The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Leo IX (1049-1054)
Creation of 1050 (II)


(17) 1. GIOVANNI (?-1058)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Joannes I Ostiensis and as Deodato and Dieudonné.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Bishop cardinalis of Ostia in 1050. Consecrated (no information found). He participated in the Lateran Synod of May 2, 1050.

Death. 1058, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography.Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 2; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 135, no. 4; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p.V; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 99, no. 2; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1178, no. 22.

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(18) 2. PIETRO (?-1058)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Petrus IV.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Bishop cardinalis of Ostia in 1050 (?) or 1058 (?) (1). Consecrated (no information found).

Death. 1058, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 2; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 135, no. 5; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. V.

(1) Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. V, says that he must be deleted from the list of bishops of Ostia.

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(19) 3. MINCIUS, Giovanni (?-ca. 1073/1074)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Of the counts of Galeria and Tusculum. Son of Count Guido (or Wido) of Tusculum, brother of Pope Benedict IX. He is also listed as Giovanni Conti and Johannes Mincius; he was called Minchione and Mince (thin), because of his ignorance.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Bishop cardinalis of Velletri in 1050 (?). Consecrated (no information found). He was highly esteemed by those who wanted to reform the Church. He was one of the five persons proposed by Cardinal Frédéric de Lorraine when consulted in July-August 1057 concerning a successor to Pope Victor II.

Antipapacy. Enthroned illegitimately and unwillingly as pope Benedict X on April 5, 1058, by his powerful family, especially his uncles Gregorio di Tusculum and Gerardo di Galeria, and Otavviano Crescenzio di Monticelli, who bribed the Roman populace; before his death, Pope Stephan IX (X) had the Roman people take an oath saying that the election of his successor was not going to take place until Cardinal Ildebrando's return to Rome from his mission to the German court; the election took place before the return and thus, the oath was broken. Benedict had to be irregularly consecrated because Cardinal Pietro Damiano, bishop of Ostia, who had the right to consecrate the new pope, refused to do that; the reformers left Rome and anathemaized Benedict. He functioned as a pope for about nine months and created one pseudocardinal in one consistory. But in December 1058, in Siena, Pope Nicholas II was elected by the cardinals; the new pope celebrated a synod in Sutri in January 1059, through the efforts of Ildebrando, future Pope Gregory VII, and the German court; the antipope was excommunicated and declared an invader of the Holy See; on January 24, 1059, Pope Nicholas II took possession of Rome and the antipope sought refuge first at the castle of Passarano, Tivoli, and later to that of Gerardo di Galeria; after two sieges, Benedict surrendered in the fall of 1059, renounced his claim to the papacy, removed his pontifical insignias and retired to a family dependence near the basilica of S. Maria Maggiore, in Rome. A month later, his abdication was not considered sufficient and he was publicly tried; Archdeacon Ildebrand was his accuser; in April 1060, despite his protestation that the papacy had been forced on him against his will, he was deposed and degraded, sentenced to be confined in the hospice of S. Agnese fuori le mura (in Agone), in Rome. The diocese of Velletri was no longer occupied but united ad hoc with the see of Ostia until 1150, when the union was made official by Pope Eugenius II.

Death. Ca. 1073/1074, hospice of the basilica of S. Agnese fuori le mura (in Agone), Rome. Buried in the crypt that basilica (1), where his body still is; the crypt is not open to the public. He was regarded as a legitimate pope until the 14th century. In 1303, Cardinal Niccolò Albergati, when elected pope, took the name Benedict XI. In defense of his legitimacy as pope, Cardinal Stefano Borgia wrote "Apologia del Pontificato di Benedetto X" (1752).

Bibliography. Capitani, Ovidio. "Benedetto X, antipapa." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 168-171; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 108-111; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 798, no. IV; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 3; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 135, no. 6; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. V; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 144, no. 4; Ilari, Annibale. "Benedetto X, antipapa." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 130-131; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 150-151; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1177, no. 4; Reardon, Wendy J. The deaths of the popes : comprehensive accounts, including funerals, burial places and epitaphs. Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co., Publishers, 2004, p. 85; Schwartz, Gerhard. Die Besetzung der Bistümer Reichsitaliens unter den sächsischen und salischen Kaisern : mit den Listen der Bischöfe, 951-1122. Leipzig ; Berlin : B.G. Teubner, 1913. Contents: Die Besetzung der italienischen Bistümer 951-1122 -- Bischofslisten der italienischen Bistümer 951-1122, p. 275.

Links. Biography, in English (Britannica); biography, in English; biography, in English; very brief biographical data, in English; biography by Ovidio Capitani, in Italian, Enciclopedia dei papi, Treccani; biography, in Italian; biography, in German; biography, in German; his arms as a cardinal; his engraving, 16th century; his arms as antipope; and another image of arms as antipope.

(1) This is according to Ilari, "Benedetto X, antipapa." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente, p. 131; Kelly, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, p. 151; Reardon, The deaths of the popes : comprehensive accounts, including funerals, burial places and epitaphs, p. 85 "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 135, no. 6, says that he was buried in the basilica of S. Maria Maggiore, Rome, between the altars of the Nativity and S. Girolamo.

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(20) 4. PIETRO (?-1059)

Birth. (No date found), Rome.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Bishop cardinalis of Tusculum (Frascati) ca. 1050. Consecrated (no information found). He was the first bishop of Tusculum to become a cardinal and all his successors were also promoted to the cardinalate (1). He played a preponderant role in the deposition of Antipope Benedict X and the election of Pope Nicholas II in December 1058.

Death. 1059, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 111; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 798, no. V; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 26; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 135, no. 8; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. XIX; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1177, no. 5.

Links. Biography, in Italian.

(1) This is according to Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. XIX.

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(21) 5. AMANDO (?-?)

Birth. (No date found), Lavoro. Of the counts of Marsi. He is also listed as Amanzio, Amantio, Amantius, Amant and Mancius.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church in 1050 (?). Attended the Lateran Council of April 13, 1059, in which the papal election decree In Nomine Domine was issued. He subscribed the letter of Pope Nicholas II to the clergy of Amalfi issued in May 1059.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 116; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 804, no. XXI; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 284; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 137, no. 23; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 243, no. 1; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1178, no. 21.

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(22) 6. GREGORIO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Giorgio.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church in 1050 (?).

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 127; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 284; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 137, no. 24; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1178, no. 23.

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(23) 7. CRESCENZIO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Crescente.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church in 1050 (?) (1). Attended the Lateran Council of April 13, 1059, in which the papal election decree In Nomine Domine was issued. He subscribed the letter of Pope Nicholas II to the clergy of Amalfi issued in May 1059.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 126; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 804, no. XXIII; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 284; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 137, no. 25; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 246, no. 9; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1178, no. 20.

(1) "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 137, no. 25, says that he may be the same as Cardinal Crescenzio (1049) bishop of Silva Candida (S. Rufina). Mas Latrie, Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie, col. 1178, no. 20, also say that later, he became bishop of S. Rufina.

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(24) 8. ODON (?-?)

Birth. (No date found), France (?). He is also listed as Udon. Odon de Toul and Udonis Tullensis.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Primicerius of the cathedral of Toul, France.

Cardinalate. Deacon cardinalis of the Holy Roman Church ca. 1050. Chancellor and librarian of the Holy Roman Church. Subscribed papal bulls issued on October 22 and 26, 1050, in Tulle; November 2, 1050, in Tulle; December 6 and 17, 1050; and January 10, 11, 15 and 16, 1051.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 137, no. 26; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 529, 539 and 540.

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