The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Alexander II (1061-1073)
Consistory of 1063 (III)


(13) 1. PONONE (?-1073)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Pono, Ponon and Penno.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Anastasia in a consistory celebrated in 1063. He was present at the Vatican basilica in 1063, when the bishop of Chartres, Robert, took the oath of loyalty to the pope. He remained loyal to Pope Gregory VII during the schism of Antipope Clement III.

Death. 1073, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 153; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 840, no. XI; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 95; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 142, no. 16; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1179, no. 11.

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(14) 2. ATTONE (?-before December 1083 or ca. 1092)

Birth. (No date found), Milan (?). Of a noble family. He is also listed as Atto, Azzone, Atton, Hatto and Hatton.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Cleric of Milan.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in a consistory celebrated in 1063 (1); his title is not known.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Milan on January 6, 1072, at a young age; he was expelled from his see before receiving the episcopal consecration and without being enthroned; he went to Rome on April 22, 1073. He received the title of S. Marco from Pope Gregory VII in 1073. He is mentioned in Pope Gregory VII's letters of December 7 and 8, 1075. On behalf of the pope he wrote an extensive collection of canons. On November 1, 1078, he agreed with Berengar de Tours, whose teachings had been condemned by the Church several times. Became bishop of the suburbicarian see of Palestrina ca. 1081. Consecrated (no information found). On May 4, 1082, he protested against the use of church property for war purposes. In February 1084 he joined the obedience of Antipope Clement III. Pope Gregory VII excommunicated him in 1084 or 1085; the sentence of excommunication was subscribed by Cardinal Desiderio of S. Cecilia, abbot of Montecassino (2).

Death. Before December 1083 or ca. 1092, without submitting to the legitimate pope, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 156; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 841, no. 14; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 19; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 142, no. 17; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. XVI and 796; Ganzer, Klaus. Die entwicklung des auswärtigen kardinalats im hohen mittelater ; ein beitrag zur geschichte des kardinalkollegiums vom 11.bis 13. jahrhundert. Tügingen : Niemeyer, 1963, p. 37-38 no. 9; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48) A revision of the author's thesis, Gvttingen, 1975, p. 185 no. 2; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : H. Gentner, 1957, p. 38-39 note 97 and 73; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1179, no. 14; Panvinio, Onofrio. Onvphrii Panvinii Veronensis Fratris Eremitæ Augustiniani, Romani pontifices, et cardinales S.R.E. ab eisdem à Leone IX. ad Paulum papam IIII. per quingentos posteriores a Christi natali annos creati. Venetiis, apud Michaelem Tramezinum, 1577. Microform, 1960. (Manuscripta, microfilms of rare and out-of-print books; list 18, no. 27) ; Microfilm copy, made in 1960, of the original in Vatican. Biblioteca vaticana. Positive./ Negative film in Vatican. Biblioteca vaticana, p. 71; Schwartz, Gerhard. Die Besetzung der Bistümern Reichsitaliens unter den sächsischen und salischen Kaisern mit den listen der Bischöfe 951-1122. Leipzig und Berlin : Verlag von B. G. Teubner, 1913, p. 81-82.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 142, no. 17. Cardella, Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 156 and Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 841, no. 14; Mas Latrie, Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie, col. 1179, no. 14; and Panvinio, Romani pontifices, et cardinales S.R.E. ab eisdem à Leone IX. ad Paulum papam IIII, p. 71, list him among the cardinals created by Pope Alexander II. Ganzer, Die entwicklung des auswärtigen kardinalats im hohen mittelater, p. 185 no. 2, says that he was created cardinal priest of S. Marco by Pope Gregory VII. Hüls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130, p. 185 no. 2, says that e was created cardinal priest by Pope Gregory VII in 1073. Klewitz, Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg, p. 38-39, note 97, mentions him as cardinal of S. Marco in the pontificate of Pope Gregory VII.
(2) This is according to Ganzer, Die entwicklung des auswärtigen kardinalats im hohen mittelater ; ein beitrag zur geschichte des kardinalkollegiums vom 11.bis 13. jahrhundert, p. 37-38. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 156 and Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 841, no. 14, say that he remained loyal to Pope Gregory VII during the schism of Antipope Clement III.

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(15) 3. HUGUES (ca. 1040-October 7, 1106)

Birth. Ca. 1040, Die or Romans, France. Of the dukes of Bourgogne. Nephew of Eudes de Borrel, duke of Bourgogne. He is also listed as Hugo Diensis; Hughes de Die; Hugues de Bourgogne; and Hugues de Romans; and his first name as Hugo; and as Ugo.

Education. " ... il avait fait de bonne études et les avait soutenues avec une grande étendue et solidité d'espirit ... " (1).

Early life. Prior of the Cluniac monastery of Saint-Marcel-lès-Chalon, near Chalon-sur-Saône, Burgundy. Chamberlain of the cathedral of Lyon.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in a consistory celebrated in 1063; his title is not known (2).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Die, October 19, 1073. Concerned about receiving ordination from a simoniac bishop in France, he went to Rome. On September 21, 1073, he received all the sacred orders, except the priesthood, in Rome, from Pope Gregory VII. There, he met and became good friend for life of Bishop Anselmo of Lucca, future cardinal and saint, who had also gone to the Eternal City to receive the episcopal consecration.

Priesthood. Ordained, Satruday March 8, 1074, Rome, by Pope Gregory VII. Consecrated bishop, March 16, 1074, Rome, by Pope Gregory VII. Participated, with members of his clergy, in a Roman synod convoked by Pope Gregory VII. Legate in France in 1077; he published a decree against simony; he celebrated synods in Autun in 1077; and in Poitiers in 1078, in which simoniacs were dismissed, and the ban on lay investitures in France was implemented, not without resistance from different French bishops; in 1079, he obtained the primatial dignity for the see of Lyon; he lifted the excommunication that had been issued against Count Fulcone of Anjou. He attended the Council of Lyon in 1080, in which he deposed Archbishop Manasses I of Reims. Presided over a council in 1081, in which Hugues, Carth., bishop of Grenoble was consecrated. Presided over the the Council of Meaux in 1082, in which Ursion, bishop of Soissons, was deposed and replaced by Arnuel de Paméle, future blessed. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lyon in 1082. He remained loyal to Pope Gregory VII against Antipope Clement III. Designated by Pope Gregory VII, together with Didier and Othon, as choices for the conclave that should elect his successor. Upset because he was not elected pope, he joined the obedience of Antipope Clement III after 1085. Condemned by Pope Victor III in the council of Benevento in August 1087. Made his submission to Pope Urban II. In 1094, the pope sent him as legate to France. In 1095/1096, he accompanied the pope on his trip to France, during which, in 1095, the pontiff confirmed the primacy of see of Lyon; in November of that same year, he attended, with the pope, the Council of Clermont, where the first Crusade was preached. In 1099, he was visited by his friend Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury. In 1101, he went with the Crusaders to the Holy Land.

Death. October 7, 1106, Suze, Piedmont (3), while on his way to the Council of Guastalla. Buried with great pomp in the abbey of Saint-Just.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 151-153; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 839-840, no. X; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, II, 45-49; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 142, no. 19; Fisquet, Honoré. La France pontificale (Gallia christiana), histoire chronologique et biographique des archevêques et évêques de tous les diocèses de France depuis l'établissement du christianisme jusqu'à nos jours, divisée en 17 provinces ecclésiastique. 22 vol. Paris : E. Repos, 1864-1873, X, 193-213; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1179, no. 10.

Links. Biography, in German; biography, in French, p. 45-49; biography, in French, p. 193-213; biography, in French; Élection de Victor III. Conflit entre le nouveau pape et Hugues archevêque de Lyon by Abbé Rony, P.S.S., Revue d'histoire de l'Église de France, 1928, volume 14, no. 63, pp. 145-160, in French.

(1) Fisquet, Honoré. La France pontificale (Gallia christiana), X, 193: "He did good studies and was supported with great breadth and strength of spirit.
(2) Several sources either ignore or contest his promotion to the cardinalate. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 151, indicates that he was promoted to the cardinalate by Pope Gregory VII in 1080.
(3) Some sources say that he died in 1103 in Salamina or in Famagusta, Cyprus.

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