The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Urban II (1088-1099)
Consistory celebrated in 1088 (I)


(1) 1. DOMNIZZONE (?-ca. 1090)

Birth. (No date or place found). His name is also listed as Donizo and Regizzone.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Sabina in a consistory celebrated in 1088 (1). Consecrated (no information found).

Death. Ca. 1090, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 172; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 862; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 33; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 148, no. 1.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 148, no. 1. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 172; and Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I col. 862, confuse him with Cardinal Regizzone (1073). Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 33, lists him as cardinal bishop of Sabina in 1086. Mas Latrie, Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie, col. 1160, says that he was created bishop of Sabina in 1086 and that sources say that he is the same as Cardinal Regizzo (1073).

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(2) 2. CHÂTILLON, O.S.B.Clun., Odon de (?-1101)

Birth. (No date found), Châtillon, Reims, France. Son of Guy. Nephew of Pope Urban II, on his father's side. He is also listed as Oddo II; Otho Castillonæus; Ottone di Castiglione; Eudes; and Eudes de Lagery.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) at Cluny. "... uomo di specchiata virtù e pari scienza ..." (1).

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Ostia in a consistory celebrated in 1088. Consecrated (no information found). Attended the Council of Clermont in 1095. He consecrated a chapel in Aversa. On August 6, 1098, he was in Salerno with Pope Urban II. On March 24, 1099, he was at the patriarchal Vatican basilica in Rome. Subscribed papal bulls issued between April and August 1099. Participated in the papal election of 1099, in which Pope Paschal II was elected. He was one of the consecrators of the new pope; the ceremony took place on August 15, 1099, the day after the election. Subscribed papal bulls issued between March 7 and November 20, 1100. Participated in the Council of Melfi in October 1100.

Death. Around March 31, 1101, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 183; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 885-886; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 2; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660 II, 60-61; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 148, no. 2; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 103-105, no. 7; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : Hermann Gentner Verlag, 1957, p. 115, no. 4; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1180, no. 1; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 702.

Webgraphy. Biography, in French, by François Du Chesne, Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois de naissance : ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat, p. 60-61.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 183.

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(3) 3. PIETRO (?-ca. 1099)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. Martino e Silvestro (Equitii) in a consistory celebrated in 1088 (1). Vicar of Rome in the pontificate of Pope Urban II. Cardinal protoprete.

Death. Ca. 1099 (2), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 191; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 888; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 71; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 149, no. 12; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1180, no. 16.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 149, which adds that he may have been created cardinal in 1078.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 149, no. 12, which says that he did not die in 1106 unless he was replaced in his title by another cardinal of the same name. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 191, says that he was also vicar of Rome in the pontificate of Pope Paschal II; that he participated in the Council of Guastalla in 1106; that he was closely united to Pope Innocent II against Antipope Anacletus II; that he could not partcipate in five papal elections; and that he died after forty years of cardinalate. Mas Latrie, Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie, col. 1180, no. 16, says that he lived until 1106.

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(4) 4. AMICO, seniore, O.S.B. (?-ca. 1122)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Amicus.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines).

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Abbot of the monastery of S. Lorenzo fuori le mura, Rome (1).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme in a consistory celebrated in 1088 (2). Cardinal primoprete ca. 1009. Participated in the papal election of 1118, in which Pope Gelasius II was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued on September 26, 1118 in Pisa as cardinal subdeacon and abbot of S. Lorenzo fuori le mura; and on July 15, 1119 in Toulouse as abbot of S. Lorenzo fuori le mura. On November 1, 1119, he was in the papal court in Reims as abbot of S. Lorenzo and cardinal deacon. Subscribed papal bulls issued between January 3 and December 28, 1121 at the Lateran palace as cardinal priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme.

Death. Ca. 1122, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 191; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 879; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 81; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 149 no. 13; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 163-164, no. 1; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1180, no. 17; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 775, 780 and 781.

(1) This is according to Hüls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130, 163, no. 1 and Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII, I, 775 and 781. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 191; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 149, no. 13; and Mas Latrie, Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie, col. 1180, no. 17, say that he was abbot of the monastery of S. Vincenzo.
(2) He may be the same as Cardinal Amico, iuniore, O.S.B. (1117).

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(5) 5. GIOVANNI (?-ca. 1115)

Birth. (No date found), Gubbio. He is also listed as Giovanni da Gubbio.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Anastasia in a consistory celebrated in 1088. Subscribed papal bulls issued between April 1099 and March 20, 1105. Legate in Umbria in 1105. Consecrated Giovanni di Lodi, bishop of Gubbio; after the death of the bishop, he was charged with writing his biography and with the canonical process for his canonization.

Death. Ca. 1115, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 192; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 889-890; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 95; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 149, no. 14; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1181, no. 20. Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 702.

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(6) 6. GREGORIO (?-ca. 1092)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Crisogono in a consistory celebrated in 1088.

Death. Ca. 1092, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 93; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 149, no. 15.

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(7) 7. CAPIZUCCHI, Gianroberto (?-1128)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Of a patrician family. His first name is also listed as Roberto; Giovanni and Giovanni Roberto; and his last name as Capisucci, Capisucco, Capisucchi and Capizzuchi. Other cardinals of the family were Roberto Capizucchi (1097) (no information found about him); Pietro Capizucchi (1122); Gian Roberto Capizucchi (1126); Gianantonio Capizucchi (1555); and Raimondo Capizucchi, O.P. (1681).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Clemente in a consistory celebrated in 1088. Opted for another title toward 1095. Participated in the Lateran Synod in March 1112. Opted for the title of S. Cecilia toward 1120. Subscribed papal bulls issued between January 3, 1121 and April 1, 1124. On July 8, 1123, he took part in consecration the oratory of S. Crisogono, Rome. Participated in the papal election of 1124, in which Pope Honorius II was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between May 5, 1125 and May 7, 1128.

Death. 1128, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 189; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 887; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 84; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 149, no. 16; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 157, no. 2; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : Hermann Gentner Verlag, 1957, p. 123, no. 8; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1180, no. 12; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 780 and 823.

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(8) 8. ROBERT (?-1112)

Birth. (No date found), Paris, France. He is also listed as Robert de Paris; and Robertus Parisiensis.

Education. He studied law.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Eusebio in a consistory celebrated in 1088 (1). Between August 25 and 30, 1100, he was in Salerno with Pope Paschal II. Subscribed papal bulls issued between August 30, 1100 and April 14, 1109. On October 15, 1100, he was in Melfi. In 1102, he was sent as legate to Palestine to settle a dispute with the patriarch of Jerusalem. In March 1105, he appears as a judge in the Lateran palace. Attended the Council of Guastalla in 1106. On May 5, 1108, he sat in a court in Scarna. His legal expertise helped him negotiate a transaction between Nicolò abbot of Grottaferrata, Cardinal Romano of S. Prassede, in 1109. He was the intermediary between Emperor Heinrich V and Pope Paschal II during the captivity of the latter in Rome in February 1111. He participated in the negotiations of the Ponte Mammolo agreement of April 14, 1111 with the emperor, by which the pope obtained the release of himself and most of the Roman clergy from captivity. Attended the Lateran Synod in March 1112; he was one of the most vocal critics of the behavior of Pope Paschal II granting the right of investiture to the emperor; he was one of the authors of the Gesta dampnationis, March 23, 1112; the other authors were Cardinal Leone, O.S.B.Cas., bishop of Ostia, Gregorio of Terracina, O.S.B.Cas., Gérard d'Angoulême, Gualo de Saint Pole de Léon and Cardinal Gregorio of Ss. XII Apostoli; the strong opinion against the policies of the pope had gone so far that Cardinal Gregorio of Ss. XII Apostoli got the stigma of heresy, and some introduced the request for the exclusion of both from the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Death. After March 1112, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 192-193; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 890; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 149; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660 II, 67-68; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 149, no. 17; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 165, no. 1; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : Hermann Gentner Verlag, 1957, p. 127, no. 27; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1181, no. 21; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 702.

Webgraphy. His arms and biography, in French, p. 67-68.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 149, no. 17, which lists another cardinal of the same name (+ 1115) on p. 151, no. 40, based on Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 149. Cristofori says that a Cardinal Roberto was succeeded in 1099 by two other cardinals of the same name; the first one occupied the title until 1120; and the second one until 1123.

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(9) 9. BONE, seniore (?-ca. 1098)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Bonus.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo in a consistory celebrated in 1088. Subscribed a papal bull issued in February 1095.

Death. Ca. 1098, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography."Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 150, no. 18; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 657.

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(10) 10. RISO (?-1118)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Risus, Richo and Richus.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso in a consistory celebrated in 1088. He gave Abbot Hugo (1103-1107) advice for the reconstruction of the monastery of S. Maria de Valle Jehoshaphat. Subscribed papal bulls issued between March 20, 1105 and September 1, 1107; one of them was in favor of the monastery of S. Benedetto in Mantua. Attended the Council of Guastalla in 1106. He traveled to France and was on February 18, 1107 in Bèze; on the following February 24, in Langres; and in July 1107 of the same year, in Valence. He participated in the negotiations of the Ponte Mammolo agreement of April 14, 1111 with Emperor Heinrich V, by which the pope obtained the release of himself and most of the Roman clergy from captivity. Reaffirmed under oath, together with other cardinals, the privilege over the investitures granted by Pope Paschal II to the emperor. Attended the Lateran Synod on March 23, 1112, and, together with the pope, repudiated the privilege over the investitures.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Bari on April 2, 1112 (1). Consecrated (no information found). He appears in the papal entourage between January 2 and February 13, 1113; and on May 24, 1115, in Benevento.

Death. 1118, murdered (2), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 193; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 890; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 139; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 150, no. 20; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. 856; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 179, no. 3; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : Hermann Gentner Verlag, 1957, p. 124, no. 11; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1181, no. 22; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 657.

(1) This is according to Hüls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130, p. 179, no. 3. Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. 856, says that he was archbishop of Bari between 1105 and 1118; and does not mention his cardinalate.
(2) This is according to Hüls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130, p. 179, no. 3. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 150, no. 20, says that he died after March 1112. None of the other sources consulted mention his being murdered. His successor in the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, Cardinal
Adeodato (1113), subscribed papal bulls for the first time in November 1115. It is possible that Cardinal Riso may have resigned his title when he became archbishop of Bari in 1112.

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(11) 11. LEONE (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Marco in a consistory celebrated in 1088 (1).

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 114; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 150, no. 21.

(1) This is according to Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 114; and "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 150, no. 21. Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXXVIII, p. 85, says that he was created cardinal by Pope Alexander II and died in 1073.

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(12) 12. PAPARONI, Gregorio (?-ca. 1099)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Maria in Trastevere in a consistory celebrated in 1088.

Death. Ca. 1099, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 54; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 150, no. 22.

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(13) 13. ALBERICO (?-1100)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli (Eudoxia) in a consistory celebrated in 1088. Subscribed papal bulls issued betwen October 15 and November 20, 1100 (1).

Death. Shortly after November 1100, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 190; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 888; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 99; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 150, no. 23; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 94, no. 2; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : Hermann Gentner Verlag, 1957, p. 128, no. 36; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1180, no. 15; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 702.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 150, no. 23; and Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII, I, 702. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 190, says that he subscribed two papal bulls issued in 1110 and 1111; the second one, in favor of the church of Troja; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 888, says that the bulls were issued in 1100 and 1111. Hüls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130, p. 94, no. 2, says that perhaps he is the same as Bishop Alberico of Sutri, who subscribed a papal bull on September 8, 1105 in Civita Castellana.

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(14) 14. GREGORIO (?-1122)

Birth. (No date found), Pavia.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Prisca (Ss. Aquila e Prisca) in a consistory celebrated in 1088. Opted for another title toward 1094. Attended the Council of Guastalla in 1106. He may have subscribed a papal bull on February 15, 1113, without indicating his title. Subscribed papal bulls issued between January 3 and May 25, 1121.

Death. 1122 (1), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 196-197; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 895; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 107; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 150, no. 24; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1181, no. 27; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXXIII, 7; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 781.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 150, no. 24; and Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, XXXIII, 7. Mas Latrie, Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie, col. 121, no. 87, says that he died toward 1120.

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(15) 15. ALBERICO (?-ca. 1092)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Sabina in a consistory celebrated in 1088.

Death. Ca. 1092, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 127; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 150, no. 25.

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(16) 16. GENTILI, Paolo (?-shortly after 1106)

Birth. (No date found), Lucca. He is also listed as Paulus Gentilis.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Sisto in a consistory celebrated in 1088. Opted for another title in 1099. Legate in the Orient several times. Attended the Council of Gastalla in 11106.

Death. Shortly after 1106, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 191; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 879; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 78; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 150, no. 26; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1180, no. 18.

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(17) 17. BENEDETTO (?-1118)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in a consistory celebrated in 1088 (?); his title is not known with certainty but perhaps it was S. Pietro in Vincoli. Subscribed a papal bull issued in 1092 in favor of the monastery of La Cava. He may have been legate in France in the pontificate of Pope Paschal II; presided over the Council of Poitiers and renewed the excommunication against King Philippe I of France; the excommunication for adultery had been originally issued by Cardinal Hugues, also a legate, in the Council of Autun in 1094. Participated in the papal election of 1118, in which Pope Gelasius II was elected pope.

Death. After the election of Gelasius II on January 24, 1118, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 195; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 894; Cristofori, Franceso. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 266; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 150, no. 27; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1181, no. 24.

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(18) 18. RANGONE, Landolfo (?-1119)

Birth. (No date found), Modena. He is also listed as Landolfo only; and as Landulphi.

Education. " ... fornito di eccellenti talenti, di virtù e di cristiana pietà ... ' (1)

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina in a consistory celebrated ca. 1088 (2). Subscribed papal bulls issued between November 2, 1106 and September 1, 1107. He was with the pope in France in 1107; on February 24, in Langres; on June 6, in Souvigny; on July 14, in Le Puy; later in that same month, in Valence; and on July 25, in the Cella S. Marcelli in Valence. After returning from France, he went with the papal court to Modena on September 1, 1107.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Benevento on November 8, 1108. Consecrated (no information found). Attended the Lateran Synod in March 1112; he wrote to the synod on March 23. Subscribed papal bulls issued between January 2 and February 15, 1113, in Benevento In 1114, he had a disagreement with the pope. They reconciled and he subscribed papal bulls issued on August 11, 1116 and April 20, 1117, in Benevento. It is not known if he participated in any of the papal elections celebrated during his cardinalate.

Death. August 4, 1119, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 196; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 894; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 150, no. 28; Ganzer, Klaus. Die entwicklung des auswärtigen kardinalats im hohen mittelater ; ein beitrag zur geschichte des kardinalkollegiums vom 11. bis 13. jahrhundert. Tügingen : Niemeyer, 1963. (Bibliotek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rome, band XXVI), p. 63, no. 20; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 181, no. 2; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : Hermann Gentner Verlag, 1957, p. 129, no. 38; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1181, no. 26; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LVI, 163; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 702.

(1) Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, LVI, 163, "furnished with excellent talents, virtue and Christian piety".
(2) Some sources say that he is the same as Cardinal
Pandolfo, O.S.B.Cas. (1099).

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(19) 19. GAETA, O.S.B.Cas., Giovanni da (1060/1064-1119)

Birth.Between 1060 and September 1064, Gaeta. Of a noble family from Campania. Son of Giovanni Coniuolo, who had died by 1068 (1); his mother and uncle took care of his early education, teaching him to read, write and familiarizing him with literary works; at that young age he was destined to a clerical life in the church. He is also listed as Giovanni Caetani, Giovanni Caetani Crescenzi; and his last name is also listed as Caieta, Caietanus and Gaetani.

Education. As a boy (puer oblatus), he studied at the monastery of Montecassino; later, he entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) at that monastery, during the abbacy of Dauferio di Montecassino, future Pope Victor III; studied there under Alberico da Montecassino, O.S.B., author of note, from whom he received his formation in liberal arts and who was a great stylistic influence in Giovanni's writings.

Early life. He received the minor orders, and later, not before 1074-1075, the subdiaconate. Between 1074-1075 and August 1088, he composed his first literary works; Vita di Erasmo d'Antiochia, written for his uncles; Vita di Eustachio, written for a monk of Montecassino by the name of Atenulfo; and Vita di Ippolito, for Roffredo, probably the archbishop of Benevento. He was introduced to the Apostolic Chancery as scrittore by Pope Victor III in 1086. Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, pro tempore, in August 1088; named chancellor permanently in 1089. In 1088, in Montecassino, he participated in the correction of the transcription of the Registro of Pope Giovanni VIII and, probably, in that of Pope Leo I.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin (S. Maria Schola Græca) before September 1088 (2). Subscribed, as chancellor, papal bulls issued between August 1088 and May 1099. Subscribed a papal bull issued in July 1107. He shared Pope Paschal II's imprisonment by Emperor Heinrich V in February to April 1111. He signed the papal document issued by Pope Paschal II granting the right of investiture to the emperor. At the Lateran synod of 1116, he decidedly defended the pope against those who criticized his capitulation on the investitures. Participated in the papal election of 1118 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on January 24, 1118, in S. Maria in Pallara, on the Palatine, Rome. Took the name Gelasius II. He was consecrated on March 10, 1118, in Gaeta. He created three cardinals in two consistories.

Death. January 29, 1119, monastery of Cluny (3). Buried in the abbatial church of Cluny.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 200-202; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 897, no. XXXIX; and I, col. 929-937; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 259; Del Re, Niccolò. "Gelasio II." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 521-522; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 148, no. 30; Freund, Stephan. "Gelasio II." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 240-245; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 231-232, no. 1; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 163; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : Hermann Gentner Verlag, 1957, p. 132, no. 11; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1181, no. 39; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 657; and II, 703.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; his image and biography, in English; biography, in English; biography, also in English; his image and biography, in Italian; marble plaque commemorating his election (left), church of S. Sebastiano al Palatino, Rome; his portrait, 17th century, Palazzo Caetani, Rome; his engraving, Fondazione Maro Besso, Rome; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his engraving, Biblioteca Comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; five engravings, Bildarchiv Austria, Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; and his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic.

(1) This is according to Freund, "Gelasio II." Enciclopedia dei papi, II, 240. Several sources say that his father was Crescenzio, duke of Fondi.
(2) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 201; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 897, no. XXXIX; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg, p. 132, no. 11; and Mas Latrie, Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie , col. 1181, no. 39, indicate that he was created cardinal by Pope Urban II. Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 259, says that he occupied that deaconry from 1088 until January 25, 1118. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 148, no. 30, says that he was created cardinal deacon ca. 1082 and that he opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin in 1088. Del Re, "Gelasio II." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente, p. 521, says that he was created cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin in 1082.
(3) This is according to all the sources consulted, except "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 148, no. 30, which says that he died in the monastery of Saint-Gilles and was buried in Cluny.

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(20) 20. GREGORIO, O.S.B. (?-ca. 1099)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines).

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Abbot of the monastery of S. Benedetto di Subiaco.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Lucia in Septisolio in a consistory celebrated in 1088 (1). Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata in 1088.

Death. Ca. 1099, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 197; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 895; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 211 and 230; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 152, no. 53; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 237, no. 2; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1181, no. 30.

(1) According "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, 1927, p. 152, note. 1, the deaconry of S. Lucia in Septisolio, or in septem soliis, or in septem viis, was one of the seven original ones. The church was erected in the ancient pagan building Septizonium, in the X region of Rome, next to the monastery of S. Gregorio al Clivo Scauro, at the foot of the Palatine in the angle of the Appian Way. Sistus V suppressed it in 1587. Baronius, in his Annales, regrets the destruction of such a famous monument of ancient Rome.

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(21) 21. GREGORIO (?-1099)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Eustachio in a consistory celebrated in 1088 (1). Subscribed papal bulls issued in February 1095 and March 1096.

Death. 1099, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 205; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 253; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 1152, no. 54; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 657.

(1) According "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, 1927, p. 152, note. 1, this deaconry was erected by Pope St. Gregory I ca. 600 in the ancient Thermae Alexandrinae, in the IX region of Rome. This is its first known cardinal.

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(22) 22. PAPARESCHI, seniore, Can. Reg. Lat., Gregorio (last quarter of the XI century-1143)

Birth. Last quarter of the XI century, rione Trastevere, Rome. Of a patrician family. Son of Giovanni Papareschi. Uncle of Cardinal Gregorio Papareschi, iuniore (1134). His last name is also listed as de Papa, del Papa and Paparone.

Education. Joined the Canons Regular of the Lateran, then guided by S. Frediano di Lucca..

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in a consistory celebrated ca. 1088; his deaconry is not known. Subscribed papal bulls issued in February 1095 and March 1096. Legate in Pavia in 1116. Opted for the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria in 1116. Subscribed papal bulls issued between May 24 and December 22, 1116. Participated in the papal election of 1118, in which Pope Gelasius II was elected. Went to France with Pope Gelasius II. Participated in the papal election of 1119, in which Pope Callistus II was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between June 18, 1119 and April 15, 1123. He was with the papal entourageon on June 18, 1119, in Saint-Gilles; on July 14 and 15, in Toulouse; on September 24, in Tours; on November 1, in Reims; and later in November, in Beauvais; on January 5, 1120, in Cluny; on February 27 in Valence; on May 14, in Pisa; on May 21, in Volterra; in October, in Benevento; on December 1 in Capua; and on April 17, 1121, in the Lateran palace in Rome. In August 1122, he was at the monastery of Würzburg for the consecration of a bishop. Together with Cardinals Lamberto of Ostia and Sasso of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, from September 8 to 23, 1122, he helped to negotiate the Concordat of Worms with Emperor Heinrich V; while the other two cardinals stayed with the emperor, he rushed back to Rome. In April 1123, he participated in the negotiations held at the Lateran between Pisa and Genoa. On July 8, 1123, he attended the consecration of the oratory of S. Crisogono in Rome. Legate in France, together with Cardinal Pietro Pierleoni, in 1123; he was in Séez on October 27; in January 1124, he was in Limoges; on March 12, he held a synod at Chartres; later, he went to Morigny, Châlons and Reims; he reached Noyon on June 28, 1124; and finally, he went to Beauvais and Saint-Denis. Participated in the papal election of 1124, in which Pope Honorius II was elected; as cardinal protodeacon, he crowned the new pope. Legate in Germany in 1124. He remained in Rome from May 1125 until 1130. Subscribed papal bulls issued between April 2, 1125 and April 10, 1129. Participated in the papal election of 1130 and was elected pope (1).

Papacy. Elected pope on February 14, 1130. Took the name Innocent II. Ordained priest on February 22, 1130. Consecrated bishop of Rome on February 23, 1130, in the church of S. Maria Nuova, Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni, O.S.B.Cam., bishop of Ostia. Crowned by Cardinal Romano, deacon of S. Maria in Portico. Created seventy three cardinals in twelve consistories.

Death. September 24, 1143, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome.

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 34, no. 15; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 199-200; Carpegna Falconieri, Tommaso di. "Innocenzo II." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 261-268; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 897, no. 37; Di Sivo, Michele. "Innocenzo II." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 06-608; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 152, no. 55; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 223-224, no. 2; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 67-69; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : Hermann Gentner Verlag, 1957, p. 133, no. 15; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. , no. ; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 657.

Webgraphy. Biography by Francis Mershman, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his image and biography, in English (Britannica); his engraving, image on a mosaic and biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography by Tommaso Di Carpegna Falconieri, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 62 (2004), Treccani; his engraving and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his image and biograpgy, in Italian, cronologia.leonardo.it; his engraving and biography, in Hungarian, Magyar Katolikus Lexikon; biographyby Carl Mirbt, in English, The Christian Classics Ethereal Library (CCEL); his engraving and arms, Google Images; Innocent II (1130-1143) confère le titre de roi de Sicile à Roger II (1130-1154) et le fait feudataire du Saint-Siège, Vatican Archives; his image in a mosaic and his tomb, third, fourth and eighth photographs, Paradoxplace; his portrait, 17th century, Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Milan; four engravings, Bildarchive Austria, Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engravings and arms, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Library, University of Regensburg, Germany; and his tomb in the church of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome.

(1) He was was elected on the same day of the death of Pope Honorius II by a small group of cardinals led by Cardinal Aymery de la Châtre, Can. Reg. Lat., chancellor of the Holy Roman Church. He took the name Innocent II. A few hours later, Cardinal Pietro Pierleoni, O.S.B.Clun., title of S. Maria in Trastevere, proposed his own candidature to the papacy, and with the support of a majority of the cardinals, the nobles and people of Rome, he made himself be elected in the church of S. Marco and took the name Anacletus II. Pope Innocent II excommunicated Antipope Anacletus II on March 2, 1130. The schism lasted eight years until the death of the antipope in 1138 and the submission of his successor, Antipope Victor, to the legitimate pope shortly after.

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(23) 23. RANIERO (?-ca. 1099)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Ranieri.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro in a consistory celebrated in 1088. Legate of Pope Urban II in the Council of Toulouse in 1090.

Death. Ca. 1099, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 241; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 152, no. 56.

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(24) 24. COSMA (?-ca. 1136)

Birth. (No date found), Milan. He is also listed as Conte, Comes and Comte.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro in a consistory celebrated in 1088 (1). Legate in Ventimiglia. Subscribed papal bulls issued between December 1116 and April 12, 1118. On April 12, 1118, he was in Capua with the papal entourage. Participated in the papal election of 1118, in which Pope Gelasius II was elected. In Rome, in March 1119, together with other cardinals, he ratified the election of Pope Callistus II, which had taken place in Cluny. On March 12, 1123, he was in Speyer with Emperor Heinrich V. Subscribed papal bulls issued between April 6 and September 11, 1123. On September 11, 1123, he was in Benevento with the papal entourage. Participated in the papal election of 1124, in which Pope Honorius II was elected. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Sabina in 1125. Before September 29, 1125, he was named lega to Pisa and Genoa. Participated in the election of Antipope Anacletus II in February 1130. Sent as legate to crown King Rogerio II of Sicily; the ceremony took place on December 25, 1130, in Palermo. He made his submission to the legitimate pope, who reinstated him to his cardinalitial dignity and title on May 29, 1138 together with the other cardinals who had followed the antipope. At the II Lateran Council, April 1139, the pope reversed his decision and deposed him and the other cardinals. For this, he was strongly criticized by Bernard de Clairvaux.

Death. After April 1139 (2), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 32, no. 8; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 199; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 896; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 127 and 214; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 152, no. 57; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 231, no. 1; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : Hermann Gentner Verlag, 1957, p. 133, no. 17; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1181, no. 37; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 702, 775, 781, 823 and 912.

(1) According "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 152, note. 2, the deaconry of S. Maria in Aquiro was assigned to deacons by Pope St. Agatho ca. 678. It was in the pagan basilica of Matilda, in the IX region of Rome. Pope St. Gregory III rebuilt it ca. 740. This is its first known cardinal. The deaconry was suppressed by Pope Paul III in 1540 and reestablished by Pope Pius IV in 1565.
(2) This is according to Brixius, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181, p. 32, no. 8. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 152, no. 57, says that he died ca. 1136.

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(25) 25. GIOVANNI, O.S.B. (?-1117)

Birth. (No date found), Sabina. Of the family of the counts of Sabina. Son of Giovanni Ottonis (or Oddonis). He had several brothers, among them Ottaviano Giovanni, Ottone and Rainero. He is also listed as Giovanni di Subiaco.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) at the monastery of S. Maria di Farfa.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Elected 22nd abbot of the monastery of S. Benedetto di Subiaco on December 11, 1065 (1), at the instigation of Archdeacon Ildebrando, future Pope Gregory VII (2). Levita at the Sacred Palace.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Domnica in a consistory celebrated in 1088 (3). After the spring of 1084, he joined the obedience of Antipope Clement III, together with all the other cardinal deacons. Became archdeacon of the Holy Roman Church (protoprete) after October 18, 1099, when Archdeacon Teodino, O.S.B.Cas., died. He appears as archdeacon in a private document in the pontificate of Pope Paschal II. He was present in Subiaco on August 28, 1109, when the pope visted the monastery. Attended the Lateran Synod, March 23, 1112, as archdeacon. Subscribed a papal bull for the last time on April 11, 1114.

Death. May 2, 1117, in the 52nd year of his government as abbot of Subiaco, (no place found) (4). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 182; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 869, no. XXI; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 152, no. 58; Ganzer, Klaus. Die entwicklung des auswärtigen kardinalats im hohen mittelater ; ein beitrag zur geschichte des kardinalkollegiums vom 11. bis 13. jahrhundert. Tügingen : Niemeyer, 1963. (Bibliotek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rome, band XXVI), p. 29-31, no. 5; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 233, no. 1; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1180, no. 21; Tillmann, Helene. "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardenalizio nel XII secolo. II/2. Identificazione dei cardinali del secolo XII di provenienza Romana." Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, II/1, XXVI (1972), 319, no. 4.

(1) This is according to Ganzer, Die entwicklung des auswärtigen kardinalats im hohen mittelater ; ein beitrag zur geschichte des kardinalkollegiums vom 11. bis 13. jahrhundert, p. 29. Hüls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130, p. 233, no. 1, says that he was named in 1069.
(2)The archdeacon and Desiderio, abbot of Monte Cassino, had been appointed legates by Pope Alexander II to calm down the turmoil cause by Abbot Uberto in the abbey of Subiaco.
(3) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 152, no. 58, which says that without a doubt he was promoted to the cardinalate in that year. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 182; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 869, no. XXI; Ganzer, Die entwicklung des auswärtigen kardinalats im hohen mittelater ; ein beitrag zur geschichte des kardinalkollegiums vom 11. bis 13. jahrhundert, p. 29-31, no. 5; Hüls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130, p. 233, no. 1, indicate that he was created cardinal by Pope Gregory VII. Tillmann, "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardenalizio nel XII secolo. II/2. Identificazione dei cardinali del secolo XII di provenienza Romana." Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, II/1, XXVI (1972), 319, no. 4, says that he appears as a cardinal deacon only once, in March 1112, according to Liber Pontificalis, II, 317 (Duchesne edition).
(4) This is according to Ganzer, Die entwicklung des auswärtigen kardinalats im hohen mittelater ; ein beitrag zur geschichte des kardinalkollegiums vom 11. bis 13. jahrhundert, p. 31. Hüls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130, p. 233, says that he died on May 2, 1121.

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(26) 26. PAGANO (?-1101)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria Nuova in a consistory celebrated in 1088 or later (1). He was legate in Brescello on November 12, 1099; and in Florence in 1100. Subscribed papal bulls issued between August 30 and November 20, 1100 (1). On March 29, 1101, in Guastalla, he addressed a document to Countess Mathilde. On May 14, 1001, he was legate in San Benedetto Po.

Death. 1101, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 152, no. 59; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 234-235, no. 1; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : Hermann Gentner Verlag, 1957, p. 130, no. 2; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 703.

(1) According "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, 1927, p. 152, note. 3, this deaconry was probably erected by Pope St. Gregory I ca. 590 and in antiquity called the Old, (Vecchia). This is its first known cardinal. It was suppressed by Pope Alexander VII in 1661 and transferred to the new church of S. Maria della Scala. It was reestablished by Pope Leo XIII in 1887 as a cardinalitial title.
(2) This is according to Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII, I, 703. Klewitz, Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg, p. 130, no. 2, says that he subscribed papl bulls issued between November 12, 1099 and May 14, 1101.

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(27) 27. LEONE, O.S.B.Cas. (?-1116)

Birth. (No date or place found). Of the counts of Marsi. He is also listed as Leone de' Marsi and Leo Marsicanus

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) at the monastery of Monte Cassino. He was remarkable for his literary talents and his eloquence.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Librarian and dean of the monastery of Monte Cassino.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of Ss. Vito e Modesto in a consistory celebrated in 1088 (1). Subscribed papal bulls issued on March 24, 1116. He wrote the register of Pope Urban II.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Ostia in 1101; it seems that he had the administration of the suburbicarian see of Velletri. Attended the Council of Guastalla in 1106. He participated in the negotiations of the Ponte Mammolo agreement of April 14, 1111 with the emperor, by which the pope obtained the release of himself and most of the Roman clergy from captivity. Attended the Lateran Synod on March 23, 1112. Subscribed papal bulls issued on May 11, 1112; on June 19, 1112; between February 13, 1113 and July 5, 1114; and on March 24, 1116; he also subscribed three documents without mentioning his deaconry. On October 15, 1112, he consecrated the main altar of the basilica of S. Lorenzo in Lucina. He wrote three volumes of the "Chronicles of Monte Cassino" (2).

Death. 1116, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 198-199; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 896; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 244; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 148; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 243-244, no. 1; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : Hermann Gentner Verlag, 1957, p. 134, no. 28; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1181, no. 34; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 703.

(1) According "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, 1927, p. 153, note. 1, the deaconry of Ss. Vito e Modesto in Macello was erected by Pope St. Gregory III ca. 731 in the ancient Macellum Livianum in the V Region of Rome. Accordin to Liber Pontificalis, a monastery was added to it during the pontificate of Pope Stephen III (IV) (768-772). Its first known cardinal is from 1088 and one of its most illustrious occupants was S. Carlo Borromeo. The deaconry still exists with the name of Ss. Vito, Modesto e Crescenzia.
(2) They are published in Migne's "Patrologie latine", tome CLXXIII.

Cool Archive

(28) 28. AZONE (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Azon.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. He was an apostolic subdeacon.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in a consistory celebrated in in 1088; his deaconry is not known. Attended the Council of Guastalla in 1106. Subscribed papal bulls for the monastery of Monte Cassino and for the church of Salerno.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 158; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 895; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 284; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 153, no. 61; Ganzer, Klaus. Die entwicklung des auswärtigen kardinalats im hohen mittelater ; ein beitrag zur geschichte des kardinalkollegiums vom 11. bis 13. jahrhundert. Tügingen : Niemeyer, 1963. (Bibliotek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rome, band XXVI), p. ; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 181. no. 33.

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