The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Benedict VIII (1012-1024)
Creation of 1012 (I)


(1) 1. POTIO, Benedetto de (?-ca. 1030)

Birth. (No date or place found). His last name is also listed as Pontius and Ponzio.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Porto not before June 17 or after November 23, 1012 (1). Consecrated (no information found). Librarian of the Holy Roman Church. Subscribed papal bulls issued on January 21, 1013, in favor of the see of Bamberg; April 24, in favor of the monastery of Farfa, and another one in favor of the see of Urgel; June 13, in favor of the monasteries of S. Salvatoris and S. Benedicti Lenensis; and December 27, 1019, confirming the election of Amato, archbishop of Salerno; May 1, 1020; June 21 (?), 1026, in favor of Dietmaro, archbishop of Salzburg; and June 12, 1029, in favor of the see of Tivoli. Subscribed papal bulls, in place of Piligrimi, archbishop of Cologne and first archchancellor of the Holy Roman Church, issued on March 7, 1024, one in favor of Humfrido, archbishop of Magdeburg, and another one in favor of the monastery of S. Maria of Nienburg; and December 14 and 17, 1026, both in favor of Pietro, bishop of Silva Candida. Received from the pope different privileges for his see in January 1026.

Death. Ca. 1030, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 94; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. , no. ; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 10; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 130, no. 1; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 506, 507, 510, 511, 514, 515, 516 and 517.

(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 94. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle",. Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 130, no. 1, says that he was created cardinal ca. 1012. Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 10, calls him Giovanni Ponzio and indicates that he was promoted to the cardinalate in 1012 or 1025, and occupied the see until 1033, confusing him with Cardinal Giovanni Ponzio (1025). Pius Bonifatius Gams, Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. VIII, lists him as Benedictus III (1012 or 1025 to 1033), saying that he accepted a benefice for his see, and that he was elected Pope Benedetto IX, which is erroneous.

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(2) 2. AZZONE (?-before December 1021)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Azzo and Actius.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Ostia ca. 1012 (or 1013). Consecrated (no information found). Subscribed a papal bull issued in December 1013, in favor of the monastery of S. Sepulchri and Ss. Quatuor Evangelistarum, in castle Felicitatis, Noceati. Librarian of the Holy Roman Church.

Death. Before December 1021, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 2; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 130-131, no. 2; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. IV; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 506 and 507.

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(3) 3. TEOBALDO (?-1044)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Albano in 1012 (or 1015). Consecrated (no information found). Subscribed papal bulls issued on December 1, 1012. Attended the Lateran Synod of January 3, 1015; subscribed a papal bull in favor of Abbot Villelmo of the monastery of S. Benigno di Fruttuaria. Subscribed papal bulls issued in 1015 and 1026. Participated in synods celebrated on December 14, 1026, at the church of S. Silvestro, infra Lateran palace; in 1037, for the cause of Andrea da Perugia; and in 1044, in favor of Ursone, patriarch of Grado. Subscribed a papal bull issued in 1044.

Death. 1044, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 85; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 40; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 131, no. 4; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. XXII; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 506, 507, 508, 509 and 516.

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(4) 4. GRAZIANO, Giovanni (?-around 1047/1048)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Godfather or confessor of Pope Benedict IX. He was possibly related to the wealthy banking family Pierleoni. He is also listed as John Gratian and as Giangraziano Pierleoni.

Education. (No information found).

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Archpriest of the church of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, Rome (1). He had Ildebrando, future pope Gregory VII, as his disciple in the school of the Lateran patriarchio.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest ca. 1012; his title is not known (2). He was known as a cultured and virtuous man, who was active in the ecclesiastical reform. On May 1, 1045, Pope Benedict IX resigned the pontificate in his favor (a clear irregularity) for a large sum of money (1000 or 2000 silver librae), which was paid by the supporters of the new pope in order to save the see of Rome from the scandalous and violent pontificate of Pope Benedict IX, some sources say.

Papacy. Elected Pope Gregory VI on May 5, 1045; the name was given by popular acclaim (3). Enthroned on that same day. He let the Romans take an oath to never select another pope as long as he lived; he was recognized as pontiff in Italy, France and Germany. Pietro Damiano, O.S.B.Cam., future cardinal and saint, saluted the election with great joy, writing the new pope a warm letter exhorting him to energetically reform the Church. In the fall of 1046, King Heinrich III went to Italy and presided over a synod celebrated in Pavia, in which simony was again condemned. Pope Gregory VI went to meet the king in Piacenza; he was received with honor by the monarch but it does not appear that his legitimacy as a pontiff was recognized. Accused of simony, he was summoned and appeared before the Synod of Sutri, held and presided by King Heinrich III of Germany, on December 20-24, 1046; also summoned were Popes Benedict IX and Sylvester III, who also claimed legitimacy, but they did not appear before the gathering; the synod deposed the three claimants to the pontificate (4). Then, the emperor nominated Cardinal Suidger Morsleben von Horneburg, bishop of Bamberg, as pope, and the clergy and people agreed; on the following day, he was enthroned as Pope Clement II; he crowned King Heinrich III of German as holy Roman emperor on December 25, 1046. He was sent ad ripas Rheni (banks of the Rhine), probably Cologne (accompanied by his chaplain, Ildebrando, future Pope Gregory VII), where he prepared his testament; while in Cologne, he was under the watch of Archbishop Hermann of Cologne, imperial chancellor for Italy.

Death. Around 1047/1048, Cologne (5). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Borino, Giovanni Battista. "L'elezione e la deposizione di Gregorio VI." Archivio della Reale Società Romana di Storia Patria, XXXIX (1916), 141-252, 295-410; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 93-94; Del Re, Niccolò. "Gregorio VI, papa." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 571; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 131, no. 9; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 144-145; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 525; Sennis, Antonio. "Gregorio VI." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 148-150.

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in English (Britannica); biography, in English; his engraving and biography, in English; biography, in English; biography, in German; biographies, in German; his image, fresco painted by por il Bergognone (1450-1523) capitular hall of the church of S. Maria della Pasione, Milan (the painting indicates that he was a saint and a canon regular, either one of which he was not); Casimir I, King of Poland (1034-1058), after defeating the enemies, offers his kingdom to Gregory VI (1045-1046), as St. Peter's pence, Vatican Archives, Vatican City; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his engraving, Biblioteca dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; six engravings, Bildarchiv Austria, Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his effigy on two medals, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate. Czech Republic; and Benedict IX and Gregory VI, by Reginald L. Poole (London : Published for the British Academy by H. Milford, Oxford University press, 1917).

(1) This church was not established as a cardinalitial title until July 6, 1517.
(2) Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 93, says that he was not a cardinal. Other authors also doubt or deny that he was ever a cardinal.
(3) Some sources consider him an antipope.
(4) According to Sennis, "Gregorio VI", Enciclopedia dei papi, II, 149, some sources say that King Heinrich III of Germany ordered Pope Gregory VI's deposition; and others indicate that the pope declared himself guilty of simony and, after invoking some attenuating circumstances, not deserving of the pontificate. He was imprisoned the same day; since Gregory had strong support in the papal curia, the monarch decided to send him to Germany, probably Cologne, with Ildebrando. The same source says that when Pope Clement II died on October 9, 1047, Bishop Wazone of Liège proposed Gregory as a successor but that the emperor instead, on December 25, 1047, nominated Bishop Poppone of Brixen, Tyrol, who was not a cardinal, and who was elected as Pope Damasus II on July 17, 1048 and died on the following August 9.
(5) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 131, no. 9, which adds that he was buried in the same monastery.

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(5) 5. PIETRO (?-ca. 1037)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Sisto before December 1012. Attended the Lateran Synod of January 3, 1015; subscribed a papal bull in favor of Abbot Villelmo of the monastery of S. Benigno di Fruttuaria. Attended the Lateran Synod of November 2, 1036.

Death. Ca. 1037, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 95; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 770, no. 8; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 131, no. 10; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LIII, 34; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 508 and 520.

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(6) 6. GIOVANNI (?-before 1033)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Marcello before December 1012. Attended the Lateran Synod of January 3, 1015; subscribed a papal bull in favor of Abbot Villelmo of the monastery of S. Benigno di Fruttuaria. Subscribed papal bulls issued in September 1025; and December 1026.

Death. Before 1033, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 95; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 770, no. 9; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 143; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 131, no.11; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 508 and 516.

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(7) 7. CRESCENZIO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Stefano al Monte Celio (or in Celerina) before December 1012. Attended the Lateran Synod of January 3, 1015; subscribed a papal bull in favor of Abbot Villelmo of the monastery of S. Benigno di Fruttuaria.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 95; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 770, no. 12; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. ; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 131, no. 12; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 508.

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(8) 8. BENEDETTO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon before December 1012; his deaconry is not known. Attended the Lateran Synod of January 3, 1015; subscribed a papal bull in favor of Abbot Villelmo of the monastery of S. Benigno di Fruttuaria.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 95; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 770, no. 14; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 131, no. 17; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 508.

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(9) 9. CRESCENZIO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon before December 1012; his deaconry is not known. Attended the Lateran Synod of January 3, 1015; subscribed a papal bull in favor of Abbot Villelmo of the monastery of S. Benigno di Fruttuaria.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 95; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 770, no. 15; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 132, no. 18; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 508.

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(10) 10. GIOVANNI (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon before December 1012; his deaconry is not known. Attended the Lateran Synod of January 3, 1015; subscribed a papal bull in favor of Abbot Villelmo of the monastery of S. Benigno di Fruttuaria. Subscribed papal bulls issued in September 1025.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 95; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 770, no. 16; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 132, no. 19; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 508 and 516.

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(11) 11. CRESCENZIO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon before December 1012; his deaconry is not known. Attended the Lateran Synod of January 3, 1015; subscribed a papal bull in favor of Abbot Villelmo of the monastery of S. Benigno di Fruttuaria.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 95; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 770, no. 17; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 132, no. 20; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 508.

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(12) 12. PIETRO (?-October 1050)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon before December 1012, his deaconry is not knwon. Attended the Lateran Synod of January 3, 1015; subscribed a papal bull in favor of Abbot Villelmo of the monastery of S. Benigno di Fruttuaria. Librarian and chancellor of the Sacred Palace (or of the Holy Roman Curch) in the pontificate of Pope Benedict VIII and his successors. Subscribed papal bulls issued at the end of 1024, in favor of Poppone, patriarch of Grado; in November 1036; in 1037; from February 1046 to October 1047; and from February 1049 to September 1050.

Death. October 1050, Langres. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 95; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 770, no. 18; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 132, no. 21; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LIII, 34; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 508, 515, 520, 522-523 and 529-532.

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