The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
(1903-2011)
V

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VACHON, Louis-Albert
(1912-2006)

Birth. February 4, 1912, Saint-Frédéric-de-Beauce, archdiocese of Québec, Canada. The only boy of the family of six children of Napoléon Vachon and Alexandrine Gilbert.

Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Québec (classics; bachelor of arts, 1934); then, at the Grand Seminary of Québec (theology); later, at the University of Laval, Québec, where he obtained a doctorate in philosophy in 1947; finally, at the Pontifical Angelicum Athenaeum, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in theology in 1949.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 11, 1938, Québec, by Cardinal Jean-Marie-Rodrigue Villeneuve, archbishop of Québec. Further studies, Québec and Rome, 1938-1949. Professor of philosophy at the University of Laval, 1941-1947; professor of theology, 1949-1955. Rector of the Grand Seminary of Québec, 1955-1958. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, April 24, 1958. Vice-rector, University of Laval, 1959; rector, 1960-1972. Superior general of the Seminary of Québec, 1960-1977. Vicar general of the archdiocese of Québec, 1960-1981. Protonotary apostolic supernumerary, October 1, 1962.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Mesarfelta and appointed auxiliary of Québec, April 4, 1977. Consecrated, May 14, 1977, Québec, by Cardinal Maurice Roy, archbishop of Québec, assisted by Jean-Marie Fortier, archbishop of Sherbrooke, and by Lionel Audet, titular bishop of Tibari, auxiliary of Québec. His episcopal motto was Superemineat caritas. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of Québec, March 20, 1981. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of S. Paolo della Croce a "Corviale", May 25, 1985. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 17, 1990. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, February 4, 1992. He retired first in Québec and then in Beauport. For several years, due to health problems, he had lived in a residence for aged persons in the region of Québec. He received eleven honorary doctorate degrees, among them from the universities of Strasbourg, France, and Notre-Dame, Indiana, United States of America.

Death. September 29, 2006, Québec. The body was exposed in the Seminary of Québec, and later, in the cathedral-basilica of Notre-Dame de Québec, on Wednesday October 4, 2006 from 10 a.m. to 10 p.m., with a liturgical celebration at 7:30 p.m., and on Thursday October 5th from 9 a.m. to 10:30 a.m. The funeral, presided by Cardinal Marc Ouellet, P.S.S., archbishop of Québec, and concelebrated by twenty-five Canadian bishops, took place on Thursday October 5, 2006, at 11 a.m., in the cathedral-basilica of Notre-Dame de Québec. Archbishop Luigi Ventura, nuncio in Canada, delivered a message of condolence from Pope Benedict XVI. The funeral was attended by the immediate family of the late cardinal, around 1,000 faithful, Lieutenant-governor Lise Thibault; the Anglican archbishop of Québec, Bruce Stavert; two former mayors of Québec and the current one, Gilles Lamontagne, Jean Pelletier and Andrée Boucher; the archbishop emeritus of Québec Maurice Couture; Cardinal Jean-Claude Turcotte, archbishop of Montréal; and Gilles Cazabon, bishop of Saint-Jérôme and president of the Assembly of Catholic Bishops of Québec. The remains of the cardinal were buried in the crypt of the bishops in the same cathedral basilica (1).

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2202. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 853-855.

Links. Photograph and biography, in French, archdiocese of Québec; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the inscription on his vault, kindlt provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

+ LOUIS-ALBERT VACHON
CARDINAL-PRETRE DE LA SAINTE EGLISE ROMAINE
PRIMAT DU CANADA
NE A SAINT-FREDERIC-DE-BEAUCE LE 4 FEVRIER 1912
DECEDE A QUEBEC LE 29 SEPTEMBRE 2006

EVEQUE DE MESARFELTA ET AUXILIARE A QUEBEC DE 1977 A 1981
ARCHEVEQUE DE QUEBEC DE 1981 A 1990


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VAGNOZZI, Egidio
(1906-1980)

Birth. February 2, 1906, Rome, Italy. Son of Francesco Vagnozzi and Pasqua Jachetti.

Education. Vatican Minor Seminary, Vatican; Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome; Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome (doctorates in philosophy, theology and canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 22, 1928, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age, Rome, by Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val. Further studies, 1928-1930. Staff member of the Secretariat of State, 1930-1932. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, May 1, 1932. Staff member of the apostolic delegation in the United States of America, 1932-1942. Reappointed privy chamberlain of His Holiness, March 3, 1939. Counselor of the nunciature in Portugal, 1942-1945; of the nunciature in France, 1945-1947. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, December 23, 1945. Staff member of the delegation for the establishment of diplomatic relations with India, 1947-1948. Extraordinary papal envoy to the Independence Celebrations, Ceylon, February 25, 1948. Chargé d'affaires of the Holy See before the new Indian government, New Delhi, June to August 1948.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Mira and appointed apostolic delegate in Philippines, March 9, 1949. Consecrated, May 22, 1949, Rome, by Cardinal Adeodato Giovanni Piazza, O.C.D., secretary of S.C. Consistorial, assisted by Francesco Borgongini-Duca, titular archbishop of Eraclea di Europa, nuncio in Italy, and by Roberto Ronca, titular archbishop of Lepanto, prelate nullius of Pompei. Nuncio in Philippines, August 9, 1951. Apostolic delegate in the United States of America, December 16, 1958. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 26, 1967; received the red biretta and the title of S. Giuseppe in Via Trionfale, June 29, 1967. President of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See, January 13, 1968. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the II Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Opted for order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, March 5, 1973. Attended the III Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the IV Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, June 30, 1979 until his death; the post remained vacant until the election of Cardinal Maximilien de Furstenberg on May 24, 1982. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; and the V Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980.

Death. December 26, 1980, in his Roman residence. Exposed in the oratory of basilica of S. Giuseppe in Via Trionfale; later, the body of the late cardinal was transferred to the patriarchal Vatican basilica, where the funeral took place presided by Pope John Paul II. Buried, Campo Verano, cemetery, Rome. The body was transferred to the basilica of S. Giuseppe in Via Trionfale in March 1983.

Bibliography. Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, pp. 287-288.

Link. His arms, Arladica Vaticana.


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VAIVODS, Julijans
(1895-1990)

Birth. August 18, 1895, Bernāne, parish of Vārkava, archdiocese of Mohilev, Russia (1).

Education. Finished his secondary education (gymnasium) in Preiļi in 1913; then, entered the Theological Seminary of the archdiocese Mohilev in St. Petersburg, Russia. Later, he attended the Theological Faculty of Riga, where he earned a licentiate in theology on June 23, 1943 (thesis: Garīrgā dzīive un tās vadiīaji Kurzemē XVIII gs. (Spiritual Life and Church Hierarchy in Kurzemē in the 18th century)).

Priesthood. Ordained, April 7, 1918, in St. Petersburg, by Jan Cieplak, titular bishop of Eurea di Fenicia, suffragan of Mohilev. Incardinated in the archdiocese of Mohilev. Celebrated his first mass in the parish of Jaunavas Marijas Debesīs Uznemšanas in Vārkava. From June 9, 1918 to February 21, 1919, he was chaplain of Jaunavas Marijas Debesīs Uznemšanas in Aglona; from February 21, 1919 to February 24, 1920, he was parish priest of the same parish. Incardinated in the diocese of Riga when it was erected on September 22, 1918. From February 24, 1920 to September 23, 1920, he was chaplain of the gymnasium in Rēzekne. From September 23, 1920 to August 9, 1921, chaplain of Jaunavas Marijas Debesīs Uznemšanas in Ludza and chaplain of the gymnasium in Ludza. From August 9, 1921 to August 31, 1924, chaplain of the gymnasium in Daugavpils. From August 31, 1924 to February 20, 1925, chaplain of Jaunavas Marijas Debesīs Uznemšanas in Varakļāni. From February 20, 1925 to September 27, 1933; parish priest of Sv. Trīsvienības in Lē nas; during this time he founded filial-parishes in Vaiņode (chapel Sv. Krusta), Saldus and Silaiņi. From September 27, 1933 to June 26, 1936, parish priest of Sv. Miķeļa in Alsunga, during this time he founded the parish of Sv. Stanislava in Dviete and became in addition its first parish priest on June 26, 1936. From October 14, 1936 to April 13, 1937, parish priest of Sv. Krusta in Jaunjelgava. From April 13, 1937 to July 28, 1938; parish priest of Sv. Krusta in Ventspils. With the erection of the diocese of Liepāja on May 8, 1937, he was incardinated in this diocese. In 1938 he was decorated with the cross of merit of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Latvia (Triju Zvaigžļu Ordenis). From July 28, 1938 to April 6, 1940, parish priest of the cathedral Sv. Jēzepa in Liepāja and diocesan chancellor. Named canon of the cathedral chapter of Sv. Jēzepa on December 30, 1938. Vicar general of Liepāja from April 6, 1940; in addition, from April 8, 1940, he was also curia judge. On August 16, 1944, he was named dean of the denate of Kurzemē. When Latvia was occupied by German troups in 1944, the bishop of Liepāja had to leave his diocese on October 7, 1944, and handed over all rights and obligations to Msgr. Vaivods; he took care of the diocese under the heavy conditions of the Germans until May 1945; and then during the following Soviet occupation until July 25, 1947, when Peters Strods, titular bishop of Stadia, was named apostolic administrator of the diocese of Liepāja. Bishop Strods confirmed Msgr. Vaivods as vicar general of the diocese and diocesan chancellor. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, July 4, 1949; he did not learn about this nomination until fourteen years later. On January 2, 1958, he was arrested by the Soviet authorities; and on February 11, 1958, he was sentenced to prison for two years. He spent this time in a concentration camp in Mordovia. On January 2, 1960, he returned to Liepāja, but he was not allowed to work as a priest for half a year. From June 11, 1960 to March 27, 1961, he was parish priest of Sv. Krusta in Vaiņode. From March 27, 1961 to November 15, 1962, parish priest of the cathedral of Sv. Jēkaba in Riga. From November 15, 1962, vicar general of the archdiocese of Riga. Attended the third session of the Second Vatican Council, September 14 to November 21, 1964, by papal invitation. He was the author of several publications on the history of the Catholic church and on the history of Latvia.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Macriana maggiore and appointed apostolic administrator ad nutum Sanctæ Sedis of Riga and Liepāja, November 10, 1964. Consecrated, November 18, 1964, chapel of Our Lady of Czestochowa, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Paolo Marella, assisted by Jāzeps Rancāns, titular bishop of Marcopoli, auxiliary of Riga (expelled from his office in 1944 and living in exile in Grand Rapids, United States), and by Boļeslas Sloskāns, titular bishop of Cillio, apostolic administrator of Minsk and of Mohilev (expelled from his office since 1926 and living in exile in Louvain, Belgium). His episcopal motto was Ad Jesum per Mariam. Took possession of the see on December 8, 1964, in the cathedral of Sv. Jēkaba in Riga. Attended the fourth session of the Second Vatican Council, September 14 to December 8, 1965. President of the Episcopal Conference of Latvia. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Received the cross of merit cross, second class, of the Order of Merit of Saint Vladimir by Patriarch Alexij of Moscow on April 16, 1968; and the cross of merit cross, first class, of the Order of Merit of Saint Vladimir by the same patriarch, on August 18, 1975. Between 1964 and 1986 he ordained sixty eight priests.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati, February 2, 1983. Did not have the right to participate in the conclave because he was promoted to the cardinalate when he was over 80 years of age. His celebrated his first mass as cardinal on March 8, 1983, in Sv. Alberta in Riga. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. He was the first Latvian cardinal.

Death. May 24, 1990, 2.35 a.m., in Riga. The funeral mass was celebrated on May 28, 1990, in the cathedral of Sv. Jēkaba in Riga. The late cardinal was buried on May 29, 1990, in the garden of the minor basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Aglona, Latvia. His remains were reburied on June 1, 1993, in the crypt of that church after the reconstruction work was finished. At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals. In 1995, on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of his birth, a stamp with his portrait was issued by the Republic of Latvia.

Link. Photographs and brief biographical entry, in Latvian.

(1) Since the independence of Latvia in 1918 and erection of the Catholic hierarchy in the same year, the parish of Vārkava formed part of the diocese of Riga (archdiocese since 1923); and is now in the diocese of Rēzekne-Aglona.


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VALERI, Valerio
(1883-1963)

Birth. November 7, 1883, Santa Fiora, diocese of Città della Pieve, Italy.

Education. Roman-Pio Seminary, Rome; Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1907, Rome. Faculty member of the Pontifical Regional Seminary, Fano, 1907-1909. Faculty member of the Pontifical Roman Athenueum "S. Apollinare", 1904-1920. Military chaplain in the First World War, 1914-1919. Staff member of the Secretariat of State, 1920-1921. Auditor of the nunciature in France, 1921-1927. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, July 6, 1921; reappointed, May 5, 1922. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, July 22, 1923.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Efeso, October 18, 1927. Appointed apostolic delegate in Egypt and Arabia, October 19, 1927. Consecrated, Friday October 28, 1927, church of S. Cuore ai Prati di Castello, Rome, by Cardinal Donato Sbarretti, prefect of the S.C. of the Council, assisted by Pietro Benedetti, M.S.C., titular archbishop of Tiro, and by Giuseppe Angelucci, bishop of Città della Pieve. His episcopal motto was Pax in virtute. Named nuncio in Rumania, July 1, 1933. Nuncio in France, July 11, 1936. Awarded the grand cross of the Légion d'Honneur, in 1944 when he left France. Assigned to the section of extraordinary ecclesiastical affairs in the Secretariat of State, 1944-1948. Assessor of the S.C. for the Oriental Church, September 1, 1948. President of the Central Committee for the Holy Year, June 28, 1948.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, January 15, 1953. Prefect of the S.C. for Religious, January 17, 1953. Papal legate to the Marian Congress, Trois-Rivières, Canada, July 2, 1954. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the first session of the Second Vatican Council, 1962. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI.

Death. July 22, 1963, Rome. Buried in the tomb of his family in Santa Fiora, Città della Pieve.

Bibliography. Del Re, Niccolò. "Valerio Valeri" in La Sacra Congregazione per le Chiese Orientali. Nel cinquantesimo della fondazione (1917-1967). Grottaferrata, Roma : Tipografia Italo-Orientale "San Nilo", 1969, p. 101; De Marchi, Giuseppe. Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956. Pref. di Antonio Samoré. Roma : Edizioni di Storia e letteratura, 1957, pp. 130-131.

Link. Photographs, portrait, bust and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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VALFRÈ DI BONZO, Teodoro
(1853-1922)

Birth. August 21, 1853 (1), Cavour, archdiocese of Turin, Italy. Son of Count Giacinto Valfrè and Erminia del Carretto. Received the sacrament of confirmation, April 22, 1866.

Education. Seminary of Turin, Turin, 1871; University of Turin, Turin (doctorate in theology, July 17, 1876); Roman Seminary, Rome (doctorate in canon law, June 18, 1880); Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome. Received the insignias of the clerical character and the minor orders, March 7, 1875; subdiaconate, December 18, 1875; diaconate, Aprl 1, 1876. Classmate and friend of Giacomo della Chiesa, future Pope Benedict XV (1914-1922).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 10 (2), 1876. Further studies, Rome, 1876-1880. Minutante of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. Apostolic delegate and extraordinary envoy to Costa Rica, July 11, 1884; his mission was delayed because of the outbreak of the antireligious movement prevalent at the time; the diplomatic relations were not normalized until 1908.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cuneo, March 27, 1885. Consecrated, May 3, 1885, church of S. Filippo, Turin, by Cardinal Gaetano Alimonda, assisted by Filippo Chiesa, bishop of Pinerolo, and by Giovanni Battista Bertagna, titular bishop of Cafarnaum, auxiliary of Turin. Transferred to the diocese of Como, March 18, 1895. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, April 5, 1895. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Vercelli, March 27, 1905. Transferred to the titular see of Trebizonda (3), September 13, 1916. Nuncio in Austria-Hungary, September 14, 1916 (4); represented the pope at the coronation of the new Austrian Emperor Karl I (5) and Empress Zita.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1919; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, December 18, 1919. Prefect of the S.C. for Religious, March 6, 1920. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI.

Death. June 25, 1922, Rome. Buried in the tomb of his family in the cemetry of Brá.

Bibliography. Benedict XV ; Rumi, Giorgio. Lettere ad un amico, Teodoro Valfrè di Bonzo. Milano : NED, 1992. Contents : Lettere da Madrid -- Lettere da Roma -- Lettere da Bologna -- Lettere da Roma. Responsibility: Giacomo Della Chiesa (Benedict XV); a cura e con introduzione di Giorgio Rumi ; premessa di Paolo Emilio Taviani; Squcciarini, Donato. Nunci apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, pp. 247-250.

Link. Biography, in German.

(1) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 234; his biography in German, linked above, indicates that he was born on August 21, 1855.
(2) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 234; his biography in German, linked above, indicates that he was ordained on June 3, 1876.
(3) This see is also called Trapezus.
(4) During his nunciature, at the end of the First World War, the Austro-Hungarian empire fell and the Republik Österreich was established; its first ambassador before the Holy See was Ludwig von Pastor, author of the famous 40-volume History of the Popes, from the beginning of the pontificate of Pope Martin V in 1417 to the end of that of Pope Pius VI in 1799.
(5) He was beatified by Pope John Paul II on October 3, 2004.


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VARGAS ALZAMORA, S.J., Augusto
(1922-2000)

Birth. November 9, 1922, Lima, Perú.

Education. Joined the Society of Jesus, Novitiate of St. Stanislas Kostka, Miraflores, March 9, 1940; Jesuit Philosophical Faculty, San Miguel, Argentina and Madrid, Spain; Jesuit Theological Faculty, Granada, Spain; University of San Marcos, Lima (doctorate in education).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 15, 1955, Madrid, by José María García Lahiguera, titular bishop of Zela, auxiliary of Madrid. Spiritual director and rector (1969-1975) of "La Inmaculada" Jesuit school, Lima; provincial delegate for Jesuit educational works in Perú; provincial counselor and master of novices; director of the Marian sodality; pastoral ministry among students and founder of Hogar de Cristo and of schools Fe y Alegría.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Cissi and appointed apostolic vicar of Jaén in Perú or San Francisco Javier, June 8, 1978. Consecrated, August 15, 1978, by Carlo Furno, titular archbishop of Abari, nuncio in Perú, assisted by Ricardo Durand Flórez, S.J., archbishop bishop of El Callao, and by Manuel Prado Pérez-Rosas, S.J., archbishop of Trujillo. His episcopal motto was Amaos los unos a los otros. Elected secretary general of the Episcopal Conference of Perú, 1982; reelected twice. Resigned the pastoral government of the vicariate, August 23, 1985. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lima, December 30, 1989. Grand chancellor of the Pontifical Catholic University of Perú, 1989-1999. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. President ad interim of the Episcopal Conference of Perú, 1993-1994; president, 1994-1999. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the title of S. Roberto Bellarmino, November 26, 1994. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, January 9, 1999. Continued ministering at a homeless shelter he founded in Lima.

Death. September 4, 2000, of "derrame cerebral" (apoplexy), in a clinic in Lima. Buried in the crypt of the metropolitan cathedral basilica of Lima (1).

Link. His portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his valut, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

EMMO. SEÑOR CARDENAL
AUGUSTO VARGAS ALZAMORA S. J.
XXXI ARZOBISPO DE LIMA Y PRIMADO DEL PERU
09 · 11 · 1922      04 · 09 · 2000
UT DILIGATIS INVICEM
.


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VELASCO GARCÍA, S.D.B., Antonio Ignacio
(1929-2003)

Birth. January 17, 1929, Acarigua, diocese of Guanare, Venezuela. Son of José Antonio Velasco Rangel and Ramona García de Velasco.

Education. Joined the Pious Society of St. Francis de Sales (Salesians of Don Bosco). Minor Seminary of La Vega; (high school and Latin); Salesian Noviciate of Santa María (Los Teques); professed, August 25, 1945; Salesian Philosophate, Boleía (Caracas); teaching internship, Minor Seminary, Bolea; Salesian University of Turin, Turin, Italy (doctorates in philosophy and pedagogy); perpetual vows, June 30, 1951, Valdocco, Turin; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 17, 1955, Rome, by Antonio Samorè, titular archbishop of Tirnovo, secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. Further studies, Rome, 1956. Pastoral ministry as a catechist in Lyceum "San José", Los Teques, 1956-1958. Counselor and catechist, "Colegio Don Bosco", Valencia, 1958-1963. Catechist and professor of philosophy, Major Salesian Seminary of Altamira, Caracas, 1963-1964. Rettor of "Colegio Santo de Aquino", Valera, 1964-1967. Rector of "Colegio San José", 1967-1972. Salesian Inspector for Venezuela, 1972-1978. Further studies, Rome, 1978-1979. Rector of "Colegio Don Bosco", Valencia, 1979-1984. Elected delegate to the XXII General Chapter of his order; in charge of the Latin American-Pacific-Caribbean Salesian Region, and member of the general council of his order, 1984-1989.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Utimmira and appointed apostolic vicar of Puerto Ayacucho, October 23, 1989. Consecrated, January 6, 1990, Vatican City, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Giovanni Battista Re, titular archbishop of Vescovio, substitute of the Secretariat of State, section of General Affairs, and by Miroslav Stefan Marusyn, titular archbishop of Cadi, secretary of the Congregation for Oriental Churches. Apostolic administrator ad nutum Santae Sedis of the diocese of San Fernando de Apure, May 27, 1992. Attended IV General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 - 28, 1992; IX Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2-29, 1994. Named by the President of Venezuela, Rafael Caldera, member of the National Council of Frontiers, 1994. Promoted to metropolitan see of Caracas, May 27, 1995. Attended Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Chancellor of the Catholic University "Andrés Bello" and founder and chancellor of the University "Santa Rosa de Lima", Caracas, 1998.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Domenica Mazzarello, February 21, 2001. He maintained a critical position towards the government of President Hugo Chávez. In November 2002, his residence was attacked with a granede launched by unknown. In April 2003, during a Sunday homiliy, the cardinal warned that Communism was inflitreting the country, which provoked a strong reaction from the president. After Cardinal Velasco's death, President Chávez drew fire for his controversial statement that the cardinal was "burning in hell".

Death. Sunday July 6, 2003, at 11:30 p.m., aftera long illness, in Caracas. Buried in the chapel of Nuestra Señora del Pilar, on the right side of the cathedral's nave, where all the bishops and archbishops of Caracas, including Cardinals José Humberto Quintero Parra and José Alí Lebrún Moratinos, are buried.

Links. Photograph, arms, and biography, in Spanish, Universidad Nueva Esparta; his photograph, Araldica Vaticana; Venezuela recuerda al Cardenal Velasco a 10 aqos de su partida, 05 de Julio de 2013 by Ramón Antonio Pérez, Blog El Guardián Católico.


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VENINI, Diego
(1889-1981)

Birth. Fiumelatte di Varenna, archdiocese of Milan, Italy, on October 4, 1889. His mother died on the day of his priestly ordination.

Priesthood. Ordained on July 6, 1913, by Cardinal Andrea Carlo Ferrari, archbishop of Milan. He was assigned to the parish of S. Tecla as coadjutor ad tempus and named spiritual assistant to the "Suore di Maria Bambina". Don Giovanni Rossi, secretary to Cardinal Ferrari, asked him to serve as Adjunct to the Cardinal, whom he assisted especially during his last illness. He was asked to keep his position as Adjunct by Don Carlo Confalonieri, Secretary to Cardinal Achille Ratti, who succeeded Cardinal Ferrari as archbishop of Milan. He was called to Rome by Cardinal Ratti following his election to the pontificate as Pope Pius XI. Privy chamberlain and vestiari of His Holiness, 1922. Protonotary apostolic sopranumerario of His Holiness, January 22, 1936. When Archbishop Confalonieri suffered from exhaustion during his episcopate at L'Aquila, Msgr. Venini offered him his residence in Rome and the best doctors whom he had met during the lengthy illness of Pope Pius XI. He was named canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, where he also was sacristan.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Adana and appointed secret almoner of His Holiness, January 11, 1951. Consecrated, February 4, 1951, at the patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Eugène Tisserant, bishop of Ostia and Porto e Santa Rufina, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by Carlo Confalonieri , titular archbishop of Nicopoli al Nesto, secretary of the S.C. for Seminaries and Universities, and by Francesco Beretti, titular archbishop of Leontopoli in Panfilia, commendatore of the Archhospital of Spirito Santo in Sassia. He was offered the see of Anagni but he declined.

Cardinalate. According to his own writings, in November 1960 he was offered the promotion to the cardinalate by Pope John XXIII, but he declined. On December 12, 1968, because of age and poor health, he resigned the post of secret almoner of His Holiness.

Death. July 20, 1981, of pneumonia, at Casa Di Cura Privata Capitanio, Milan, where he resided for the last five years of his life. The funeral took place on July 23 in the parish church of Fiumelatte di Varenna, where his body was buried. On August 2, in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, a requiem mass took place presided by Cardinal Carlo Confalonieri, bishop of the title of suburbicarian sees of Ostia and Palestrina, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Bibliography. Consonni, Lauro ; Ferrara, Paolo. Mons. Diego Venini accanto agli Arcivescovi di Milano. Bellano, 2001; Venini, Diego ; Cajani, Franco. Diego Venini al servizio di Pio XII : diari 1940 - 1958. Desio : Centro Interazionale di Studi e Documentazione Pio XI, 2007. (I quaderni della Brianza). Responsibility: a cura di Franco Cajani.

Link. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia.


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VERDE, Alessandro
(1865-1958)

Birth. March 27, 1865, Sant'Antimo, diocese of Aversa, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Aversa; and later, at the Pontifical Roman Seminary "S. Apollinare", Rome, where he obtained doctorates in theology in 1890; and utroque iure, both canon and civil law in 1893.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 31, 1888, Aversa. Further studies, Rome. Aiutante di studio of the sub-promoter of the Faith of the S.C. of Rites, 1894. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome. Professor of civil law at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", 1896-1897. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, March 24, 1897. Assessor of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, June 1, 1897. Promoter of the faith in S.C. of Propaganda Fide, January 11, 1902. Lawyer in the S.C. Consistorial, January 13, 1902. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, January 16, 1902. Protonotary apostolic and canon of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, December 14, 1905. Secretary of the S.C. of Rites, June 26, 1915. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, March 19, 1916.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 14, 1925; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, December 17, 1925. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, December 16, 1935. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, October 11, 1939. Cardinal protopriest, April 8, 1957.

Death. March 29, 1958, serenely, in Villa San Francisco, headquarters of the German Franciscan Order of the Holy Cross, located in the heart of Rome's Parioli Quarters, shortly after receiving the last sacraments and a special blessing from the pope. The funeral mass was celebrated at the church of S. Eugenio in Rome. Buried in his family's tomb in Sant'Antimo. At his death, two days after his ninety third birthday, he was the oldest and most senior member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Bibliography. Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 682; "Liste des cardinaux par ordre alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1936, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1937, p. 111; Molari, Carlo. "Card. Alessandro Verde." La Pontificia Università lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, p. 234.

Link. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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VERDIER, P.S.S., Jean
(1864-1940)

Birth. February 19, 1864, La-Croix-Barrez, diocese of Rodez, France.

Education. Seminary of Rodez, Rodez. Joined the Society of Saint-Sulpice, 1886, Paris.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 9, 1887, Rome. Faculty member of the Seminary of Perigueux, 1887-1898; its rector, 1898-1912. Faculty member and superior of the Seminary "Des Carmes," Paris, 1912-1920. Honorary canon of the metropolitan cathedral of Paris, 1923. Vice-superior general of his society, 1926-1929; superior general, July 16, 1929. Vicar general of the archdiocese of Paris, April 15, 1929. Protonotary apostolic, October 12, 1929.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Paris, November 18, 1929. Consecrated, December 29, 1929, Sistine chapel, by Pope Pius XI, assisted by Alfred-Henri-Marie Baudrillart, Orat., titular archbishop of Melitene, vicar general of Paris, and by Emmanuel-Anatole Chaptal, titular bishop of Isinda, auxiliary of Paris for the foreigners.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1929; received the red hat and the title of S. Balbina, December 19, 1929. Papal legate to the Marian Congress, Lourdes, France, July 15, 1930; to the centennial celebration of the Conferences of Saint Vincent de Paul, Paris, March 14, 1933; to the First National Catholic Congress, Prague, Czechoslovakia, June 20, 1935; to the consecration of the cathedral of Dakar, Sénégal, January 12, 1936; to the National Marian Congress, Aiguebelle, France, September 7, 1937. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Papal legate to the 12th National Eucharistic Congress, Algiers, April 16, 1939.

Death. April 9, 1940, Paris. The funeral took place in the metropolitan cathedral of Paris in the presence of Cardinals Achille Liénart, bishop of Lille; Emmanuel-Célestin Suhard, archbishop of Reims; and Jozef-Ernest van Roey, archbishop of Malines. Cardinal Arthur Hinsley, archbishop of Westminster, was represented by Edward Myers, titular bishop of Lamo, auxiliary of Westminster. He was buried in that cathedral. His memorial tablet is in the south-east corner of the ambulatory of that cathedral (1)

Bibliography. Breiere, Yves de la. "Le Cardinal Verdier. Son rôle en France et hors de France." Etudes, CCXLIII (1940), 199-213; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 513-514.

(1) This is the inscription on the tablet, kindly provided by Mr. Mark West, from London, England:

SON ÉMINENCE LE CARDINAL
JEAN VERDIER
ARCHEVÊQUE DE PARIS
SUPÉRIEUR GÉNÉRAL DE SAINT SULPICE
1864 - 1929 - 1940
In verbo tuo laxabo rete


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VEUILLOT, Pierre
(1913-1968)

Birth. January 5, 1913, 7th arrondisesement of Paris, France. Son of François Louis Marie Joseph Veuillot, a Catholic journalist, and Marie Monnoir. His baptismal name was Pierre Marie Joseph.

Education. Seminary "Des Carmes," Paris.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 26, 1939, Paris. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Paris, 1939-1942. Faculty member of "Maison de Conflans" (Minor Seminary of Paris), 1939-1949. Staff member of the Secretariat of State, 1949-1959. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, February 22, 1950.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Angers, July 7, 1959. Consecrated, July 1, 1959, cathedral of Angers, by Cardinal Maurice Feltin, archbishop of Paris, assisted by Marc-Armand Lallier, archbishop of Marseille, and by Jean Villot, titular bishop of Vinda, auxiliary of Paris. Promoted to the titular see of Costanza di Tracia and appointed archbishop coadjutor of Paris, sedis datus, July 8, 1961; granted the right of succession, July 16, 1963. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Paris, December 21, 1966. Chevalier of the Légion d'Honneur.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 26, 1967; received the red biretta and the title of S. Luigi dei Francesi, June 29, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, September 29 to October 29, 1967, Vatican City.

Death. February 14, 1968, at 10:37 a.m., of leukemia, in his domicile situated at 32 rue Barbet de Jouy, Paris. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Notre-Dame, Paris.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 515-516.


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VICO, Antonio (1847-1929)

Birth. January 9, 1847, Agugliano, diocese of Ancona, Italy. Received the sacrament of confirmation, August 1, 1852.

Education. Collegio Capranica, Rome; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorates in philosophy, theology and utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Priesthood. Ordained, September 20, 1873, Ancona. Further studies, 1873-1876. Pastoral ministry in diocese of Rome, 1876-1877. Secretary of the nunciature in Spain, 1877-1880. Secretary of the apostolic delegation in Constantinople, 1880-1883. Auditor of the nunciature in France, 1883-1887. Auditor of the nunciature in Spain, 1887-1893. Auditor of the nunciature in Portugal, 1893-1897. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, May 25, 1886. Named apostolic delegate and extraordinary legate to Colombia, November 24, 1897 (1).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Filippi, December 22, 1897. Consecrated, January 9, 1898, Collegio Capranica, Rome, by Cardinal Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro, secretary of State, assisted by Cesare Sambucetti, titular archbishop of Corinto, and by Antonio Sardi, bishop of Anagni. Nuncio in Belgium, February 4 (2), 1904. Nuncio in Spain, with faculties of legate a latere, October 21 (3), 1907.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 27, 1911; received the red hat and the title of S. Callisto, December 2, 1912. Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 22, 1915 until December 4, 1916. Pro-prefect of the S.C. of Rites, February 11, 1915. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, December 6, 1915. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites, July 8, 1918. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Papal legate to the Eucharistic Congress, Aquila, Italy, August 16, 1923; to the celebrations in honor of Little Flower, Lisieux, France, September 15, 1925.

Death. February 25, 1929, of influenza, Rome. Buried, Agugliano. His funeral monument is in the church of Santissimo Sacramento, Agugliano.

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1922, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1921, p. 78; Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 685; De Marchi, Giuseppe. Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956. Pref. di Antonio Samoré. Roma : Edizioni di Storia e letteratura, 1957, pp. 65, 98 and 240; "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1922, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1922, p. 104; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 10, 21 and 22; Restrepo Posada, José. "Galeria de representantes de la Santa Sede en Colombia." Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Historia Eclesiástica, V (January-June, 1970), 219-221; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, p. 453.

Link. Images and arms, Arladica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to De Marchi, Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956, p. 98; and Restrepo, "Galeria de representantes de la Santa Sede en Colombia." Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Historia Eclesiástica, p. 219; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 685, says that he was named titular archbishop of Filippi and named apostolic delegate on December 24, 1897; "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1922, 104, indicates that he was named in November 1898, without mentioning the day; and Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 453, indicates that he was named on March 31, 1898.
(2) This is according to De Marchi, Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956, p. 65; and Restrepo, "Galeria de representantes de la Santa Sede en Colombia." Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Historia Eclesiástica, p. 219; "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1922, p. 104; Pięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 10; and Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 453, indicate that he was named on January 28, 1904.
(3) This is according to De Marchi, Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956, p.240; and Restrepo, "Galeria de representantes de la Santa Sede en Colombia." Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Historia Eclesiástica, p. 219; and ięta, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IX, 10; "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1922, p. 104; and Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 453, indicates that he was named on October 22, 1907.


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VIDAL, Ricardo Jamin
(1931-

Birth. February 6, 1931, Mogpoc, diocese of Lucena, Philippines.

Education. Most Holy Rosary Minor Seminary, Lucena; St. Francis de Sales Seminary, Lipa City (bachelor of arts in philosophy); St. Charles Seminary, Makati (theology). Received the diaconate from Alfredo Obviar y Aranda, titular bishop of Linoe, apostolic administrator of Lucena on September 24, 1955.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 17, 1956, cathedral of San Fernando, Lucena, by Alfredo Obviar y Aranda, titular bishop of Linoe, apostolic administrator of Lucena. Successively, 1956-1965, faculty member and spiritual director, Seminary of Lucena; rector, 1965-1971. Chaplain of His Holiness, June 23, 1969.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Claterna and coadjutor, with right of succession, of Malolos, September 10, 1971. Consecrated, November 30, 1971, cathedral of San Fernando, Lucena, by Carmine Rocco, titular archbishop of Iustinianopolis in Galatia, nuncio to the Philippines, assisted by Godfredo Pedernal Pisig, bishop of Borongan, and by Rafael Lim y Montiano, bishop of Laong. His episcopal motto is Viam Veritatis Elegi. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lipa, August 22, 1973. Coadjutor archbishop, with right of succession, of Cebu, April 13, 1981. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Cebu, August 24, 1982. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Pietro e Paolo a Via Ostiense, May 25, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; president delegate; member of its general secretariat, 1987-1990. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1990; member of its general secretariat, 1990-1994. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Cebu in conformity with canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law on October 15, 2010. He was apostolic administrator of the see until the installation of his successor, Jose Serofia Palma, until then archbishop of Palo, on January 13, 2011. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on February 6, 2011.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles. "Philippine episcopology (V. 1970-1980)." Boletín Eclesiástico de Filipinas, LXV, 720-721 (November-December 1989), 830.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, The Official Website of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines; biography, in English, archdiocese of Cebu; photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Senate Resolution No. 306 of the 15th Congress of the Philippines honoring Cardinal Ricardo J. Vidal, Adopted on12/7/2010.


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VIDAL Y BARRAQUER, Francisco de Asís
(1868-1943)

Birth. October 3, 1868, Cambrils, archdiocese of Tarragona, Spain. From a family of liberal professionals (ecclesiastics, lawyers and physician) and rural property owners. Son of Francisco Vidal i Gimbernat and Angelina Barraquer i Roviralta. The other children were Josep, a physician; Paula, a nun; and Tomás, who died at seven. The first child, also named Francisco, died shortly after birth. Two of his uncles were priests.

Education. At the recommendation of his uncles the priests, he studied at the Jesuit Colegio San Ignacio, Manresa, 1880-1885 (secondary education). Having decided to become a Jesuit priest, he agrred with his father request and first study law at the University of Barcelona; then, obtained a doctorate at the University of Madrid on September 24, 1900; dissertation: "El derecho de la guerra en Roma". He briefly practiced law in the office of noted lawyer Joaquín Almeda of Barcelona. For his ecclesiastical formation, he studied at the Conciliar Seminary of Barcelona, 1885 (licentiate in law); at the Pontifical University of Tarragona, 1895-1899. On May 1, 1898, he received the ecclesiastical tonsure and the first order from Archbishop Tomás Costa Fornaguera of Tarragona, who had a special predilection for him. The following year, he received the remaining orders from the same prelate.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 17, 1899, Tarragona, by Tomás Costa Fornaguera of Tarragona. Celebrated his first mass on September 21, 1899, in the chapel of the school of the nuns of the Sacred Heart in Sarriá. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Tarragona and official of its archdiocesan curia: substitute fiscal of the metropolitan ecclesiastical tribunal, November 27, 1900; fiscal, May 5, 1905; provisor and acting vicar general, 1905-1909; canon of its cathedral chapter, September 19, 1907 until 1913; vicar general, 1909-1913; archpriest, 1910; vicar capitular, October 9, 1911, at the death of Archbishop Costa Fornaguera, until his promotion to the episcopate.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Pentacomia and appointed apostolic administrator of Solsona, November 10, 1913. Consecrated, April 26, 1914, cathedral of Tarragona, by Antolín López Peláez, archbishop of Tarragona, assisted by Ramón Barberá y Boada, titular bishop of Antedone, apostolic administrator of Ciudad Rodrigo, and by Ramón Guillamet y Coma, bishop of Córdoba. His episcopal motto was Diligite alterutrum. Senator of the Spanish kingdom for the province of Tarragona, December 20, 1914 to 1916. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Tarragona, May 7, 1919.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 7, 1921; received the red biretta from King Alfonso XIII, in the chapel of the Royal Palace, Madrid, together with neo-Cardinals Juan Bautista Benlloch y Vivó, archbishop of Burgos, and Francesco Ragonesi, nuncio in Spain; received the red hat and the title of S. Sabina, June 16, 1921. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. During the dictatorship of Captain General Miguel Primo de Rivera, he defended the freedom of the Church and maintained, together with the bishops of the ecclesiastical province of Tarragona, the Catalonian language as the normal one for preaching and catechesis. In 1924, he declined transfer to the see of Zaragoza; and in 1926, he declined switching sees with the bishop of Coria, Pedro Segura y Sáenz; as well as his transfer to Rome as Curia cardinal. Once the Spanish Republic was established in 1931, he was able to avoid the burning of churches and convents in Catalonia. He was elected head of the Spanish episcopate after the exile of Cardinal Segura, archbishop of Toledo, primate of Spain. He tried, with little success, before the provisional government to mitigate the dispositions of the constitutional project that affected the rights of the Church; this in spite of the sincere friendship that existed between him and President Aniceto Alcalá Zamora. The revolution exploded in Tarragona on July 21, 1936. The cardinal was forced to seek refuge in Poblet as a guest of Eduard Toda i Güell. Some militiamen of the FAI from Hospitalet de Llobregat went to Poblet to look for him. Fearing for his life and not wanting to leave his archdiocese abandoned, he thought it was more appropriate to ask his auxiliary bishop, Manuel Borrás, to stay in Tarragona; but soon after, the bishop was assassinated. The cardinal was transferred to Barcelona with his personal secretary, Joan Viladrich; the counselors of culture and the interior of the Generalitat, facilitated that the cardinal and his secretary could embark for Italy in a vessel of the Spanish Navy. The cardinal went to reside in the Carthusian monastery of Faneta, near Lucca; he stayed there until 1943. From exile, he worked with Cardinal Jean Verdier, archbishop of Paris, to achieve a negotiated and just peace in the Spanish Civil War. He asked for the papal intervention for the cessation of indiscriminate bombing from the Nationalist aviation on the civilian population in Catalonia. He interceded for the release of people who were in the hands of the Republicans, of the Franquists or those that the Vichy government wanted to surrender to Nazi Germany, independently of their ideology. He was one of the only five Spanish bishops who did not support the rising of Generalissimo Francisco Franco against the Republic, refusing to sign the 1937 Collective Letter of the Spanish Bishops. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. His Catalonianism, good relations with the Republican authorities of Catalonia, and his refusal to sign the joint letter of the Spanish episcopate during the Spanish Civil War caused the government of Generalissimo Franco to forbid him from returning to his archdiocese of Tarragona. Generalissimo Franco lifted his ban on Cardinal Vidal in 1941, after he and the Vatican reached a concordat. However, the cardinal remained in Italy, and in 1943, the German occupation of Italy forced him to move to the Carthusian monastery of Valsainte, Switzerland.

Death. September 13, 1943, Foyer Saint'Elizabeth, Fribourg, Switzerland. Buried in the church of the Carthusian monastery, Valsainte, Switzerland. In May 1978, following his will, his remains were transferred to the chapel of San Fructuoso, in the metropolitan cathedral of Tarragona, and buried near the tomb of Auxiliary Bishop Manuel Borràs, assassinated during the Spanish Civil War (1).The archdiocese of Tarragona dedicated the year 2013-2014 to the remembrance of the cardinal on the seventieth anniversary of his death.

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 75; Muntanyola, Ramón. Vidal i Barraquer. El cardenal de la paz. Barcelona : Editorial Estela, 1971; Raguer Suñer, Hilario M. ; Howson, Gerald. Gunpowder and incense : the Catholic Church and the Spanish Civil War. Uniform title: Pólvora y el incienso. English. London ; New York : Routledge, 2007. (Routledge/Caqada Blanch studies on contemporary Spain ; 11; Variation: Routledge/Cañada Blanch studies on contemporary Spain ; 11). Contents: 1. The religious question during the Spanish Republic: a polemical subject -- 2. The initial reasons for the rebellion: the military uprising of July 1936 -- 3. From the pronunciamiento to the Crusade: the consecration of the pronunciamiento -- 4. The initial attitude of the Spanish bishops: involvement of the Spanish Church in the Civil War -- 5. The initial attitude of the Vatican: the Vatican press in the Civil War -- 6. Collective letter: how the document originated -- 7. Persecution and repression: religious persecution -- 8. Stories of persecution and repression: Jesuits in the Red Levante -- 9. Franco's relations with the Vatican are strengthened: the arrival of Antoniutti -- 10. The third Spain: doves and hawks -- 11. The Republic desires reconciliation with the Church: a Basque Catholic in the government of the Republic --12. The exile of Cardinal Vidal i Barraquer: a veto against Vidal i Barraquer -- 13. The Church of victory; Vidal i Barraquer, Francesc; Batllori, Míquel; Arbeloa, Víctor Manuel. Església i estat durant la segona república espanyola : 1931-1936 : arxiu Vidal i Barraquer. Barcelona : Monestir de Montserrat, 1977. (Scripta et documenta ; 27; Scripta et documenta ; 28). Contents: 3: 14 d'abril - 21 de desembre de 1932.

Links. Biography, in English, Gran Enciclopèdia Catalana; same biography, in Spanish, Gran Enciclopèdia Catalana; biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and biography, in Spanish, Tinet.cat, Diputació de Tarragona; his statue in Cambrils, his native town; and his photograph and arms, Arladica Vaticana; Il cardinale della pace by Manuel María Fuentes i Gasó, L'Osservatore Roman, Anno CLIII n. 294 (46.538), Città del Vaticano, domenica 22 dicembre 2013, p. 5.

(1) This is the text of the inscription n his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

FRANCESC VIDAL I BARRAQUER

CARDENAL ARQUEBISBE DE TARRAGONA
PRIMAT DE LES ESPANYES
1919 - 1943
* CAMBRILS  1868    + FRIBOURG  1943


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VILELA, Avelar Brandão
(1912-1986)

Birth. June 13, 1912, Visosa, archdiocese of Maceió, Brazil. His brother, Senator Teotonio Vilela, fought for the return of democracy in Brazil. He died in 1983.

Education. Seminary of Maceió, Maceiô; Seminary of Olinda, Olinda.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 27, 1935. Faculty member and spiritual advisor of the Seminary of Arucajú; secretary of the diocese of Aracajú; diocesan chaplain of the Catholic Action.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Petrolina, June 13, 1946. Consecrated, October 27, 1946, Aracajú, by José Gomes da Silva, bishop of Aracajú, assisted by Adalberto Accioli Sobral, bishop of Pesqueira, and by Mário de Miranda Villas-Boas, archbishop of Belém do Pará. His episcopal motto was De plnitudine Christi. Promoted to metropolitan see of Teresina, November 5, 1955. Attended Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. President of the Latin American Episcopal Council (CELAM), 1966-1972. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the II Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Transferred to the metropolitan see of São Salvador da Bahia, March 25, 1971.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Bonifacio ed Alessio, March 5, 1973. Attended the III Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the III General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Named primate of Brazil when the see of São Salvador da Bahia was given that rank, October 25, 1980.

Death. December 19, 1986, of stomach cancer, São Salvador da Bahia. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of São Salvador da Bahia.

Links. His portrait, arms and biographical information, in Portuguese, Arquidiocese de Teresina, he is the fourth on the page; Fundação Dom Avelar Brandão Vilela, in Portuguese; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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VILLENEUVE, O.M.I., Jean-Marie-Rodrigue
(1883-1947)

Birth. November 2, 1883, Montréal, Canada. Of a very modest family, he was one of the three children of a shoe repairer.

Education. Primary studies in his native parish of Sacré-Coeur, Montréal; secondary studies, Mont-Saint-Louis, 1896-1900 (diploma in science and commerce); taught for a while in a school in Dorval; joined the Oblates of Mary Immaculate, Noviatiate of Lachine, August 14, 1901; took his first vows on August 15, 1902; and his perpetual vows, September 8, 1903; Oblate Scholasticate, Ottawa (philosophy and theology); University of Ottawa, Ottawa (doctorate in philosophy, 1919; doctorate in theology, 1922; and doctorate in canon law, 1930).

Priesthood. Ordained, May 25, 1907, metropolitan cathedral of Ottawa, by Joseph-Thomas Duhamel, archbishop of Ottawa. Professor of philosophy in the Scholasticate of Ottawa, 1907-1913; of moral theology, 1913-1920; at the same time, he pursued his doctoral studies at the University of Ottawa. Superior of the Oblate Scholasticate, Ottawa, February 16, 1920-1930; he continued teaching moral theology, canon law, liturgy, spirituality, ecclesiastical history; dean of the Theological Faculty. Founder of the School of Superior Ecclesiastical Studies, 1928; he was the titular of the chair of ecclesiastical law. From 1929, dean of the Faculty of Canon Law at the University of Ottawa; and founder of the Superior School of Canon Law. He actively participated in the Social Weeks of Canada; in the Association Catholique de la Jeneusse Canadienne; in the labor unions, having been member of the Superior Council of National Labor Unions in Montréal; and in the promotion of closed retreats. He was one of the inspirers of the foundation of Revue de l'Université d'Ottawa; and defended the rights of the minorities and supported the bilingual schools, contributing to the journal Le Droit.

Episcopate. Elected first bishop of Gravelbourg, July 3, 1930. Consecrated, September 11, 1930, metropolitan cathedral of Ottawa, by Joseph-Guillaume-Laurent Forbes, archbishop of Ottawa, assisted by Louis Rhéaume, O.M.I., bishop of Haileybury, and by Joseph Wilfred Guy, O.M.I., titular bishop of Zerta, apostolic vicar of Grouard. His episcopal motto was Docere quis sit Christus. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Québec, December 11, 1931. President of the Missionary Union of the Clergy, February 26, 1932.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 13, 1933; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria degli Angeli, March 16, 1933. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Québec, May 31, 1938. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. Papal legate to the dedication of Sainte-Joan d'Arc's basilica, Domrémy, France, June 15, 1939. He visited in the Fall 1944 the Canadian military stationed in Great Britain, Italy, Belgium, and Holland. Papal legate to the Marian Congress, Guadalupe, México, September 24, 1945.

Death. January 17, 1947, at 7:50 a.m., Alhambra, California, United States of America (1). His funeral was celebrated on January 24, 1947, in the metropolitan cathedral basilica of Québec, by Cardinal James Charles McGuigan, archbishop of Toronto; according to his will, there was no funeral eulogy but only Gregorian music. He was buried in the metropolitan cathedral basilica of Québec, with his golden cross of his religious order and in a plain oaken casket in accordance with his request for a coffin of common quality (2).

Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1958. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1958, p. 82; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 859-866; "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1939. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1939, p. 72.

Link. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) He had been stricken by a heart attack on July 7, 1946, on his return from Île-à-la-Crosse, where he had taken part in the celebrations for the centennial of the Oblate missions; he was hospitalized in Hôtel-Dieu de Québec and later, he had a long convalescence. He left Québec for New York, specifically for Misericordia Hospital in Manhattan, on October 4, 1946 for medical treatment and had another crisis on October 14. Seeking a milder climate, he arrived at a convent in Alhambra, California, on January 14, 1947. Three days later, the cardinal stopped his private secretary during the beginning of the latter's mass, sensing his death was imminent. He died within the hour.
(2) This is the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

+ JEAN-MARIE-RODRIGUE VILLENEUVE O.M.I.
CARDINAL-PRETRE DE LA SAINTE EGLISE ROMAINE
NE A MONTREAL LE 2 NOVEMBRE 1883
DECEDE A LOS ANGELES LE 17 JANVIER 1947

EVEQUE DE GRAVELBOURG DE 1930 A 1931
ARCHEVEQUE DE QUEBEC DE 1931 A 1947


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VILLOT, Jean
(1905-1979)

Birth. October 11, 1905, Saint-Amánt-Tallende, diocese of Clermont-Ferrand, France. Only child of Joseph Villot and Marie Laville. His baptismal name was Jean-Marie.

Education. Collège Sainte Marie, Riom (1914-1921); Gran Seminary of Clermont (1922-1923); Catholic Faculty of Lyon, Lyon, 1923-1925); military service until August 2, 1924; Novitiate of the Order of the Servants of Mary (Marists), September 7, 1925; left three months later, at the beginning of December 1925; Seminary des Carmes of the Institut Catholique, Paris (October 1926-1930; theology); Pontifical International Angelicum Athenaeum, Rome (licentiate in canon law; doctorate in theology; thesis: Le pape Nicolas II et le décret de 1059 sur l'éction pontificale); Studio of the Vatican Library, Vatican.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 19, 1930, Paris, by Alfred-Henri-Marie Baudrillart, Orat., titular archbishop of Melitene, vicar general of Paris and rector of the Institut Catholique. Incardinated in the archdiocese of Paris as titulum patrimonii; Further studies, 1930-1934, Rome. Secretary to Pierre-Marie Gerlier, bishop of Tarbes et Lourdes, 1931-1934, in Rome and Lourdes; and in Lyon, 1939. Faculty member of the Seminary of Clermont and of the Catholic University of Lyon, 1934-1942. Declined the appointment of canonist to the French embassy at the Vatican, January 31, 1940. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Lyon, 1942-1950. Vice-rector of the Catholic University of Lyon, 1942-1950. Director of the secretariat of the French Episcopal Conference, 1950. Protonotary apostolic, February 22, 1950.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Vinda and appointed auxiliary of Paris, September 2, 1954. Consecrated, October 12, 1954, Notre Dame metropolitan cathedral, Paris, by Cardinal Maurice Feltin, archbishop of Paris, assisted by Émile-Maurice Guerry, archbishop of Cambrai, and by Pierre-Abel-Louis Chappot de la Chanonie, bishop of Clermont. His episcopal motto was Auxilio a Domino. Promoted to titular archbishop of Bosporo and appointed coadjutor of Lyon, with right of succession, December 17, 1959. Undersecretary of the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1964. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Lyon, January 17, 1965.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 22, 1965; received the red biretta and the title of Ss.ma Trinità al Monte Pincio, February 25, 1965. Prefect of the S.C. of the Council, April 7, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Secretary of State, prefect of the Council for Public Affairs of the Church, president of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City, president of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Holy See, May 2, 1969. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, October 16, 1970. President of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum, July 15, 1971 until September 4, 1978. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, December 12, 1974. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II.

Death. March 9, 1979, at 9:25 p.m., from a bronchial pneumonia, in his apartment at the Vatican. The funeral, presided by Pope John Paul II, took place in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, March 13, 1979, at 10:30 a.m. Buried in the crypt of the church of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, Rome (1).

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 521-522; Wenger, Antoine. Le cardinal Jean Villot (1905-1979), secretaire d'Etat de trois papes. Paris: Desclee De Brouwer, 1989.

Link. His portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the French translation of the inscription in Latin, written by Msgr. Jean-François Arrighi, placed on the stone on his tomb in the crypt, taken from Wenger, Le cardinal Jean Villot (1905-1979), p. 275: Sous ce maître autel, dans l'attente de la résurrection, repose l'éminentissime et révérendissime signeur Jean Villot, cardinal évêque du titre de l'église de Frascati, auparavant cardinal prêtre de cette église, archêveque de Lyon, secrétaire d'Etat et camerlingue de trois suverains pontifes, Paul VI, Jean-Paul Ier, Jean Paul II, Français, neé à Saint-Amant Tallende en Auvergne le 11 octobre 1905, piesement décédé à Rome le 9 mars 1979.

Aprè les funérailles célébrées solennellement dans la basilique vaticane par Sa Santité le papae Jean-Paul II, concébrant avec le Sacré Collège, il a été enterré ici le 13 mars 1979. Qu'il repose en paix.

(2) This is the text in Latin, taken from a photograph of the plaque, kindly provided by M. Alexandre Jore, from Versaille:

SUB ALTARI MAXIMO
RESURRECTIONIS DIEM EXPECTAT
IOANNIS S.R.E. CARDINALIS VILLOT
EPISCOPUS CARDINALIS TIT. ECCLESIAE TUSCULANAE
OLIM MUTUM TITULI PRESBYTER
NECNON ARCHIEPISCOPUS LUGDUNENSIS
SUMMORUM PONTIFICUM
PAULIS VI - IOANNES PAULI I - IOANNIS PAULI II
CARDINALIS A SECRETIS
SANCTAE ECCLESIAE ROMANAE CAMERARIUS
GALLUS
IN ALVERNIA APUD PAGUM SAINT-AMANT-TALLENDE NATUS
DIE XI MENSIS OCTOBRIS ANNI MCMV
ROMAE
PIE DECESSIT DIE IX MENSIS MARTII ANI MCMLXXIX
VISIT ANNOS SEPTUAGINTATRES ET MENSES QUINQUE
POST EXSEQUIAS SOLEMNITER IN BASILICA VATIACANA
A SS.D.N. IOANNE PAULO PP. II
CONCELEBRANTIBUS PATRIBUS CARDINALIBUS
PERACTAS
HIC SEPULTUS EST
DIE XIII MENSIS MARTII ANNO MCMLXXIX
REQUIESCAT IN PACE


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VIOLARDO, Giacomo
(1898-1978)

Birth. May 10, 1898, Govone, diocese of Alba, Italy. Of a modest family of small proprietors.

Education. Entered the Seminary of Alba but had to interrupt his studies when he was called by the army; took part in the First World War with the rank of sub-lieutenant, and later lieutenant after the war, returned to the seminary, where he completed his theological studies under the guidance of Professors Chiesa and Priero. After his priestly ordination, he was sent to the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law; later, he went to study at the Catholic University, Milan, where he obtained a doctorate in jurisprudence, with unanimous vote and the publication of a thesis.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1923, Rome. Further studies, 1923-1928. Professor of moral theology and canon law at the Pontifical Regional Seminary "Pio XI," Fano, 1928-1935. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, December 14, 1935. Professor of canon law (Book III) at the Pontifical Lateran University, 1935-1964; dean of the faculty of Canon Law. Auditor of the nunciature in France, February to July, 1938. Promoter of justice at the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, 1938; later, undersecretary. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, April 23, 1939. Voting prelate and referendary of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, April 23, 1939; its undersecretary, July 24, 1954. Secretary of the Cardinalitial Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law, April 2, 1962. First secretary of the Cardinalitial Commission for the Revision of the Code of Canon Law, 1963. Secretary of the S.C. for the Discipline of Sacraments, January 26, 1965.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Satafi, February 19, 1966. Consecrated, March 19, 1966, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope Paul VI, assisted by Francesco Carpino, titular archbishop Sardica, assessor of the S.C. Consistorial and secretary of the Sacred College of Cardinals, and by Ettore Cunial, titular archbishop of Soteropoli, vice-gerent of Rome. In the same ceremony was consecrated Ferdinando Giuseppe Antonelli, O.F.M., titular archbishop of Idicra, secretary of the S.C. for the Causes of the Saints, future cardinal.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Eustachio, April 30, 1969. He was appointed cardinal patronus of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta on July 3, 1969. He was an eminent and erudite scholar of Canon Law. Besides his nearly thousand votes in the Apostolic Signature, which were works of scientific research, among his most famous publications are Il pensiero politico di San Girolamo (Milan 1937), and Il diritto matrimoniale in Sant'Ambrogio (Milan 1940). e contributed ten long articles to Enciclopedia Cattolica; he also collaborated with Dizionario di Teeologia Morale; and with Studi Cattolici, where he wrote several essays, one particularly notable on Santa Caterina da Siena.

Death. Friday March 17, 1978, late in the afternoon; he had been ill for a while and had been interned in a Roman clinic but had recently returned to his residence at the Palace of the Holy Office, in the Vatican; he was found lying dead underneath a staircase in that palace. The pope sent telegrams of condolence to the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Cardinal Carlo Confalonieri; to the bishop of Alba, Fausto Vallainc; and to the brother of the cardinal, Ignazio Violardo. Similar telegrams were sent by Cardinal Jean Villot, secretary of State. Exposed in that palace until Monday March 20, when, after the reading of the rogito, the body was transferred to the patriarchal Vatican basilica and placed in the center of the transept of Ss. Processo e Martiniano. The funeral took place in the morning of March 21, celebrated by Antonio Innocenti, titular archbishop of Eclano, secretary of the Congregation for the Discipline of the Sacraments and the Divine Worship, in the patriarchal Vatican basilica; Cardinal Carlo Confalonieri, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian sees of Ostia and Palestrina, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, imparted the final blessing. The remains of the late cardinal were taken to his native town, Govone, and buried in its parish church.

Bibliography. Fabris, Rinaldo. "Mons. Giacomo Violardo, decano della Facoltà di Diritto Canonico." La Pontificia Università lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, p.249-250; L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, CXVIII, n. 65 (March 19, 1978), pp. 1 and 2; and CXVIII, n. 67 (March 22, 1978), p. 2.


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VITHAYATHIL, C.SS.R., Varkey
(1927-2011)

Birth. May 29, 1927, Parur, archieparchy of Ernakulam-Angamaly of the Syro-Malabars, India. Son of Justice Joseph Vithayathil and his wife, Thresiamma.

Education. Joined the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer (Redemptorists); professed, August 2, 1947; Redemptorist houses of study, India (philosophy and theology); Pontifical University "S. Tommaso d'Aquino" (Angelicum Athenaeum), Rome (doctorate in canon law; thesis: Origin and development of the Syro-Malabar hierarchy); University of Karnataka, Karnataka (master's in philosophy).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 12, 1954, by Thomas Pothacamury, archbishop of Bangalore. Further studies, Rome, 1955-1959. Professor of canon law and other subjects for almost 25 years at the Redemptorist Major Seminary of Bangalore. Further studies, Karnakata, 1971-1972. Provincial superior of his congregation in India and Sri Lanka, 1978-1984. National president of the Conference of Religious in India, 1984-1985. Apostolic administrator of the Benedictine monastery of Asirvanam, Bangalore, 1990-1996.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Acrida, apostolic administrator, sede vacante et ad nutum Sanctæ Sedis, of Ernakulam-Angamaly, November 11, 1996. Consecrated, January 6, 1997, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Giovanni Battista Re, titular archbishop of Vescovio, substitute of the Secretariat of State, section of General Affairs, and by Miroslav Stefan Marusyn, titular archbishop of Cadi, secretary of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches. His episcopal motto was Obedience and peace. Transferred to titular see of Antinoe and appointed apostolic administrator, sede vacante et ad nutum Sanctae Sedis, of Ernakulam-Angamaly of the Syro-Malabars, April 19, 1997. Attended Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 19 to May 14, 1998. Promoted to archbishop major of Ernakulam-Angamaly of the Syro-Malabars, December 23, 1999.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of S. Bernardo alle Terme, February 21, 2001. Attended Tenth Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old on May 29, 2007. Elected president of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of India (CBCI), at Jamshedpur, February 19, 2008; occupied the post until March 3, 2010. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". The cardinal was not very active since suffering a heart attack in 2010.

Death. April 1, 2011, in Ernakulam; he suffered a major cardiac arrest while participating in a mass at the chapel of the archbishop's house that afternoon. He was rushed to nearby Lisie Hospital, in Kochi, where doctors tried to revive him but failed. He died at 2 p.m., Catholic Church spokesperson Father Paul Thelekat said. After initial prayers at the Lisie hospital chapel, the cardinal's body was taken to the mortuary at Little Flower hospital at Angamally. Among those who paid their last respects was Communist Party of India-Marxist general secretary Prakash Karat. All the Syro Malabar Bishops from Kerala were then in Rome for the ad limina visit. His funeral took place on Sunday, April 10, 2011, at 2:30 p.m., at Saint Mary's Cathedral Basilica, Ernakulam, Kochi, Kerala, India. There were special prayers, holy Masses and other rites at the Syro-Malabar churches and other establishments. Bishop Bosco Puthur, administrator of the archdiocese major of Ernakulam-Angalamy, said black flags were hoisted at the churches as part of the mourning. The president of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of India, Cardinal Oswald Gracias, archbishop of Bombay; Cardinal Telesphore Placidus Toppo, archbishop of Ranchi; the papal nuncio in India, Archbishop Salvatore Pennacchio; the heads of the Malankar and Latin Churches and other Church leaders also attended the funeral. The body of the cardinal was buried in the cathedral basilica of Saint Mary, in Ernakulam. The authority of the Syro Malabar church resided with Curia Bishop Bosco Puthur. Until the next major archbishop was elected by the Synod of Bishops of the Syro-Malabar Church, Bishop Puthur administered the major archdiocese.

Links. Photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of Ernakulam-Angamaly; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Cardinal Vithayathil elected new president of Indian bishops by Nirmala Carvalho, AsiaNews, 02/19/2008 15:06; Cardinal Vithayathil: A courageous leader for the good of the faithful and Church in India by Card. Oswald Gracias, AsiaNews, 04/02/2011 10:35.


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VLK, Miloslav
(1932-

Birth. May 17, 1932, Líšnice-Sepekov, diocese of Ceské Budějovice, Czechoslovakia (now Czech Republic). Of a single mother. He was baptized the day after his birth in the Marian shrine near Sepekov; a maternal aunt was his godmother. In 1938, his mother got married and moved to Zaluzi, near Chysky. He openly talked about his birth to a single mother who refused to have an abortion.

Education. Initial studies in the school of Chysky; Jirsfk Lyceum, Ceské Budějovice; Minor Seminary of Ceské Budějovice, Ceské Budějovice, 1946-1952 (obtained a bachelor's degree and the maturita in 1952); worked at "Motor Union", an automobile factory, Ceské Budějovice, 1952-1953; military service, Karlovy Vary, 1953-1955; Karoly University, Prague, 1955-1960 (doctorate in archivology); archivist in Trebon, Southern Bohemia; in Jindirchuv Hradec; and in Ceské Budějovice, 1960-1964; Sts. Cyril and Methodius Theological Faculty, Litomerice, 1964-1968 (entered September 30, 1964).

Priesthood. Ordained, June 23, 1968, Ceské Budějovice, by Josef Hlouch, bishop of Ceské Budějovice. Secretary to Bishop Hlouch and pastoral ministry in Ceské Budějovice, 1968-1971. On June 1, 1971, he was banned and sent to the remote mountain parishes of Laziste and Zablat', in the district of Prachatice, in the forest of Bohemia, by the Communist authorities. Lost the state permit to exercise his priestly functions in Ceské Budějovice, on June 7, 1971. On November 1, 1972, he was sent to Rozmital prod Tremsinem, parishes of Bohutin and Drahenice, in the region of Pribram. From October 1, 1978 to December 31, 1988, he was prohibited from exercising his priestly ministry. He sought refuge in Prague and there he exercised his pastoral functions clandestinely; he was interrogated several times by the Communist secret police; for ten years he worked as if he was a layman: as a window cleaner from 1978 to 1986; and as the archivist of the Bank of Czechoslovakia, from 1986 to 1988. After the fall of the Communist regime, he received authorization to resume his priestly functions on January 1, 1989; from January to August 1989, he was pastor in Zihovce, Western Bohemia; and in Bukovnik, near Klatovy; on September 1, 1989, he was named pastor in Cachrov, Besiny, Javorna, Zelezna Ruda and Strazov, in the border with Bavaria.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ceské Budějovice, February 14, 1990; the see had been vacant since 1972, when Bishop Hlouch died. Consecrated, March 31, 1990, by Antonin Liska, titular bishop of Vergi, auxiliary of Prague, assisted by Franz Xaver Eder, bishop of Passau, by Franz Žak, bishop of Sankt Pölten, by Maximilian Aichern, O.S.B., bishop of Linz, and by Ján Sokol, archbishop of Trnava. His episcopal motto is Abi všichni byli jedno (May they be all one). Promoted to the metropolitan see of Prague, and primate of Bohemia, March 27, 1991; he was enthroned on June 1, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. President of the Council of the European Episcopal Conferences, April 16, 1993 to 2001.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, November 26, 1994. Special papal envoy to the celebrations in honor of St. Zdislava di Lemberk, Jablonné, Czech Republic, May 28, 1995. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; by papal appointment. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. He met the president of the Czech Republic, Vaclav Klaus, on May 17, 2007, and on the occasion of his 75th birthday the Plaque of Honour was conferred on him. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". On Sunday March 1, 2009, he received the "Medal of Reconciliation," the highest award by the Ackermann Gemeinde in Prague. On February 13, 2010, his resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Prague was accepted by Pope Benedict XVI in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. The cardinal was apostolic administrator of Prague until the installation of his successor, Dominik Jaroslav Duka, O.P., until then bishop of Hradec Králové, on April 10, 2010. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on May 17, 2012.

Bibliography. Boudre, Alain. Laveur de vitres et archevêque : biographie de Mgr Miloslav Vlk (Prague). Preface by Václav Havel. Paris : Nouvelle Cité, 1994. (Récit); Regina, Sara. Miloslav Vlk : da lavavetri a cardinale. Torino : Edizione San Paolo, 1998.

Links. His photograph, arms and biography, in English; his photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of Prague; his photograph and biography, in Italian, archdiocese of Prague; his photograph and biography, in German, archdiocese of Prague; his photograph, arms and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his photograph, arms and biography, in Czech; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; list of the archbishops of Prague, archdiocese of Prague; Arcibiskupstvm praž ské oslaví 80. narozeniny kardinála Miloslava Vlka, in Czech, archdiocese of Prague; Cardinal Miroslav Vlk turns 80; number of cardinal electors down to 122, video, Rome Reports, .2012-05-17 12:24:37.


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VOLK, Hermann
(1903-1988)

Birth. December 27, 1903, Steinheim, diocese of Mainz, Germany. Son of Franz Volk, an upholsterer, and Catharina Josepha Kaiser.

Education. Elementary studies in Steinheim; secondary, in Hanau; Seminary of Mainz, Mainz (philosophy and theology for four years); University of Münster, Münster; University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland, 1935-1938 (doctorate in philosophy; thesis: "Die Kreaturauffassung von Karl Barth"; doctorate in theology; thesis: "Emil Brun-ners Lehre von der ursprünglichen Gottesebenbildlichkeit des Menschen").

Priesthood. Ordained, April 2, 1927, Mainz, by Ludwig Maria Hugo, bishop of Mainz. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Mainz: chaplain in Alzey, 1927-1931; chaplain in St. Ignaz, Mainz, 1932-1935. Further studies in Switzerland, 1935-1938. Assistant in the vicariate of St. Paul in Offenbach und St. Rufus in Gau-Odernheim, 1940-1941. Vicar in Nidda, 1941-1942; pastor, 1942-1945. Obtained the habilitation in dogmatic theology in University of Münster in 1943 (Habilitationsschrift: "Emil Brunners Lehre von dem S|nder"). Assistant professor of theology at the University of Münster, 1945-1946; professor, 1946-1962; rector of the university, 1954-1955. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, February 25, 1962. Elected bishop of Mainz by the cathedral chapter, March 3, 1962.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Mainz, March 25, 1962. Consecrated, June 5, 1962, cathedral of Mainz, by Hermann Schaufele, archbishop of Freiburg im Breisgau, assisted by Karl Leiprecht, bishop of Rottenburg, and by Joseph Reuss, titular bishop of Sinope, auxiliary of Mainz. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 5, 1973; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Fabiano e Venanzio a Villa Fiorelli, March 5, 1973. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979. Resigned the government of the diocese, December 27, 1982. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, December 27, 1983. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; as special guest.

Death. July 1, 1988, after a long illness, in Mainz. Buried in the crypt of St. Martin's cathedral, Mainz (1).

Bibliography. Baron, Ruth. Hermann Kardinal Volk : 20 Jahre Bischof von Mainz. 4e Aufl. Mainz : Krach, 1983; Cicholaz, Roger Krzysztof. Glauben und Leben : die Theologie des geistlichen Lebens bei Hermann Kardinal Volk. Berlin Münster Lit, 2007; Dissertation: Thesis (doctoral) -- Philosophisch-Theologische Hochschule St. Georgen, Frankfurt am Main, 2006. (Theologie der Spiritualität / Beiträge; Bd. 11; Variation: Theologie der Spiritualität ; Bd. 11); Hilger, Peter. Kreatürlichkeit : Hermann Kardinal Volk als Theologe. Sonderdr. Mainz : Öffentlichkeitsarbeit des Bistums, 1990; Jungnitz, Ingobert. Hermann Kardinal Volk zum Gedenken. Mainz : Abteilung Öffentlichkeitsarbeit, Bischöfliches Ordinariat Mainz, 1988. (Aktuelle Information ; 50; Variation: Aktuelle Information (Mainz) ; 50); Jürgensmeier, Friedhelm. "Volk, Hermann (1903-1988)." Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1945 2001 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Unter Mitwirkung von Franz Xaver Bischof ... [et al.] ; herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 2002, pp. 359-361; Lehmann, Karl ; Reifenberg, Peter. Zeuge des Wortes Gottes - Hermann Kardinal Volk. Mainz : Matthias Grünewald Verlag, 2004. Conference proceedings. Memorial volume.

Link. His photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia.

(1) This is the text of the memorial tablet on the eastern wall, in the western bishops' crypt of the cathedral, provided by an electronic message from Mr. Mark West, London:

HERMANN KARDINAL VOLK
DR PHIL DR THEOL
gebornen an 27 Dezember 1903 in
Steinheim am Main
gestorben am 1 Julii 1988 in Mainz
zum Priester gewelh am 2 April 1927
Bischof um Mainz vom 5 Junii 1962 bis
27 Dezember 1982
zum Kardinal ernamt am 5 Marz 1973

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