The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Gregory VII (1073-1085)
Consistory of 1073 (I)


(1) 1. REGIZZO (?-ca. 1078)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Regizzon, Regizzone, Domizon, Domnizzone and Domnizo.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Sabina in 1073 (1). Consecrated (no information found). In 1073, he exchanged with Bernardo, abbot of Farfa, the church of S. Niccolò in Murca for the one of S. Vito in Toncia.

Death. Ca. 1078 (2), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 172; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 862, no. II; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 33; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 145, no. 1; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 126-127, no. 3; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1886, col. 1180, no. 2.

(1) "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 145, no. 1, says that he may be confused with Cardinal Domnizzone (1088). Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 33, says that he was promoted to the cardinalate in 1078. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 172, says that other sources indicate that he was created cardinal priest in 1073 and promoted to cardinal bishop of Sabina in 1078; Mas Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie, col. 1180, no. 2, says that he was created cardinal in 1086; ; Hüls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130, p. 126-127, no. 3, says that as bishop of Sabina, he was also abbot of Farfa until August 1090.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 145, no. 1. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 172, says that he was present at the solemn exequies of Bishop Anselmo of Luca (+ March 18, 1086), future saint; and that the cardinal died around 1086.

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(2) 2. LAGERY, O.S.B.Clun., Eudes de (ca. 1035/1042-1099)

Birth. ca. 1035/1042, in a château near Châtillon-sur-Marne, Reims, France (or in Lagery, France). Of a noble family. He was the youngest of the four children of Milon de Châtillon and his wife (her name is unknown). He is also listed as Oddone di Chatillon, Odone di Castiglione, Odon I de Châtillon, Othon de Reims and Oddo I only. His first name is also listed as Odo, Otho, Othon and Otto. Uncle of Cardinal Odon de Châtillon, O.S.B.Clun. (1088).

Education. Studied in Reims under Bruno, founder of the Order of the Cistercians and future saint; and in Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in theology. Joined the Canons Regular of Saint Augustine at the Lateran. Later, he entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) at the monastery of SS. Trinità della Cava.

Early life. Canon and archdeacon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Reims. Joined the Benedictines.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Ca. 1068, he passed to the Benedictine monastery of Cluny, where he became prior. He was recalled to Rome and promoted to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest ca. 1073, his title is not known.

Episcopate. Named bishop of Ostia in 1078, with the administration of Velletri (1). Consecrated, July 20, 1085, church of S. Silvestro in Capite, Rome. Legate in Germany, 1084-1085. He loyally supported Pope Gregory VII during his conflict with Emperor Heinrich IV and in 1085, he presided over the Synod of Quedlinburg, in Saxony, which excommunicated Antipope Clement III and his followers. Participated in the papal election of 1086, in which Pope Victor III was elected. Participated in the papal election of 1088 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on March 12, 1088, in Terracina, south of Rome, which was occupied by Antipope Clement III. Took the name Urban II. He was crowned on the same day of his election to the papacy. He preached at Clermont the First Crusade in November 1093. He created sixty nine cardinals in ten consistories.

Death. July 29, 1099, church of S. Nicola in Carcere, Rome (two weeks after Jerusalem had been taken by the Crusaders). Buried in the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Beatification. His ancient cultus as a blessed was confirmed by Pope Leo XIII on July 14, 1881. His feast is celebrated on July 30 in Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 170-171; Cerrini, Simonetta. "Urbano II, beato." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 222-227; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 861-862, no. I; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 2; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 145-146, no. 5; Harkins, Franklin T. Reading and the Work of Restoration: history and Scripture in the theology of Hugh of St Victor. Toronto : Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 2009. (Studies and Texts, 167; Mediaeval law and theology, 2); Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 102-103, no. 5; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 158-160; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : Hermann Gentner Verlag, 1957, p. 115, no. 3; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1180, no. 1; Penteriani, Ulderico. "Urbano II, papa, beato." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 1064-1066.

Links. Biography, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; biography, in English; images and biography, in English; his engraving and biography, in French, p. 52-57; images and biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; biography, in Spanish, by Benardino Llorca, S.J.; biography, also in Spanish; images and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; images and biography, also in Italian; DA VITTORE III A URBANO II, in Italian; his statues and biography, in French, Wikipedia; his genealogy, click on chapter 7, B. SEIGNEURS de CHÂTILLON (11th century -1219); the cardinal is in 2. d.; images of his statue in Clermont-Ferrand and biography, also in French; another view of his statue in Clermont-Ferrand, France; and another view of the same statue; his statue in Châtillon sur Marne; Pierre l'Ermite devant le pape Urbain II, 15th century illumination; Saint Urbain II prêchant la Croisade, 15th century illumination; larger version of the same image; Consécration de l'autel majeur de Cluny, medieval illumination; Pope Urban II welcomes St. Bruno to Rome, painting by Eustache Le Sueur, 17th century, Musée du Louvre, Paris, France; Pope Urban II offers Saint Bruno the see of Reggio Calabria, which he declines, painting by Eustache Le Sueur, 17th century, Musée du Louvre, Paris, France; Le pape Urbain II : étude pour le seizième tableau de la vie de saint Bruno by Eustache Le Sueur, 17th century, département des Arts graphiques, Musée du Louvre, Paris, France; Le pape Urbain II : étude pour le dix-septième tableau de la vie de saint Bruno by Eustache Le Sueur, 17th century, département des Arts graphiques, Musée du Louvre, Paris, France; Pope Urban II and Saint Bruno, his confessor, painting by Francisco de Zurbarán, 17th century, Museo de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain; Pope Urban II receives a legate from King Pedro I of Aragón, who offers the pope his kingdom as St. Peter's pence, Vatican Archives, Vatican City; Pope Urban II consecrating the basilica of Saint-Sernin, musée des Augustins, Toulouse, France; his engraving; another view of the same engraving; similar engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; another engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; another engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; eight engravings, Bildarchiv Austria, Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his effigy on a medal, flickr; and his effigy on two medals, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic.

(1) Some sources say that he was promoted to the cardinalate ca. 1080 as bishop of Ostia e Velletri.

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(3) 3. CONONE, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine (?-1123)

Birth. (No date found), Germany or France. He is also listed as Cuno, Cunon and Conon.

Education. Joined the Canons Regular of Saint Augustine.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Anastasia in 1073. He accompanied Pope Gregory VII to Canossa in January 1077 for the absolution of Emperor Heinrich IV. He substituted for the chancellor of the Holy Roman Church in January and August 1077. Opted for an unknown title in 1088, because he was replaced in the title of S. Anastasia in that year. Legate in the Orient; after the second revolt of Emperor Heinrich IV against the pope, the legate, during his return trip, convoked councils in Constantinople, Greece, Pannonia, Saxony, Lorraine and France to censure the emperor; in Rome he made the censures be confirmed by a council in 1080.

Episcopate. Named bishop of Frascati in 1099. Transferred to the see of Palestrina in 1107 (or 1111) (1). He consecrated the altar of the cathedral of Palestrina in February 1116 and in December 1117. Pope Gelasius II sent him as legate to Germany in 1118. That pope indicated Cardinal Conon to the cardinals as his successor but he refused. Participated in the papal election of 1119, celebrated in Cluny, which elected Pope Callistus II, with the support of Cardinal Conon. Returned to Rome with the new pope.

Death. After May 17, 1123, Rome. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 866, no. IX; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 95; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 146, no. 6; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1180, no. 9.

Link. Biography, in Italian.

(1) He may be the same as Cardinal Kuno von Urach, Can. Reg. of Arrouaise (1108). Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 866, no. IX, mixes data of the two cardinals.

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(4) 4. DEUSDEDIT (ca. 1043-ca. 1098/1099)

Birth. Ca. 1043, Todi or in Lower Germany. He was an only child. He is also listed as Deodato, Adédat, Adeodatus and Dieudonné.

Education. " ... l'eccellenza di sua perizia non meno nelle divine, ed apostoliche tradizioni, che nei canoni, e nei Padri.. " (1).

Early life. He was a monk in Tulle, Limousin; his order is unknown.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli in 1073. On November 1, 1078, he subscribed a document at the Lateran palace in favor of Berengar de Tours. Legate in Spain in the pontificate of Pope Gregory VII. He supported and defended the Dictatus Papae. Author of apologetic works, notably one against the intrusion of the civil power in ecclesiastical matters, which he dedicated to Pope Victor III (2). He opposed Antipope Clement III. He was in Saxony between 1084 and 1085. Legate in Spain again toward 1088. On February 6, 1094, he was Pope Urban II and other cardinals at the church of S. Maria Nuova, Rome.

Death. March 2, 1098 or 1099 (3), Spain. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 174-175; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 866, no. VI; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 99; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 146, no. 7; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 194, no. 1; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1180, no. 6.

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in English; biography, in German; biography, in Latin; commentary on his works, in Spanish, p. 35-36; and Dictatus Papae, in Spanish.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 174: the excellence of his expertise was no less in the divine and apostolic traditions than in the canons and the Fathers.
(2) Among his works are De verbis ecclesiasticis (1086); Colectio Canonum (1086-1087); and Libellus contra invasores et symoniacos et reliquis schismaticis.
(3) This is according to Hüls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130, p. 194, no. 1. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 146, no. 7, says that he died ca. 1088. His first biography in English, linked above; and his biography in German, also linked above, say that he died between 1097 and 1100. His second biography in English, linked above, says that he died ca. 1110. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 175; Mas Latrie, Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge, col. 1180, no. 6; and his biography in Latin, linked above, says that he died in 1099.

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(5) 5. CAO, Benedetto (?-1087)

Birth. (No date found), Cagliari, Sardinia. Son of Anastasio Cao. His last name is also listed as Cajo and Caius

Education. Educated by his father in Rome.

Early life. When he was a child, he was taken to Rome by his father.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Prassede in 1073. He built the cloister of his titular church (1) and restored its crypt (2).

Death. 1087 (3), Rome. Buried in the church of S. Prassede, Rome (4); his tomb was restored in 1333.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 179; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 867-868, no. XI; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 61; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 146, no. 8; Ganzer, Klaus. Die entwicklung des auswärtigen kardinalats im hohen mittelater ; ein beitrag zur geschichte des kardinalkollegiums vom 11. bis 13. jahrhundert. Tügingen : Niemeyer, 1963. (Bibliotek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rome, band XXVI), p. ; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 196, no. 1; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1180, no. 11.

Links. Biography, in Italian, p. 278-279.

(1) This is the text, inscribed in a marble tablet, placed in the cloister, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 868:

BENEDICTVS PRESBYTER CARD.
TIT. HVIVS FIERI FECIT
SVB PONTIFICATV D. GREGORII PP. VII.

(2) This is the text, inscibed in a marble tablet, placed in the crypt, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 868:

BENEDICTVS CAO CALARITANVS
ANASTASII FILIVS
PRESB. CARD. TT. HVIVS FIERI FECIT
SVB PONTIFICATV D. GREGORIO PP. VII.

(3) This is according to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 867-868, no. XI; and his biography in Italian, linked above. Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 61, says that he died in 1077.
(4) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 868:

HIC REQUIESCIT
BENEDICVS CAIVS CALARITANVS
ANASTASI FIL PRESB CARD TIT S. PRAXEDIS
CREATVS A GREGORIO VII.
OBIT AN. DOM. MLXXXVII.
QVINTILIUS, & ANNIBAL DE CAIJS
QVI PRO REGIBUS ARAGONIÆ IN SARDINIA
CLARISSIMAS VICTORIAS CONTRA PISANOS
GLORIOSE REPORTARVNT
SEPVLCHRVM HOC GENTILI SVO
INSTAURARVNT MCCCXXXIII.

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(6) 6. JEAN (?-?)

Birth. (No date found), France. He belonged to the family of the seigneurs de Combour (1).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. He was married to Basilie and had two children, Rivallon and Guilduin.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. Martino e Silvestro (Equitii) in 1073 (2). Opted for an unknown title in 1076.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Dol, Bretagne, ca. 1082; succeeded Cardinal Éven (1073). Consecrated (no information found). Before 1093, he was an arbiter in the dispute between the monks of Saint-Serge and Saint-Jouin.

Death. June 27 of an unknown year (3), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Bigne, Paul de la. "Combour et ses seigneurs." Revue de Bretagne. 4e série, 7e anée, XXXIX (Avril 1908), p. 185-201; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 174; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 865, no. V; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 71; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, 50-51; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 146, no. 9; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. 547; Guillotin de Corson, Amédée. Pouillé historique de l'archevêché de Rennes. 6 vols. Rennes : Fougeray, 1880 1886, I, 399; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1180, no. 5.

Links. Biography, in French, p. 50-51; biography, in French (no. XXI) and another biography, in French, p.195-197.

(1) Some details of his biography seem to be confused by some sources with those of his brother, Guillaume, who was a Benedictine monk at the monastery of Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire and abbot of Dol but never a bishop or cardinal. Jean, who had been married and had had two children, does not seem to have been ever a Benedictine.
(2) Some of the sources consulted, like Bigne, Gams and Guillotin de Corson, do not mention his cardinalate.
(3) This is according to Guillotin de Corson, Pouillé historique de l'archevêché de Rennes, I, 399, citing the Obituaire du Mont Saint-Michel. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 146, no. 9, says that he died ca. 1088.

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(7) 7. RANIERO, O.S.B.Clun. (ca. 1050/1055-1118)

Birth. Ca. 1050/1055, Bieda di Galeata (changed to Blera in 1952), near Ravenna. Son of Crescenzio. He is also listed as Reginerus, Raniero da Bieda, Rainerio Raineri and Raniero Ranieri di Bleda.

Education. Joined the Canons Regular Lateranense. Later, he entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) at the monastery of Cluny.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Abbot of the monastery of Ss. Lorenzo and Stefano fuori le mura, Rome.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Clemente in 1073 (1). Opted for an unknown title in 1078. Participated in the papal election of 1088, celebrated in Terracina, in which Pope Urban II was elected; he represented the cardinal priests. Named legate in France and Spain in December 1089; in February 1090, he was in Narbonne; in June 1090, in Toulouse; and in the second half of that year, in León. On February 6, 1094, he was with Pope Urban II and other cardinals in the church of S. Maria Nuova, Rome. Antipope Clement III invited him to attend the conciliabulum that the antipope convoked in Rome in August 1098; he did not attend. Subscribed a papal bull issued in Salerno in September 1098, confirming the donation of the possessions of hermits Brunonis and Lanuini to Count Rogerio and Iohannes, bishop Scyllacensis. On March 24, 1099, he was at Saint Peter's basilica, Rome.

Papacy. Elected pope on August 13, 1099, unanimously and in spite of his objections, in the church of S. Clemente. Took the name Paschal II. Consecrated on the day following his election. He created ninety two cardinals in fifteen consistories.

Death. January 21, 1118 in Castello Sant'Angelo, Rome. Buried in the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome.

Beatification. The Benedictine Menology gives him the title of blessed and celebrates his feast on January 18.

Bibliography. Cantarella, Glauco Maria. "Pasquale II." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 228-235; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 179-180; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 868, no. XII; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 84; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 147, no. 14; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 160-161, no. 2; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 160-161; March, José María, "Sobre la patria y la familia del Papa Pascual II (1099-1118)". Estudios eclesiásticos, II, no. 5 (1923), 107-110; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1180, no. 12; Panteriani, Ulderico. "Pasquale II, papa." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 815-817; Petrus Pisanus. Vita Paschalis II papae. Parisiis : Migne, 1854; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 657 and 694; Servatius, Carlo. Paschalis II (1099-1118) : Studien zu seiner Person u. seiner Politik. Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1979. (Paäpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 14).

;

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in English (Britannica); his engraving and biography, in English; biography, in English, p. 365-367; his engraving and biography, in French; biography, in Spanish; his engraving and biography, in Italian; his image and biography, in Italian; his works, from Excerpta ex Migne Patrologia Latina; images, arms and biographical information, in Italian; biography, in Italian (including the pope's believe in Emperor Nero's ghost); Raineri family, in Italian; images and biography, in Italian; Pope Paschal II and King Philippe I of France, illuminated manuscript from the Grandes Chronicles de France in 1107;Pope Paschal II consecrating the cathedral of Parma in 1106, in the presence of Bishop Bernardo degli Uberti of Parma; Pope Paschal II presents Emperor Heinrich IV the orb as a symbol of secular power in 1110, Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, England; his portrait, attributed to Giuseppe Franchi, 17th century, Pinacoteca Ambrosiama, Milan; his engraving; similar engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his engraving, Biblioteca Comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; three engravings, Bildarchiv Austria, Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; plaque in his honor in his native city; his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; his effigy on another medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; and his lead seal.

(1) This is according to Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 84; and "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 147, no. 14. Other sources place his promotion to the cardinalate between 1076 and 1080.

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(8) 8. NATRONE (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Natro.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in 1073, his title is not known. Joined the obedience of Antipope Clement III in 1084. He was excommunicated and deprived of his cardinalitial rank.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 180; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 868, no. 13; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 147, no. 15; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1180, no. 13.

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(9) 9. GIOVANNI (?-before 1088)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo between 1073 and 1085 (1).

Death. Before 1088, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 147, no. 22.

(1) "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 147, no. 22, says that perhaps he was only archpriest of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo and not a cardinal.

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(10) 10. ÉVEN, O.S.B. (?-1081)

Birth. (No date found), Bretagne, France. He is also listed as Evenus, Ivone, Yvo, Yves and Ivo de San Melan.

Education. Joined the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines).

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Monk in the abbey of Saint Florent-de-Saumur. Named by King Salomon of Bretagne abbot of the monastery of Saint-Mélaine in Rennes.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon ca. 1073, his deaconry is not known (1). Cardinal protodeacon. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of Ss. Martino e Silvestro in 1076.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Dol ca. 1078. Consecrated in 1078, Rome, by Pope Gregory VII; the pope authorized him to wear the pallium provisionally. He retained the administration of his abbey. He was succeeded by Cardinal Jean, O.S.B. (1073). He joined the obedience of Antipope Clement III and died in the schism (2).

Death. September 26, 1081, Dol (?). Buried in abbey of the monastery of Saint-Mélaine in Rennes (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 182; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 870, no. XXII; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 71; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 147, no. 23; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. 547; Guillotin de Corson, Amédée. Pouillé historique de l'archevêché de Rennes. 6 vols. Rennes : Fougeray, 1880 1886, I, 398; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1180, no. 22; Paris-Jallobert, Paul. "Les cardinaux de Bretagne". Revue de Bretagne et de Vendée, n. ser., II (1887), 31.

Links. Biographical entry, in French (no. XX).

(1) Paris-Jallobert, "Les cardinaux de Bretagne". Revue de Bretagne et de Vendée, n. ser., II (1887), 31, questions if he was ever promoted to the cardinalate. Other sources do not mention his promotion in his biographical data.
(2) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 182; and Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 870, no. XXII. The other sources consulted do not mention his schism.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Guillotin de Corson, Pouillé historique de l'archevêché de Rennes, I, 398:

ANNO D0MINICÆ INCARNATIONIS 1081,
ROM. PONTIFICE GREGORIO VII,
CONSULE REDONENSI GAUFRIDO ET SYLVESTRO EPISCOPO,
VII KAL. OCTOBRIS (OBIIT) DOM. EVENUS, D0LENESIS ARCHIEPISCOPUS
ET ABBAS SANCTI MELANII, VIR STRENNISSIMUS OMNIUNQVE MORUM

HONESTATE PRÆCLARUS, PATER PIISSIMUS, COENOBIQUE HUIUS
RESTAURATOR MIRIFICUS. NAM UT PRIMUM ABBATIAM SUSCEPIT,
UNUM TANTUMMODO MONACHUM IN EA INVENIT ; INFRA VERO
27 ANN0S, QVIBUS M0NASTERIO PRÆFUIT, IN TANTUM CONGREGATIO
CREVIT, UT DIE OBITUS SUI PREFECTUS NUMERUS CENTUM FRATRUM
IBI REMANSEBIT IDCIRCO CREDENDUM EST EUM A DOMINO NON
TRICENNUM NEC SEXAGESIMUM, SED POTIUS CENTESIMUM PERCEPISSE
FAUCTUM

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(11) 11. GREGORIO (?-ca. 1086)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon ca. 1073, his deaconry is not known. He was present at the meeting between Pope Gregory VII and Emperor Heinrich IV in Canossa. Legate in Bohemia in 1076, together with Cardinal Bernardo da Pavia; Duke Vratislaus II of Bohemia, received them with great honors; Jaromír, bishop of Prague, treated the legates in an undignified manner and they fulminated a sentence of suspension against him. Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church. Librarian of the Holy Roman Church. Subscribed papal bulls issued on June 10, 1077, as cardinal librarian (fourteen cardinals subscribed); and March 22, 1078. Some sources identify him with Cardinal Gregorio, bishop of Sabina (1078)

Death. Ca. 1086, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 180-181; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. , no. ; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. ; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 147, no. 24; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1180, no. 16; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 594, 623 and 626.

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(12) 12. GIOVANNI (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon ca. 1073, his deaconry is not known. Cardinal protodeacon in 1076. Subscribed a papal bull issued on June 19, 1078, confirming the privileges of the monastery of S. Benigni Divionensis at the request of its abbot, Gerentone. Joined the obedience of Antipope Clement III after 1080.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 181; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 869, no. XVII; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 147-148, no. 25; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1180, no. 17; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 594 and 626.

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(13) 13. GREGORIO (?-ca. 1085)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon ca. 1073, his deaconry is not known. Legate in Venice in 1076 and in 1077 to lift the excommunication and bring two letters from the pope. He subscribed a papal bull issued on December 11, 1084, confirming privileges of the monastery of S. Sofia, Benevento, at the request of Abbot Madelmo.

Death. Ca. 1085, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 181; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 869, no. XVIII; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 148, no. 26; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1180, no. 18; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 594 and .

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