The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Celestine II (1143-1144)
Consistory celebrated on Ash Wednesday 1144 (II)


(10) 1. GIULIO (?-1164)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Marcello in the consistory of Ash Wednesday 1144. Participated in the papal election of 1144, in which Pope Lucius II was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between May 28, 1144 and January 19, 1145. Participated in the papal election of 1145, in which Pope Eugenius III was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between March 14, 1145 and June 16, 1153. Participated in the papal election of 1153, in which Pope Anastasius IV was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between September 22, 1153 and November 19, 1154. Participated in the papal election of 1154, in which Pope Adrian IV was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between December 24, 1154 and February 24, 1159. Papal legate before King Guglielmo of Sicily, together with Cardinals Ubaldo of S. Prassede and Rolando of S. Marco, to establish the peace between the Pope Adrian IV and the king; the peace was reached in Benevento.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina in 1158. Consecrated (no information found). Subscribed papal bulls issued between September 22, 1158 and May 13, 1159. Participated in the papal election of 1159, in which Pope Alexander III was elected. Legate in Hungary and Pannonia, together with Cardinal Pietro of S. Eustachio, to keep them loyal to the legitimate pope. Subscribed papal bulls issued between February 26 and September 30, 1161. Named vicar of Rome in 1161, while the pope was exiled in France.

Death. September or October 1164 (1), Rome. Buried (no information found). The Roman people were in mourning for three days.

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 52, no. 8; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 42-43; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1015; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 133; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, II, 7. 20, 89, 102 and 145.

(1) This is according to Brixius, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181, p. 52, no. 8, which also says that he was created cardinal by Pope Lucius II. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 133, indicates that he died toward April 1164.

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(11) 2. MISINI, Can. Reg. of S. Maria di Reno, Ugo (?-1150)

Birth. (No date found), Bologna. His las name is also listed as Misani.

Education. Joined the Canons Regular of S. Maria di Reno.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Prior of the monastery of S. Prassede.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina in the consistory of Ash Wednesday 1144 (1). Participated in the papal election of 1144, in which Pope Lucius II was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between May 26, 1144 and February 15, 1145; March 15, 1145 and June 5, 1150. Participated in the papal election of 1145, in which Pope Eugenius III was elected. He substituted for Cardinal Guido as chancellor of the Holy Roman Church and signed bulls as such from April 15, 1147 to May 27, 1148.

Death. 1150 (2), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 47; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1018; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 133-134; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, II, 7 and 20.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 2, 47, says that some authors confuse him with Cardinal Ugo (1143).
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 134. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 1018, indicates that he died during the pontificate of Pope Celestine II.

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(12) 3. BOBONE, Giacinto (ca. 1105/1106-1198)

Birth. Ca. 1005/1106, Rome. Of an aristocratic family. Son of Pietro Bobone. His first name is also listed as Hyacinthus; and his last name as Bobo, Bobon and Bobbone. Later, the family adopted the last name Orsini. The Orsini family also gave the Church two popes, Nicholas III (1277-1280); Benedict XIII (1724-1730); and several cardinals: Matteo Orsini (1262); Latino Malabranca Orsini, O.P. (1278); Giordano Orsini (1278); Napoleone Orsini (1288); Francesco Napoleone Orsini (1295); Giovanni Gaetano Orsini (1316); Matteo Orsini, O.P. (1327); Rinaldo Orsini (1350); Giacomo Orsini (1371); Poncello Orsini (1378); Tommaso Orsini (1383?); Giordano Orsini, iuniore (1405); Latino Orsini (1448); Cosma Orsini, O.S.B. (1480); Giovanni Battista Orsini (1483); Franciotto Orsini (1517); Flavio Orsini (1565); Alessandro Orsini (1615); and Virginio Orsini, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1641); and Domenico Orsini d'Aragona (1743).

Education. Studied dialectics and theology under Pietro Abelardo in Paris, 1138-1140; Arnaldo da Brescia and Guido di Castello, future cardinal and Pope Celestine II, were his condisciples.

Early life. In 1126, he became prior subdiaconorum of the patriarchal Lateran basilica. He defended his former teacher, Abelardo, at the Council of Sens in 1140, to the disgust of Bernard de Clairvaux, future saint.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin in the consistory of Ash Wednesday 1144. Participated in the papal election of 1144, in which Pope Lucius II was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between December 27, 1144 and February 14, 1145. Participated in the papal election of 1145, in which Pope Eugenius III was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between March 14, 1145 and June 7, 1153. Participated in the papal election of 1153, in which Pope Anastasius IV was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between July 23, 1153 and February 14, 1154. Participated in the papal election of 1154, in which Pope Adrian IV was elected. Legate in Spain twice, 1154-1156, to preach the crusade against the Saracens, end the fights between the princes and the bishops, and improve the discipline of the clergy; and 1172-1174, to end the dispute between the archbishops of Toledo and Braga; because of his knowledge and familiarity with the affairs of the peninsula, he was considered the expert on Spanish matters in the papal curia. Legate before Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa in 1158. Subscribed papal bulls issued between December 28, 1155 and May 23, 1159. Participated in the papal election of 1159, in which Pope Alexander III was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between November 7, 1159 and August 15, 1181. Legate in France, 1162-1165. Cardinal protodeacon in 1164. Participated in the papal election of 1181, in which Pope Lucius III was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between November 12, 1181 and May 13, 1184. Participated in the papal election of 1185, in which Pope Urban III was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between May 14, 1186 and October 13, 1187. Participated in the first papal election of 1187, in which Pope Gregory VIII was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between October 31 and December 11, 1187. Participated in the second papal election of 1187, in which Pope Clement III was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between December 23, 1187 and February 17, 1191. Participated in the papal election of 1191 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on April 10, 1191, at the Septizonium (1). Took the name Celestine III. Ordained a priest on Holy Saturday April 13, 1191. On the following day, Easter Sunday, he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Ottaviano, bishop of Ostia e Velletri; and crowned by Cardinal Graziano, protodeacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano. He created eleven cardinals in four consistories. Some sources indicate that, as his life was ending, he tried to resign the papacy and have Cardinal Giovanni di San Paolo, O.S.B., succeed him, but the cardinals did not accept it.

Death. January 8, 1198, Rome. Buried n the patriarchal Lateran basilica, "iuxta S. Mariam de Roposo", Rome.

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 52, no. 6; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 47-50; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1018-1020 and 1161-1166; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 134; Ilari, Annibale. "Celestino III". Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 249-250; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 184-186; Pfaff, Volkert. "Celestino III". Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 320-326; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, II, 7, 20, 90, 103, 146, 431, 493, 528 and 536.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English; biography, in German; biography, in English (Britannica); his image and biography, in English; biography, in German; his image and biography, in Italian; Pope Celestine III (1191-1198). Diplomat and pastor. Edited by John Doran Damian J. Smith. Ashgate Publishing Group, January 2009. (Church, Faith and Culture in the Medieval West); his image with Emperor Heinrich VI, from the coronation sequence of "Liber ad honorem Augusti" of Petrus of Ebulo, 1196; legendary coronation of Emperor Heinrich VI by Pope Celestine III; Celestine approves the foundation of the Teutonic Knights; fresco by Domenico di Bartolo (1442) in S. Maria della Scala, Siena, representing Pope Celestine III granting the administration of the hospital to the lay brothers before the cathedral canons in 1193; four engravings, Bildarchiv Austria, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; and his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic.

(1) Some sources say that he was elected on March 30, 1191.

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(13) 4. GREGORIO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of Ash Wednesday 1144; his deaconry is not known; he is mentioned as cardinal deacon of the Holy Roman Church (1). Participated in the papal election of 1144, in which Pope Lucius II was elected. Subscribed a bull issued by Pope Lucius II in 1144 in favor of the monastery of S. Benedetto, in Mantua. Participated in the papal election of 1145, in which Pope Eugenius III was elected.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 44.

(1) He may be the same as Cardinal Gregorio, whose deaconry is unknown (1141).

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