The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Urban II (1088-1099)
Consistory celebrated in 1099 (X)


(51) 1. OFFO (?-after May 11, 1112)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Nepi in 1099 (1). Consecrated (no information found). Participated in the papal election of 1099, in which Pope Paschal II was elected. Subscribed a papal bull issued on May 11, 1112.

Death. After May 11, 1112, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. 708; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 152, no. 45; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : Hermann Gentner Verlag, 1957, p. 40-43; Schwartz, Gerhard. Die Besetzung der Bistümern Reichsitaliens unter den sächsischen und salischen Kaisern mit den listen der Bischöfe 951-1122. Leipzig und Berlin : Verlag von B. G. Teubner, 1913, p. 259.

(1) Most probably he is the same as Cardinal Ottone (1099).

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(52) 2. PIETRO (?-ca. 1107)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Cecilia in a consistory celebrated ca. 1099. Subscribed papal bulls issued between 1105 and 1107.

Death. Ca. 1107, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 151, no. 38; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 702.

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(53) 3. BOBONE (?-1100

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. Quattro Coronati in a consistory celebrated in 1099 (1).

Death. Before April 1100, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 152; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 151, no. 39.

(1) Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 151, no. 39, says that he may be confused with Cardinal Bovo, bishop of Labico (1090).

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(54) 4. PIETRO (?-ca. 1112)

Birth. (No date found), Capua. He is also listed as Pietro Capuano.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Marcello in a consistory celebrated in 1099.

Death. Ca. 1112, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 145; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 151, no. 41.

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(55) 5. RANIERO (?-1121)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Rainerio, Raynerii, Raynaldo, Rainus and Renius.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro in a consistory celebrated in 1099 (1). Attended the Council of Guastalla in October 1106. He was one of the signatories of the agreements of Ponte Mammolo, April 11, 1111. Attended the Lateran Synod on March 23, 1112; he voted against the agreements of Ponte Mammolo. He was at the Lateran palace on May 11, 1112; and February 25, 1114; in Tivoli on March 8, 1114, with the papal court; at the Lateran palace again on November 17 and 27, 1115; and at S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome, on May 24, 1116. Subscribed papal bulls issued between February 25, 1114 and November 27, 1115. Participated in the papal election of 1118, in which Pope Gelasius II was elected. With other cardinals in Rome, he confirmed the election of Pope Callistus II, which had taken place in Cluny on February 2, 1119. Subscribed papal bulls issued between January 3 and April 17, 1121, at the Lateran palace.

Death. After April 17, 1121 (2), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 189-190; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 888, no. XIII; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 121; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 151, no. 42; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 183, no. 1; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : Hermann Gentner Verlag, 1957, p. 128, no. 32; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1180, no. 13; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 702 and 781.

(1) He may be the same as Cardinal Rainerio (1117).
(2) According to Hüls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130, p. 183, no. 1; and Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia, I, 781, that was the last time he appeared as a subscriber of a papal bull. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 151, no. 42, says that he died after 1116.

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(56) 6. SCANNABECCHI, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, Lamberto (?-1130)

Birth. (No date found), Fiagnano, Imola. Of a humble Bolognese family. He is also listed as Lambertus only; as Lamberto Scannabecchi da Fagagno; and as Lamberto da Fagnano di Monteveglio.

Education. Studied in Imola and in Pisa; he acquired a notable cultural level. Joined the Canons Regular of Saint Augustine.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Archdeacon of Bologna.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Prassede in a consistory celebrated in 1099 (1). Opted for another title in 1105. Attended the Council of Guastalla in October 1106.

Episcopate. Named bishop of Ostia in September 1117. Consecrated (no information found). Subscribed papal bulls issued on April 20, 1117; Participated in the papal election of 1118, in which Pope Gelasius II was elected; he consecrated the new pope in Gaeta in 1118. He accompanied the pope to his exile in France; they went to Gaeta on March 1, 1118; to Pisa on September 26, 1118; to St.-Vallier on September 29, 1118; and finally to the monastery of Cluny, where the pope died. Participated in the papal election of 1119, celebrated in Cluny, in which Pope Callistus II was elected; he was present at the coronation of the new pope on February 9. He accompanied the pope to St-Antoine-en-Viennois on March 20, 1119; to Saint-Gilles on June 18; to Toulouse , on July 14 and 15; to Tours on September 24; to Reims from October 20 to November 1; to Beauvais in November; to Cluny from January 3 to 5, 1120; to Gap on March 11; and to Volterra on May 21. On January 5 and 7, 1121; on April 17, 1121; and on May 16, 1122, he was at the Lateran palace in Rome. Subscribed papal bulls issued on March 21, September 26 and December 20, 1118. Subscribed papal bulls issued between June 18, 1119 and June 1, 1124. Legate in Germany before Emperor Heinrich V, together with Cardinals Sasso of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, and Gregorio Papareschi of S. Angelo in Pescheria. He had an active role negotiating the Concordat of Worms, concluded on September 23, 1122, which ended the controversy over the investitures. After the negotiations were concluded, on December 28, 1122, he intervened in Speyer in favor of Sankt Blasien abbey; on January 24, 1123, he appears as a witness in a document issued by the emperor in Strasbourg. He returned to Rome and there, he quarreled with Oderisius, abbot of Montecassino, over the convent of S. Maria in Pallaria, which his predecessor in the see of Ostia had used for his Roman accommodations. Participated in the papal election of 1124 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on December 15, 1124. Took the name Honorius II. He was crowned by Cardinal Gregorio Papareschi, seniore, Can. Reg. Lat., protodeacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria. He created twenty seven cardinals in six consistories.

Death. February 13, 1130, Rome. Buried n the patriarchal Lateran basilica.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 209-219; Cerrini, Simonetta. "Onorio II." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 255-258; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 909, no. III; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 2 and 61; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 151, no. 43; Ganzer, Klaus. Die entwicklung des auswärtigen kardinalats im hohen mittelater ; ein beitrag zur geschichte des kardinalkollegiums vom 11. bis 13. jahrhundert. Tügingen : Niemeyer, 1963. (Bibliotek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rome, band XXVI), p. 106-107, no. 9; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. ; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 165-166; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : Hermann Gentner Verlag, 1957, p. 119, no. 3; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1181, no. 5; Penteriani, Ulderico. "Onorio II." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 743-744; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 702, 775 and 780.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; biography by Simonetta Cerrini, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 79 (2013), Treccani; biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; biography, also in English; biography, in German; his image and biography, in Italian; Valsellustra, the pope's place of origin, in Italian; his portrait, from a later time, Archivio Storico, Università di Bologna, Italy; four engravings, Bildarchiv Austria, Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, by Cavallieri; his engraving, Biblioteca Comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; and two of his engravings and his arms, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna, Italy.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 151, no. 43. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, 209-219; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max., I, col. 909, no. III; and Penteriani, "Onorio II." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente, p. 743, include him among the cardinals created by Pope Paschal II. Mas Latrie, Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie, col. 1181, no. 5, says that he was created cardinal bishop of Velletri by Pope Paschal II. Several sources do not mention his cardinalate until his promotion to the suburbicarian see of Ostia in 1117. Some sources identify him with Cardinal Lamberto (1117).

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(57) 7. GERARDO (?-ca. 1100)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Prisca in a consistory celebrated in 1099.

Death. Ca. 1100, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 107; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 151, no. 44.

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(58) 8. OTTONE (?-1120)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Othone, Otho and Otto.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Pudenziana in a consistory celebrated in 1099.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Nepi in 1100 (1). Consecrated (no information found). He was replaced in his title by Cardinal Giovanni in 1105. Subscribed a papal bull issued in 1106.

Death. 1120, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 131; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 152, no. 45; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. 708; Schwartz, Gerhard. Die Besetzung der Bistümern Reichsitaliens unter den sächsischen und salischen Kaisern mit den listen der Bischöfe 951-1122. Leipzig und Berlin : Verlag von B. G. Teubner, 1913, p. 259.

(1) Most probably he is the same as Cardinal Offo (1099).

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(59) 9. ALBERTO (?-1100)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Sabina in a consistory celebrated in 1099. Subscribed a papal bull issued on April 11, 1100.

Death. Shortly after April 11, 1100, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 127; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 152, no. 46; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 702.

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(60) 10. SIGIZZONE, seniore (?-ca. 1100)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Sigismondo, Sigizzo and Sigizo.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Sisto in a consistory celebrated in 1099.

Death. Ca. 1100 (1), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, ; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. ; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 78; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 152, no. 47.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 152, no. 47. Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 78, says that he died in 1106.

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(61) 11. BENEDETTO (?-ca. 1102)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. Martino e Silvestro in a consistory celebrated in 1099. Subscribed a papal bull issued on March 15, 1101 at the Lateran palace.

Death. Ca. 1102, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 152, no. 48; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 192, no. 3; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : Hermann Gentner Verlag, 1957, p. 124, no. 14.

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(62) 12. GIOVANNI (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in a consistory celebrated in 1099 (?); his title is not known.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 266; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 152, no. 49.

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(63) 13. GIOVANNI (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in a consistory celebrated ca. 1099; his title is not known. Presided over the Council of Valence in 1100. Presided over the Council of Poitiers. Legate in France. Corresponded with Yves, bishop of Chartres.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 266; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 152, no. 50.

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(64) 14. LITUSENSE (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in a consistory celebrated in 1099 (?); his title is not known.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 266; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 152, no. 51.

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(65) 15. GIONATA, seniore (?-ca. 1106)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. He is also listed as Jonathan.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano in a consistory celebrated in 1099 (1). Subscribed papal bulls issued in 1106 at the Lateran palace.

Death. Ca. 1106, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 198-199; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 896, no. XXXIV; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 238; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 153, no. 67; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1181, no. 35.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 153, no. 67. Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 238, says that he was promoted to the cardinalate in 1088 and died in 1006?. Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 89, no. XXXIV, partially confuses him with Cardinal Gionata, iuniore (1120).

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(66) 16. BOBONE (?-shortly after 1107)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro in a consistory celebrated ca. 1099. Subscribed a papal bull issued between 1105 and 1107.

Death. Shortly after 1107, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 153, no. 68; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 702.

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(67) 17. GAETANI, Gregorio (?-between 1124 and 1130)

Birth. (No date found), Gaeta (1). His last name is also listed as Caetani.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Papal scriptor (2).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Lucia in Septisolio in a consistory celebrated in 1099 (3). Attended the Council of Guastalla on October 22, 1106. Attended the Lateran Synod on March 23, 1112; he subscribed the conciliar documents without specifying his deaconry. Legate in France with Cardinal Pietro Pierleoni. Between 1102 and 1112, he participated in a court decision over Civitavecchia; and was legate in Nonantola, according to a letter of the pope dated November 13, 1112. On October 16, 1113, he sat in the papal court in Ferentino. Participated in the papal election of 1118, in which Pope Gelasius II was elected. Subscribed a papal bull issued on April 6 , 1123. Participated in the papal election of 1124, in which Pope Honorius II was elected.

Death. On a July 1, during the pontificate of Pope Honorius II (1124-1130) (4), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 234; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 922 and 931; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 230; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 153, no. 69; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 229, no. 1; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : Hermann Gentner Verlag, 1957, p. 130, no. 1; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXVIII, 100; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 657 and 781.

(1) This is according to Hüls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130, p. 229, no. 1; and Klewitz, Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg, p. 130, no. 1. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 153, no. 69; and Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, XXVIII, 100, say that he was from Anagni.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 153, no. 69. Hüls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130, p. 229, no. 1, says that he can possibly be identified as scriptor or chaplain of Pope Paschal II.
(3) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 153, no. 69. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 234; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 922; and Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, XXVIII, 100, include him among the cardinals created by Pope Paschal II; the second source, I, col. 931, lists him among the participants in the papal election of Pope Gelasius II in 1118, indicating that he was cardinal deacon of S. Lucia in Septisolio, created by Pope Paschal II the third source, XXVIII, 100, says that he was created cardinal by Pope Paschal II at the instance of Cardinal Giovanni Gaetani.
(4) This is according to Moroni. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 153, no. 69, says that he died before 1116; this would eliminate him as a participant in the papal elections of 1118 and 1124.

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(68) 18. STEFANO (?-ca. 1123)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Lucia in Silice (or Orphea) (1) in a consistory celebrated in 1099 (2). Participated in the papal election of 1118, in which Pope Gelasius II was elected.

Death. Ca. 1123, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 244; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 925; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 246; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 153, 70.

(1) The deaconry of S. Lucia in Silice (or in Orphea) is one of the seven original ones. It was confirmed by Pope St. Sylvester I ca. 314 and restored by Pope Honorius I ca. 630. Assigned to one of the seven deacons by Pope S. Agatho ca. 678. It was suppressed by Pope Sixtus V in 1587. It was situated in the II Region of Rome, the rione Monti. This is its first known cardinal.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 153, 70. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 244; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 925, say that he was created cardinal by Pope Paschal II. He may be the same as Cardinal Stefano (1125).

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(69) 19. ALATRI, Ugo d' (?-1117)

Birth. (No date found), Alatri (?). He is also listed as Ugo only.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere (1) in a consistory celebrated in 1099 (2). Subscribed papal bulls issued between July 5, 1114 and April 20, 1117.

Death. Shortly after April 20, 1117, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 246; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 153, no. 71; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 239, no. 1; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : Hermann Gentner Verlag, 1957, p. 132 no. 12; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 703.

(1) This deaconry was erected by Pope St. Gregory III ca. 731, in Carcere Decemvirale and not in Carcere Tulliano which is the Mamertine prison. It was not a regional deaconry but reserved for a palatine deacon. Its first known cardinal is from 1099. It still exists and is currently occupied by Cardinal Zenon Grocholewski (2001).
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 153, no. 71. Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 246, says that he was created cardinal in 1099 but does not say if it was by Pope Urban II or by Pope Paschal II. Hüls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130, p. 239, no. 1, says that he was scriptor or chaplain of Pope Paschal, therefore, according to this source he could not have been promoted to the cardinalate by Pope Urban II.

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(70) 20. FERENTINO, Aldo da (?-ca. 1123)

Birth. (No date found), Ferentino. He is also listed as Aldon only.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of Ss. Sergio e Bacco in a consistory celebrated in 1099 (1). Participated in the Council of Guastalla on October 1106. On April 11, 1111, he signed the agreements of Ponte Mammolo. Participated in the Lateran Synod on March 23, 1112; he protested the agreement of Ponte Mammolo granting of the privilege of the investitures by Pope Paschal II to Emperor Heinrich V. Subscribed papal bulls issued on March 24, 1116. Participated in the papal election of 1118, in which Pope Gelasius II was elected. Participated in the papal election of 1119, celebrated in Cluny, in which Pope Callistus II was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between January 3, 1121 and December 28, 1121.

Death. Ca. 1123, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 241; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 231; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 154, no. 72; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 241, no. 1; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : Hermann Gentner Verlag, 1957, p. 132, no. 8;Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 703 and 781.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927, p. 154, no. 72; and Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 231, which says that he was created cardinal in 1099 but does not indicate if he was promoted by Pope Urban II or by Pope Paschal II. Huls, Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130, p. 241, no. 1, says that he was scriptor or chaplain of Pope Paschal II, therefore, he could not have been raised to the cardinalate by Pope Urban II; and adds that he was created cardinal deacon no later than 1100.

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(71) 21. BERNARDO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in a consistory celebrated before 1099 (?); his deaconry is not known. Subscribed a papal bull issued by Pope Paschal II in favor of the monastery of S. Benedetto in Matua.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 197; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 895; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. ; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1927. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 154, no. 74; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1181, no. 29.

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