The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Leo IX (1049-1054)
Creation of 1049 (I)


(1) 1. GIOVANNI (?-after September 30, 1061 and before December 31, 1062)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Johannes I and Joannes V. Some sources believe that he belonged to the Conti family (1).

Education. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Toscanella in 1044. Consecrated (no information found). He appears as such in documents issued between April 1044 and January 5, 1047. Papal legate to Gallia to preside, together with Giovanni, bishop of Arezzo, and other prelates, a synod celebrated in Pointgois; the synod , which guarded the ecclesiastical discipline, was attended by seven metropolitans and forty three bishops. On April 9 to 15, 1049, he participated in the Lateran Synod; he was successful in the cause against Cardinal Crescenzio, bishop of Silva Candida, concerning the jurisdiction over the island of Trastevere, fixing then the boundaries of the suburbicarian see of Porto (2). On April 13, 1049, he signed a papal document for Archbishop Eberhard of Trier.

Cardinalate. On April 22, 1049, his transfer to the suburbicarian see of Porto was approved. He accompanied Pope Leo IX to Germany; on September 29, 1049, he was in Reims; and on October 19, in Mainz. Subscribed papal bulls issued on January 8, 16 and 20, 1059, in Florence; and April 19, 1060, in Rome. Participated in the papal election of 1061, in which Pope Alexander II was elected.

Death. After September 30, 1061 and before December 31, 1062, when a successor appears subscribing a papal bull, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 104; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 795, no. I; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 10; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 135, no. 1; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p.VIII and 737; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 117-118, no. 1; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1177, no. 1; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 557, 562 and 563.

(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 104; and Mas Latrie, Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie, col. 1177, no. 1.
(2) According to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 104, the conflict was due to the jurisdiction over the churches of S. Adalberto and S. Paolino, situated in the island of Trastevere (Licaonia), later called S. Giovanni Calibita, and S. Bartolomeo all'Isola. The pope sided with the bishop of Porto, assigning the confines of his jurisdiction, among which was included the Roman region of Trastevere with the adjacent islands, the basilica of S. Maria in Trastevere and the churches of S. Crisogono and S. Cecilia, as well as some minor ones. The bishop also had the faculty of ordaining all the clerics beyond the Tiber, except those who were destined to the service of the Lateran palace.

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(2) 2. CRESCENZIO (?-1051)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Crescentius II.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. He appears in papal documents issued in April 1044; and on April 13, 1049, in the Lateran palace.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Silva Candida (Santa Rufina) in 1049 (1). Consecrated (no information found). On April 9 to 15, 1049, he participated in the Lateran Synod; he was unsuccessful in the cause against Cardinal Giovanni, bishop of Porto, concerning the jurisdiction over the island of Trastevere. Later in 1049, he probably accompanied Pope Leo IX to Germany. On May 2, 1050, he participated in the Lateran Synod.

Death. 1051, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 127; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 804, no. XXIII; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 11; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 135, no. 2; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. IX; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 130-131, no. 1; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1178, no. 20.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 135, no. 2; and Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 11, which adds that he occupied the see until May 5, 1062. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 127, says that the date of his promotion to the cardinalate is not known. Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. IX, says that he occupied the see from 1050 to 1051. Mas Latrie, Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie, col. 1178, no. 20, says that he was created cardinal deacon, and later promoted to cardinal bishop of S. Rufina and that he died in 1051.

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(3) 3. BONIFAZIO (?-probably in 1072)

Birth. (No date found), Apulia. Of the Counts of Tusculum. He is also listed as Bonifazio Conti.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Albano in 1049. Consecrated (no information found). Legate to Germany in 1054. Attended the Council of Florence on June 4, 1055. Subscribed a papal bull issued on May 13, 1057. He accompanied Pope Victor II to Tuscany in the spring of 1057; he arrived in Rome from Tuscany on July 31, 1057, to bring the news of the death of the pope. Subscribed papal bulls issued on January 8, 16 and 20, 1060, in Florence; and May 16, 1061, at the Lateran palace. Participated in the papal election of 1061, in which Pope Alexander II was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued on December 31, 1062; May 10, 1067, at the Lateran palace; and June 20, 1068.

Death. Probably in 1072, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 104-105; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 795, no. II; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 40; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 135, no. 3; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. XXII; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 89-90, no. 2; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : Hermann Gentner Verlag, 1957, p. 116, no. 8; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 11, no. ; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 549, 552, 557, 562, 566, 569, 575, 581 and 583.

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(4) 4. BONIZZO (?-ca. 1050)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Bonizo and Bonizzone.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Tusculum (Frascati) ca. 1049 (1). Consecrated (no information found).

Death. Ca. 1050, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 26; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 135, no. 7; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. XIX.

Link. Biography, in Italian diocese of Frascati.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 135, no. 7. Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 26; Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. XIX; and his biography in Italian, linked above, say that he was promoted to the cardinalate in 1050.

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(5) 5. GIOVANNI (?-ca. 1071)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Joannes IV.

Education. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tivoli on May 28, 1030; he had taken possession of the see by August of that year. Consecrated (no information found). He is documented between May 28, 1030 and May 6, 1065.

Cardinalate. The diocese of Tivoli was made a cardinalitial suburbicarian see in 1049 (1). Participated in the papal election of 1061, in which Pope Alexander II was elected. Attended the Lateran Council of April 13, 1059, in which the papal election decree In Nomine Domine was issued.

Death. Ca. 1071, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 128; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 820, no. II; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 136, no. 11; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. 733; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 137, no. 1; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1178, no. 2.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 136, no. 11. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 128; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 820, no. II; and Mas Latrie, Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie, col. 1178, no. 2, include him among the cardinals created by Pope Victor II. Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. 733, says that he was promoted to the cardinalate in 1059.

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(6) 6. LEONE (?-1088/1099)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina in 1049. Subscribed a papal bull issued on June 20, 1068. Cardinal archpriest. Joined the obedience of Antipope Clement III in 1180. Deposed as a cardinal by Pope Gregory VII. He subscribed a bull issued by Antipope Clement III at the Lateran palace, on November 4, 1084. Died without reconciling with the legitimate pope (1).

Death. During the pontificate of Urban II (1088-1099), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 115; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 801, no. XI; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 49; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 136, no. 12; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 181, no. 1; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1177, no. 11; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 566 and 583.

(1) Huls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130, p. 178-179, no. 2, perhaps confuses him with Cardinal Leone of S. Lorenzo in Damaso (1049).

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(7) 7. GIOVANNI (?-after April 13, 1059)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Marco in 1049. Attended the Lateran Council of April 13, 1059, in which the papal election decree In Nomine Domine was issued.

Death. After April 13, 1059, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 115; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 801, no. XII; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 114; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 136, no. 13; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 285, no. 1; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1178, no. 12.

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(8) 8. LEONE (?-ca. 1072)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso in 1049. Attended the Lateran Council of April 13, 1059, in which the papal election decree In Nomine Domine was issued. He signed the letter of May 1059 written by Pope Nicholas II to the clergy of Amalfi. He was present at the consecration of the church of the abbey of Montecassino on October 1, 1071 (1).

Death. Ca. 1072, (no place found). Buried (no information found)

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 115; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 801, no. XIII; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 139; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 136, no. 14; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 178-179, no. 2; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1178, no. 13.

(1) Huls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130, p. 178-179, no. 2, says that in 1084 he joined the obedience of Antipope Clement III and that at that time, he was cardinal archpriest, perhaps confusing him with Cardinal Leone of S. Lorenzo in Lucina (1049).

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(9) 9. GUIDO (?-before 1061)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Wido.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Maria in Trastevere (or Ss. Callistus e Giulio) in 1049. Attended the Lateran Council of April 13, 1059, in which the papal election decree In Nomine Domine was issued.

Death. Before 1061, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 115-116; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 802, no. XIV; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 54; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 136, no. 15; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1178, no. 14.

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(10) 10. CANDIDUS, O.S.B., Hugo (1020-ca. 1099)

Birth.1020, probably in Lorraine. Of a noble family. He was called Candido Bianco because of the paleness of his face. He is also listed as Blancus, Albus, Ugo Candido, Hugh of Remiremont and Hughes Le Blanc.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) at the monastery of Remiremont.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). During his visit to the monastery of Remiremont in the autumn of 1049, Pope Leo IX probably met Hugo and decided to promote him to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Clemente in 1049. During the pontificate of Pope Nicholas II, Cardinal Hugo for the first time came into conflict with papal policy; and, at the death of the pope, he favored the election of Antipope Honorius II at the synod at Basel in October 1061. Opted for another title in 1061, which is not known. He soon reconciled with the new Pope Alexander II and on his behalf presided over a council in Avignon in the fall of 1063. Named legate in Spain and southern France; by the time of the death of King Fernando of Castilla on December 27, 1065, the legate had already crossed the Pyrenees; he presided over synods at Auch, Toulouse, Gerona, Nájera;, Llantadilla and Barcelona; in Spain, he successfully enforced celibacy among priests and introduced the Roman liturgy in place of the Mozarabic one; he was accused of simony and was called back to Rome; after the Synod of Gerona on November 24, 1068 and a stay at Avignon in the following December, he traveled back to Rome, where he was in the first months of 1069; he was successful in defending himself before Popes Alexander II and Gregory VII. Cardinal archpriest. Named legate in Spain and France again in 1073; and again, he was accused of simony during his legation in the Roman synod of March 1073. Because of his relationship with the opponents of Pope Gregory VII in Upper Italy, Cardinal Hugo, probably in 1075, was excommunicated. He took part in the Synod of Worms, convoked by Emperor Heinrich IV on January 24, 1076, to depose Pope Gregory VII; he also participated in the anti-gregorian synod of Brixen celebrated in 1080. Excommunicated again by Pope Gregory VII in the Lateran synod of March 3, 1078. On June 25, 1080, in Bressanone, he was the only cardinal to support the election of Archbishop Guibert of Ravenna as Antipope Clement III. He joined the obedience of the antipope in 1084.

Episcopate. Named bishop of Fermo by Antipope Clement III in 1084. Consecrated (no information found). He subscribed a bull issued by the antipope on November 4, 1084 at the Lateran palace in Rome. He was condemned in the council of Quedlimbourg in April 1085. Legate of the antipope in Germany; he was in Maniz on May 10, 1085. Antipope Clement III named him bishop of Palestrina between 1089 and 1093. On April 3, 1093, he was present at a consecration in Cave, Palestrina. In August 1098, he addressed a letter to Cardinal Ugo. Participated in the schismatic synod convoked by Antipope Clement III on August 7, 1098, in Rome. Subscribed a document of the antipope on October 18, 1099, in Tivoli. He did not reconcile with the legitimate pope. Cardinal Cesare Baronio referred to him as having Candidus facie, nigerrimus mente.

Death. Ca. 1099, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 112-114; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 802, no. XV; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 84; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 136, no. 16; Ganzer, Klaus. Die entwicklung des auswärtigen kardinalats im hohen mittelater ; ein beitrag zur geschichte des kardinalkollegiums vom 11. bis 13. jahrhundert. Tügingen : Niemeyer, 1963. (Bibliotek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rome, band XXVI), p. 38-39, no. 10; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 158-160, no. 1, and p. 111, no. 7; Lerner, Franz. Kardinal Hugo Candidus. München : Berlin : R. Oldenbourg, 1931 (Beiheft 22 der Historischen zeitschrift); Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1177, no. 7; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, .

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in English; biography, in German; Kardinal Hugo Candidus, by Franz Lerner, in German.

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(11) 11. GIOVANNI (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in 1049; his title is not known. Archpriest of the basilica of St. Peter at the Vatican in 1050.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 115; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 801, no. 9; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 266; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 36, no. 17; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1177, no. 9.

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(12) 12. RAYNIER (?-after October 1, 1071)

Birth. (No date found), France (?). He is also listed as Régnier and Raniero.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in 1049; his title is not known. He was present at the dedication of the church of Montecassino by Pope Alexander II on October 1, 1071, and was the first cardinal to sign the document attesting the consecration.

Death. After October 1, 1071, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 115; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 801, no. X; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 266; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 136, no. 18; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1177, no. 10.

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(13) 13. MAINARDO, O.S.B.Cas. (?-before August 8, 1074)

Birth. (No date found), Milan. He is also listed as Maginardo, Maynard, Mainardus and Mainard.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) at the monastery of Montecassino.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in 1049 (1); his title is not known. Sent by Pope Stephen IX (X) in 1058 as legate to Constantinople, together with Cardinal Étienne, O.S.B.Clun.; having learned of the death of the pope, he returned to Rome from Bari, where he was on his way to his legation. Celebrated Easter, April 19, 1058, in Montecassino. After having substituted for Cardinal Humbert, bishop of Silva Candida, as librarian and vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church in 1059, he subscribed a papal bull on December 6, 1059, in Florence, in place of Cardinal Humbert. In 1060, he traveled through Dalmatia. Named librarian of the Holy Roman Church in 1061, succeeding Cardinal Bernardo, bishop of Palestrina; as such, he subscribed papal bulls issued on November 24 and December 5, 12 and 13, 1062, in Lucca; on December 31, 1062, in Isola; and on January 13, 1063, in Borgo S. Quirico; he occupied the post until 1063.

Episcopate. Named bishop of Silva Candida (Santa Rufina) on May 16, 1061. Consecrated (no information found). Subscribed papal bulls issued between May 16, 1061 and June 20, 1068. He probably participated in the conclave of 1061, in which Pope Alexander II was elected. Abbot of the monastery of Pomposa, 1064-1074. He appears in several documents concerning the abbey: March 12, 1064, to monk Pietro Ferrara; March, 1064, to monk Wido; August 10, 1064, to Prior Girolamo, in Villa Mardna; and another one on October 5, 1064. Soon after, he traveled, on behalf of Pope Alexander II, to the German kingdom; he returned to Rome after May 6, 1065. Subscribed a papal bull issued on May 6, 1065, at the Lateran palace. Around this time, he sent a letter to King Heinrich IV, who had just become of age. On May 27, 1065, he appears in a private document issued in Corba. On June 25, 1065, he was in Rimini. On August 13, 1066, he appears in a private document concerning the prior of S. Erasmo. On January 9, 1067, Prior Girolamo acted for him in Ustolato. In 1067, he was sent to Milan as legate, with Cardinal Giovanni Mincio, to combat simony and the relaxation of ecclesiastical discipline; on August 1 of that year, they publish die constitutio de symoniacis et fornicatoribus. On November 15, 1067, he was in the monastery of Volta de Media, Corba. On November 23, 1067, he was in Ferrara. In 1068, he signed a deed as a witness on the consecration of the bishop of Ferrara. On June 20, 1068, he subscribed a papal bull. At the beginning of 1069, he participated in a synod convoked by the pope. He appears in private deeds done on February 28, 1069, in Ferrara; March 8, 1070, in Argelata; the following June 7, in Ravenna; November 16 of the same year, in Fano. He probably participated in the conclave of 1073, in which Pope Gregory VII was elected.

Death. Before August 8, 1074, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 117-118; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 802-803, no. XVI; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 266 ; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 136, no 19; Ganzer, Klaus. Die entwicklung des auswärtigen kardinalats im hohen mittelater ; ein beitrag zur geschichte des kardinalkollegiums vom 11. bis 13. jahrhundert. Tügingen : Niemeyer, 1963. (Bibliotek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rome, band XXVI), p. 23-26, no. 3; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 134-136, no. 3; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : Hermann Gentner Verlag, 1957, p. 118, no. 21; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1178, no. 16; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 557, 566, 569, 575 and 583.

Link. His arms.

(1) He is listed among the cardinals created by Pope Alexander II by Ganzer, Die entwicklung des auswärtigen kardinalats im hohen mittelater, p. 23-26, no. 3

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(14) 14. STEFANO (?-ca. 1072)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. He became a monk at the monastery of Ss. Andrea e Gregorio in clivo Scauri, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Abbot of the monastery of Ss. Andrea e Gregorio in clivo Scauri, Rome.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest ca. 1049; his title is not known. He may have become cardinal priest of S. Crisogono in 1057, and subscribed, under that title, papal bulls issued in January 16, 1060, in Florence; April 19, 1060, in Rome; December 31, 1062; and May 10, 1067, at the Lateran palace (1). He was present at the dedication of the church of Montecassino by Pope Alexander II on October 1, 1071

Death. Ca. 1072, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 114-115; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 800, no. VIII; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 136, no. 20; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1177, no. 8; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 557, 562, 563, 566, 569 and 581.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 136, no. 20, which adds that he is different from Card. Étienne, O.S.B.Clun. (1049), who is confused with him by several authors. Mas Latrie, Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie, col. 1177, no. 8, says that he was a cardinal for more than twenty years.

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(15) 15. ÉTIENNE, O.S.B.Clun. (?-1069)

Birth. (No date found), Burgundy, France. He is also listed as Étienne de Cluny. He was called "Le defenseur de l'Église Romaine" by Pietro Damiano, cardinal and future saint.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) at the monastery of Cluny, during the abbacy of Odilon, future saint. He was a very learned man.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). He went to Rome with Pope Leo IX.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest ca. 1049; his title is not known (1). In November 1057, together with Subdeacon Ildebrando, he skillfully dealt with the patarini in Milan (2). He spent Easter, April 19, 1058, in Montecassino. Sent by Pope Stephen IX (X) in 1058 as legate to Constantinople, together with Cardinal Mainardo; having learned of the death of the pope, he returned to Rome from Bari, where he was on his way to his legation. Legate in France; he presided over a council celebrated in Vienne, on January 31, 1060; and over another on March 1, 1060 in Tours, during which he excommunicated Geoffori, duke of Anjou. He was present at the election of Popes Nicholas II in Rome, and Alexander II in Siena. Subscribed a papal bull issued on January 16, 1060, in Florence. On April 28, 1060, he is probably in Rome. Legate in Germany before King Heinrich III in the pontificate of Pope Nicholas II. On December 12, 1062, he was with Pope Alexander II in Lucca. On May 20, 1063, as abbot of Ss. Andrea e Gregorio in clivo Scauri, Rome, he is concerned with the transfer of shares of a saline. On September 20, 1064, he intervened in Capolona. He subscribed papal bulls issued between 1065 and 1067. He appears in a private Roman document of March. 5, 1067. Legate in France again; he was on March. 11, 1067, in Saint-Florent; and on the following April 1, he presided over a synod in Bordeaux. He subscribed a papal bull issued on May 10, 1067, at the Lateran palace; and a donation deed on June 22, 1067, as cardinal priest and abbot of S. Gregorio.

Death. February 11, 1069 (3), Montecassino. Buried in Montecassino; his epitaph, composed by Alfano, archbishop of Salerno and future saint, says in part: Stephane, qualis in aede Petri quantusque sacerdos / Extiteris novit GalIia cum Latio..

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 116-117; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 802, no. 15; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, II, 29-31; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 137, no. 21; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 169-170, no. 3; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1178, no. 15; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 557, 562, 563, 566, 569 and 581.

Links. Biography, in French, p. 29-31.

(1) "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 136, no. 20, says that he is different from Card. Stefano (1049), who is confused with him by several authors.
(2) An eleventh century religious movement in the archdiocese of Milan, aimed at reforming the clergy and ecclesiastic government in the province and supportive of papal sanctions against simony and clerical marriage.
(3) This is accoding to Huls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130, p. 170. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 137, no. 21, says that he died in 1061. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 116, says that he died in 1064.

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(16) 16. LORRAINE, O.S.B.Cas., Frédéric de (probably about the beginning of the eleventh century-1058)

Birth. Probably about the beginning of the eleventh century, Lorraine. Of the family of the dukes of Lorraine. Youngest son of Gozelon I, duke of Lorraine, and of Junca, daughter of King Berengario of Italy. Brother of the powerful Gottofredo, duke of Lorraine and count of Tusculum.He is also listed as Friedrich von Lothringen, Federigo Giuniano, Federico delle Ardenne and Federico di Lorena; and his first name as Frédéric Gozzelon, Federicus and Friedericus.

Education. He was educate in Lège.

Early life. Canon and archdeacon of the chapter of St. Lambert, under bishops sympathetic to the reform of the Church. He probably met Pope Leo IX at the Synod of Mainz in October 1049; he was brought to Rome by the pontiff and became one of his closest collaborators.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Domnica in 1049 (1). Subscribed papal bulls issued on March 12, 1051; June 22, 1051; July 22, 1051, in Benevento; October 16 and 31, 1051; December 11, 1051; February 3, 1052; March 9 and 18, 1052; May 2, 1052, in Ginon (?); May 7, 1052; May 20, 1052, in S. Germano; May 21, 1052; July 1, 1052, in Benevento; July 27, 1052; October 7, 1052, in Bamberg; November 6, 1052, in Trier; January 2 and 6, 1053; March 13, 1053; March 21, 1053, in Rome; March 24, 1053; April 1 and 13, 1053; May 29, in Montecassino; June 16, 1053; July 12, 1053, in Benevento; September 2, November 9 and December 21, 1053, in Benevento, as chancellor and librarian of the Holy Roman Church, substituting for Cardinal Hermann, archbishop of Cologne; succeeded Cardinal Hermann in those posts in October 1055. Subscribed a papal bull issued on October 29, 1055, as chancellor of the Holy Roman Church. He accompanied the pope in his campaign against the Normans in southern Italy. Legate in Constantinople in 1054, with Cardinal Humbert of Silva Candida and Archishop Pietro of Amalfi; Cardinal Humbert excommunicated Patriarch Michael I Cerularius of Constantinople. In 1055, because of the visit to Rome of Emperor Heinrich III, an enemy of his brother Goffredo, he retired as a monk to the monastery of Montecassino, entering the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines); he also resigned the chancellorship; he sought refuge in the monastery of the island of Tremiti, in the Adriatic sea. Later, Pope Victor II, at the death of the emperor on October 3, 1056, reconciled Goffredo with the imperial family. Cardinal archdeacon.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Pope Victor II had him elected abbot of the monastery of Montecassino on May 23, 1057, after Cardinal Humbert of Silva Candida had Abbot Pietro resign the post. Promoted to cardinal priest of S. Crisogono June 14, 1057. On July 7, 1057, he subscribed a papal bull at the palace of S. Damaso, near Arezzo. On the following July 23, he was in Arezzo. From Arezzo, he left the papal entourage, and went to Rome; on July 27, 1057, he celebrated mass in St. Peter's basilica; then he went in a procession to S. Crisogono; his Roman residence was in S. Maria in Pallaria, a Cassinese dependence. When the news of the unexpected death of Pope Victor II on July 28, 1057 reached Rome, he was immediately consulted concerning a successor by the supporters of the reform of the Church; he proposed five names, including Archdeacon Ildebrando (future Pope Gregory VII), Cardinal Humbert, bishop of Silva Candida, and Cardinal Giovanni Mincius, bishop of Velletri, future Antipope Benedict X; but he himself was elected pope. The German imperial family, which had nominated the four previous popes, was not consulted.

Papacy. Elected pope on August 2, 1057. Took the name Stephen IX (X) (2). He was consecrated the next day. He created thirteen cardinals in one consistory.

Death. March 29, 1058, Florence. Buried in the church of S. Reparata, Florence. His tomb was discovered in 1357, when the present Duomo of Florence (metropolitan cathedral of S. Maria dei Fiore) was going to be built.

Beatification. The Benedictine Martyrology celebrates his feast as a blessed on March 29 (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 118-120; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 803, no. XVII; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. ; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, II, 25-28; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 37, no. 22; Ganzer, Klaus. Die entwicklung des auswärtigen kardinalats im hohen mittelater ; ein beitrag zur geschichte des kardinalkollegiums vom 11. bis 13. jahrhundert. Tügingen : Niemeyer, 1963. (Bibliotek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rome, band XXVI), p. 15-16, no. 1; Hägermann, Dieter. Das Papsttum am Vorabend des Investiturstreits : Stephan IX. (1057-1058), Benedikt X. (1058) und Nikolaus II. (1058-1061). Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 2008. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 36); Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 168-269, no. 2; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 149-150; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1178, no. 17; Parise, Michel. "Stefano IX." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 166-168; Penteriani, Ulderico. "Stefano IX (X), papa." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 1016-1017; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 529, 540, 541, 542-546, 549, 550 and 553.

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in English (Britannica); his engraving and biography, in English; biography, in English; his engraving and biography, in French, p. 25-28; his image and biographical data, in French; biography, in Italian; biography, in German; biography, in German; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his engraving; engravings, Bildarchive, Austria; his cardinalitial arms; and his papal arms.

(1) This deaconry was erected in the early times of the Church. Pope St. Agatho (678-681), assigned it to one of the 7 deacons ca. 678. It was a deaconry of the II Region of Rome. It still exists. This is its first occupant to be known. Until 2001, there have been 50 cardinals deacons of S. Maria in Domnica.
(2) Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 2009 (Città del Vaticano: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2009), p. 11*, says that at the death of Pope Zachariah on March 15, 752, the Roman priest Stephen was elected pope on March 27, 752, and that he died four days later, without having been consecrated, which according to the canon law in force at the time, marked the beginning of the pontificate. He would have been Stephen II. His name is not registered in the Liber Pontificalis or in any other catalog of popes. In spite of this, his successor, Stephen, is listed as "Stephen II (III)" in Annuario.
(3) This is according to Louis-Doni d'Attichy, Flores historiae sacri Collegii S. R. E. Cardinalium.

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