The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Innocent II (1130-1143)
Consistory celebrated in 1142 (XII)


(73) 1. IMAR, O.S.B. (?-1161)

Birth. (No date found), France. He is is also listed as Icmar, Imaro, Imarus, Icmaro, Ismaro, Ymar, Temaro and Icmar of Tusculum.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) in the monastery of Saint-Martin des Champes in Paris at a young age; he took his solemn vows at the monastery of Cluny.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). For some time, he resided in the monastery of Cluny. Abbot of Saint-Marie la Neuve in Poitiers, for many years. Later, he was custos or prior in the monastery of Charite-sur-Loire; and then, abbot general of his order.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Frascati in the consistory of March 1142. Consecrated, March 1142, patriarchal Lateran Basilica, Rome, by Pope Innocent II. Subscribed papal bulls issued between April 19, 1142 and May 14, 1143; December 6, 1143 and March 8, 1144; November 18, 1145 and June 7, 1153; September 8, 1153 and November 30, 1154; December 19, 1154 and March 7, 1159. Participated in the papal election of 1143, which elected Pope Celestine II. Participated in the papal election of 1144, which elected Pope Lucius II. Legate in England in 1144. Participated in the papal election of 1145, which elected Pope Eugenius III. Participated in the papal election of 1153, which elected Pope Anastasius IV. Participated in the papal election of 1154, which elected Pope Adrian IV. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals in 1153. Participated in the election of Antipope Victor IV in 1159 and consecrated him on October 4, assisted by Bishop Ubaldo of Ferentino and by Bishop Riccardo of Melfi. Subscribed bulls issued between February 13 and 19, 1160. He was excommunicated by Pope Alexander III. Later, he made his submission to the legitimate pope and retired to the monastery of Cluny.

Death. October 28, 1161 (1), monastery of Cluny. Buried in Cluny.

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 44, no. 29; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, I, pt. 2, 32-33; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. ; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, II, 132-134; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 126-127, no. 9; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 840; II, 1, 7, 20, 89, 102 and 418.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; biography, François Duchesne, Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois de naissance : ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat, Paris 1660, in French, p. 132-134, Gallica, Biliothèque Nationale de France; and biography, in English, Wikipedia.

(1) This is according to Du Chesne, Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois, II, 99. Brixius, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181, p. 44, says that he died between April 7, 1161 and June 1, 1162. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 127, says that he died in 1164.

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(74) 2. PAPARESCHI, Pietro (?-1146)

Birth. (No date or place found). Brother of Pope Innocent II (1).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Albano in a consistory celebrated in 1142. Consecrated (no information found). Subscribed papal bulls issued between May 14 and 16, 1143; December 9, 1143 and March 8, 1144; March 15, 1144 and February 18, 1145; and March 17 and April 24, 1145. Participated in the papal election of 1143, which elected Pope Celestine II. Participated in the papal election of 1144, which elected Pope Lucius II. Participated in the papal election of 1145, which elected Pope Eugenius III. He completed the restoration of the church of S. Maria in Trastevere, which had been started by Pope Innocent II, and had the remains of that pope transferred to the church.

Death. 1146, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 45, no. 36; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, I, pt. 2, 33; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. ; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 127; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, II, .

Webgraphy. Brief biographical entry, in English, Wikipedia.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 127. Brixius, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181, p. 45, no. 36, says that he could not find a document mentioning this relationship.

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(75) 3. PULLEN, Robert (ca. 1080-1146/1147)

Birth. Ca. 1080, Sherborne in Dorset or Exeter (?), England. Of the counts of Oxford. First cousing of John, O.S.B, prior of the monastery of Sherborne. He is also listed as Robert-le-Baube; and his surname as Bullen, Le Poule, Poldi, Polenius, Pollen, Polenius, Pollenus, Pollet, Pulein, Pulle, Puley, Pulley, Poulain, Pullus, Pullan, Pullein, Pullen, Pullenus, Poleyn, Pully and de Puteaco. His surname is derived from Latin pullus, which means either "dingy" or "small animal".

Education. His education started in England, and then he went on to complete his studies at the University of Paris, where he studied under Guillaume de Champeaux after 1103. Obtained the title of magister.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Archdeacon of Exeter by 1113. He became the second of the early masters teaching at Oxford; he lectured in philosophy and theology; he made Oxford a university on the model he had observed in Paris (1). He also gained renown for his sermons. It is said that King Henry I of England offered him a bishopric but that he declined. At the death of the king in 1135, his children Matilda and Stephen fought a violent civil war for the succession to the throne; due to the conditions in England, Pullen left Oxford and went to Paris, where he continued teaching and writing; there, his ascetic way of life, his distinction as theologian, and his influence in the university gained him the notice and lasting friendship of Bernard de Clairvaux, future saint; among his students were John of Salisbury and Bernard Paganelli, O.Cist., future Pope Eugenius III. He was named archdeacon of Rochester possibly before 1137, during the episcopate of Bishop Ascelin. In England, Bishop Ascelin was angered by the prolonged absence of his archdeacon; Bernard wrote the bishop taking blame for detaining the archdeacon and pointing out the importance of his defence of the orthodoxy, but the bishop seized the absentee's goods as reprisal. He was called to Rome by Pope Innocent II around 1141.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Martino ai Monti (2) in a consistory celebrated ca. 1142 (3). Participated in the papal election of 1144, in which Pope Lucius II was elected. Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church from November 1144 to September 1146. As such, subscribed papal bulls issued between January 31 and February 14, 1145; and March 10, 1145 and September 22, 1146. Participated in the papal election of 1145, in which Pope Eugenius III was elected. Two of his principal surviving works are Sententiarum theologicarum libri VIII, a compendium of theology; and Sermones de communibus sanctorum. He was the first English cardinal.

Death. Between September 22 and December 17, 1146 or in 1147, in Rome or Viterbo. He was probably buried in Viterbo.

Bibliography. Baxter, Dudley. England's cardinals. With an appendix showing the reception of the sacred pallium by the archbishops of Canterbury and Westminster. London : Burns & Oates ; New York : Benzinger, 1903, p. 1-2; Bellenger, Dominc Aidan and Stella Fletcher. Princes of the church. A history of the English cardinals. Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire : Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2001, p. 3-5 and 173; Brady, I. C. "Robert Pullen." New Catholic Encyclopedia.15 vols. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003, XII, p. 270; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, I, pt. 2, 4; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 982; Courtney, Francis. Cardinal Robert Pullen : an English theologian of the twelfth century. Romae : Apud Ædes Universitatis Gregorianæ, 1954. (Analecta Gregoriana ; vol. 64.; Series Facultatis Theologicæ. Sectio A ; n. 10; Variation: Analecta Gregoriana ; v. 64.; Analecta Gregoriana.; Series Facultatis Theologicæ.; Sectio A ; n. 10); "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 129; Féret, Pierre. La Faculté de théologie de Paris et ses docteurs les plus célèbres : moyen-age. 4 v. Paris : Picard, 1894-1897, I, 38-42; Heseltine, George Coulehan. The English cardinals. With some account of those of other English-speaking countries. London : Burns Oates & Washbourne, 1931, p. 3-5; Isaacson, Charles S. The story of the English cardinals. London : Elliot Stock, 1907, p. 1-6; Luscombe, David. "Pullen, Robert (d. in or after 1146)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Oct 2007; Quinlan, John. Our English cardinals, including the English pope. Alcester ; Dublin : C. Goodliffe Neale, 1972, p. 3-4; Rashdall, Hastings. "Pullen, Robert." The Dictionary of national biography . 22 vols. [London] Oxford University Press [1967-], vol. 16, 462-463; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, II, 7 and 21; Schofield, Nicholas ; Skinner, Gerard. The English cardinals. Oxford, UK : Family Publications, 2007, p. 15-17; Williams, Robert Folkestone. Lives of the English cardinals, including historical notices of the papal court, from Nicholas Breakspear (Pope Adrian IV) to Thomas Wolsey, Cardinal Legate. 2 vols. Westmead, England : Gregg International, 1969. Responsibility: London, Wm. H. Allen & Co., 1868, I, 141-164.

Webgraphy. Biography by Edwin Burton, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography in The story of the English cardinals by Charles S. Isaacson (London : Elliot Stock, 1907), p. 1-6, Google Books; biography, in French, La Faculté de théologie de Paris et ses docteurs les plus célèbres. Moyen âge, par l'abbi Pierre Feret (Paris : Picard et fils, 1894-1897), vol. 1, 38-42, Gallica, Bibliothèque Nationale de France.

(1) According to Quinlan, Our English cardinals, including the English pope, p. 3: "In Germany and Scotland, university students lodged where they could and attended the lectures of such professors as had managed to establish themselves, here or there, and secure a following. At Paris, as also at Bologna, the students were organized into colleges. Undergraduates could share a common life and their lectures were appointed by University authority. By using this design, Pullen virtually made Oxford the University it is today. He is considered its 'Second Founder''".
(2) This is according to Luscombe, "Pullen, Robert (d. in or after 1146)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography; Courtney, Cardinal Robert Pullen : an English theologian of the twelfth century, p. 14; Schofield, The English cardinals, pp. 15, 16 and 17; and the site of the archdeacons of Rochester. Féret, La Faculté de théologie de Paris, p. 39, says that he was given the title of S. Eusebio. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 129, says that his title is not known and that it could have been that of S. Eusebio. His biographies in English, at The Catholic Encyclopedia and at Wikipedia, linked above, say that his title was S. Eusebio. The other sources do not mention his cardinalitial title.
(3) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 129, which adds that he was not promoted in 1130 or 1133. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 2, 4, says that he was created cardinal in the Council of Clermont in 1130 or in 1133. Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 982, says that he was promoted to the cardinalate in 1133; then, in col. 1021, Chacón lists him as a participant in the papal election of Pope Lucius II (1144) among the cardinals created by Pope Innocent II; and in col. 1029, among the cardinals who participated in the election of Pope Eugenius III (1145), among the cardinals created by Pope Celestine II. Féret, La Faculté de théologie de Paris et ses docteurs, I, p. 39, says that he was created cardinal priest of S. Eusebio by Pope Celestine II in 1144. Most of the printed English sources cited in the bibliographic section (Baxter, Heseltine, Isaacson, Quinlan, Rashdall and Williams) say the he was created cardinal by Pope Celestine II; Brady and Bellenger say that he was created cardinal by Pope Lucius II; Schofield says that he was created cardinal priest of S. Martino ai Monti around 1144, without specifying if it was by Pope Celestine II or Lucius II; Luscombe, says that he had been created cardinal priest of St Martin, certainly by 4 January 1145 but does not mention by which pope either. Courtney, Cardinal Robert Pullen : an English theologian of the twelfth century, p. 14, says that he was created cardinal by Pope Lucius II in 1144.

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(76) 4. BAYERN, O.Cist., Konrad von (ca. 1105/1106-1154)

Birth. Ca. 1105/1106, Ravensburg, Swabia. Second of the seven children of Heinrich III, the Black (des Schwarzen), duke of Bavaria and Spoleto, and Wulfilde von Saxony. The other siblings were Heinrich "der Stolze" ("the Proud"), Welf, Sofie, Judith, Mathilde and Wulfhild. He was prince of Bavaria. He is also listed as Corrado di Baviera, Corrado di Chiaravalle, Conradi Bavari and Conrado Bavaro.

Education. He received his initial education from the monks at the nearby Martinsberg castle. From around 1126, he was under the protection of his relative the archbishop of Cologne, where he studied theology.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). In Cologne, he became a disciple of Bernard de Clairvaux, future saint, and entered the Order of the Cistercians; he took his vows at Clairvaux.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in a consistory celebrated in 1142; his deaconry is not known (1). In 1149, he accompanied Emperor Konrad to the Holy Land; returned to Italy in 1149. After a stay in Clairvaux, in 1151 he moved to Palestine, with permission from Bernard, in order to live as a hermit. In 1153, Bernard became ill and Konrad decided to return to Clairvaux. On the way back he visited Bari in Apulia, in southern Italy, where he was told that Bernard had died. After visiting the tomb of S. Nicola in Bari, he went to Modugno, near Molfetta. There, he lived in a cave dedicated to the Virgin Mary.

Death. March 17, 1154 (2), in the Benedictine abbey of Modugno, Bari. He was buried in the old cathedral of Molfetta. On July 10, 1785 his relics were transferred to the new cathedral and placed in an altar done by Corrado Giaquinto. Since 1893 the body is kept in a mobile casket of silver and crystal. In 1981, it was moved to the chapel of Sts. Peter and Paul in the cathedral. The silver bust containing the skull is kept in a safe in the shrine. Bone fragments are kept in various churches in the city.

Beatification. His cult was confirmed on April 7, 1832 by Pope Gregory XVI. His memorial is celebrated on February 15; the Cistercian Martyrology celebrates it on February 14; the day of his death, March 17, is also also mentioned. In 1834, his own mass was approved. In Molfetta, the translation of his relics is celebrated on July 10.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, I, pt. 2, 39; Catachio, Francesco Pasquale . Notizie sulla vita, sul culto e sulle reliquie di S. Conrado Bavaro, celeste protettore della città di Molfetta. Molfetta : 1902; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. ; Dietrich, Adolf. "Der selige Konrad von Bayern". In: Cistercienser-Chronik XXVI (1914), 33-41, 68-78, 104-109; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 132; Giovene, Josef Maria. Vita B. Conradi Bavari. Naples : 1836; Samarelli, Francesco. San Corrado Bavaro : Patrono della città di Molfetta. Nuovo contributo storico. Molfetta : [s.n.], 1935.

Webgraphy. Images and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; biography, in English, speedlook.com; biography, in Norwegian, Den Katolske Kirke; his reliquary and biography by Onofrio Squeo, in Italian, molfetta.net; Duomo di S. Corrado and bigraphy, in Italian, Wikipedia; his genealogy, A1 B2 C2, Genealogy EU; his statue (modern version), prostores.com; and L'ostensione del cranio di San Corrado. Le immagini, February 10, 2008, cathedral of Molfetta, MolfettaLive.it.

(1) Many sources do not mention his promotion to the cardinalate.
(2) This is according to his biography in German, linked above. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VIII. Les cardinaux du XVIe siècle;. Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1939, p. 132, says that he died toward 1150. His first biography in English says that he died on March 15, 1155. His biography in Norwegian, linked above, says that he died on March 17, 1154 or 1155 (?). His first biography in Italian, linked above, says that he died in winter 1125/1126. His genealogy, linked above, says that he died in Bari on March 17, 1126.

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