The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Alexander II (1061-1073)
Consistory of 1072 (X)


(32) 1. ALDOBRANDINI, O.S.B.Vall., Pietro Igneo (?-1089)

Birth. (No date found), Florence. Of the counts of Soana. He was a relative of Giovanni Gualberto, future saint, founder of the Benedictine Congregation of Vallombrosa. He is also listed as Petrus Igneo, Pietro Igneo, Pedro el Ígneo and Pietro Igneo Aldobrandeschi di Sovana. Uncle of Cardinal Bernardo degli Uberti, O.S.B.Vall. (ca. 1097).

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines), Congregation of Vallombrosa, in 1018, at a young age.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). On February 23, 1068, he passed the judgment of God (or trial by fire), to prove the simony of the intruse bishop of Florence, Pietro Mezzobarbo (also known as Peter of Pavia). Soon afterward, he became prior of Passignano; and later, abbot of San Salvatore in Fucecchio, position he kept after becoming a cardinal. He was called to Rome by Pope Gregory VII.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Albano in a consistory celebrated in 1072 (1). Consecrated (no information found). He is perhaps first cited as a cardinal bishop in October 1072 at the consecration of the church of Ss. Donato e Nicola in Citille, although the diocese he occupied at that time is not known. Later, he appears as abbot of Fucecchio and bishop of Albano in documents dated October 23, 1074, September 3, 1076, February 7, 1077 (consecrating the church of S. Miniatis in Rubbicana), November 15, 1077 and January 27, 1081. Legate in Italy and, later, in Germany and in France. Participated in the papal election of 1086, in which Pope Victor III was elected; he was one of the consecrating bishops of the new pope. Participated in the papal election of 1088, in which Pope Urban II was elected. He is mentioned in a papal bull issued in Rome on July 8, 1089. He wrote a treatise of the Eucharist.

Death. November 11, 1089 (2) (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Beatification. The Roman Martyrology celebrates his feast on February 8. The Ordo Romanus included his office and mass on March 4, 1673; and the archdiocese of Florence on May 16, 1676.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 172-173; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 862-864, no. III; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 40; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 145, no. 3; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. XXII; Ganzer, Klaus. Die entwicklung des auswärtigen kardinalats im hohen mittelater ; ein beitrag zur geschichte des kardinalkollegiums vom 11. bis 13. jahrhundert. Tügingen : Niemeyer, 1963. (Bibliotek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rome, band XXVI), p. 207; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 90-91, no. 3; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : Hermann Gentner Verlag, 1957, p. 116, no. 9; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1180, no. 3; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 663.

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in Spanish; biography, in Italian; biography, in Italian; biography, in Danish; Scène de vie de saint Jean Gualbert. En présence de saint Jean Gualbert, le bienheureux Petrus Igneus subit l'ordalie du feu contre l'rchevêque de Florence, 15th century, by Marco Palmezzano, Musée du Louvre, Paris; copy of the previous painting, almost identical, Musée du Petit Palais, Avignon, France; San Pietro Ignio Aldobrandini fait distribuer du grain au peuple, 16th century, by Jan van der Straet, Musée du Louvre, Paris; Beato Pietro Igneo Aldobrandini passing unharmed though the flames, 17th century, drawing by Carlo Maratti, The British Museum, London; and San Pietro Igneo Aldobrandini che camina sul fuoco, 18th century, by Angelo Soccorsi, church of S. Prassede, Rome.

(1) This is according to Huls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130, p. 90, no. 3; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 145, no. 3, says that he was promoted to the cardinalate in 1079, citing Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 40. Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. XXII, says that he was named in 1074?.
(2) This is according to Hüls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 90, no. 3. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 145, no. 3, says that he died on January 9, 1087, citing Gams and Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 40. His biography in Spanish, linked above, says the date of his death generally accepted is February 8, 1089.

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(33) 2. GUITMOND, O.S.B. (first quarter of the 11th century-1084)

Birth. First quarter of the 11th century, duchy of Normandie, France. He is also listed as Guiemundus, Guismundus, Guitmondo and Guitmond.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines), at the monastery of La Croix-Saint-Leufroy, diocese of Évreux.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in a consistory celebrated ca. 1072 (1); his title is not known.

Episcopate. He refused a rich see in England offered to him by King William I, the Conqueror. Elected bishop of Aversa ca. 1075. He authored three books: against the heresy of Bérenger; and on theological subjects. According to Guillaume de Malmesbury, he was famous for his eloquence.

Death. 1084, Aversa. Buried, probably in the cathedral of Aversa.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 162; Ceillier, Remy ; Bauzon, Louis Marie François ; Rondet, Laurent Étienne. Histoire générale des auteurs sacrés et ecclésiastiques : qui contient leur vie, le catalogue, la critique, le jugement, la chronologie, l'analyse & le dénombrement des différentes éditions de leurs ouvrages; ce qu'ils renferment de plus intéressant sur le dogme, sur la morale et sur la discipline de l'église; l'histoire des conciles, tant généraux que particuliers, et les actes choisis des martyrs. 14 v. in 15. Nouvelle éd. soigneusement revue, corrigée, complétée et terminée par une table générale des matières, par M. l'Abbé Bauzon, ancien directeur de Grand séminaire. Paris : Chez Louis Vives, Libraire-Editeur, 1860-1865, tome XIII, chapter XLVIII, p. 516-523, no. 1-22; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, II, 37-38; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 143, no. 26; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 213, no. 6; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1179, no. 24.

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in French, p. 37-38; biography, in French; biography, in English; biography, in French, tome XIII, chapter XLVIII, p. 516-523, no. 1-22.

(1) Several sources ignore or contest his promotion to the cardinalate; and others doubt if he was promoted by Pope Alexander II or by Pope Gregory VII.

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(34) 3. BOSCHETTI, Paolo (?-1073)

Birth. (No date found), Modena (1). Of an ancient and noble family. Son of Gerardo Boschetti. His last name is also listed as Boschettus and Bolschettus.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Primicerius of the cathedral of Modena. He went to Rome, where he distinguished himself because of his knowledge, wisdom and prudence. He was a renowned writer.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Adriano al Foro in a consistory celebrated in 1072.

Death. 1073, prematurely, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 167-168; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 845-846, no. XXXI; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. ; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1179, no. 31.

(1) Some sources say that he may have been born in Bologna.

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(35) 4. NICOLA (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. Entered the religious life as a monk; his order is not known.

Early life. Abbot of the monastery of S. Silvestro in Capite, Rome.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in a consistory celebrated ca. 1072; his deaconry is not known. Joined the obedience of Antipope Clement III. Participated in the conciliabulum convoked in Rome by Antipope Clement III against Pope Urban II.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 168; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 846, no. XXXII; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. ; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 144, no. 40; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1179, no. 33.

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(36) 5. NICOLA (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. Entered the religious life as a monk; his order is not known.

Early life. Abbot of the monastery of S. Pancrazio, Rome.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in a consistory celebrated ca. 1072; his deaconry is not known. Joined the obedience of Antipope Clement III.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 168; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 846, no. XXXIII; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. ; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1179, no. 33.

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