The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Lucius II (1144-1145)
Consistory of December 1144 (II)
Celebrated in Rome


(3) 1. FOSCARI, Can. Reg. of S. Maria di Reno, Guarino (1080/1084-1158)

Birth. 1080/1084, Bologna (1). Of a noble family. Relative of Pope Lucius II. He is also listed as Guarino Guarini; as Guarino di Palestrina; as Guerrino da Bologna; as Guerrino da Preneste; as Guarino, Warino and Warinus only; and his last name as Fuscari.

Education. Joined the Canons Regular of S. Maria di Reno in the monastery of S. Croce di Mortara, near Pavia (2) in 1104.

Early life. Cleric of Bologna when he was twenty years old. Later, he joined the Canons Regular.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Pavia toward 1132; he declined the nomination and fled to a hidden place until a new bishop was elected and consecrated. He was not able to avoid being promoted to the cardinalate by his relative and fellow citizen Pope Lucius II.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Palestrina in the consistory of December 1144. Consecrated (no information found). Subscribed papal bulls issued between January 31 and February 14, 1145; April 14, 1150 and September 22, 1153; May 27, 1154 and April 19, 1155. The pope gave him as a gift several beautiful horses, which he sold, and with other donations, founded a hospital for the poor in Bologna, called S. Lorenzo and later S. Giobbe, and endowed it with sufficient rents. Participated in the papal election of 1145, in which Pope Eugenius III was elected. Believing that he was not complying fully with his episcopal obligations, twice he tried to leave the diocese by escaping: the first time going to the monastery of Subiaco, from where he was called by Pope Eugenius III; the second time, going to Ostia, where, to avoid falling into the hands of the Saracens, who from 1152 or 1154 infested the coasts, he was forced to go to Rome; soon after, however, he returned to his see of Palestrina, where he resumed with more fervor his episcopal ministry until his death. Participated in the papal election of 1153, in which Pope Anastasius IV was elected. Participated in the papal election of 1154, in which Pope Adrian IV was elected. His biography was written by Agostino da Pavia, canon regular.

Death. February 6, 1158 (or 1159), Palestrina. Buried in a marble urn in the cathedral of S. Agapito, Palestrina. When the city of Palestrina was sacked in 1437, his remains were hidden in another place and now the location is unknown. The Roman Martyrology indicates that his body was transferred to Bologna and buried in its cathedral. Other say that Cardinal Giovanni Vitelleschi brought the remains to Cometo (Maremma). In 1754, Cardinal Giuseppe Spinelli, archbishop of Naples, tried unsuccessfully to find his relics in the crypt of the cathedral of Palestrina.

Canonization. Canonized by Pope Alexander III and inscribed in the Roman Martyrology. His feast is on February 6 or 7.

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 51, no. 3; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 52-54; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1023-1024; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 135; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 7 and II, 20 and 89.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, under "San GUARINO (vescovo) 7 FEBBRAIO"; images and biography, in Italian; his portrait and biography, in Spanish; his portrait and biographical data, in Italian, on the 8th of the month; another view of his portrait; Estasi di San Guarino by Giovan Battista Razzani, Pinacoteca Comunale, Cesena, Italy; his engraving, Biblioteca dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his arms, Biblioteca dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna.

(1) This is according to his first biography in Italian, linked above. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 135, says that he was born in 1048. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 2, 54, says that he died in 1149 at seventy five years of age, therefore, according to this, he must have been born in 1174.
(2) Some sources say that he joined the Canons Regular of S. Maria di Reno or of S. Frediano di Lucca. Brixius, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 51, no. 3, says that he joined either the Canos Regular of S. Maria di Reno in Bologna or of S. Croce in Mortara and that for a few years, he belonged to the canons of S. Frediano di Lucca and then returned again to his original state. Other sources say that he was a canon of the cathedral chapter of Bologna. His biography in Spanish, linked above, says that he joined the Canons Regular of the Lateran.

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(4) 2. CIBO, Guido (?-1159)

Birth. (No date found), Genoa. His first name is also listed as Guido Clemente and Wido; and his last name as Cybo and Dent.

Education. He obtained the title of magister. He was known for his great erudition in the law.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Pudenziana (S. Pastoris) in the consistory of December 1144. Subscribed papal bulls issued between January 31, 1145 and April 10, 1153; October 23, 1153 and June 11, 1154, January 20, 1155 and June 15, 1157. Participated in the papal election of 1145, in which Pope Eugenius III was elected. Participated in the papal election of 1153, in which Pope Anastasius IV was elected. Participated in the papal election of 1154, in which Pope Adrian IV was elected. At his request, on March 17, 1155, the church of S. Pudenziana was given by the pope to the Canons Regular of S. Maria di Reno. He was seriously wounded during a riot of the Roman people, led by the followers of Arnaldo da Brescia, trying to reestablish the old Roman Senate; while the cardinal was going to join Pope Adrian IV, he was assaulted in Via Sacra, insulted and wounded with stones; the pope placed the entire city of Rome under interdict. Legate in Viterbo in 1156, together with Cardinals Giovanni, priest of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, and Gregorio, deacon of S. Maria in Portico, to negotiate the peace with Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa, who was on his way to Rome for his coronation; they accompanied the emperor the Rome; Cardinal Cibo obtained from the emperor the arrest of Arnaldo da Brescia.

Death. Before September 1159, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 51, no. 4; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 54-55; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1025; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 135; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, II, 20, 90 and 102.

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(5) 3. GAETANI, Villano (?-1175)

Birth. (No date found), Pisa. He is also listed as Villanus only.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Stefano in Monte Celio in the consistory of December 1144. Subscribed papal bulls issued between January 11 to 31, 1145; March 17, 1145 and May 15, 1146. Participated in the papal election of 1145, in which Pope Eugenius III was elected.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Pisa in May 29, 1146; he dismissed his cardinalitial title. Consecrated (no information found). In 1161, when Pope Alexander III decided to go to France, the government of Pisa sent a ship to Terracina with Cardinal Gaetani, who accompanied the pontiff to his destination. He was exiled in 1167 by the intruding and schismatic Archbishop Benincasa de' Benincasi; he was able to return to his see in 1172.

Death. October 23, 1175, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 53, no. 10; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 55-56; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1025; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 135; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 7 and II, 20.

Webgraphy. Biography by Angelo Fabroni in Memorie istoriche de piu uomini illustri pisani (Presso Ranieri Prosperi, 1792, p. 53-72), in Italian.

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(6) 4. CENZIO (?-1158)

Birth. (No date or place found). His name is also listed as Cencius.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of in the consistory of December 1144; his title is not known. Subscribed papal bulls issued on January 19, 1145; and between March 17, 1145 and March 31, 1151; and on March 19, 1158.

Death. Shortly after March 19, 1158, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 51, no. 2; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 136; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, I, 7 and II, 21.

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(7) 5. BERNARDO (?-1152)

Birth. (No date or place found). His name is also listed as Berardo.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of in the consistory of December 1144; his deaconry is not known (1). Subscribed papal bulls issued between April 28, 1145 and December 20, 1152. Participated in the papal election of 1145, in which Pope Eugenius III was elected.

Death. Shortly after December 20, 1152, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 56-57; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1025; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 135-136; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, II, 21.

(1) He may be the same as Cardinal Berardo (1144).

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(8) 6. PIETRO (?-ca. 1148.)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata in the consistory of December 1144. Rector of the city of Benevento. Participated in the papal election of 1145, in which Pope Eugenius III was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between May 17, 1145 and January 3, 1147.

Death. Ca. 1148, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 57-58; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1026; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 136; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, II, 20.

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(9) 7. NIKOLAUS (?-1151)

Birth. (No date found), Germany.

Education. Of "... eccellente erudizione... " (1). He was very knowledgeable in Greek and Hebrew..

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 1144; his deaconry is not known. Chancellor and librarian of the Holy Roman Church toward 1144. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso in 1150. He wrote a work on the corrections of the Bible, which was very appreciated by Cardinal Bessarion.

Death. Before March 1151 (2), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 59-60; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1027-1028; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 136.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 2, 59.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 136. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 2, 59, says that he died ca. 1145.

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