The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Benedict IX (1032-1044; 1045; 1047-1048)
Creation of 1044 (VII)


(23) 1. BENEDETTO (?-before 1050)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Benedictus.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Ostia in April 1044. Consecrated (no information found). He subscribed a privilege for the patriarchate of Grado issued in April 1044.

Death. Before 1050, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, ; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. , no. ; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. ; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 133, no.5; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. V; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 99, no. 1; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 521.

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(24) 2. AMATO (?-ca. 1050)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Amatus and as Aimé.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Velletri in April 1044. Consecrated (no information found). Subscribed a privilege for the patriarchate of Grado issued in April 1044.

Death. Ca. 1050, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, p. 100; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 3; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 133, no. 6; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. V; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 143, no. 1; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 521.

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(25) 3. GIOVANNI (ca. 1000-before October 1063)

Birth. Ca. 1000, Rome. He is also listed as Giovanni Romano, Joannes IV and Giovanni de' Crescenzi Ottaviani.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Sabina before 1044. Consecrated (no information found).

Papacy. Elected pope by the Romans, with the support of the Crescentian family, on January 13 (or 20, or 21), 1045 (1). Took the name Sylvester III. He was excommunicated by the deposed Pope Benedict IX. Expelled from Rome by Pope Benedict IX and his followers on March 10 of that same year; he returned to his see of Sabina, which he had not resigned; the protection of the Crescenti family allowed him to ignore the papal ban and continue carrying out his episcopal functions. At the intervention of Emperor Heinrich III of Germany, he was cited to appear before a synod in Sutri on December 20, 1046; he was condemned as an invader of the Holy See, and sentenced to be confined in a monastery (the abbey of Grotta-Ferrata) and be deprived of orders; in that same synod, Pope Gregory VI was also deposed. The sentence must have been suspended because he continued to head his diocese until at least 1062. Between 1049 and 1053, he authored Libellum reclamationis, which he presented to Pope Leo IX ; in the document, as bishop of Sabina, he accused Bernardo, abbot of the monastery of Farfa, of having usurped the episcopal rights over the church of S. Michele in Tancia, and of having committed a series of violent acts against the bishop's person. He appears as bishop of Sabina in documents issued by Antipope Benedict X in August 1058 and on the following November 28. He joined the obedience of Pope Nicholas II and subscribed papal bulls issued in April 1059; on May 9, 1059; and December 1059 to January 1061. In the pontificate of Pope Alexander II, he subscribed papal bulls issued in October 1061; in January 1062; on April 15, 1062; and in June 1062. He did not create any cardinals.

Death. Before October 1063, when a successor in the see of Sabina is mentioned, (no place found) (2). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, p. 111-112; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. , no. ; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. ; Del Re, Niccolò. "Silvestro III, antipapa." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 985; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 133, no. 8; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. XIII; Gay, Jules. Les papes du XIe siècle et la chrétienté. 2d ed. Paris : J. Gabalda, 1926. (Bibliothèque de L'enseignement de l'histoire ecclésiastique). Other titles: Papes du onzième siècle et la chrétienté; Papes du 11e siècle et la chrétienté; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 125, no. 1; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 144; Sennis, Antonio. "Silvestro III."Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 147-148.

Links. Biography, in English (Britannica); biography, in German; biography by Antonio Sennis, in Italian, Enciclopedia dei papi, Treccani; his image, arms and biography, in Italian; Storia della famiglia Crescenzi, in Italian; and his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria, Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.

(1) There was debate concerning his legitimacy and if he should be considered an antipope but in the revision of the official list of popes in Annuario Pontificio, effected in 1947, he was declared to be legitimate; the official list is based on Louis Duchesne's Le Liber Pontificalis, I, Paris, 1886; and II, Paris, 1892; and Theodor Mommsen's Gestorum Romanorum Pontificum, I, Berlin, 1898.. Kelly, Oxford Dictionary of Popes, p. 144, lists him as pope although he says that Sylvester's "right to be considered an authentic pope is open to question." Both, "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 133, no. 8; and Del Re, "Silvestro III, antipapa." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente, p. 985, list him as antipope. His first biography in English, linked above, says that he was pope or antipope; his biography in German, linked above, says that he was antipope; his biography in Italian, also linked above, says that he was pope.
(2) This is according to Hüls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130, p. 125, no. 1; Kelly, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, p. 144; and Sennis, "Silvestro III."Enciclopedia dei papi, II, 148. Del Re, "Silvestro III, antipapa." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente, p. 985, says that he died shortly after having been deposed by the Synod of Sutri. All the electronic sources linked above say that he died ca. 1063.

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(26) 4. GIOVANNI (?-before 1055)

Birth. (No date or place found). Of the counts of Tusculum. Nephew of Pope Benedict IX. He is also listed as Giovanni II and Johannes I.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Labico in April 1044 (1), at a young age. Consecrated (no information found). Participated in the Lateran Council of 1044, during which the pope called him "Joannes Lavicanus nepos noster Episcopus", and gave him precedence over all the other cardinals.

Death. Before 1055, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 100; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 134, no. 2; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. XXII; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 138, no. 1.

(1) This is according to Hüls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130, p. 138, no. 1. Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. XXII, says that he was elected bishop of Labico on April 10, 1045; he also indicates that Cardinal Giovanni had a successor in that see by 1055. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 134, no. 2, lists him among the cardinals promoted by Pope Gregory VI, citing the date of election given by Gams.

Link. Biography, in Italian.

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(27) 5. GIOVANNI (?-before 1061)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Anastasia in 1044.

Death. Before 1061, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 95; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 134, no. 20.

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(28) 6. GIOVANNI (?-before 1058)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Cecilia in 1044.

Death. Before 1058, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 100; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 66; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 134, no. 21.

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(29) 7. PIETRO (?-ca. 1054)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Crisogono in April 1044.

Death. Ca. 1054, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 100; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 92; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 134, no. 22; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 168, no. 1.

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(30) 8. GIOVANNI (?-ca. 1059)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti in April 1044.

Death. Ca. 1059, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 100; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 71; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 134, no. 23; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 191, no. 1.

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(31) 9. TEODALDO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Teudaldo and Thedaldus.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in 1044 (?); his title is not known.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 100; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 266; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 134, no. 24.

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(32) 10. ONESTO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Honestus.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in 1044 (?); his title is not known.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 100; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 266; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 134, no. 25.

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(33) 11. BENEDETTO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Benedetto Oblazionario.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in 1044 (?) (1); his deaconry is not known.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 99; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 284; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 134, no. 32; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, V, 56.

(1) This is according to Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 284; and "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 134, no. 32. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 99, lists him as Benedetto Oblazionario and says that he subscribed a papal bull in 1037. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, V, 56, also lists hims as Benedetto Oblazionario.

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(34) 12. CRESCENZIO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in 1044 (?); his deaconry is not known (1).

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 98; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 284; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 134, no. 33.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 134, no. 33, which adds on p. 135, that he may have become bishop of Silva Candida or S. Rufina in 1049.

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(35) 13. UGO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in 1044 (?); his deaconry is not known. Attended the Roman Synod of April 1044. Subscribed a privilege for the patriarchate of Grado issued in April 1044.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 100; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 284; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 134, no. 34; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LXXXIII, 14; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 521.

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(36) 14. LEONE (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in 1044 (?); his deaconry is not known. Subscribed a privilege for the patriarchate of Grado issued in April 1044.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 100; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 779, no. 4; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 284; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 134, no. 35; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXXVIII, 84; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 521.

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(37) 15. MANCIO, Pietro (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). His last name is also listed as Mancius and Mincius.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in 1044 (?); his deaconry is not known (2).

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 100; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 779, no. 3; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 284; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 134, no. 36; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XLII, 101-102; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 520.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 134, no. 36; Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, XLII, 102, says that he subscribed a privilege in favor of the cathedral chapter of Florence at the request of its Provost Rolando, issued on November 2, 1036.

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(38) 16. ROMANO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in 1044 (?); his deaconry is not known (1).

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 100; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 284; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 134, no. 37; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 520.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 134, no. 36; Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, XLII, 102, says that he subscribed a privilege in favor of the cathedral chapter of Florence at the request of its Provost Rolando, issued on November 2, 1036.

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(39) 17. ROMANO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in 1044 (?); his deaconry is not known.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 284; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 134, no. 38.

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