Birth. December 15, 1926, Kamaggwa, diocese of Masaka, Uganda. Son of Cosma Kyamcra Wamala and Theresa Nnamayanja. The had ten children; two of them died in childhood; of the surviving children, five boys and three girls, two became priests and one religious; while all the others married.
Education. First four years of elementary education at schools in Kalisizo and Bakira; from 1942 to 1949, he studied at the Bukalasa Minor Seminary; from 1949 to 1955, he frequented the National Major Seminary of Katigondo; he then performed a short pastoral experience at the parish of Kabula, in the diocese of Masaka; in September, he was sent to study in Rome at the Pontifical Collegio Urbaniano (now Pontifical Urbanian University), where he obtained a licentiate in theology; after his priestly ordination in Rome, he studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, where he earned a licentiate in social sciences; from 1962 to 1964, he took a course in pedagogy at Makerere University, Kampala; Notre Dame University, South Bend, United States. Received the diaconate, August 15, 1957, Rome, from Pietro Sigismondi, titular archbishop of Neapoli di Pisidia, secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide.
Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1957, chapel of the Pontifical Collegio Urbaniano, Rome, by Pietro Sigismondi, titular archbishop of Neapoli di Pisidia, secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide. In the same ceremony was also ordained Stephen Fumio Hamao, future cardinal. Further studies, Rome, 1957-1960. In 1960, he returned to Uganda and for two years he was worked at the parish of Villa Maria, with the charge of diocesan scholastic supervisor in the diocese of Masaka. Further studies in Kampala from 1962 to 1964. Professor at the Bukalasa Minor Seminary from 1964 until 1968. Chaplain at Makerere University from 1968 to 1974. Named vicar general of diocese of Masaka in 1974; occupied the post until 1981; simultaneously, he was pastor of the parish of Nkoni, from 1975 to 1977; and of the parish of Kimaanya, from 1977 to 1979. Chaplain of His Holiness, May 25, 1977.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Kiyinda-Mityana, July 17, 1981. Consecrated, November 22, 1981, Mityana, by Cardinal Emmanuel Kiwanuka Nsubuga, archbishop of Kampala, assisted by Hadrian Kivumbi Ddungu, bishop of Masaka, and by Josef Stimpfle, bishop of Augsburg. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Promoted to coadjutor archbishop, with right of succession, of Kampala, June 21, 1988. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Kampala, February 8, 1990. President of the Episcopal Conference of Uganda for two terms, 1986-1990 and 1990-1994. He was president of Uganda Joint Christian Council. First rector of the Uganda Martyrs University, which was officially inaugurate on October 18, 1993. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the title of S. Ugo, June 28, 1994. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Kampala was accepted by the pope, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law, on August 19, 2006. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old on December 15, 2006. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World".
Birth. February 20, 1928, Landau, diocese of Speyer, Germany. Third child of Peter Wetter, a railroad worker, and his wife Hedwig Agnes; they also had two daughters: Elisabeth Hedwig Wetter, since 1933 Sister Immolata Wetter CJ, superior general of the Congregatio Iesu (Maria-Ward-Sisters) from 1976 to 1984; and Hildegard Wetter, a grammar school teacher.
Education. Elementary school and high school in Landau; then stduied at the Philosophical Faculty of St. George, Frankfurt; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1948-1956 (doctorate in theology, 1956); resided at the Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum, Rome; and also studied at the Theological Faculty, Münich.
Priesthood. Ordained, October 10, 1953, Rome, church of Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum, by Cardinal Clemente Micara, vicar general of Rome. Further studies, 1953-1956. Chaplain, St. Josef, Speyer, and professor of religion at Nikolaus-von-Weis School, 1956-1958. Assistant and lecturer at the Seminary of Speyer, 1958-1960. Auxiliary priest in Glanmuenchweiler, 1960-1961. Given time off to prepare for his "Habilitation", 1961-1962. Professor of fundamental theology at the Superior Institute of Philosophy and Theology, 1962-1967. "Habilitation" in München with Professor Dr. Michael Schmaus. Professor of dogmatic theology, University of Mainz, 1967-1968; honorary professor, 1968.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Speyer, May 28, 1968. Consecrated, June 29, 1968, cathedral of Speyer, by Isidor Markus Emanuel, titular bishop of Marazane, former bishop of Speyer, assisted by Hermann Volk, bishop of Mainz, and by Alfred Kleinermeilert, titular bishop of Pausula, auxiliary of Trier. Attended the III Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Promoted to the metropolitan see of München und Freising, October 28, 1982.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, May 25, 1985. Attended the II Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the VII Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Awarded an honorary doctorate by the Catholic Theological Faculty of the Ludwig-Maximilians University, München, 1997. Attended the X Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Awarded the medal of honor "Palladion" of Greek culture, on December 30, 2002 as acknowledgment of his support to the Greek Orthodox Church in Bavaria. Awarded the "Bavarian Janus 2003" by the Bavarian minister of State for science, research and art; the "Bavarian Janus" is an acknowledgment prize, which is assigned in the Bavarian Archives Day, which unites public and private archives in the Free State of Bavaria. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Münich und Freising was accepted by the pope, in conformity to canon 401 § 1of the Code of Canon Law, on February 2, 2007; he was the apostolic administrator of the archdiocese until the installation of his successor on February 2, 2008. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the millennium of the archdiocese of Bamberg, Germany, July 8, 2007. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old on February 20, 2008.
Bibliography. Landersdorfer, Anton. " Wetter, Friedrich." Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1945 2001 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Unter Mitwirkung von Franz Xaver Bischof ... [et al.] ; herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 2002, pp. 306-307.
Links. Photograph, coat of arms and biography, in German; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. March 20, 1930, Wellington, New Zealand.
Education. Studied at the Faculty of Commerce, Victoria University, Wellington; at the National Seminary, Mosgiel, Dunedin; at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum De Propaganda Fide, Rome; and at University College, Dublin, from 1961 until 1962, earning a degree in Social Sciences.
Priesthood. Ordained, December 20, 1959, Rome, by Cardinal Grégoire-Pierre Agagianian, pro-prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith. Further studies, Dublin. Pastoral ministry in St Patrick's parish, Palmerston North, 1963-1965; director of studies, Catholic Enquiry Centra, Wellington, 1966-1970; missionary in Western Samoa; built the Paul VI College, Leulumoega, Samoa, 1971-1975; pastor, Holy Family parish, Porurua, Wellington, 1976-1979.
Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Wellington, October 30, 1979. Consecrated, December 20, 1979, church of St. Mary of the Angels, Wellington, by Owen Noel Snedden, titular bishop of Acheloo, auxiliary of Wellington and military vicar for New Zealand, assisted by John Patrick Kavanagh, bishop of Dunedin, and by Petero Mataca, archbishop of Suva. His episcopal motto is Unity is Christ. President of the Episcopal Conference of New Zealand, 1983-1991. Moderator of the National Tribunal.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the title of Gesù Divin Maestro alla Pineta Sacchetti, February 2, 1983. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Special papal envoy to the centennial celebration of the evangelization of Cook Islands, New Zealand, December 16 to 18, 1994. Military ordinary in New Zealand, June 1, 1995. Attended the Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998; president delegate. Awarded the Order of New Zealand, June 5, 2000. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, March 10, 2001. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law, March 4, 2005. Resigned the pastoral government of the Military Ordinariate of New Zealand, March 4, 2005. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on March 20, 1010.
Links. Photograph and biographical data, in English, New Zealand Catholic Bishops Conference; photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. June 3, 1925, Wishaw, Lanarkshire, diocese of Motherwell, Scotland. From a poor and devout Roman Catholic family well known for charitable work. His father, who was the son of an Irish immigrant from County Donegal, first worked as a coal-miner; then served in the First World War; and was later employed in the steel industry after fifteen years of unemployment. He was the eldest of two children. The other sibling was Margaret Winning McCarron.
Education. He attended St. Patrick's Primary, Shieldmuir, Craigneuk, and served as an altar boy and sang in the choir; then, he studied at Our Lady's High School, Motherwell, where he expressed the desire to become a priest; he entered St. Mary's College, Blairs, Aberdeen, and studied philosophy; and later, in 1943, St. Peter's College, Cardross, Glasgow; then, he attended the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in theology; and doctorate in canon law; finally, he attended the studium of the Sacred Roman Rota, Rome. He was fluent in Italian and Latin.
Priesthood. Ordained, December 18, 1948, Rome. Further studies, Rome, 1948-1949. Incardinated in the diocese of Motherwell; assistant priest at St. Aloysius, Chapelhall until 1950. Further studies, Rome, 1950-1953. Assistant priest, St. Mary's, Hamilton, 1953-1957; Our Lady of Good Aid Cathedral, Motherwell, 1957-1958. Secretary, diocese of Motherwell, 1956-1961. Chaplain to the Franciscans of the Immaculate Conception, Bothwell 1958-1961. Spiritual director, Pontifical Scots College, Rome, 1961-1966; qualified as an advocate of the Sacred Roman Rota, 1965. Parish priest, Saint Luke's, Motherwell; Officialis of Motherwell Diocesan Tribunal and Vicar Episcopal for Marriage in Motherwell diocese, 1966-1970. First president and official of the newly established Scottish National Tribunal, Glasgow, 1970-1972.
Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Lugmad and appointed auxiliary of Glasgow, October 22, 1971. Consecrated, November 30, 1971, metropolitan cathedral of St. Andrew, Glasgow, by James Donald Scanlan, archbishop of Glasgow, assisted by Stephen McGill, bishop of Paisley, and by Francis Alexander Spalding Warden Thomson, bishop of Motherwell. Vicar general, archdiocese of Glasgow 1971-1974 and parish priest of Our Holy Redeemer Parish, Clydebank 1972-1974. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Glasgow, April 23, 1974. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity, The University of Glasgow, 1983. President of the Bishops' Conference of Scotland 1985-2001. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Fellow of the Educational Institute of Scotland, 1986. Knight commander of the Holy Sepulchre and grand prior of the Scottish Lieutenancy of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, 1989; promoted to Knight Grand Cross 1995. Delegate of the Bishops' Conference of Scotland, to the Bishops' Conferences of the European Union, 1990-1996. Member of the Bishops' Conferences of Europe. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. Awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of the University, University of Strathclyde, 1992.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the title of S. Andrea delle Fratte, November 26, 1994. Awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of Law, Aberdeen University, 1996. Special envoy to the celebrations of the 14th Centenary of the Death of St. Columba (Colum-cille), in the dioceses of Raphoe and Derry, Ireland, June 8-9, 1997. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999.
Death. June 17, 2001, from a heart attack (he had suffered a previous heart attack on June 8), in Glasgow; he had just finished breakfast when his housekeeper of 30 years, Isobel McInnes, found him unconscious at 9 a.m. on his bedroom floor. He was pronounced dead at the Accident and Emergency Unit of the Victoria Infirmary at 9:55 a.m. Cardinal Cormac Murphy O'Connor, archbishop of Westminster, England, was the main celebrant at his funeral mass, in which participated three other cardinals, five archbishops, twenty bishops and three hundred priests. Bishop Joseph Devine of Motherwell, Scotland, delivered the homily. He was buried in the crypt of St. Andrew's metropolitan cathedral, Glasgow.
Link. Photographs, biography, arms, speeches, obituary and funeral, archdiocese of Glasgow.
Birth. March 26, 1925, in the village of Ho Hau, in the country of Wu-hua (Province of Guangdong) diocese of Shui-tsai (Kaying), China. Son of Shing Sing Wu and Mary Chow. He was baptized in the parish church of the same village.
Education. Primary education in Ho Hau; the studied at the Seminary of Kaying from 1940 to 1946 (secondary education); at the South China Regional Seminary, Aberdeen, Hong Kong, from August 1946 (philosophy and theology); and at the Pontifical Urbanian University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in canon law, summa cum laude, on June 23, 1956; his thesis was De forma canonica extraordinaria celebrationis matrimonii.
Priesthood. Ordained, July 6, 1952, cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Hong Kong, by Antonio Riberi, titular archbishop of Dara, nuncio in China. Pastoral ministry at the Refugee Center at Tung Tau Tsuen, Kowloon, Hong Kong, now a part of St. Patrick's Parish, 1952-1953. Further studies in Rome, 1954-1956. July 1956: Sent to the United States to gain experience in diocesan administration, working respectively at the chancery of the archdiocese of New York (July-September 1956); of Boston (September-December 1956); and of Chicago (December 1956-January 1957). Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Hsin-chu, Taiwan, May 1957-1975; moderator of the diocesan synod, 1971-1972.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Hong Kong (Xianggang), April 5, 1975. Consecrated, July 25, 1975, cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Hong Kong, by Cardinal Agnelo Rossi, prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, assisted by Petrus Pao-Zin Tou, bishop of Hsinchu, and by Frederic Anthony Donaghy, M.M., bishop of Wuchow (Wuzhou). His episcopal motto was Veritatem in caritate. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Led delegations in official visits to the People's Republic of China in 1985, 1986 and 1994.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of Beata Vergine Maria del Monte Carmelo a Mostacciano, June 28, 1988. Special papal envoy to the National Missionary Congress of the Philippines, Cebu, September 27 to October 1, 2000. He was the first cardinal from Hong Kong.
Death. September 23, 2002, from advanced stages of melanoma and bone marrow cancer, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong. Buried in St. Michael's Catholic Cemetery, Happy Valley, Hong Kong.
Bibliography. Brender, Andreas ; Kierein-Kuenring, Mandred D. Catholic Hierarchy in China since 1307. Cluj-Napoca, 2012, pp. 204 and 246.
Links. Photograph, arms and biographical information, in Chinese and English, Hong Kong Catholic Diocesan Archives; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.
©1998-2014 Salvador Miranda.