The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Nicholas II (1058-1061)
Consistory of March 6, 1059 (I)
Celebrated in Osimo in Piceno


(1) 1. GILBERTO (?-ca. 1062)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Labico (Frascati) in the consistory of March 6, 1059, celebrated in Osimo in Piceno. Consecrated (no information found). Attended the Synod of Rome in April 1060, celebrated at the Lateran palace, and confirmed its decisions with his signature. His name appears in an ancient manuscript preserved in the archive of the monastery of Farfa as well as in some bulls issued by Pope Nicholas II in favor of the cathedral chapter of Florence. Participated in the papal election of 1061, in which Pope Alexander II was elected. According to Bruno, bishop of Segni, future saint, in his life of Pope St. Leo IX, Cardinal Gilberto had an apparition of that holy pontiff.

Death. Ca. 1062, saintly, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 137; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 828, no. I; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 26; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 140, no. 1; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1179, no. 1.

Link. Biography, in Italian.

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(2) 2. DESIDERIO, O.S.B.Cas. (1026/1027-1087)

Birth. 1026/1027, Benevento. Son of Prince Landolfo V Epifanio of Benevento. His original name was Dauferi or Dauferio; and his Benedictine name Desiderius. He is also listed as Dauferius Epifani.

Education. Initially, he lived as a hermit; then, he entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) at the monastery of S. Sofia in Benevento, when he was 20 years old.

Early life. After a meeting with Pope Victor II, he passed to the monastery of Montecassino in 1055. Prior in Capua. Elected abbot of the monastery of Montecassino on April 19, 1058, as successor of Pope Stephen IX (X). Named legate in Constantinople with Cardinal Ètienne; they only reached Bari in their journey to Constantinople because of the death of Pope Stefan IX (X) and the election of Pope Nicholas II. He met the new pope on February 21, 1059 in Farfa and accompanied him to Osimo.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Cecilia in the consistory of Saturday March 6, 1059, celebrated in Osimo in Piceno (1). Blessed as abbot of Osimo by Pope Nicholas II the following Sunday; on March 14, he took possession of his title; on March 18, the pope granted him several rights and privileges. On March 21, 1059, he returned to Montecassino, but soon went back to Rome to take part in the Lateran Synod celebrated on April 13 of that year; in that synod, the decree on papal elections, In Nomine Domini, was issued. Named and papal vicar for the monasteries in southern Italy. In May 1059, he wrote a letter to the clergy of Amalfi. On June 24, 1059, he was with the pope in Montecassino; and on August 23, in Melfi. In the summer of 1059, he negotiated peace between the Normans and the papacy. Subscribed papal bulls issued on January 16 and 20, 1060, in Florence, where he was with the pope; he accompanied the pontiff to Rome. In June 1061, he was at S. Germano, where he issued a document in favor of Count Marino and his wife Oddolana. When Pope Nicholas II died in Florence on July 27, 1061, confusion developed in Rome concerning his succession. The party of Cardinal Ildebrando called the Normans for assistance, as it had been agreed with the Norman dukes in 1059 for such a case. Riccardo of Capua appeared in Rome in the company of Cardinal Desiderio. With the help of the Normans, the party succeeded in selecting its candidate (Bishop Anselmo da Baggio of Lucca, not a cardinal) and enthroning him as Pope Alexander II. On May 24, 1064, he is mentioned in a deed of gift from Count Ottaviano of Tusculum. He subscribed a papal bull issued in May 1065. He participated in the Lateran Synod of May 6, 1065. He appears in a deed of noblewoman Bonina, dated April 17, 1066; and in a document of Pietro, count of Tusculum, of December 26 of that same year. After a trip to southern Italy that took him to the Tremiti Islands, 1069, he was named legate to the monastery of Subiaco in 1069. He led the celebration of the consecration of the new church of Montecassino by Pope Alexander II on October 1, 1071. On August 12, 1073, he was in the papal entourage in Benevento. In 1076, he negotiated and agreement between the pope and Gisulfo, prince of Salerno. In October 1079, he was with the pope in S. Germano. In June 1080, he reconciled the pope with Robert Guiscard, the Norman duke of Apullia. He subscribed papal bulls issued on April 1081. On December 1, 1081, he participated in the Synod of Dragonara (Draconia). In 1082, he negotiated with Heinrich IV in Albano and received a privilege from the monarch; this strained the relations between the cardinal and the pope. In 1083, he fell from grace with Pope Gregory VII because of attempting to reconcile him with King Heinrich IV; the cardinal also had offer the monarch to do what he honorably could do the help him to become emperor; the cardinal and the pontiff later reconciled. On December 3, 1082, he was in S. Maria in Pallaria, Rome, for the celebration of a cold water judgement (iudicium aquæ frigidæ), in favor of the Emperor Heinrich IV, which failed. In 1084, he received the pope in Montecassino, while the pontiff was escaping from Rome. In 1085, he settled a dispute between the Roffrid I of Benevento and Salerno Alfanus I of Salerno, which had lasted since 1076. On June 8, 1085, he was in Capua. He was present at the death of Pope Gregory VII in Salerno. By the time of his election to the papacy, he was the cardinal archpriest.

Papacy. Elected pope on May 24, 1086, in the deaconry of S. Lucia in Septisolis, Rome. Took the name Victor III. Four days after his election, unwilling to respond with force to the hostility of the imperial prefect of Rome, Victor put aside his pontifical insignias and retired to Montecassino. After a prolonged resistance to accept the papacy, he finally yielded on March 21, 1087 during the Synod of Capua. He was consecrated at St. Peter's basilica on May 9, 1087, by Cardinal Eudes de Lagery, O.S.B.Clun., bishop of Ostia and administrator of Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by Giovanni, bishop of Porto, by Pietro Igneo Aldobrandini, O.S.B.Vall., bishop of Albano and by Giovanni Minuto, bishop of Labico (Frascati). He fell ill when saying the first mass after his consecration and remained in poor health throughout his brief pontificate. He created one cardinal in one consistory. He is considered the greatest abbot of Montecassino after its founder; he rebuilt the abbey; expanded its property and library; promoted culture and the arts; and establish a fabric of mosaics. He wrote a treatise on the miracles of Saint Benedict. He is said to have been medicinceperitissimus.

Death. September 16, 1087, in the monastery of Montecassino. Buried in in the tomb he had prepared for himself in the chapter-house of Montecassino. In the sixteenth century his body was removed to the church; it was again translated in 1890.

Beatification. His cultus as a blessed seems to have begun not later than the pontificate of Pope Anastasius IV (1153-1154). In 1727, the abbot of Monte Cassino obtained from Pope Benedict XIII permission to keep his feast. His ancient cultus as a blessed was again confirmed by Pope Leo XIII on September 23, 1887; and his feast was fixed in the Roman Martyrology on September 16; and on October 16 in the Roman Proper.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 120-126 and 145; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 803, no. XVIII; Colotto, Cristina. "Vittore III, beato." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 217-222; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. ; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 139, no. 13; Ganzer, Klaus. Die entwicklung des auswärtigen kardinalats im hohen mittelater ; ein beitrag zur geschichte des kardinalkollegiums vom 11. bis 13. jahrhundert. Tügingen : Niemeyer, 1963. (Bibliotek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rome, band XXVI), p. 17-23, no. 2; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 154-157, no. 1; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 157-158; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 11, no. ; Penteriani, Ulderico. "Vittore III, papa, beato." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 1091-1092; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 557, 562 and 566.

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in English (Britannica); biography, in English; brief biographical entry, in English; biography, in English; biography, in English; biography, in German; biography, in German; his image and biography, in Italian; images and biography, in Italian; his pontificate, in Italian; biography, in Norwegian; his portrait by P. Annigoni, abbey of Montecassino (modern); his engraving; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; another engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his engraving, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; five engraving, Bildarchiv Austria, Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his arms; the Abbazia di Montecasino, in English and Italian; and Abbazia di Montecasino, in Italian, English, German, French, Spanish and Latin.

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted except Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 803, no. XVIII, which says that he was created cardinal by Pope Leo IX; and "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 139, no. 13, which says that he was created cardinal deacon of Ss. Sergioe Bacco by Pope Stephen IX (X) in March 1058.

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(3) 3. ILDEBRANDO, O.S.B. (1015/1025-1085)

Birth. 1015/1025, Soana, Tuscany. Of a humble family. Son of Bonizione, an artisan, and his wife Betta. He is also listed as Hiltrapandus, Dhiltbrandus, Hildebrando, Ildebrando della Tuscia and Ildebrando Aldobrandeschi da Soana.

Education. He went to Rome at a very young age, called by his maternal uncle, Lorenzo d'Amalfi, abbot of the Benedictine monastery of S. Maria sull'Aventino, where he became an oblate. He was educated at that abbey and at the Lateran palace.

Sacred orders. He received the minor orders from Pope Gregory VI and became his chaplain.

Early life. He was received with great honors by Emperor Heinrich III of Germany and resided in Cologne, with Pope Gregory VI, after the pope was forced to resign the pontificate in the Synod of Sutri in 1046. After Gregory's death in 1047, he entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) in the monastery of Cluny, near Mâcon (or in a Cluniac monastery). Pope Leo IX called him to Rome, ordained him a subdeacon and made him prior of monastery of St. Peter, treasurer of the Church. Provisor of the abbey of S. Paolo fuori le mura, Rome, ca. 1050. Papal legate in France in 1054 and 1056; and in Germany in 1057. Subdeacon and pro-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church; subscribed, as such, papal bulls issued between June 1055 and May 1059. In 1057, together with Cardinal Anselmo da Baggio, he went to Milan to investigate the situation created by the preaching of Deacon Arialdo against the corruption of the clergy and against Archbishop Guido da Velato, who had been designated by Emperor Heinrich III; he sided with the deacon and against the archbishop; Ildebrando believed that corruption and simony originated in the submission of the Church to the imperial power and in the involvement of the clergy in civil activities. He was instrumental in the election of Pope Nicholas II and inspired the new pope's policies, among them the reform of the papal election by the decree In Nomine Domini, issued in the Lateran Synod of April 1059. Archdeacon of the Holy Roman Church since 1059.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Domnica in the consistory of March 6, 1059, celebrated in Osimo in Piceno. He subscribed, as archdeacon of the Holy Roman Church (and perhaps camerlengo), a papal bull issued in Benevento; on January 16, 1060, in Florence; on January 18, 1060, in the church of S. Andrea Mussianensis; and on January 20, 1060, in Florence; on December 31, 1062, in Siena. He attended a Lateran synod on May 6, 1065. He subscribed a papal bull issued on June 11, 1065, in Rome; on May 19, 1067, at the Lateran palace; and on August 1, 1067, in Salerno. In the circle of his opponents, it was later alleged, without foundation, that he had bought the archdiaconate from Cardinal Mancius.

Papacy. Elected pope on April 22, 1073, in the church of S. Pietro in Vincoli, Rome. Took the name Gregory VII. Consecrated bishop of Rome after June 29, 1073. The Dictatus papae, twenty seven statements of powers attributed to the pope, was included in Pope Gregory VII's register in 1075. The investiture controversy between him and Emperor Heinrich IV (whom he excommunicated twice) consumed a large part of his pontificate. He was the promoter of the Gregorian reform of the Church. He created thirty cardinals in eight consistories.

Death. May 25, 1085, Salerno. Buried in the cathedral of Salerno, Italy. His words "I loved justice and hated iniquity, that is why I die in exile", became an excellent description of his life and pontificate. The 900th anniversary of his death was celebrated in Salerno in the presence of Pope John Paul II in 1985.

Sainthood. Pope Gregory XIII placed his name in the Roman Martyrology as a blessed in 1584. Pope Paul V authorized his cult in 1606; he was declared a saint by Pope Benedict XIII in 1728. His feast is celebrated on May 25.

Bibliography. Capitani, Ovidio. "Gregorio VII, santo." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 188-212; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 138-141; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 828, no. III; The correspondence of Pope Gregory VII, selected letters from the Registrum. Translated by Ephraim Emerton. New York : Columbia University Press, 1932. (Records of civilization, sources and studies, v. 14). Uniform Title: Registrum. English. Selections; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 257; Di Sivo, Michele. "Gregorio VII, papa, santo." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 571-575; Duffy, Eamon. Ten popes who shook the world. New Haven [Conn.] : Yale University Press, 2011. Contents: St Peter -- Leo the Great -- Gregory the Great -- Gregory VII -- Innocent III -- Paul III -- Pio Nono -- Pius XII -- John XXIII -- John Paul II; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 140, no. 12; Fliche, Augustin. Saint Grégoire VII. 2. éd. Paris : V. Lecoffre, 1920. Note: Above the title: "Les saints"; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 250, no. 18; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 154-146; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1179, no. 3; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 557, 561, 562, 566, 569, 575, 576 and 581; Robinson, Ian S. Henry IV of Germany, 1056 - 1106. Cambridge [u.a.] : Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999. Contents: Introduction; 1. The young king, 10561075; 2. The conflict with Pope Gregory VII; 3. Emperor Henry IV, 10841106; Conclusion. Note: This is the first book in English devoted to the German king and emperor Henry IV (10561106), whose reign was one of the most momentous in German history and a turning-point in the history of the medieval empire (the kingdoms of Germany, Italy and Burgundy). The reign was marked by continuous rebellions and fluctuating fortune. Earlier monarchs had also witnessed conflict between crown and aristocracy, but Henry IVs reign differed in that his conflicts could never be definitively resolved either by negotiation or by war. During the 1070s the young king gained a lasting reputation for tyranny, while his assertion of the crowns traditional rights over the imperial church aroused papal opposition. The alliance between the German princes and the papacy haunted Henry IV for the rest of his life. He meanwhile, by turns opportunist and compromiser, dedicated himself at all times to preserving the traditional rights of the monarchy. Note 2: The first book in English on one of the most turbulent half-centuries in German history  The first detailed guide in English to the extensive scholarly literature in German, Italian and French on imperial and papal history in the later eleventh century  A contribution to the study of the Investiture Contest - often regarded by historians as the first European revolution; Vogel, Jörgen. Gregor VII. und Heinrich IV. nach Canossa : Zeugnisse ihres Selbstverstdndnisses. Berlin ; New York : De Gruyter, 1983. (Arbeiten zur Frühmittelalterforschung ; 9. Bd.). Other title: Gregor 7. und Heinrich 4. nach Canossa.; Gregor der Seibente und Heinrich der Vierte nach Canossa.

Links. Biography, in English; his image and biography, in English (Britannica); his image and biography, in English; his image and biography, in English; biography, in English, p. 60-63; review by Dr. Alexander Murray, University College Oxford, of the book Pope Gregory VII. 1073-1085, written by H. E. J. Cowdrey (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998); biography by José Goñi Gaztambide, in Spanish; his chronology, in Spanish; his chronology, in German; his chronology, in English; his chronology, in Italian; images and biography, in Italian; his image and biography, in Italian, toward the middle of the page; La Riforma Gregoriana, in Italian; his tomb and biography, in Italian; biography, in German; twenty eight works on Ildebrando (Pope Gregory VII), in English, French and German, Internet Archive; his portrait by Giuseppe Franchi, 17tn century, Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Milan; Matilda of Canossa through a legate, donates her patrimony in Tuscia and Lombardy to the Holy See under the pontificate of Gregory VII (1073-1085), fresco in the Vatican Archives; his image, miniature in a chronicle of the 12th century; Pope Gregory VII excommunciates Emperor Heinrich IV, miniature; Emperor Heinrich IV before Pope Gregory VII, mural by Federico Zuccaro, Sala Regia, Vatican Palace; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; another engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; eight engravins, Bildarchiv Austria, Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, New York Public Library, New York; his arms and image, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his arms and image, engraving from Alfonso Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max., I, col. 847-848; his arms; and his tomb in the cathedral of Salerno, Italy.

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(4) 4. ODERISIO, O.S.B.Cas. (?-1105)

Birth. (No date found). Marsi, Abruzzo region. Of the counts of Marsi. Grandson of Count Rinaldo de Marsi and son of Count Oderisio II. He is also listed as Odorisio; as Oderisius; as Oderisius de Marsi; and as Oderisio I di Montecassino.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines).

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Cardinal Ildebrando recommended him to Pope Nicholas II for the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Agata in Suburra in the consistory celebrated on March 6, 1059, in Osimo in Piceno (1). Elected 39th abbot of the monastery of Montecassino on September 13, 1087, at the death of Pope Victor III, who had kept the post during his pontificate. Participated in the papal election of 1088, in which Pope Urban II was elected, representing all the cardinal deacons. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Marcello in 1088. He obtained a privilege from Pope Urban II by which the abbey of Montecassino could administer a territorial dominion. In 1090 he inaugurated the church of S. Martino, in the monastic complex. He commissioned the construction of a new church dedicated to S. Andrea; and reconsecrated the church of S. Stefano, which had been desired by one of his predecessors, Abbot Atenolfo. Subscribed a papal bull issued on November 10, 1100. He was a friend of Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos, who bestowed on him innumerable honors and gifts; and of Emperor Heinrich IV of Germany. He was a loyal defender of Pope Gregory VII. He favored the study of the Classical tradition and during his government of Montecassino, the comment of Macrobio to Somnium Scipionis and the Filippiche were transcribed.

Death. December 2, 1105, probably in Montecassino. Buried in Montecassino.

Beatification. He is considered a blessed by the Benedictine Martyrology, which celebrates his feast on December 2 (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 142-144; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 829-830, no. VI; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 232; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 141, no. 13; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1179, no. 6; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 702.

Link. Biographical entry, in English; biographical data, in Italian; biography, in Italian; his statue and biography, in Norwegian; his genealogy, Chapter 1, C; his statue (1756) by Francesco Queirolo, Museo Cappella Sansevero, Naples, Italy.

(1) This is according to Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 141, no. 13. His biography in Italian, linked above, says that he was created cardinal by Pope Alexander II.
(2) This is according to Louis-Doni d'Attichy, Flores historiae sacri Collegii S. R. E. Cardinalium.

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