The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Alexander II (1061-1073)
Consistory of 1067 (VI)


(22) 1. GERHARD, O.S.B.Clun. (after 1000-1077)

Birth. After 1000, Regensburg, Germany. He is also listed as Gerardo de Ostia; and as Gerardus, Geroldo, Gherardo, Gilard and Gerald.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) at the monastery of Cluny, France, around 1063, after a pilgrimage to Rome.

Early life. Spiritual scholasticus in Regensburg, before entering the religious life.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Prior major of the monastery of Cluny.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Ostia in a consistory celebrated in 1067 (1); during his episcopate, there was an intruding bishop by the name of Giovanni, ca. 1075. Consecrated (no information found). Legate in France, accompanied by Subdeacon Raimbald; he presided over the Synod of Châlons on March 2, 1073. Participated in the papal election of 1073, in which Pope Gregory VII was elected. After traveling to Chartres, Reims and Paris, he went through the south of France to Spain; around November 1073, he probably returned to Rome. Together with Cardinal Uberto of Palestrina, he was legate in Germany in March 1074; in early April, he was in R|ggisberg; and on April 20, 1074 (Easter), he was in Nürnberg, where he met Emperor Heinrich IV. He returned to Rome prior to December 7, 1074. Named again legate in France, he celebrated in synod in Poitiers on January 13, 1075. On January 28, 1077, he accompanied Pope Gregory VII to Canossa. Soon afterwards, he went as a legate to Lombardy and there was kept in captivity by followers of the emperor because the conflict over the investitures; at the request of Empress Agnes and Countess Matilde, he was released. On September 30, 1077, he wrote his brief to Pope Gregory VII.

Death. December 6, 1077. Buried in the cathedral of Velletri; his shrine and tomb are still today there.

Beatification. According to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 141, no. 5, Louis-Doni d'Attichy, Flores historiae sacri Collegii S. R. E. Cardinalium, declares him a blessed or saint as a result of a popular canonization, but he is not listed in the Roman Martyrology or in the list of those whose feast may be celebrated by the College of Cardinals. In 1805, Cardinal Henry Stuart of York, bishop of Velletri, transferred the celebration of his feast to February 6. He is the patron of Velletri.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 148-150; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 838, no.VII ; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 2; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 141, no. 5; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 100-101, no. 4; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : Hermann Gentner Verlag, 1957, p. 115, no. 2; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1179, no. 7.

Links. Biography, in German; biography in Norwegian; biography, in German; biography, in Italian.

(1) This is according to Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 141, no. 5; and Klewitz, Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg, p. 115, no. 2. Hüls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130, p. 100, says that he was named bishop of Ostia in late 1072 or early 1073.

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(23) 2. GIOVANNI (?-before 1080)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Labico in a consistory celebrated in 1067. Consecrated (no information found). Subscribed a papal bull issued on June 20, 1068. Participated in the papal election of 1073, in which Pope Gregory VII was elected.

Death. Before 1080, (no place found). Buried (no information found)

Bibliography. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 141, no. 9; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 566 and 583.

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(24) 3. UBALDO (?-before 1077)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Maria in Trastevere in a consistory celebrated in 1067. Subscribed a papal bull issued before 1073.

Death. Before 1077, (no place found). Buried (no information found)

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 169; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 141, no. 13.

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(25) 4. BERNARDO (?-before 1073)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. XII Apostoli in a consistory celebrated in 1067 (1). Subscribed a papal bull issued on June 20, 1068.

Death. Before 1073, (no place found). Buried (no information found)

Bibliography. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 143, no. 28; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 150, no. 1; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 566 and 583.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 143, no. 28. Hüls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130, p. 150, no. 1, says that he appears as cardinal at the beginning of 1069.

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(26) 5. GIOVANNI (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Ciriaco alle Terme in a consistory celebrated in 1067. Subscribed a papal bull issued on June 20, 1068.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found)

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 170; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 150, no. 1; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 157, no. 1; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 566 and 583.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 143, no. 28. Hüls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130, p. 150, no. 1, says that he appears as cardinal at the beginning of 1069.

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