardinal Ersilio Tonini, arcivescovo emerito di Ravenna-Cervia, desidero esprimere a Vostra Eccellenza all'intera comunità diocesana il mio vivo cordoglio e mentre mi unisco alle preghiere di suffragio per il riposo eterno del defunto e benemerito cardinale, communicatore di Dio. Assicuro la mia spirituale vicinanza al dolore di quanti ne piangono scomparsa.

Cardinale Tarcisio Bertone
Segretario di Stato di Sua Santità


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TOPPO, Telesphore Placidus
(1939-

Birth. October 15, 1939, Chainpur, diocese of Gumla, India. He was the eighth of the ten children of Ambrose Toppo and Sofia Xalxo.

Education. Studied at St. Xavier's College, Ranchi (English honours, 1965); at the Pontifical Urbanian University, Rome (licentiate in theology); and at the University of Ranchi (master's in history). Besides his native tongue, Oraon, he knows he speaks: English, German, Hindi, Italian, Kurukh, Latin, Sadri, and Santhali.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 3, 1969, by Franciskus Von Streng, former bishop of Basel, Switzerland. Professor and assistant to the director of St. Joseph's High School, Torpa. Rector of the Minor Seminary of Ranchi from 1976. Founder of an apostolic school for the candidates to the priesthood from the Munda Tribe.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Dumka, June 8, 1978. Consecrated, October 7, 1978, Dudhani, by Pius Kerketta, S.J., archbishop of Ranchi, assisted by Leo Tigga, S.J., bishop of Raiganj, and by Joseph Robert Rodericks, S.J., bishop of Jamshedpur. Promoted to archbishop coadjutor of Ranchi, November 8, 1984. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Ranchi, August 7, 1985. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Attended the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; by papal appointment. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of Sacro Cuore di Gesù agonizzante a Vitinia, October 21, 2003. As an Oraon, of the Kurukh tribe, he is the first adivasi, or tribal cardinal of India. President of the Conference of Catholic Bishops of India (1), January 12, 2004 unitl February 19, 2008. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. President-delegate of the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 2005. Named member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economical Problems of the Holy See, June 23, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On March 29, 2014, he was confirmed as member of the Pontifical Council for Culture until the expiration of his mandate.

Links. Biographical data, in English, UCA News; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; The Church's scandals are having serious repercusions on Christians in India by Fabio Marchese Ragona, in English, Vatican Insider, 02/20/2012 .

(1) The bishops' conference is the organization that represents the three ritual traditions of the Catholic Church in India. It has 205 members of the Syro-Malabar, Syro-Malankaran and Latin rites.


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TUCCI, S.J., Roberto
(1921-

Birth. April 19, 1921, Naples, Italy. Son of Mario Tucci and Eugenia Watt Lega, an English and Anglican woman. He was baptized in the Church of England. When he announced his desire to become a Catholic, his mother immediately acquiesced with some enthusiasm. But not for theological reasons, but very simply because she thought that being an Italian, it was much better if he was Catholic. When he converted, he was baptized sub conditionem because it was thought that the very first baptism was valid as indeed it was. When he manifested his vocation to the priesthood, his mother opposed mostly because she felt he was too young to take such an important decision. When he was still a child, twice he ran away from home with some friends; when they became hungry, they went to the Jesuit novitiate of Vico Equense and thus he met the priests of the Society of Jesus; his father went to get him with the carabineri and brought him home in spite of his protests. He met and felt a great esteem for Father Alberto Giampieri, S.J., who was the director of a sodality of Our Lady (Marian Congregation) in Posillipo After his promotion to the cardinalate, he went to Naples and visited the small Anglican church where he had been baptized; the pastor welcomed him very kindly and had the book of baptisms open on the page where his was recorded and then he discovered that he had a double name: he had been baptized as Robert Francis.

Education. Entered the Society of Jesus on October 1, 1936. Jesuit Novitiate, Vico Equense, Naples (classics); Jesuit houses of study in Gallarate (licentiate in philosophy) and Naples (doctorate in philosophy); University of Louvain, Louvain, Belgium (licentiate in theology); Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, August 24, 1950. Further studies, Rome. Faculty member, Theological Faculty "San Luigi", Naples; founder and director of journal Digest religioso, later titled Rassegna di Teologia. Named member of board of writers of the journal La Civiltà Cattolica, 1956; director, 1959. Member of the preparatory commission on lay apostolate of the Second Vatican Council. Attended Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965 as a expert. Conducted a daily press conference during the last three sessions of the Council for the journalists accredited at the Vatican Press Office. Member of Post conciliar commission for the Apostolate of the Laity until the institution of the Consilium de Laicis. Consultor of the Pontifical Council for Social Communications, 1965-1989 and as such, member of the editorial committee of the pastoral instruction on social communications "Communio et progressio" in its final phase, 1970-1971. Participated in the Twenty First General Congregation of his order, 1965-1966. Awarded honorary degree in law by the University of Notre Dame in the occasion of the international congress on the Second Vatican Council. Secretary General of the Italian province of the Society of Jesus, 1967-1969. Guest and relator of the Fourth Assembly of the World Council of Churches, Uppsala, Sweden, July 1968. Member for several year of the editorial board of the international theological journal Concilium. Awarded journalistic prize of the American Catholic Press Association for the 1968 article that contributed the most to the promotion of ecumenism, 1969. Attended First Extraordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11-28, 1969; and the Second Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30-November 6, 1971, as member of the official Press Center. Vice-president of the Italian Catholic Press Union (UCSI), 1961-1982. Official counselor for ecumenism to the superior general of the Society of Jesus, Father Pedro Arrupe, 1970-1975. Joined Vatican Radio in 1973; director general until 1985. Consultor of the Secretariat for Christian Unity, 1973-1989. Participated in the XXII General Congregation of his order, 1974-1975 as an elected member. Guest at the Fifth Assembly of the World Council of Churches, Nairobi, Kenya, November-December 1975. Awarded the "Legion d'Honor" by France in 1976. Member of the board of directors of Georgetown University, Washington, United States, 1977-1983. Participated in the 33rd General Congregation of his order, 1983, in which was elected superior general Peter-Hans Kolvenbach. With the exception of the trips to France in 1980 and Austria in 1983, accompanied Pope John Paul II in all his international pilgrimages as organizer of the papal visits outside Italy. President of the Management Committee of Vatican Radio, January 1, 1986.

Episcopate. Requested to be dispensed from the requirement of episcopal ordination and the dispensation was granted by Pope John Paul II.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Ignazio di Loyola a Campo Marzio, February 21, 2001. His cardinalitial motto is In fide et charitate. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, April 19, 2001. On September 10, 2009, he was decorated with the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, rank of commander, by the French government. Opted for the order of cardinal priests in the consistory of February 21, 2011 and at his request his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title.

Links. "Un testimone della Chiesa contemporanea. A colloquio con il cardinale Roberto Tucci, una miniera di ricordi degli ultimi decenni vissuti da protagonista." With Mario Ponzi, L'Osservatore Romano, 23 dicembre 2009, internet edition; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Roberto Tucci: «Al Vaticano II vinse lo spirito di continuità» by Filippo Rizzi, Quellli del concilio/6, Avvenire, 20 giugno 2012.


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TUMI, Christian Wiyghan
(1930-

Birth. Wednesday October 15, 1930, in Way'ngoylum, a quarter in Kikaikilaki, diocese of Kumbo, Bui Division, North West Region, Cameroun (1). He is the fourth of seven children, five girls and two boys, of Thomas Tumi and Catherine La'ka, who is still alive and is about 111 years old; two boys died before the birth of Christian; the youngest child was a girl named Celine. He was baptized one week after his birth. His middle name, Wiyghan, means "he is on a journey and will be here just for a moment", reflecting pessimism given the early death of his two older brothers; it proved to be unfounded. His first name is also listed as Christian Wiyghansaï Shaaghan; and his last name as Ntoumi. He received first communion in 1939.

Education. Initial studies at the Catholic school in Kikaikelaki; when the family went to Nigeria, he continued his primary studies at the school in Jos, where he obtained the First School Leaving Certificate; he decided to become a teacher, his first love, he started studying at the College of Mary Immaculate Kafanchan, Jos, Plateau Province, Nigeria, where he graduated three years later with a teacher's Grade III Certificate; while attending the college, a friend of his, Stephen Sunjo, a student at Saint Theresa Minor Seminary of Ibadan, inspired him with the idea of entering the priesthood; after a period of discernment, he entered the Saint Theresa Minor Seminary, Okeare, Ibadan, Nigeria in 1954; he obtained the Ordinary Level certificate five years later; Major Seminary of Ibadan; after his first year of philosophy, his family decided to return to Cameroun, and he followed them and transferred to the Seminary of Enugu, as a student of the diocese of Buea, where he had been received by its bishop; there, he studied philosophy and theology for six years; in 1969, he was sent to the Theological Faculty of Lyon, France, where he obtained a master's in philosophy; and two years later, one in theology; with permission from his bishop, he went to the Catholic University of Fribourg, Switzerland, for his post-graduate studies; he obtained a doctorate, magna cum laude, in philosophy in 1973.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 17, 1966, Regina Pacis cathedral grounds, Small Soppo Buea, by Julius Joseph Willem Peeters, M.H.M., bishop of Buea; he celebrated his first mass in his village, Way'ngoylum, on the following April 24. He ministered as curate of the parish of Fiango, Kumba, for a year; then he was named professor of philosophy at the Minor Seminary of Soppo, where he remained from 1967 until 1969; and also served as cathedral parish curate. Further studies in France and Switzerland, 1969-1973. He returned to Cameroun in 1973 and was curate of Bafut for a brief time. He was entrusted with the mission of setting up the Saint Thomas Aquinas Major Seminary, Bambui, archdiocese of Bamenda, which he opened with twelve students and was its rector from August 13, 1973 until 1979; he introduced the teaching of Hebrew and Greek, knowing these subjects were be indispensable to priests who would want to pursue further studies.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Yagoua, December 6, 1979. Consecrated, January 6, 1980, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Ferdinando Maggioni, titular bishop of Subaugusta, auxiliary of Milan. In the same ceremony was consecrated Carlo Maria Martini, S.J., archbishop of Milan, future cardinal. Promoted to coadjutor archbishop, with right of succession, of Garoua, November 19, 1982. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Garoua, March 17, 1984. He received the pallium in Garoua on January 6, 1985, from Donato Squicciarini, titular archbishop of Tiburnia, pro-nuncio in Cameroun, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. President of the Episcopal Conference of Cameroun from 1985 until 1991; and president of the Association of Episcopal Conferences of Central Africa, positions he used to ask for a Catholic University of Central Africa to be created in Yaounde; he served as the university's grand chancellor until November 11, 2009, when he stepped down. He welcomed Pope John Paul II in Garoua on August 11, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Apostolic visitator to the major seminaries in Malawi and Zambia.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Martiri dell'Uganda a Poggio Ameno, June 28, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; one of its three president delegates; member of its general secretariat, 1990-1994. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Douala, August 31, 1991; he was installed the following September 28; he was apostolic administrator of Garoua until the appointment of his successor, Bishop Antoine Ntalou of Yagova, on January 23, 1992. Received the pallium from Pope John Paul II in the patriarchal Vatican Basilica on June 29, 1992. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992; the Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; one of its three president delegates; member of the Council of the General Secretariat of the Special Assembly for Africa. Special papal envoy to the Ghana National Eucharistic Congress, Tamale, January 4 to 12, 1998. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. On October 15, 2005, when he turned seventy five years old, in accordance with the Code of Canon Law, canon 401 § 1, he submitted his resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Douala; the pope accepted the request nunc pro tunc, that is requesting that the cardinal should continue to govern the archdiocese for some time. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World". His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Douala was accepted by the pope on November 17, 2009; he was succeeded by Samuel Kleda, until then archbishop coadjutor of that see; the cardinal was apostolic administrator of the archdiocese until the installation of his successor on January 9, 2010. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on October 15, 2010. He is the first cardinal from Cameroun.

Bibliography. Lingo, Célestin. Christian Cardinal Wiyghan Tumi : premier Cardinal Camerounais. s.l. : s.n., 1995; Sofack, Noël. L'affaire cardinal Tumi d'octobre 2000 : un débat revisité : pour comprendre le rôle politique de l'Église dans un Etat laïc. Cameroon? : s.n., 2002; Tumi, Christian Wiyghan. Le Cardinal Christian W. Tumi face à la presse : texte intégral de la conférence de presse donnée à Yanoundé le 11 juin 1990. Yaoundé : s.n., 1990; Tumi, Christian Wiyghan. The political regimes of Ahmadou Ahidjo, and Paul Biya, and Christian Tumi, priest. Douala, Cameroon : s.n., MACACOS, 2006. Responsibility: Christian Wiyghansaï Shaaghan Cardinal Tumi ; preface by Paul Verdzekov; Tumi, Christian Wiyghan ; Oum, Edouard. Christian Cardinal W. Tumi : le normalien devenu cardinal. Yaoundé? : s.n., 2006. Note: "Ce livre est également publié en anglais sous le titre "From college of teachers to college of cardinals". Responsibility: entretiens avec Edouard Oum ; préface de Victor Tonye Bakot.

Links. Les Confessions du Cardinal Tumi, in French, Camerpress, Agence Camerounaise d'information; photographs, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) At the time of the cardinal's birth, Cameroun was a French and British mandate territory; it became independent on January 1, 1960, becoming the Republic of Cameroun.


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TURCOTTE, Jean-Claude
(1936-

Birth. June 26, 1936, Montréal, Canada. One of the seven children of Raymond Turcotte, an employee of a small hardware shop, and his wife.

Education. Initial studies in the parish school of Saint-Vincent-de-Paul in Laval; Collège André-Grasset, 1947-1955 (classics); Major Seminary, Montréal, 1954-1959 (licentiate in theology, 1959); Catholic Faculty, Lille, France (diploma in social pastoral, 1965).

Priesthood. Ordained, May 24, 1959, church of Saint-Vincent-de-Paul de Laval, by Laurent Morin, bishop of Prince-Albert. Pastoral ministry, Montréal, 1959-1964: vicar of the parish of Saint-Mathias-Apôtre; assistant to the diocesan chaplain of J.O.C, 1961-1964. Further studies, Lille, 1964-1965. At his return to Montréal, he became diocesan chaplain of Jeunesse Indépendante Catholique Féminine and of Mouvement des Travailleurs Chrétiens. In 1967 he was called to the Office of the Clergy and made responsible for seminarians, secretary of the Commission des Traitements, responsible for studies and permanent formation of the clergy, 1972-1974. Named director of the Office of Parochial Pastoral in 1974. Became procurator of the diocese in 1977. Canon titular of the metropolitan chapter, he was named vicar general and general coordinator of pastoral, September 25, 1981.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Suas and appointed auxiliary of Montréal, April 14, 1982. Consecrated, June 29, 1982, metropolitan cathedral of Montréal, by Paul Grégoire, archbishop of Montréal, assisted by Andrea Maria Cimichella, titular bishop of Quiza, auxiliary of Montréal, and by Leonard James Crowley, titular bishop of Mons in Numida, auxiliary of Montréal. His episcopal motto is Servir le Seigneur dans la Joie. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Montréal, March 17, 1990. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the title of Nostra Signora del SS. Sacramento e Santi Martiri Canadesi, November 26, 1994. On June 6, 1995, McGill University of Montréal granted him an honorary doctorate in theology. Named member of Council of Cardinals for Study of Organizational and Economic Problems of Holy See, November 6, 1995. Named an officer of the Order of Canada in 1996 by Governor General Roméo Leblanc. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; president of the commission for the final message. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. In July 2007, he received an honorary doctorate in law from Concordia University, Montréal. On September 11, 2008, he returned his Order of Canada insignia in protest of the induction of pro-choice activist Henry Morgentaler on July 1, 2008. The return of his insignia happened later than that of others who had protested against Morgentaler's entry because Cardinal Turcotte had hoped that the Consultative Council for the Order of Canada would revise its decision. Eventually, fearing that his silence on the matter might be misinterpreted, the cardinal renounced his title of officer of the Order of Canada and returned his insignia. This became effective on June 1, 2009. The pope accepted the resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Montréal on March 20, 2012. He was apostolic administrator of the archdiocese until the installation of his successor, Archbishop Christian Lépine. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints on December 19, 2013.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2202. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 846-847; Turcotte, Jean-Claude ; Maisonneuve, Pierre. Jean-Claude Turcotte : l'homme derrière le cardinal. Ottawa : Novalis, 1998. (Les grandes entrevues Pierre Maisonneuve; Variation: Grandes entrevues Pierre Maisonneuve).

Links. Photgraph and biography, in French, diocèse de Montréal; and his arms and photographs, Araldica Vaticana; Sur les médias: cardinal Jean-Claude Turcotte TÉMOIN , in French, YouTube; Sur l'êducation de la foi: le cardinal Jean-Claude Turcotte in French, YouTube.


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TURKSON, Peter Kodwo Appiah
(1948-

Birth. October 11, 1948, Wassaw Nsuta, diocese of Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana. His father was a Catholic and his mother a Methodist; she became a Catholic after marriage. He is the fourth of ten children; he now has 30 nephews and nieces, the children of eight of his brothers and sisters (one brother died in a plane crash some years ago). His African name, Kodwo, means "Monday" in his native language; the local tradition is to name each child by the day of the week he or she is born on; since there were ten children in the family and seven days in a week, two of the children are named Friday and three are named Sunday; the cardinal is the only Monday.

Education. Studied at St. Teresa's Minor Seminary, Amisano; at St. Peter's Regional Seminary, Pedu (philosophy); at the Seminary of St. Anthony-on-Hudson, Rensselaer, New York (bachelor in theology); at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, 1976 to 1980 (licentiate in Sacred Scripture); 1987 to 1992 (doctorate in Sacred Scripture). Besides English and his native Fante, he also speaks French, Italian, German and Hebrew fluently, and has written knowledge of Latin and Greek.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 20, 1975, by John Kodwo Amissah, archbishop of Cape Coast. Professor in St. Teresa's Minor Seminary, 1975-1976. Further studies in Rome 1976-1980. Professor in St. Teresa's Minor Seminary again; professor of Sacred Scripture and vice-rector in St. Peter's Major Seminary, Pedu; pastoral ministry in a parish annexed to the seminary. Further studies in Rome, 1987-1992. While studying in Rome, he could not defend his doctoral dissertation because, when the archbishop of Cape Coast died suddenly, Pope John Paul II named Father Turkson to succeed him.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Cape Coast, October 6, 1992. Consecrated, March 27, 1993, cathedral of Saint Francis de Sales, Cape Coast, by Dominic Kodwo Andoh, archbishop of Accra, assisted by Peter Poreku Dery, archbishop of Tamale, and by Peter Kwasi Sarpong, bishop of Kumasi. His episcopal motto is Vivere Christus est. Attended the Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Treasurer of the Symposium of Episcopal Conferences of Africa and Madagascar (SECAM). Chancellor of the Catholic University College of Ghana. Member of the University Council of the University of Ghana, Legon; the National Sustainable Development Council of the Ministry of Environment; the board of directors of the Central Regional Development Committee; and the board of trustees of the Komenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abrem Educational Fund.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 21, 2003; received the red biretta and the title of S. Liborio, October 21, 2003. He is the first cardinal from Ghana. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church"; elected member of the council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, October 22, 2008. He played a decisive role promoting the peace during the presidential election of December 7, 2008, when no candidate received more than 50% of the votes; and the run-off election on the following December 28. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World"; its relator general. Named president of the Pontifical Council Iustitia et Pax on October 24, 2009. Named member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on June 12, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On September 24, 2013, he was confirmed by the pope as president of the Pontifical Council Iustitita et Pax until the end of the current quiquennium (October 24, 2014). He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013. On December 8, 2013, he was named special papal envoy to the official ceremony in memory of Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, former president of South Africa, which took place in Johannesburg, South Africa, on Tuesday December 10, 2013.

Links. Photograph, arms and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; The rising star of justice and peace by Robert Mickens, The Tablet, London, 31 October 2009; Cardinal Turkson defends gays against unfavourable Ugandan law , Vatican Insider, 03/ 4/2014.


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TZADUA, Paulos
(1921-2003)

Birth. August 25, 1921, Addifini, eparchy of Asmara of Ethiopians, then Italian colony of Eritrea (later Ethiopia).

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Cheren, Asmara; at the Italian Lyceum "Ferdinando Martini", Asmara; and at the Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Milan, Italy, where he obtained a doctorate in law.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 12, 1944. Pastoral ministry in Asmara, 1944-1946; in the mission of Guarghe, south of Addis Abeba, 1946-1949. In Eritrea, faculty member, Minor Seminary, 1949-1953; further studies, Asmara, 1949-1953; in Milan, Italy, 1953-1958. Secretary to the bishop of Asmara and to the archbishop of Addis Abeba, 1960-1961. Secretary general of the Episcopal Conference of Ethiopia. In Addis Abeba, pastoral ministry with university students and service as archdiocesan curia official; faculty member, University of Addis Abeba, 1961-1973.

Episcopate.Elected titular bishop of Abila di Palestina and appointed auxiliary of Addis Abeba, March 1, 1973. Consecrated, May 20, 1973, by Asrate Mariam Yemmeru, archbishop of Addis Abeba, assisted by Frangois Abraha, bishop of Asmara, and by Sebhat-Leab Worku, S.D.B., bishop of Adigrat. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Elected president of the Episcopal Conference of Ethiopia, 1974. Promoted to the metropolitan archeparchy of Addis Abeba, February 24, 1977. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; member of its general secretariat, 1980-1983. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly the of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of SS. Nome di Maria a Via Latina, May 25, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Member of the Commission of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, 1989. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; one of the three president delegates. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; member of its general secretariat, 1994-1998. Resigned the pastoral government of the metropolitan archeparchy, September 11, 1998. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, August 25, 2001. He was the first Ethiopian cardinal.

Death. December 11, 2003, in the morning, Rome. His funeral mass, presided over by Pope John Paul II, who also delivered the homily, was celebrated in the patriarchal Vatican basilica on the following Tuesday December 16. He was buried in Saints Peter and Paul Catholic Cemetery, Addis Abeba, on Sunday December 21.

Link. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photographs and biography by Eman Bonnici, in English, Find a Grave; his arms and photographs, Araldica Vaticana.

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