The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Gregory VII (1073-1085)
Consistory of 1078 (VI)


(26) 1. GREGORIO (?-before 1086)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Sabina in 1078 (1). Consecrated (no information found). Legate before Emperor Heinrich IV after the meeting between the emperor and the pope in Canossa in February 1077; his mission was to remind the emperor to keep the promises that he had made at that time; the emperor received the legate without the due honors and did not acquiesce to his requests; the legate departed the imperial court hurriedly. Cardinal Gregorio was a decided and strong supporter of Pope Gregory VII. He published a collection of canons entitled "Polycarpo", which manuscript is at the Vatican Archives.

Death. Before 1086 (2), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 173-174; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 865, no. IV; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. ; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 145, no. 2; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1180, no. 4.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 145, no. 2. Mas Latrie, Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie, col. 1180, no. 4, says that he was either predecessor or successor of Cardinal Regizzo in the see of Sabina. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 173, indicates that when he was legate before Emperor Heinrich IV, in 1077, he was already a cardinal. "Essai", adds that several sources doubt his existence.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 145, no. 2. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 17, says that he died during the pontificate of Pope Urban II, 1088 to 1099.

Cool Archive

(27) 2. MILHAU, O.S.B., Richard (?-February 15, 1121)

Birth. (No date found), Provence, France. Son of Richard II, viscount of Millau, and Rixinde de Narbonne. Brother of Cardinal Bernard de Milahu (1065). The family had at least seven siblings. He is also listed as Riccardo de' Riccardi; as Richard de Saint-Victor; and as Richard de Carlat; and his last name as Millau and as Milhaud.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines).

Early life. Ordained (no further information found). Abbot of the monastery of S. Paolo fuori le mura, Rome.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in a consistory celebrated before May 7, 1078 (1); his title is not known. Legate in Spain in 1078; celebrated a council in Burgos for the reform of the clergy; he abrogated the ancient Gothic offices and rites and substituted them with the Roman ones; the legation was not a success, as shown in a later speech by the pope. In October 1079, he was named legate in Spain for the second time; on his way to the legation, he visited Marseilles and was elected by the monks abbot of the monastery of Saint-Victor de Marseille, as successor to his deceased brother Bernard. The pope confirmed the election on November 2, 1079; as Richard was also the abbot of S. Paolo in Rome, the two monasteries were linked in a personal union; the purpose of this association was, as Pope Gregory VII wrote to the monks of the monastery of S. Victor, to closely bind it to the Apostolic See, in a way similar to how it had been done with the monastery of Cluny; he occupied the post until 1106. The main purpose of the legation was again to introduce the Roman customs in Spain; in 1080, the legate held a synod in Burgos. On this second, increased tensions between Cardinal Richard, King Alfonso VI of Castilla and the other Cluniacenses increased so that Pope Gregory VII needed to exhort the legate for patience and stamina; besides the uncanonical marriage of the king, it was the differences with Cluniacenses what played a role; since the Spanish countryside, was an area of interest for both monasteries, Cluny and S. Victor, the interests of the latter were in numerous occasions what provoked the disputes. The reason Richard was permanent legate in Spain during all thee years may well have been that in the disputed territories numerous monasteries were located that belonged to Saint-Victor. Cardinal Richard efforts were rewarded by the papal benevolence: he received privileges for his abbey on April 18, 1081and in 1082; on the former date, the pope also granted the cardinal permission to implement the Gregorian reform in the major monasteries of S. Pierre de Montmajour and Notre-Dame de la Grasse. He joined the obedience of Antipope Clement III toward 1083; he was deprived of the cardinalate by Pope Gregory VII; he repented and was reinstated as a cardinal. After Pope Gregory VII's death, he traveled to Italy to participate in the discussions on the successor. Richard was in Rome when the election of a new pope took place; along with Cardinal Hugues of Lyon, he violently opposed the choice of Cardinal Dauferio of Montecassino; led by Cardinal Hugues, he joined again the obedience of Antipope Clement III and was excommunicated by Pope Victor III in the Council of Benevento in August 1087. After the death Pope Victor III, Cardinal Richard arbitrarily went again as legate to Spain; he held a synod at the beginning of 1088, with Bernardo de Toledo, in Husillos, in which Archbishop Diego of Santiago was removed; Pope Urban II considered Cardinal Richard's provisions and removed him as legate. In 1088, in the dispute as to whether Tarragona, Narbonne, or Toledo, should held the primacy over the whole of Spain Cardinal Richard supported the claims of Narbonne. He made his submission to Pope Urban II; the pontiff named him again legate in Spain; his duties also extended to southern of France; probably in the year 1084, the legate wrote a letter to King Sancho Ramírez of Navarra, in which he reproached him because of the fierce occupation of the diocese of Pamplona and confirmed the interdict on the diocese. The legate orders sometimes appeared too brusque and not only the canons of San Juan de las Abadesas complained about their brutal expulsion by Cardinal Richard, but Pope Gregory VII himself accused the cardinal of excessive speed and recklessness. On February 20, 1089, the pope granted an extensive privilege for Saint-Victor subordinating to it the monastery of S. Servando in Toledo. The pope confirmed the cardinal's privileges on February 20, 1089 and April 4, 1095. In September 1091, Cardinal Richard participated in the decision of a controversy between the abbots of S. Pedro in Roda and S. Esteban in Bearu concerning the church of S. Maria in Castilio. Subscribed a papal bull issued in Crema on February 18, 1095, in favor of the monastery of S. Egidio, which was later confirmed in the Council of Piacenza. In March 1095, he was at the papal curia. He participated in the Synod of Piacenza, which had been convoked by Pope Urban II; the cardinal attained an extensive privilege for the monastery of Saint-Victor, which confirmed the abbot's authority over a set of monasteries; in addition, the pope recognized the decisions, which the Synod of Husillos, presided by the cardinal, had issued. Following the Synod of Piacenza, Pope Urban II traveled to France and was accompanied by Cardinal Richard. Probably in August 1095, the pope was present at the consecration of the church belonging to the monastery of Saint- Victor in Chirac. On the following September 13, the cardinal stayed with the pope in Avignon, where a decision in favor of Saint-Victor was made. They also participated in the Synod of Clermont, which took place in November 1095, where the First Crusade was preached. He was named legate in France in 1095 to lift the interdict against King Philippe I; and to the Diet of Mainz, where Emperor Heinrich IV had his son, future Emperor Heinrich V, removed from office. In July 1096, Cardinal acted as a judge at the Synod of Nîmes. When Pope Urban II returned to Italy, Cardinal Richard stayed in France. On 24 September 1096, he signed a document for the monks of Psalmodi in Montpellier. In March 1098, he received from the bishop of Riez confirmation of the possessions of Saint-Victor. On 18 July of the same year, he stayed in Aix, where the churches belonging to Saint-Victor in that diocese were confirmed. From late 1100 to early 1101, Cardinal Richard was again legate in Spain, together with Archbishop Gibelin of Arles; the two legates celebrated synods in Palencia in December 1100; and in Gerona in February 1101.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Narbonne by its cathedral chapter on November 5, 1106; Pope Paschal II confirmed the election. Consecrated (no information found). Since his appointment as archbishop, he was never more described as a cardinal; his signature appeared no longer with this title (2). As archbishop of Narbonne, he was also legate in his province. Initially, he had major disputes because of the church properties with the count of Narbonne, Aimerich; the archbishop himself drafted a detailed report of the properties. He was in Floirac in 1100. He participated in the Synod of Toulouse celebrated by Pope Callistus II in July 1119.

Death. February 15, 1121, Narbonne. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 154-156; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 266; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, 42-44; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 151, no.36; Ganzer, Klaus. Die entwicklung des auswärtigen kardinalats im hohen mittelater ; ein beitrag zur geschichte des kardinalkollegiums vom 11. bis 13. jahrhundert. Tügingen : Niemeyer, 1963. (Bibliotek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rome, band XXVI), p. 32-36, no. 6; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 217-218, no. 20; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : Hermann Gentner Verlag, 1957, p. 130, no. 45; "Richard de Saint-Victor" in "Les cardinals depossédés de leur dignité". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1907. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1907, p. 159.

Webgraphy. His arms and biography, in French, p. 42-44; biography, in French; El concilio nacional de Palencia en el año 1100 y el de Gerona en 1101 by Fidel Fita Colomé, Boletín de la Real Academia de la Historia, Tomo 24, Año 1894, 215-235.

(1) This is according to Hüls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130, p. 217, no. 20. Klewitz, Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg, p. 130, no. 45, says that he created cardinal by Pope Gregory VII. Ganzer, Die entwicklung des auswärtigen kardinalats im hohen mittelater ; ein beitrag zur geschichte des kardinalkollegiums vom 11. bis 13. jahrhundert, p. 32-36, no. 6, lists him among the cardinals created by Pope Gregory VII. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 151, no.36, says that he was created cardinal in 1065. "Richard de Saint-Victor" in "Les cardinals depossédés de leur dignité". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1907, p. 159, says that he was created cardinal by Pope Alexander II or by Pope Gregory VII.
(2) This is according to Ganzer, Die entwicklung des auswärtigen kardinalats im hohen mittelater ; ein beitrag zur geschichte des kardinalkollegiums vom 11. bis 13. jahrhundert, p. 36, which adds that with his appointment as archbishop, he resigned from the Sacred College of Cardinals; and that as his titular church was not known, it can not be verified if this was otherwise.

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