The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Paschal II (1099-1118)
Consistory celebrated in 1112 (X)


(51) 1. MANFREDO (?-1115)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Manfred.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Frascati in a consistory celebrated in 1112 (1). Consecrated (no information found).

Death. 1115, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 26; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 112, no. 8.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 112, no. 8. Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 26, says that he was promoted to the cardinalate in 1117 (?).

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(52) 2. VISCONTI, Ugo (?-1121)

Birth. (No date found), Pisa.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Papal chaplain.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. XII Apostoli in a consistory celebrated in 1112 (1). He built a church in Pisa dedicated to S. Filippo Apostolo. Participated in the papal election of 1118, in which Pope Gelasius II was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between March 21 and April 18, 1118; and January 3 and November 10, 1121. Rector (governor) of Benevento; participated in the Thrird provincial Council of Benevento on March 10, 1119; returned to Rome in 1120. Legate before King Ruggero II of Sicily. He ratified, together with the cardinals in Rome, the election of Pope Callistus II celebrated in Cluny in 1119. Accompanied the new pope to Puglia.

Death. At the end of 1121, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 223-224; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 916-917; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 103; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 114, no. 42; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1182, no. 37; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 775 and 780.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 1114, no. 42. Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 103, says that he was created cardinal in 1099.

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(53) 3. UBERTO (?-ca. 1117)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Roberto and Vitale.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Attended the Council of Guastalla in 1106.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Sabina in a consistory celebrated in 1112. Attended the Synod of Letran in 1112. He took the oath before Emperor Heinrich V in the question of the investitures.

Death. Ca. 1117, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 219; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 914; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 127; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 114, no. 43; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1181, no. 25.

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(54) 4. GREGORIO (?-1113)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Crisogono in a consistory celebrated in 1112 (1). Attended the Synod of Letran in 1112. Subscribed papal bulls issued between January 2 and February 17, 1113. He approved the privilege of the investitures granted by Pope Paschal II to Emperor Heinrich V.

Death. Shortly after signing the investiture privilege in 1113, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 217; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 913; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 92; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 114, no. 44; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1181, no. 20; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 702.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 1114, no. 44. Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 92, says that he was created cardinal in 1105.

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(55) 5. GHERARDESCA, Pietro (?-1144)

Birth. (No date found), Pisa. Of the counts of Donoratico. He is also listed as Petrus Pisanus, Petrus Gerardescus, Pietro della Geradesca and Pietro Gherardeschi.

Education. " ... eccelente dei pari nelle lettere, e nelle virtù ... " (1). He had a thorough knowledge of civil and canon law.

Early life. Papal secretary (scriptor papae). Papal notary. Auditor of the Sacred Palace.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Priest in the pontifical sacellum.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Marcello in a consistory celebrated in 1112. Opted for the title of S. Susanna ca. 1117 (2). Participated in the papal election of 1118, in which Pope Gelasius II was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between March 18 and April 21, 1118; and March 11, 1120 and June 4, 1124. Participated in the papal election of 1124, in which Pope Honorius II was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between March 7, 1125 and April 10, 1129. Participated in the election of Antipope Anacletus II in February 1130. Legate before King Ruggiero II of Sicily. Subscribed bulls issued between March 27 and December 10, 1130. He was deposed from his cardinalitial office by Pope Innocent II. After the death of Antipope Anacletus II, listening to the advice of Bernard de Clairvaux, future saint, he submitted himself to the legitimate pope, who returned him to his title of S. Susanna. Subscribed papal bulls issued between January 12, 1138 and April 11, 1139. Participated in the papal election of 1143, in which Pope Celestine II was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between October 19, 1143 and February 27, 1144. Participated in the papal election of 1144, in which Pope Lucius II was elected.

Death. After March 9, 1144 (3), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 38, no. 35; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 227-228; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 918; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 145; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 114-115, no. 45; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 184, no. 1; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1182, no. 42; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 775, 781 and 840..

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 227, "equally excellent in letters and in virtue".
(2) It seems that he may be the same as a Cardinal Petrus Pisanus listed by Brixius Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181, p. 39, no. 37, who was created cardinal priest of S. Susanna before March 21, 1118 and later joined the obedience of Antipope Anacletus II; and in 1138 went back to the obedience of the legitimate pope. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 127, says that he may be confused with Cardinal Stanzio (1130).
(3) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 115, no. 45. , I, col. 918; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 228; and Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 918, say that he participated in the election of Pope Eugenius III in February 1145 but by then there was already a successor occupying his title.

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(56) 6. ANASTASIO (?-1125)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Of the Castelli family. He is also listed as Atanasius.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Clemente in a consistory celebrated in 1112 (1). Attended the Synod of Letran in 1112. He beautified his titular church. Subscribed papal bulls issued until March 24, 1116. Participated in the papal election of 1118, in which Pope Gelasius II was elected. With the cardinals in Rome, he ratified the election of Pope Callistus II, celebrated in February 1119 in Cluny. Subscribed papal bulls issued between September 24, 1120 and June 4, 1124. Participated in the papal election of 1124, in which Pope Honorius II was elected. Legate in Benevento.

Death. At the end of 1125, (no place found). Buried in his titular church in a decorated marble sarcophagus with an epitaph (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 21; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 915; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 84; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 115, no. 46; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1181, no. 13; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 702, 780 and 823.

(1) He very probably is the same as Cardinal Anastasio (1095); some sources refer to them as seniore and iuniore.
(2) This is the text of the epitaph, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 915:

In sancte Pater Clemens su Templa notavit
Cuius in hoc tumulo pulvis, & umbra iacent ;
Moribus egregius, & vita Presbyter Vrbis
Fulsit, Anastasius nomine dictus erat
Vitæ docens, studiumque piam, vis relligionis
Conspicuum meritis efficebat cum ;
Hanc quicumque levis tumulatum, memor este legenda
Dicere, nate Dës subsidieris ei.

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(57) 7. NICCOLÒ (?-ca. 1117)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo in a consistory celebrated in 1112 (1).

Death. Ca. 1117 (2), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 229; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 918; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 110; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 11, no. 47; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1182, no. 44.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 115, no. 47. Mas Latrie, , Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie, col. 1182, no. 44, says that he was created cardinal in 1113.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 115, no. 47. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 229, citing Baronio, says that he participated in the election of Pope Gelasius II in 1118. Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 918, says that it was his successor in the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, Cardinal Teolbaldo, the one who participated in that election.

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(58) 8. PIETRO (?-ca. 1120)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Maria in Trastevere of in a consistory celebrated in 1112 (1). Subscribed a papal bull on February 15, 1113.

Death. Ca. 1120, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 54; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 115, no. 48; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 702.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 115, no. 48. Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 54, says that he was promoted to the cardinalate in 1120.

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(59) 9. ODERISIO, O.S.B.Cas. (?-1126)

Birth. (No date found), Campagna, kingdom of Naples. Son of Oderisio II, count of Sangro. He is also listed as Doderisius and Oderisio di Sangro.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) at the monastery of Monte Cassino at a young age, while Oderisio, of the counts of Marsi, was the abbot.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Deacon at the patriarchal Lateran basilica.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Agata alla Suburra in a consistory celebrated in 1112 (1). Participated in the papal election of 1118, in which Pope Gelasius II was elected. Shortly after, in 1118, he was elected 42nd abbot of the monastery of Montecassino; he occupied the post for three years. Transferred to the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Ciriaco alle Terme Diocleziane by Pope Callistus II in March 1122, during the First Ecumenical Lateran Council (2), in which he participated; the council condemned the lay investitures and confirmed the agreement between the papacy and Emperor Heinrich V. After the council, he returned to Montecassino and obtained the territory of Pontecorvo for the monastery; he conducted bloody attacks against those who opposed his policies, especially the inhabitants of Sant'Angelo Teodici and San Vittore. Pope Callistus II asked the abbot to punish Riccardo di Pico and Riccardo di Cainola for the assassination of Count Leone di Fondi; Abbot Oderisio accepted the request with enthusiasm and in a few days successfully occupied the castle of Pico; the pope granted the abbot the investiture of that castle and, as a sign of trust, the custody of former Antipope Gregory VIII, who was confined in rocca Janula; later, Pope Honorius II regained the custody of the antipope and sent him to Rocca di Fumone, far from Abbot Oderisio. To his military and political activities, Cardinal Oderisio also conducted several religious initiatives such as the foundation of a Benedictine monastery in Ragusa (Dubrovnic), Dalmatia. Participated in the papal election of 1124, in which Pope Honorius II was elected. When the new pope was a cardinal, he did not have the abbot in high regard; Cardinal Oderisio was accused by Adenolfo, count of Aquino, apparently without foundation, of ambition and arrogant behavior; the pope asked the cardinal to go to Rome to justify himself against the accusations; three times the cardinal refused to present himself before the pope with the excuse that the pontiff was prejudiced against him; during the fifth week of Lent 1125, the cardinal was deposed from the government of the monastery of Montecassino, solemnly excommunicated in St. Peter's basilica on Easter Sunday and obliged by the people of S. Germano to retire; he secured the fortress of Pontecorvo and used the funds that belonged to it; the monks of Montecassino elected a new abbot, Nicolò di Tuscolo; the followers of both abbot caused great disruption in the territory of Montecassino; the pope named a third abbot, which complicated the situation even further; Oderisio realized that he was in a precarious situation, made his submission to Pope Honorius II and consigned the abbey in the pontiff's hands. A book of sermons for all the feasts of the year, possibly composed in his youth, is attributed to him.

Death. August 28, 1126, Montecassino, alone and forgotten. Buried in Montecassino.

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 37, no. 31; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 239-240; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 923-924; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 143 and 232; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 118, no. 83; Ganzer, Klaus. Die entwicklung des auswärtigen kardinalats im hohen mittelater ; ein beitrag zur geschichte des kardinalkollegiums vom 11. bis 13. jahrhundert. Tügingen : Niemeyer, 1963. (Bibliotek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rome, band XXVI), p. 75-79, no. 29; Hüls, Rudolf. Kardinäle, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049-1130. 1 aufl. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, 1977. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom: Bd. 48), p. 221-22, no. 1; Klewitz, Hans-Walter. Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg. Die Entstehung des Kardinalkollegiums. Studien über die Wiederherstellung der römischen Kirche in Süditalien durch das Reformpapsttum. Das Ende des Reformpapsttums. Darmstadt : Hermann Gentner Verlag, 1957, p. 133, no. 19; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1182, no. 59.

Links. Biography, in Italian; biography, in Italian, in Angelo Ferrari, Feudi prenormanni dei Borrello tra Abruzzo e Molise (Trento : UNI service, 2007), pp. 111-123; Elenco degli abati di Montecassino, in Italian, the cardinal is no. 42.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, 1928, p. 118, no. 83. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 239, says that he was created cardinal in 1111 or 1112. His biography in Italian by Ferrari, p. 113, linked above, says that he was promoted to the cardinalate in 1111. Brixius, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181, p. 37, no. 31, says that he was created cardinal in 1116. Ganzer, Die entwicklung des auswärtigen kardinalats im hohen mittelater, p. 72, lists him among the cardinals created Pope Callistus II.
(2) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, 240. His biography in Italian by Ferrari, p. 113, linked above, citing Cardella (without mentioning the page) says that he obtained the title of S. Ciriaco in 1112 in the Lateran consistory.

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(60) 10. GUARNA, Romualdo (?-1136)

Birth. (No date found), Benevento. He is also listed as Romualdo only. (1)

Education. " ... chiaro non meno per dottrina, che prudenza ... " (2).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata in a consistory celebrated in 1112 (3). Subscribed papal bulls issued between January 2, 1113 and April 20, 1118. Legate in Benevento together with Cardinal Pietro, bishop of Porto, to establish the peace with the Normans. Participated in the papal election of 1118, in which Pope Gelasius II was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between September 24, 1120 and December 28, 1121.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Salerno in 1121. Consecrated in 1121 by Pope Callistus II; enthroned on September 15, 1121. Participated in the papal election of 1124, in which Pope Honorius II was elected.

Death. January 21, 1136 (4), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 242-243; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 924; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 211; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 118, no. 84; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1182, no.58; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 702.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' Cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, p. 242, says that some sources erroneously call him Guarna and that he was born of a noble family in Salerno.
(2) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' Cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, p. 242: "his doctrine was not less clear than his prudence".
(3) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 118, no. 84. Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 211, says that he was promoted to the cardinalate in 1099.
(4) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 118, no. 84. Chacón, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium, I, col. 924, says that he died in 1122. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' Cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 1, p. 242; and Mas Latrie, Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie, col. 1182, no. 58, also say that he died shortly after 1121.

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(61) 11. CRESCENZIO (?-ca. 1140)

Birth. (No date found), Anagni. He is also listed as Crescenzo d'Anagani.

Education. (No information found)

Early life. Papal secretary.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Domnica in a consistory celebrated in 1112 (1). Participated in the papal election of 1118, in which Pope Gelasius II was elected. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro in December 1120. Subscribed papal bulls issued between December 28, 1121 and April 1, 1124. Participated in the papal election of 1124, in which Pope Honorius II was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between April 2, 1125 and May 7, 1128. Participated in the election of Antipope Anacletus II in February 1130. Subscribed papal bulls issued between April 24, 1130 and September 14, 1131. Named rector (governor) of Benevento. Subscribed papal bulls issued between October 21, 1136 and March 21, 1137 (with the title of S. Apollinare). He intrigued in favor of the king of Sicily. He was captured and freed by Pope Innocent II; he submitted to the legitimate pope and was restored to his title. Subscribed papal bulls issued between December 17, 1138 and March 18, 1139. He restored his titular church.

Death. Ca. 1140 (no place found). Buried (no information found)

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 33, no. 9; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 1, 243-244; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 925; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 257; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 118, no. 85; Mas Latrie, Louis. Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge. Paris : Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889, col. 1182, no. 65; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, II, .

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 118, no. 85. Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 257, says that he was promoted to the cardinalate in 1123.

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