The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
(1903-2011)
W

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WAMALA, Emmanuel
(1926-

Birth. December 15, 1926, Kamaggwa, diocese of Masaka, Uganda. Son of Cosma Kyamcra Wamala and Theresa Nnamayanja. The had ten children; two of them died in childhood; of the surviving children, five boys and three girls, two became priests and one religious; while all the others married.

Education. First four years of elementary education at schools in Kalisizo and Bakira; from 1942 to 1949, he studied at the Bukalasa Minor Seminary; from 1949 to 1955, he frequented the National Major Seminary of Katigondo; he then performed a short pastoral experience at the parish of Kabula, in the diocese of Masaka; in September, he was sent to study in Rome at the Pontifical Collegio Urbaniano (now Pontifical Urbanian University), where he obtained a licentiate in theology; after his priestly ordination in Rome, he studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, where he earned a licentiate in social sciences; from 1962 to 1964, he took a course in pedagogy at Makerere University, Kampala; Notre Dame University, South Bend, United States. Received the diaconate, August 15, 1957, Rome, from Pietro Sigismondi, titular archbishop of Neapoli di Pisidia, secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1957, chapel of the Pontifical Collegio Urbaniano, Rome, by Pietro Sigismondi, titular archbishop of Neapoli di Pisidia, secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide. In the same ceremony was also ordained Stephen Fumio Hamao, future cardinal. Further studies, Rome, 1957-1960. In 1960, he returned to Uganda and for two years he was worked at the parish of Villa Maria, with the charge of diocesan scholastic supervisor in the diocese of Masaka. Further studies in Kampala from 1962 to 1964. Professor at the Bukalasa Minor Seminary from 1964 until 1968. Chaplain at Makerere University from 1968 to 1974. Named vicar general of diocese of Masaka in 1974; occupied the post until 1981; simultaneously, he was pastor of the parish of Nkoni, from 1975 to 1977; and of the parish of Kimaanya, from 1977 to 1979. Chaplain of His Holiness, May 25, 1977.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Kiyinda-Mityana, July 17, 1981. Consecrated, November 22, 1981, Mityana, by Cardinal Emmanuel Kiwanuka Nsubuga, archbishop of Kampala, assisted by Hadrian Kivumbi Ddungu, bishop of Masaka, and by Josef Stimpfle, bishop of Augsburg. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Promoted to coadjutor archbishop, with right of succession, of Kampala, June 21, 1988. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Kampala, February 8, 1990. President of the Episcopal Conference of Uganda for two terms, 1986-1990 and 1990-1994. He was president of Uganda Joint Christian Council. First rector of the Uganda Martyrs University, which was officially inaugurate on October 18, 1993. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the title of S. Ugo, June 28, 1994. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Kampala was accepted by the pope, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law, on August 19, 2006. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old on December 15, 2006. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World".


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WENDEL, Joseph
(1901-1960)

Birth. May 27, 1901, Blieskastel, diocese of Speyer, Germany. Son of Georg Wendel and Katharina Dompropst.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Speyer; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned doctorates in philosophy and theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 30, 1927, Rome. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Speyer and director of Cáritas, 1927-1941.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Lebesso and appointed coadjutor of Speyer, with right of succession, April 4, 1941. Consecrated, June 29, 1941, cathedral of Speyer, by Ludwig Sebastian, bishop of Speyer, assisted by Matthias Ehrenfried, bishop of Würzburg, and by Josef Kolb, titular bishop of Velicia, auxiliary of Bamberg. His episcopal motto was Veritati et caritati. Succeeded to the see of Speyer, June 4, 1943. Promoted to the metropolitan see of München and Freising, August 9, 1952.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria Nuova, January 15, 1953. Military vicar of Germany, February 4, 1956. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII.

Death. Saturday December 31, 1960, Münich, suddenly, of a heart attack, after having delivered the new year eve's homily. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Münich (1).

Bibliography. Gtaz, Erwin. "Wendel, Joseph." Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1945 2001 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Unter Mitwirkung von Franz Xaver Bischof ... [et al.] ; herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 2002, p. 382-386; Schwaiger, Georg and Mafred Heim. Kardinal Joseph Wendel,1901-1960; zum Gedächtnis des Bischofs von Speyer und Erzbischofs von München und Freising. München: Wewel, 1992.

Links. His episcopal lineage, in English, by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; and his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the incription in his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

JOSEPH CARDINALIS WENDEL
TIT. S. MARIAE NVOVAE PRESBYTER
NATVS 27. MAII 1901
EPISCOPVS SPIRENSIS 1943
ARCHIEPISCOPVS MONACENSIS
ET FRISINGENSIS 1952
DENATVS 31. DICEMBRIS 1960


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WETTER, Friedrich
(1928-

Birth. February 20, 1928, Landau, diocese of Speyer, Germany. Third child of Peter Wetter, a railroad worker, and his wife Hedwig Agnes; they also had two daughters: Elisabeth Hedwig Wetter, since 1933 Sister Immolata Wetter CJ, superior general of the Congregatio Iesu (Maria-Ward-Sisters) from 1976 to 1984; and Hildegard Wetter, a grammar school teacher.

Education. Elementary school and high school in Landau; then stduied at the Philosophical Faculty of St. George, Frankfurt; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1948-1956 (doctorate in theology, 1956); resided at the Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum, Rome; and also studied at the Theological Faculty, Münich.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 10, 1953, Rome, church of Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum, by Cardinal Clemente Micara, vicar general of Rome. Further studies, 1953-1956. Chaplain, St. Josef, Speyer, and professor of religion at Nikolaus-von-Weis School, 1956-1958. Assistant and lecturer at the Seminary of Speyer, 1958-1960. Auxiliary priest in Glanmuenchweiler, 1960-1961. Given time off to prepare for his "Habilitation", 1961-1962. Professor of fundamental theology at the Superior Institute of Philosophy and Theology, 1962-1967. "Habilitation" in München with Professor Dr. Michael Schmaus. Professor of dogmatic theology, University of Mainz, 1967-1968; honorary professor, 1968.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Speyer, May 28, 1968. Consecrated, June 29, 1968, cathedral of Speyer, by Isidor Markus Emanuel, titular bishop of Marazane, former bishop of Speyer, assisted by Hermann Volk, bishop of Mainz, and by Alfred Kleinermeilert, titular bishop of Pausula, auxiliary of Trier. Attended the III Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Promoted to the metropolitan see of München und Freising, October 28, 1982.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, May 25, 1985. Attended the II Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the VII Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Awarded an honorary doctorate by the Catholic Theological Faculty of the Ludwig-Maximilians University, München, 1997. Attended the X Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Awarded the medal of honor "Palladion" of Greek culture, on December 30, 2002 as acknowledgment of his support to the Greek Orthodox Church in Bavaria. Awarded the "Bavarian Janus 2003" by the Bavarian minister of State for science, research and art; the "Bavarian Janus" is an acknowledgment prize, which is assigned in the Bavarian Archives Day, which unites public and private archives in the Free State of Bavaria. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Münich und Freising was accepted by the pope, in conformity to canon 401 § 1of the Code of Canon Law, on February 2, 2007; he was the apostolic administrator of the archdiocese until the installation of his successor on February 2, 2008. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the millennium of the archdiocese of Bamberg, Germany, July 8, 2007. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old on February 20, 2008.

Bibliography. Landersdorfer, Anton. " Wetter, Friedrich." Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1945 2001 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Unter Mitwirkung von Franz Xaver Bischof ... [et al.] ; herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 2002, pp. 306-307.

Links. Photograph, coat of arms and biography, in German; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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WILLEBRANDS, Johannes
(1909-2006)

Birth. September 4, 1909, Bovenkarspel, diocese of Haarlem, Holland. He was the oldest son of the nine children of Herman and Afra (Kok) Willebrands. His father was a businessman and one of his brothers was a Redemptorist priest who did missionary work in Surinam. His baptismal name was Johannes Gerardus Maria. His first name is also listed as Jan.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Warmond; and at the Pontifical Angelicum Athenaeum, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 26, 1934, Warmond. Further studies, 1934-1937. Pastoral ministry the in diocese of Haarlem, 1937-1940. Faculty member of the Seminary of Warmond, 1940-1945; its rector, 1945-1960. Secretary of the Secretariat for Christian Unity, June 28, 1960. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965, as expert. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, June 1, 1963. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, October 5, 1963.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Mauriana, June 4, 1964. Consecrated, June 28, 1964, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope Paul VI, assisted by Diego Venini, titular archbishop of Adana, privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Ettore Cunial, titular archbishop of Soteropoli, vice-gerent of Rome. Named president of the Secretariat for Christian Unity, April 12, 1969.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, April 30, 1969. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 7th centennial of the Council of Lyon, France, October 18 to 20, 1974. Named archbishop of Utrecht and military vicar of Holland, December 6, 1975. Transferred to order of cardinal priests, received title of S. Sebastiano alle Catecombe, December 6, 1975. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16,1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979; the Special Synod of Dutch Bishops, Vatican City, January 14 to 26, 1980; he was the first president-delegate. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Resigned the military vicariate, November 22, 1982. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Utrecht, December 3, 1983. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; one of its three president-delegates. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Camerlengo of the College of Cardinals, May 2, 1988 until 1997; the office of camerlengo was abolished at an unknown date that year. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, September 4, 1989. Resigned the presidency of the secretariat and was named president emeritus, December 12, 1989. After his retirement, he resided in the Pontifical Dutch College, Rome. He was decorated with the cross of the Order of Oranje Nassau and granted several honorary doctorates by universities in Europe and the United States. He was known at the Vatican as ''The Flying Dutchman'' for his travels promoting Christian unity.

Death. August 2, 2006, in Saint Nicolaasstichting, of the Franciscan sisters, at Denekamp. The funeral took place on Tuesday August 8, 2006, at 11.00 am, in St Catharina metropolitan cathedral, Utrecht. The remains of the cardinal were buried in the adjacent St. Barbara cemetery, in the cathedral's court, where his two immediate predecessors, Cardinals Jan de Jong and Bernardus Johannes Alfrink, are also buried (1). Cardinal Walter Kaspar, president of the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of the Unity of Christians, represented the pope at the funeral. Queen Beatrix of Holland sent a letter of condolence to Cardinal Simonis. At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Bibliography. Meeking, Basil. "Willebrands, Johannes Gerardus Maria." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyła years. Detroit, MI : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, pp. 423-425.

Links. Portrait and biography, in Dutch; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Entierran al cardenal holandis Johannes Willebrands en Utrecht, in Spanish, Cardinal Rating, Aug 09, 2006.


(1) This is the text of his epitaph kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici from Malta:

+
JOHANNES
WILLEBRANDS
KARDINAAL
AARTSBISSCHOP
4 SEPTEMBER 1909
2 AUGUSTUS 2006
DAT ALLEN EEN ZIJN


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WILLIAMS, Thomas Stafford
(1930-

Birth. March 20, 1930, Wellington, New Zealand.

Education. Studied at the Faculty of Commerce, Victoria University, Wellington; at the National Seminary, Mosgiel, Dunedin; at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum De Propaganda Fide, Rome; and at University College, Dublin, from 1961 until 1962, earning a degree in Social Sciences.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 20, 1959, Rome, by Cardinal Grégoire-Pierre Agagianian, pro-prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith. Further studies, Dublin. Pastoral ministry in St Patrick's parish, Palmerston North, 1963-1965; director of studies, Catholic Enquiry Centra, Wellington, 1966-1970; missionary in Western Samoa; built the Paul VI College, Leulumoega, Samoa, 1971-1975; pastor, Holy Family parish, Porurua, Wellington, 1976-1979.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Wellington, October 30, 1979. Consecrated, December 20, 1979, church of St. Mary of the Angels, Wellington, by Owen Noel Snedden, titular bishop of Acheloo, auxiliary of Wellington and military vicar for New Zealand, assisted by John Patrick Kavanagh, bishop of Dunedin, and by Petero Mataca, archbishop of Suva. His episcopal motto is Unity is Christ. President of the Episcopal Conference of New Zealand, 1983-1991. Moderator of the National Tribunal.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 2, 1983; received the red biretta and the title of Gesù Divin Maestro alla Pineta Sacchetti, February 2, 1983. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Special papal envoy to the centennial celebration of the evangelization of Cook Islands, New Zealand, December 16 to 18, 1994. Military ordinary in New Zealand, June 1, 1995. Attended the Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998; president delegate. Awarded the Order of New Zealand, June 5, 2000. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, March 10, 2001. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law, March 4, 2005. Resigned the pastoral government of the Military Ordinariate of New Zealand, March 4, 2005. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on March 20, 1010.

Links. Photograph and biographical data, in English, New Zealand Catholic Bishops Conference; photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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WINNING, Thomas Joseph
(1925-2001)

Birth. June 3, 1925, Wishaw, Lanarkshire, diocese of Motherwell, Scotland. From a poor and devout Roman Catholic family well known for charitable work. His father, who was the son of an Irish immigrant from County Donegal, first worked as a coal-miner; then served in the First World War; and was later employed in the steel industry after fifteen years of unemployment. He was the eldest of two children. The other sibling was Margaret Winning McCarron.

Education. He attended St. Patrick's Primary, Shieldmuir, Craigneuk, and served as an altar boy and sang in the choir; then, he studied at Our Lady's High School, Motherwell, where he expressed the desire to become a priest; he entered St. Mary's College, Blairs, Aberdeen, and studied philosophy; and later, in 1943, St. Peter's College, Cardross, Glasgow; then, he attended the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in theology; and doctorate in canon law; finally, he attended the studium of the Sacred Roman Rota, Rome. He was fluent in Italian and Latin.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 18, 1948, Rome. Further studies, Rome, 1948-1949. Incardinated in the diocese of Motherwell; assistant priest at St. Aloysius, Chapelhall until 1950. Further studies, Rome, 1950-1953. Assistant priest, St. Mary's, Hamilton, 1953-1957; Our Lady of Good Aid Cathedral, Motherwell, 1957-1958. Secretary, diocese of Motherwell, 1956-1961. Chaplain to the Franciscans of the Immaculate Conception, Bothwell 1958-1961. Spiritual director, Pontifical Scots College, Rome, 1961-1966; qualified as an advocate of the Sacred Roman Rota, 1965. Parish priest, Saint Luke's, Motherwell; Officialis of Motherwell Diocesan Tribunal and Vicar Episcopal for Marriage in Motherwell diocese, 1966-1970. First president and official of the newly established Scottish National Tribunal, Glasgow, 1970-1972.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Lugmad and appointed auxiliary of Glasgow, October 22, 1971. Consecrated, November 30, 1971, metropolitan cathedral of St. Andrew, Glasgow, by James Donald Scanlan, archbishop of Glasgow, assisted by Stephen McGill, bishop of Paisley, and by Francis Alexander Spalding Warden Thomson, bishop of Motherwell. Vicar general, archdiocese of Glasgow 1971-1974 and parish priest of Our Holy Redeemer Parish, Clydebank 1972-1974. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Glasgow, April 23, 1974. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity, The University of Glasgow, 1983. President of the Bishops' Conference of Scotland 1985-2001. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Fellow of the Educational Institute of Scotland, 1986. Knight commander of the Holy Sepulchre and grand prior of the Scottish Lieutenancy of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, 1989; promoted to Knight Grand Cross 1995. Delegate of the Bishops' Conference of Scotland, to the Bishops' Conferences of the European Union, 1990-1996. Member of the Bishops' Conferences of Europe. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. Awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of the University, University of Strathclyde, 1992.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 26, 1994; received the red biretta and the title of S. Andrea delle Fratte, November 26, 1994. Awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of Law, Aberdeen University, 1996. Special envoy to the celebrations of the 14th Centenary of the Death of St. Columba (Colum-cille), in the dioceses of Raphoe and Derry, Ireland, June 8-9, 1997. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999.

Death. June 17, 2001, from a heart attack (he had suffered a previous heart attack on June 8), in Glasgow; he had just finished breakfast when his housekeeper of 30 years, Isobel McInnes, found him unconscious at 9 a.m. on his bedroom floor. He was pronounced dead at the Accident and Emergency Unit of the Victoria Infirmary at 9:55 a.m. Cardinal Cormac Murphy O'Connor, archbishop of Westminster, England, was the main celebrant at his funeral mass, in which participated three other cardinals, five archbishops, twenty bishops and three hundred priests. Bishop Joseph Devine of Motherwell, Scotland, delivered the homily. He was buried in the crypt of St. Andrew's metropolitan cathedral, Glasgow.

Link. Photographs, biography, arms, speeches, obituary and funeral, archdiocese of Glasgow.


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WOJTYŁA, Karol
(1920-2005)

Birth. May 18, 1920, Wadowice, archdiocese of Kraków, Poland. Son of Karol Wojtyła, a non commissioned officer in the 56th Infantry Regiment of the Austro-Hungarian army, and Emilia Kaczorowsky, from Silesia, of a family originally from Lithuania. His baptismal name was Karol Józef. He had a sister, Olga, who died at a very young age before his birth, and a brother, Edmund, who became a physician and died on December 4, 1932 of scarlet fever he contracted from one of his patients in the hospital in Bilesko. Baptized on June 20, 1920, in the parish of the Presentation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, known as the church of Saint Mary, Wadowice, by Father Francisco Zak; he received the name Karol Józef. His mother died on April 13, 1929; and his father, in February 1941. He received first communion in May 1929; and was confirmed on May 3, 1938 by Adam Stefan Sapieha, archbishop of Kraków; he took the name Hubert, in memory of a Polish author called Karol Hubert Rostworowski.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Kraków; at the Pontifical Angelicum Athenaeum, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in theology, with a thesis on faith in the works of Saint John of the Cross; at the Lublin Catholic University, where he earned a doctorate in philosophy, with a thesis on "evaluation of the possibility of founding a Catholic ethic on the ethical system of Max Scheler". Received the diaconate from Cardinal Adam Stefan Sapieha, archbishop of Kraków, on October 20, 1946.

Priesthood. Ordained, November 1, 1946, chapel of archbishop's palace, Kraków, by Cardinal Adam Stefan Sapieha, archbishop of Kraków. He celebrated his first mass on the following day in the chapel of Saint Leonard, in the metropolitan cathedral Wawel of Kraków. Further studies and pastoral ministry among Polish immigrants of France, Belgium and Holland, 1946-1948. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Kraków and faculty member of the Catholic University of Lublin, 1948-1951; further studies, 1951-1953. Faculty member of the Major Seminary of Kraków and in the Faculty of Theology of Lublin, 1953-1958.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Ombi and appointed auxiliary of Eugeniusz Baziak, archbishop of Lviv of the Latins and apostolic administrator of Kraków, July 4, 1958. Consecrated, September 28, 1958, metropolitan cathedral of Kraków, by Eugeniusz Baziak, archbishop of Lviv of the Latins and apostolic administrator of Kraków, assisted by Franciszek Jop, bishop of Opole, and by Bolesław Kominek, archbishop of Wrocław. His episcopal motto was Totus tuus. Vicar capitular of Kraków, June 16, 1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Kraków, January 13, 1964.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 26, 1967; received the red biretta and the title of S. Cesareo in Palatio, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, June 29, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; its relator; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; member of the general secretariat, 1977-1978. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26,1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected, October 16, 1978. Took the name John Paul II. Inauguration of the pontificate, October 22, 1978; received the pallium from Cardinal Pericle Felici, protodeacon of S. Apollinare. Created two hundred thirty one cardinals in nine consistories. Another cardinal was created and reserved in pectore and his name was never published. During his pontificate, he made 104 international trips to 129 countries; and wrote 14 encyclicals.

Death. April 2, 2005, at 9:37 p.m., of heart failure caused from profound hypotension and complete circulatory collapse from septic shock, in his apartment at the Vatican Apostolic Palace. The funeral, presided by Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, dean of the College of Cardinals, was celebrated on Friday, April 8, 2005, at 10 a.m., in St. Peter's Square. After the funeral, the body of the pope was buried in the grotto of the patriarchal Vatican basilica in the same place where the body of Pope John XXIII had been buried until it was moved to the upper basilica after his beatification.

Canonization. He was beatified during a solemn mass celebrated by Pope Benedict XVI in St. Peter's Square on May 1, 2011, Second Sunday of Easter, feast of the Divine Mercy (1). On September 30, 2013, during an ordinary public consistory, Pope Francis approved his canonization to be celebrated on Sunday April 27, 2014, feast of the Divine Mercy. His feast is celebrated on October 22.

Bibliography. Accanto a Giovanni Paolo II. Gli amici e i collaboratori raccontano. Con un contributo esclusivo del papa emerito Benedetto XVI. A cura di Wlodzimierz Redzioch. Milano : Edizioni Ares, 2014; Ambrogetti, Angela. Compagni di viaggio. Interviste al volo con Giovanni Paolo II. Prefazione di Federico Lombardi. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2011; Bernstein, Carl and Marco Politi. His Holiness: John Paul II and the hidden history of our time. New York : Doubleday, 1996; Boniecki, Adam. Kalendarium życia Karola Wojtyły. Kraków : Znak, 2000; Boccardo, Renato ; Agasso, Renzo. Il «mio» Giovanni Paolo II. Cinisello Balsamo ; Paoline Edizioni, 2013. (I radar); Bray, Massimo. "Giovanni Paolo II." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 681-697; Czaczkowska, Ewa. Kardynał Wyszyński. Warszawa : Świat Książki-Bertelsmann Media, 2009; Dherbier, Yann-Brice ; Verlhac, Pierre-Henri ; Tincq, Henri. Pope John Paul II : a life in pictures. New York : powerHouse Books, 2005; Duffy, Eamon. Ten popes who shook the world. New Haven [Conn.] : Yale University Press, 2011. Contents: St Peter -- Leo the Great -- Gregory the Great -- Gregory VII -- Innocent III -- Paul III -- Pio Nono -- Pius XII -- John XXIII -- John Paul II; Dyduch, Jan.Kanoniczne wizytacje parafii kardynała Karola Wojtyły. Kraków : Wydawnictwo Św. Stanisława BM Archidiecezji Krakowskiej, 2000; Dyduch, Jan. Kardynała Karol Wojtyła w służbie Konferencji Episkopatu Polski. Kraków : Wydawnictwo Naukowe Papieskiej Akademii Teologicznej, 2007; Dziwisz, Stanisław. Ho vissuto con un santo. Milano : Rizzoli, 2013. (Saggi italiani); Dyduch, Jan. Kardynała Karol Wojtyła w służbie Kościołowi powszechnemu. Udział w pracach Kurii Rzymskiej i Synodów Biskupich, Kraków : Wydawnictwo Św : Stanisława BM Archidiecezji Krakowskiej, 1998; Dziwisz , Stanislao. Una vita con Karol. Conversazione con Gian Franco Svidercoschi. Milano : Rizzoli, 2007; From Pope John Paul II to Benedict XVI : an inside look at the end of an era, the beginning of a new one, and the future of the church. Edited by Mary Ann Walsh ; with reporting by Catholic News Service. Lanham, Md. : Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2005; Gerosa, Libero. Diritti e popoli in Giovanni Paolo II. Principi fondamentali e prospettive future. Lugano : Eupress-FTL (Facoltà di Teologia di Lugano), 2013; Kindziuk, Milena. Matka papieża. Poruszająca opowieśćo Emilii Wojtyłowej. Kraków : Znak, 2013; Noonan, Peggy. John Paul the great : remembering a spiritual father. New York : Viking, 2005; Oder, Slawomir ; Gaeta, Saverio. Perchè è santo. Il vero Giovanni Paolo II raccontato dal postulatore della causa di beatificazione. Firenze : Razzoli, 2010; Nitecki, Piotr. Biskupi Kościoła w Polsce w latach 965-1999. Słownik biograficzny. Przedmowa Henryk Gulbinowicz. Warszawa : Instytut Wydawniczy "Pax", Warszawa 2000, col. 491-492; Raina, Peter. Kardynał Wyszyński. Vol. 1-15 [1901-1975]. Warszawa : von borowiecky, 1998; Riccardi Andrea. Giovanni Paolo II. La biografia, Cinisello Balsamo : San Paolo, 2011; Riccardi, Andrea. La santità di Papa Wojtyła. Cinisello Balsamo : San Paolo, 2014; Romaniuk, Marian P. Kardynał Stefan Wyszyński Prymas Tysiąclecia. Przewodnik bibliograficzny 1921-2005. Radom : Polskie Wydawnictwo Encyklopedyczne, 2006; Romaniuk, Marian P. Źycie, twórczość i posługa Stefana Kardynała Wyszyńskiego Prymasa Tysiąclecia. Vol. 1-4. Warszawa : Pax, 1994-2002; Socci, Antonio. I segreti di Karol Wojtyla. Milan : Rizzoli, 2009. Contents: Premessa 7; La scoperta inattesa 9; Segni e profezie attorno a Wojtyla 69; Da Medjugorje a Civitavecchia: qual è il messaggio? 149; La paura e la speranza 215; Spinello, Richard A. The genius of John Paul II : the great pope's moral wisdom. Lanham, MD ; Sheed & Ward ; Distributed by National Book Network, 2007. Contents: Faith, reason, and morals -- Competing moral visions -- The nature of the human person -- Freedom, the good, and the moral law -- The moral person -- Ethics for modern life -- Conclusions -- Appendix: the life and writings of John Paul II; Svidercoschi, Gian Franco. L'ereditá di Giovanni Paolo II. Cinisello Balsamo : San Paolo, 2009; Svidercoschi, Gian Franco. Il Papa e l'amico ebreo. Storia di un'amicizia ritrovata. Città del Vaticano ; Milano : Librerma Editrice Vaticana ; Cairo, 2014; Szczypka, Józef. Jan Paweł II. Rodowód. Warszawa : Pax 1991; Szulc, Tad. Pope John Paul II. New Jersey, Prentice Hall, 1995; Weigel, George. Witness to hope : the biography of Pope John Paul II. New York : Cliff Street Books, 1999; Wuerl, Donald W. The gift of Blessed John Paul II : a celebration of his enduring legacy. Frederick, MD : Word Among Us Press, 2011. Contents: Focus on the future : Redemptor hominis (The redeemer of man) -- Handing on the faith : Catechesi tradendae (On catechesis in our time) -- God's mercy : Dives in misericordia (Rich in mercy) -- A "gospel" of work : Laborem exercens (On human work) -- The family as foundation : Familiaris consortio (On the role of the Christian family in the modern world) -- Sin and forgiveness : Reconciliatio et paenitentia (Reconciliation and penance) -- Models of evangelization : Slavorum Apostoli (the Apostles to the Slavs) -- Lord and giver of life : Dominum et vivificantem (the Holy Spirit, lord and giver of life) -- Behold your mother : Redemptoris mater (The mother of the Redeemer) -- Building a better world : Sollicitudo rei socialis (On social concern) -- Speak and live the faith : Christi fideles laici (The vocation and the mission of the lay faithful in the church and in the world) -- A quiet man with much to say : Redemptoris custos (On the person and mission of St. Joseph) -- Sowers of the seed : Redemptoris missio (The mission of the Redeemer) -- A commitment to care : Centesimus annus -- Forming good shepherds : Pastores dabo vobis (On the formation of priests in the circumstances of the present day) -- The truth sets us free : Veritatis splendor (The splendor of truth) -- A people of life and for life : Evangelium vitae (The gospel of life) -- Committed to Christian unity : Ut unum sint (On commitment to ecumenism) -- A priceless gift : Vita consecrata (The consecrated life) -- Faith, reason, and the truth : Fides et ratio (On the relationship between faith and reason) -- Encountering Christ in America : Ecclesia in America (the church in America) -- United to Mary : Rosarium Virginis Mariae (On the most holy rosary) -- A real presence : Ecclesia de Eucharistia (On the Eucharist in its relationship to the church) -- "Good shepherds" : Pastores gregis (The bishop, servant of the Gospel of Jesus Christ for the hope of the world); Zavattaro, Fabio. La valigia di Papa Wojtyla. Pavona di Albano Laziale (Castelli Romani, Roma) : Iacobelli, 2011. (Frammenti di memoria ; 24; Variation: Frammenti di memoria ; 24). Contents: In viaggio con Papa Wojtyla, 9; EI Korda, 14; II Grande viaggiatore, 21; Quando il Papa fa l'autostop, 28; In preghiera per la pace nel mondo, 33; Un viaggio tra indiani e cowboy. 42; Quando il Papa prende il treno, 49; Papa, cristianesimo e rivoluzione, 56; Dall'Atlantico agli Urali, 65; II generale e Felettricista, 72; Un francescano in Kazakistan, 81; In Siberia, la gente più colta, 89; La sfida ecumenica, 97; II francescano archeologo, 105; La Smokey mountain, 113; Nell'isola di al Qaeda, 120; UncleSam, 128; I bambini soldato, 136; La porta del cielo, 144; II tram giallo, 151; Quaranta anni con Papa Wojtyla, 159; Santo subito, 166; Zuchniewicz, Pawel. Miracles of John Paul II. Toronto : Catholic Youth Studio-KSM, 2006. Note: Originally published: Warsaw : Prószynski i S-ka, 2006.

Links. Photographs and biography by William B. Blakemore, in English (Britannica); portrait, arms and biography, in Italian, The Vatican; biography, in Italian, Enciclopedia on line, Treccani; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; portrait, arms and biographical information by Joseph L. Shetler, in English, Modern Popes (1800 to present), The Popes (1447 to date); and his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Il beato Giovanni Paolo II ha rischiato di non nascere, in Italian, Vatican Insider, 16/10/2013; Nel 1977 con Wojtyla «il sovversivo» by Bruno Vespa, in Italian, Avvenire, 8 novembre 2013.

(1) Pope Benedict XVI announced on May 13, 2005, the opening of the cause of beatification of Pope John Paul II, waiving the normal waiting period of five years after the death of a Servant of God. The pope made the announcement in the course of a meeting with the Roman clergy in the basilica of St. John Lateran. The rescript - or document authorizing the act - was dated May 9, 2005 and was signed by Cardinal José Saraiva Martins and Archbishop Edward Nowak, respectively prefect and secretary of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints. The diocesan phase of the process was opened on June 28, 2005, less than three months after Pope John Paul II's death, at the patriarchal Lateran basilica by Cardinal Camillo Ruini, vicar general of Rome; it was closed in that same basilica on April 2, 2007. The diocesan process over, the acts and documents passed to the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, where all the material was studied. On December 19, 2009, Pope Benedict XVI authorized the promulgation of the decree concerning his heroic virtues. On January 14, 2011, Pope Benedict XVI authorized the promulgation of a decree concerning a miracle attributed to his intercession. Pope John Paul II's remains were moved from the grotto located beneath St. Peter's basilica to a chapel in the main church. The transportation of the coffin took place without exhumation, hence the pope's body will not be exposed. The body was enclosed and the placement of his body was marked by a simple marble stone engraved with the words "Beatus Ioannes Paulus II." The pope's body was placed in the chapel of St. Sebastian, which is located between the chapel of the Pietà and the chapel of the Blessed Sacrament. The chapel housed the remains of Blessed Pope Innocent XI (1676-1689), and is named after the main figure in the mosaic above the altar, which was completed by Pier Paolo Cristofari. Statues of Pius XI and Pius XII flank the right and left sides of the altar, respectively. The remains of Bl. Pope Innocent XI were moved to another chapel.


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WRIGHT, John Joseph
(1909-1979)

Birth. July 18, 1909, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America. Son of John Joseph Wright, a paper-factory clerk, and Harriet Louise Cokely.

Education. Studied at Boston College; at Saint John's Seminary, Brighton; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 8, 1935, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Marchetti Selvaggiani, vicar general of Rome. Further studies, 1935-1939. Faculty member of Saint John's Seminary, Brighton, 1939-1943. Secretary to the archbishop of Boston, November 8, 1944. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, December 17, 1944.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Egea and appointed auxiliary of Boston, May 10, 1947. Consecrated, June 30, 1947, cathedral of the Holy Cross, Boston, by Richard Cushing, archbishop of Boston, assisted by Ralph Leo Hayes, bishop of Davenport, and by James Louis Connelly, titular bishop of Milasa and coadjutor of Fall River. His episcopal motto was Resonare Christum. Transferred to the diocese of Worcester, January 28, 1950. Transferred to the diocese of Pittsburgh, January 23, 1959. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Prefect of the S.C. for Clergy, April 23, 1969.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 28, 1969; received the red biretta and the title of Gesù Divin Maestro alla Pineta Sacchetti, April 30, 1969. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; president delegate, August 2, 1971. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Did not participate in the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I, because of illness. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. In 1978, after undergoing a cataract operation and surgery to correct a neuromuscular disorder in his legs, he was confined to a wheelchair the rest of his life. He was very knowledgeable about St. Joan of Arc.

Death. August 10, 1979, of polymyositis, at Youiville Rehabilitation and Chronic Disease Hospital, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America. Buried in the family plot, at the Field of St. Paul, Lot 3090, in Holyhood Cemetery, Brookline, Massachusetts (1).

Bibliography. Almagno, R. Stephen. Cardinal John Joseph Wright, the bibliophile. Pittsburgh: The Pittsburgh Bibliophiles, 1980; Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 109; Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 300.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the inscription in his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

WRIGHT
JOHN CARDINAL WRIGHT
1909 - 1979
"RESONARE CHRISTUM CORDE ROMANO"


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WU CHENG-CHUNG, John Baptist
(1925-2002)

Birth. March 26, 1925, in the village of Ho Hau, in the country of Wu-hua (Province of Guangdong) diocese of Shui-tsai (Kaying), China. Son of Shing Sing Wu and Mary Chow. He was baptized in the parish church of the same village.

Education. Primary education in Ho Hau; the studied at the Seminary of Kaying from 1940 to 1946 (secondary education); at the South China Regional Seminary, Aberdeen, Hong Kong, from August 1946 (philosophy and theology); and at the Pontifical Urbanian University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in canon law, summa cum laude, on June 23, 1956; his thesis was De forma canonica extraordinaria celebrationis matrimonii.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 6, 1952, cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Hong Kong, by Antonio Riberi, titular archbishop of Dara, nuncio in China. Pastoral ministry at the Refugee Center at Tung Tau Tsuen, Kowloon, Hong Kong, now a part of St. Patrick's Parish, 1952-1953. Further studies in Rome, 1954-1956. July 1956: Sent to the United States to gain experience in diocesan administration, working respectively at the chancery of the archdiocese of New York (July-September 1956); of Boston (September-December 1956); and of Chicago (December 1956-January 1957). Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Hsin-chu, Taiwan, May 1957-1975; moderator of the diocesan synod, 1971-1972.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Hong Kong (Xianggang), April 5, 1975. Consecrated, July 25, 1975, cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Hong Kong, by Cardinal Agnelo Rossi, prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, assisted by Petrus Pao-Zin Tou, bishop of Hsinchu, and by Frederic Anthony Donaghy, M.M., bishop of Wuchow (Wuzhou). His episcopal motto was Veritatem in caritate. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Led delegations in official visits to the People's Republic of China in 1985, 1986 and 1994.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of Beata Vergine Maria del Monte Carmelo a Mostacciano, June 28, 1988. Special papal envoy to the National Missionary Congress of the Philippines, Cebu, September 27 to October 1, 2000. He was the first cardinal from Hong Kong.

Death. September 23, 2002, from advanced stages of melanoma and bone marrow cancer, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong. Buried in St. Michael's Catholic Cemetery, Happy Valley, Hong Kong.

Bibliography. Brender, Andreas ; Kierein-Kuenring, Mandred D. Catholic Hierarchy in China since 1307. Cluj-Napoca, 2012, pp. 204 and 246.

Links. Photograph, arms and biographical information, in Chinese and English, Hong Kong Catholic Diocesan Archives; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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WYSZYŃSKI, Stefan
(1901-1981)

Birth. August 3, 1901, Zuzela, diocese of Lomza, Poland. He was the second of the six children of Stanisław Wyszyński, an organist, and writer of his parish, and Julianna Karp. The other siblings were Stanisław, Wacław, Anastazja, Janina and Zofia. Baptized on August 5, 1901, in the parish church St. Nicholas, by Canon Aleksander Lipowski. His mother died when he was nine years old.

Education. Studied at Pius X Lyceum, a minor seminary, Włocławek; at the Seminary of Włocławek, 1920-1924 (philosophy and theology); at the University of Lublin, 1924-1929 (doctorate in canon law; dissertation: The Rights of the Family, the Church, and the State in Relation to Schools, June 1929; habilitacja, The moral environment of factory work). Received the subdiaconate on March 15, 1924, from Bishop Stanisław Zdzitowiecki; and the diaconate on April 5, 1924, also from Bishop Zdzitowiecki.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 3, 1924, Włocławek, by Wojciech Owczarek, auxiliary bishop of Włocławek. Further studies, 1924-1929. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Lomza, 1927-1930. Received a traveling scholarship to study the state of the Christian social sciences in Austria, Italy, France, Belgium, Holland, and Germany, 1929-1930. Vicar at Przedcz, 1930. Vicar at the cathedral of Włocławek, fall 1930. Secretary of the Pius X Lyceum, Włocławek, 1931. Director of the diocesan missions office, 1931-1932. Faculty member of the Seminary of Włocławek, 1931-1939. Between 1931 and 1939, he brought out 106 publications mainly on the economic crisis, unemployment, and social justice. Director of the journal Atenaeum Kaplanskie, 1932-1939. Promoter of justice and defender of the matrimonial bond in the diocesan curia, 1932-1938. Head of the Christian Worker's University. From 1932, he was active in the Christian trade unions and organized the Catholic Union of Young Workers. Actively worked in the Marian Society of Landowners. Member of the Primate's Social Council, 1937. Judge in the episcopal tribunal, from 1938. Clandestine pastoral ministry during the Second World War, 1939-1945; briefly arrested by the Gestapo in October 1941; lived in Zulow from November 1941 until June 1942; chaplain of the Laski Institute for the Blind, June 1942; pastoral and educational work in Warsaw, 1942-1945. Canon capitular of the cathedral of Włocławek, August 15, 1945.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Lublin, March 4, 1946. Consecrated, May 12, 1946, Jasna Góra, by Cardinal August Hlond, S.D.B., archbishop of Gniezno and Posnań, assisted by Karol Radoński, bishop of Włocławek, and by Stanisław Czajka, titular bishop of Centuria. His episcopal motto was Soli Deo. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Gniezno, with the see of Warsaw united ad personam, November 12, 1948 (1). Imprisoned by the Communist regime, 1953- October 26, 1956.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 12, 1953; impeded from attending the consistory. Received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, May 18, 1957. Participated in the conclave of 1958, which elected Pope John XXIII. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962 - 1965. Participated in the conclave of 1963, which elected Pope Paul VI. Prohibited from attending the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, 1967, by the Communist regime. Attended the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. Participated in the conclave of August 25 to 26, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul I. Participated in the conclave of October 14 to 16, 1978, which elected Pope John Paul II. Attended the First Plenary Assembly of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 5 to 9, 1979.

Death. May 28, 1981, of abdominal cancer, Warsaw. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Warsaw (2).

Beatification. The diocesan process for his beatification started on May 20, 1989; was completed on February 6, 2001; and it is now in Rome, in the Congregation for the Causes of Saints.

Bibliography. Micewski, Andrzej. Cardinal Wyszynski : a biography. Translated from Polish by William A. Brand and Katarzyna Mroczkowska-Brand. San Diego : Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1984. Translation of : Kardynal Wyszynski, primas I maz stanu; Nitecki, Piotr. Biskupi Kościoła w Polsce w latach 965-1999. Słownik biograficzny. Przedmowa Henryk Gulbinowicz. Warszawa : Instytut Wydawniczy "Pax", Warszawa 2000, col. 500; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 265-279; Prymas Wyszyński a kultura katolicka. Redakcja Krzysztof Dybciak. Warszawa : Wydawn. Uniwersytetu Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego, 2002; Raina, Peter. Stefan Kardynal Wyszynski Prymas Polski. 3 vols. Londyn [i.e. London] : Oficyna Poetów i Malarzy, 1979-1988; Wyszynski, Stefan. A freedom within : the prison notes of Stefan Cardinal Wyszynski. Trans. By Barbara Krzywicki-Herburt and Walter J. Ziemba; foreword by John Cardinal Krol. San Diego : Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1983. Translation of : Zpiski wiezienne.

Links. His photograph and biography, in Polish, archdiocese of Warsaw; Uniwersytet Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego, Warsaw, in Polish; biographical data, in English, Infoplease; photographs, arms, statue and biographical data, in Polish, Wikipedia; photographs, arms, statue and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photograph, biography and bibliography, in Polish; his bust at the National Shrine of Our Lady of Czestochowa, Poland, flickr; catalog of archbishops of Gniezno and primates of Poland, in English, Wikipedia; and images and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) As he was dying, Cardinal Hlond suggested to the pope to name Bishop Wyszynski as his successor. The Polish episcopate, not knowing this, had also forwarded his name to Rome.
(2) This is the inscription on his marble sarcophagus, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

+ KARDYNAL STEFAN WYSZYNSKI PRYMAS POLSKI

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