The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
[Antipope] Clement III (1080-1100)
Pseudocardinal deacons


(23) 1. SECONDO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Deacon and pro-chancellor.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon; his deaconry is not known.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found)

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 872; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 154.

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(24) 2. PAOLO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Deacon and primicerius.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon; his deaconry is not known.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found)

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 872; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 154.

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(25) 3. MAGINULFO (?-ca. 1111/1112)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Maginolfo (1).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal deacon; his deaconry is not known. Archpriest of the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria. Possibly abbot of the monastery of S. Maria de Farfa.

Antipapacy. Elected antipope on November 18, 1105, at S. Maria Rotonda (the Pantheon), Rome, by a schismatic assembly of Roman aristocrats opposed to Pope Paschal II. Took the name Sylvester IV. Consecrated and enthroned on that same day at the patriarchal Lateran basilica, where he had been taken by Werner von Lenzburg, duke of Ancona. He was forced to leave Rome on the following day and went to Tivoli and later to Osimo, where he lived in obscurity. In 1111, Emperor Heinrich V brought him to his camp to exercise pressure on Pope Paschal II and reach an agreement about the investiture of bishops; once the emperor's demands were satisfied, he forced the antipope to abdicate on April 12, 1111 and to make his submission to the pope. He spent the rest of his life in Osimo, under the protection of Duke Werner, his patron. He died shortly after his abdication.

Death.Ca. 1111/1112, probably in Osimo. Buried (no information found)

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 872; Del Re, Niccolò. "Silvestro IV, antipapa." 985; Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 985; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 154; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 162-163; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : Hermann Gentner Verlag, 1957, p. , no. Piazza, Andrea. "Silvestro IV, antipapa." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 238-239.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English, Wikipedia.

(1) Del Re, "Silvestro IV, antipapa." 985; Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente, p. 985, says that his name may indicate that he was of German origin.

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(26) 4. UGO (?-?)

Birth. (No date found), Rome.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of the Sacred Palace.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 154.

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(27) 5. TEODORICO, O.S.B. (?-1102)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. He is also listed as Theoderich and Theodoricus.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedictine (Benedictines), at the monastery of SS. Trinità della Cava, Salerno.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Abbot of the monastery of SS. Trinità della Cava, Salerno.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata. He appears for the first time in a letter of Antipope Clement III, which contains the signatures of several pseudocardinals; the document was issued at the Lateran palace, where he is the only pseudocardinal deacon, with several pseudocardinal bishops.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano ca. 1095 (1). Consecrated (no information found). In 1198, he was sent to Germany to cope with the opposition of Ruthard, archbishop of Mainz, who had refused to attend the Synod of Vercelli, promoted by the antipope, and who had abandoned the imperial party. In 1099, immediately after the death of Pope Urban II, Antipope Clement III established himself in Albano, to exercise pressure on the clergy and people of Rome during the election of the new pope; the newly elected, Paschal II, with the assistance of Count Ruggero of Sicily, expelled the antipope from Albano. From Tivoli, the antipope sent a letter to Cardinal Romano of S. Ciriaco alle Terme; the names of the subscribers of the document, among whom was Pseudocardinal Teodorico, offer testimony of the composition of the Sacred College of Cardinals of the antipope. When Antipope Clement III died on September 8, 1100, his supporters, taking advantage of the absence of Pope Paschal II from Rome, elected Pseudocardinal Teodorico, who had been one of his closest collaborators, to succeed him.

Antipapacy. Elected antipope in September 1100, in the Vatican basilica, at night, by supporters of Antipope Clement III. He kept his baptismal name as papal appellative. He was consecrated and crowned immediately at the basilica. At the end of September 1100, he presided over a conciliabulum. Left Rome shortly after to try to enlist the support of Emperor Heinrich IV. He was captured at the beginning of January 1101 and sent back to Rome. His reign lasted 105 days. The pope sent him to the monastery of SS. Trinità de La Cava, where he lived like a monk; there, he became ill and died.

Death. 1102, monastery of SS. Trinità de La Cava, Salerno. Buried in the community cemetery. The tombstone with his name and the date of his death is still preserved.

Bibliography. Del Re, Niccolò. "Teodorico, antipapa." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 1036-1037; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 154; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 92-93, no. 5; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : Hermann Gentner Verlag, 1957, p. 116, no.10a; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 161-162; Piazza, Andrea. "Alberto, antipapa." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 236-237.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English Encyclopaedia Britannica; brief biographical entry, in English, Wikipedia; biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; and L'Abbazia benedettina della Santissima Trinità de La Cava, in Italian (Antipope Teodorico is mentioned toward the middle of the page).

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 154. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 872, no. 14, says that he was cardinal priest and monk and abbot of the monastery of S. Maria di Farfa and erroneously says that, as antipope, he took the name Sylvester III. He probably is the same as Pseudocardinal Tiderico, bishop of Albano.

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(28) 6. GUIDO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal deacon; his deaconry is not known. Subscribed a bull on October 18, 1099.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 250 no. 17.

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(29) 7. PAGANO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Paganus.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata. Subscribed a bull on October 18, 1099.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 238 no. 3.

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