The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
[Antipope] Clement III (1080-1100)
Pseudocardinal bishops


(1) 1. PIETRO (?-ca. 1085)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal bishop of Porto in 1080. Consecrated (no information found). Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church after 1080. He was condemned in the council of Quedlinburg in April 1085.

Death. Ca. 1085, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 872; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 10; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 154.

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(2) 2. GIOVANNI (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Johannes II.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal bishop of Porto ca. 1085. Consecrated (no information found). He was condemned in the council of Quedlinburg on April 20, 1085. In a letter dated July 8, 1089, Pope Urban II called him antiepiscopus.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 872; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 10; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 154.

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(3) 3. GIOVANNI (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal bishop of Ostia ca. 1084. Consecrated (no information found). He signed a deed of Antipope Clement III at the Lateran palace on November 4, 1084. On March 2, 1090 or 1091, he also became bishop of Velletri. He participated in a Roman conciliabulum convoked by Antipope Clement III on August 7, 1098.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 871; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 2; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 154; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 103, no. 6; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : Hermann Gentner Verlag, 1957, p. 115, no. 4a.

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(4) 4. ALBERTO (?-ca. 1100)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Albertus.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal bishop of Nepi in 1098. Consecrated (no information found). He participated in a Roman conciliabulum convoked by Antipope Clement III on August 7, 1098.

Death. Ca. 1100, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 872; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 154; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 99, no. 1.

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(5) 5. TIDERICO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal bishop of Albano ca. 1099 (1). Consecrated (no information found). Subscribed a bull issued on July 22, 1099.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 154; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 649 and 654.

(1) He probably is the same as Pseudocardinal Teoderico, deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata and later bishop of Albano.

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(6) 6. ALBERTO, O.S.B. (?-?)

Birth. (No date found), Atella, Melfi. He is also listed as Albertus, Adalberto and Alerico.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal bishop of Silva Candida (Santa Rufina) ca. November 4, 1084 (1). Consecrated (no information found). Together with twelve pseudocardinals, he subscribed a letter of Antipope Clement III issued on November 4, 1084 at the Lateran palace. He was with the antipope when the latter granted a privilege on January 8, 1089. He presided over a Roman conciliabulum convoked by Antipope Clement III on August 7, 1098; the assembly condemned the "new and old heresies" of Pope Gregory VII; it also sent a letter to the "schismatics" (the followers of Pope Urban II) to present themselves in Rome on November 1, 1098; Pseudocardinal Alberto was the first signatory of the document. He was one of the closest collaborators of Antipope Clement III. At the beginning of 1101, when Antipope Teodorico was apprehended and deposed, Pseudocardinal Alberto was elected to succeed him.

Antipapacy. Elected antipope in February 1101 (2), in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, by Roman clergy and people who supported Antipope Clement III as well as Emperor Heinrich IV; he kept his baptismal name as antipope; his irregular election provoked disturbances in Rome; he had to seek refuge in the basilica of S. Marcello, Rome; and he was deposed 105 days after his election because some of his supporters were bribed into abandoning him; he was forced to walk behind a horse in the streets of Rome on his way to the Lateran palace, where Pope Paschal II resided; he was briefly imprisoned in a tower in Rome; shortly after, he was confined in the Benedictine monastery of San Lorenzo, Aversa, near Naples, where he was a monk the rest of his life.

Death. (No date found), probably at the monastery of S. Lorenzo, Aversa. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 871; Del Re, Niccolò. "Alberto, antipapa." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 40; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 154; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 136-137, no. 4; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 162; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : Hermann Gentner Verlag, 1957, p. 118, no. 22; Piazza, Andrea. "Alberto, antipapa." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 237-238; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 773.

Link. Brief biographical entry, in German; biography, in English (Britannica); and another biography, in English.

(1) This is according to Piazza, "Alberto, antipapa." Enciclopedia dei papi, II, 237; Hüls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130, p. 136, no. 4; Kelly, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, p. 162; Klewitz, Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg, p. 118, no. 22; and his two biographies in English, linked above. Del Re, "Alberto, antipapa." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente, p. 40; and his biography in German, linked above, say that he was bishop of Sabina. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 154, says that he was bishop of Sabina and abbot of Farfa.
(2) This is according to Piazza, "Alberto, antipapa." Enciclopedia dei papi, II, 237; and his first biography in English (Britannica), linked above. His second biography in English, also linked above, says that he was elected in January 1101. Del Re, "Alberto, antipapa." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente, p. 40; Hüls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130, p. 136, no. 4; Kelly, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, p. 162; and his biography in German, linked above, say that he was elected in 1102. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 154, says that he was elected in February or March 1102.

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