The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Eugenius III (1145-1153)
Consistory celebrated in 1150 (IV)


(18) 1. HUGHES, O.Cist. (?-1158)

Birth. (No date found), he probably was from the diocese of Beauvais, France.

Education. Entered the Order of the Cistercians. He was a disciple of Bernard de Clairvaux, future saint.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Abbot of the monastery of Trois-Fontaines, Châlos-sur-Marne, after May 9, 1147.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Ostia e Velletri, sees that were just united, in a consistory celebrated in 1150 (1). Consecrated (no information found). Subscribed papal bulls issued between April 14, 1150 and June 7, 1153; September 8, 1153 and November 30, 1154; December 19, 1154 and April 19, 1155 (2). Participated in the papal election of 1153, in which Pope Anastasius IV was elected. Participated in the papal election of 1154, in which Pope Adrian IV was elected.

Death. December 1, 1158, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Beatification. He appears as a blessed in the Cistercian Martyrolgy.

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 55, no. 11; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, ; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1046-1047; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, II, 137-138; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 137-138; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, II, 20 and 89 .

Link. Biography, in French, p. 137-138.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 137. Brixius, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181, p. 55, no. 11, says that he was created cardinal in 1151 or 1152.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 138. Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia, II, 89, says that he subscribed a papal bull for the last time on January 24, 1155.

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(19) 2. CONTI, Giovanni (?-1182)

Birth. (No date found), Sutri.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo in a consistory celebrated in 1150. Subscribed papal bulls issued between April 25, 1151 and May 4, 1153; September 22, 1153 and November 30, 1154; December 19, 1154 and April 29, 1159; November 7, 1159 and March 27, 1181. Participated in the papal election of 1153, in which Pope Anastasius IV was elected. Participated in the papal election of 1154, in which Pope Adrian IV was elected. Legate before Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa. Participated in the papal election of 1159, in which Pope Alexander III was elected. Cardinal primo prete in 1165. Legate before King Amalric I of Jerusalem. On his return from the Orient, he was named vicar of Rome and archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica in April 1178. Participated in the papal election of 1181, in which Pope Lucius III was elected.

Death. 1182 (1), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 55, no. 13; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, ; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1046, no. IX; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 138; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, II, 20, 89, 102 and 145.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 138, which adds that he died after thrity two years of cardinalate. Brixius, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181, p. 55, no. 13, says that he died before January 4, 1181, according to a letter of Pope Alexander III. Brixius adds that, as far as he can see, Cardinal Conti signed for the last time on September 26, 1180. Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia, II, 145, indicates that he signed papal bulls until March 27, 1181.

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(20) 3. GERARDO (?-1159)

Birth. (No date or place found). His name is also listed as Bernardo and Gherardo.

Education. No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Stefano al Monte Celio in a consistory celebrated in 1150 (1). Subscribed papal bulls issued between March 30, 1151 and June 16, 1153; December 9, 1153 and June 9, 1154; and January 20, 1155 and June 26, 1158. Participated in the papal election of 1153, in which Pope Anastasius IV was elected. Legate in Germany. Participated in the papal election of 1154, in which Pope Adrian IV was elected.

Death. Before September 1159, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 54, no. 6; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, ; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1047; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 138; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, II, 20, 90 and 102.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 138. Brixius, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181, p. 54, no. 6, says that he was probably promoted to the cardinalate on March 2, 1151.

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(21) 4. CENZIO (?-1158)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. He is also listed as Cynthius Romanus.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina in a consistory celebrated in 1150 (1). Subscribed papal bulls issued between March 1, 1152 and April 10, 1153; July 23, 1153 and March 19, 1154. Participated in the papal election of 1153, in which Pope Anastasius IV was elected. Legate in Germany.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina after March 19, 1154. Participated in the papal election of 1154, in which Pope Adrian IV was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between February 16 and November 30, 1154; and December 19, 1154 and June 13, 1157 (2).

Death. Before December 19, 1158, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 53-54, no. 4; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, ; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1047; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 138; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, II, 20 and 102.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 138. Brixius, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181, p. 53, no. 4, indicates that he was created cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro by March 2, 1151 and became cardinal priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina on February 21, 1152. He may be confused with Cardinal Cenzio, deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro (1150).
(2) The dates of the signing of the bull were taken from "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 138. Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia, p. 20 and 102, indicates that Cenzio, deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro, subscribed papal bulls between May 10, 1151 and February 20, 1152; Cenzio, priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, between April 7, 1152 and April 10, 1153; July 23, 1153 and March 19, 1154; Cenzio, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, between February 16, 1154 and November 30, 1154. Brixius, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181, p. 53-54, no. 4, says that he subscribed papal bulls as deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro between May 10, 1151 and February 20, 1152; as priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina between March 1, 1152 and March 30, 1154; and as bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina between April 18, 1154 and June 13, 1157

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(22) 5. BANDINELLI, Can. Reg. Lateranense, Rolando (ca. 1100/1105-1181)

Birth. Ca. 1100/1105, Siena. Son of Rainutius Bandinelli. His first name is also listed as Orlando and Laurentius.

Education. Joined the Canons Regular Lateranense. He obtained the title of magister.

Priesthood. Ordained in Pisa (no further information found). Professor of canon law at the University of Bologna, 1139-1142; during this time, he probably wrote his commentary to the Gratian Decree as part of (probably his) Summa Magistri Rolandi. Later, deacon and canon of the cathedral chapter of Pisa from 1141 until 1147. He became a close friend of Abbot Pier Bernardo Paganelli, O.Cist., future Pope Eugenius III.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano in the consistory of October 1150. Subscribed papal bulls issued between October 23 and December 17, 1150. Opted for the order of cardinals priests and the title of S. Marco in 1151. Subscribed papal bulls issued between March 30, 1151 and April 10, 1153. Named chancellor of the Holy Roman Church in 1153; he occupied the post until his election to the papacy. At this time, he drafted his "Sentences". Subscribed papal bulls issued between May 4 and June 16, 1153; September 8, 1153 and November 30, 1154; December 12, 1154 and September 11, 1157; December 30, 1157 and August 12, 1159. Participated in the papal election of 1153, in which Pope Anastasius IV was elected. Participated in the papal election of 1154, in which Pope Adrian IV was elected. He was one of the closest advisors of the pope; he identified himself with the pro-Norman and anti-imperial policies of Pope Adrian IV; he clashed with Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa at the Diet of Besançon in October 1157. Legate in Sicily. Participated in the papal election of 1159 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on September 7, 1159 at the patriarchal Vatican basilica (1). Took the name Alexander III. Consecrated on September 20, 1159, at Vicum Trestabernas, also called Ninpha, by Cardinal Ubaldo Allucingoli, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, assisted by other cardinal bishops. Crowned on that same day by Cardinal Odone Fattiboni, protodeacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro. He created sixty four cardinals in thirteen consistories. He convoked the Third Lateran Council in 1179; it enacted the decree Licet de vitanda, which established that to avoid future schisms, two-thirds of the votes should be required for the validity of the election to the pontificate. During his pontificate, he had to contend with four antipopes: Victor IV (1159-1164), Paschal III (1164-1168), Callistus III (1168-1178) and Innocent III (1179-1180).

Death. August 30, 1181, Civita Castellana. Buried in the right nave of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome.

Bibliography. Baldwin, Marshall W. Alexander III and the twelfth century. New York : Newman Press, 1968; Boso's life of Alexander III. Introd. by Peter Munz. Translated by G.M. Ellis. Totowa, N.J.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1973. Notes: Uniform Title: Life of Alexander III. Translated from the Liber Pontificalis (edition of L. Duchesne); Brezzi, Paolo ; Piazza, Andrea. "Alessandro III". Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 291-299; Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 56-57, no. 19; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 63-64; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1043 and 1071-1066; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 138; Ilari, Annibale. "Alessandro III". Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 42-43; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 176-177; Pacout, Marcel. Alexandre III: etude sur la conception du pouvoir pontifical dans sa pensée et dans son oeuvre. Paris : Librairie Philosophique J. Vrin, 1956; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, II, 20, 21, 90 and 103; Somerville, Robert. Pope Alexander III and the Council of Tours (1163): a study of ecclesiastical politics and institutions in the twelfth century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977.

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in English; his engraving, painting and biography, in English; his image and biography, in Italian; biography, in English; biography, in English; biography, in Italian; images of his life by Spinello Aretino, Palazzo dei Priori, Siena; his image by Spinello Aretino; his coronation also by Spinello Aretino; his statue, 18th century, curch of Sankt Joseph, Schöntal; his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; eight engravings, Bildarchiv Austria, Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his engraving, Biblioteca dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; another engraving; and his tomb, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome.

(1) According to Kelly, Oxford History of Popes, p. 176, "On Hadrian's death, while a handful of pro-imperial cardinals chose Cardinal Ottaviano, the great majority elected Orlando. There were violent scenes, for it had been agreed that the election should be unanimous, and Orlando had to seek refuge in the Vatican fortress next to St Peter's. On 20 Sept. he was consecrated as Alexander III at Ninfa, south-east of Velletri, by the bishop of Ostia; Ottaviano was consecrated as Victor IV at the imperial abbey of Farfa northeast of Rome on 4 Oct. The schism played into the emperor's hands; to resolve it he convened a council of mainly German and Italian bishops at Pavia in Feb. 1160 which endorsed Victor and excommunicated Alexander. The pope, who had already excommunicated Victor, replied (24 Mar.) by anathematizing Frederick; in Oct. the episcopates and monastic orders of most western countries, including Spain, met at Toulouse in the presence of Henry II of England (1154-89) and Louis VII of France (1137-79) and declared for Alexander.

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(23) 6. MORICOTTI, O.Cist., Errico (?-1179)

Birth. (No date found), Vico Pisano (1). His first name is also listed as Enrico and Arrigo; and his last name as Moricottus. Relative of Cardinal Guido Moricotti (1140).

Education. Entered the Order of the Cistercians in Clairvaux. He was a disciple of Bernard de Clairvaux, future saint.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Apostolic subdeacon in 1148. Abbot of the monastery of Ss. Vincenzo ed Atanasio, Rome.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo in a consistory celebrated in 1150. Subscribed papal bulls issued between April 25, 1151 and April 10, 1153; September 22, 1153 and November 30, 1154; December 19, 1154 and January 29, 1159; June19, 1162 and April 8, 1167. Participated in the papal election of 1153, in which Pope Anastasius IV was elected. Participated in the papal election of 1154, in which Pope Adrian IV was elected. Legate before King Guglielmo of Sicily. Twice legate before Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa, who imprisoned him in the first legation. Participated in the papal election of 1159, in which Pope Alexander III was elected. Legate in France, where he baptized the daughter of the king. Legate in England; he attended the Council of London and persuaded Thomas Becket to accept the see of Canterbury.

Death. 1179, Rome. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 54-55, no. 10; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, ; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1047-1048; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, II, 139-141; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 138; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, II, 20, 89, 102 and 145.

Links. Biographical entry, in Italian, 10th on the page; biography, in Italian, in Angelo Fabroni, Memorie istoriche di più uomini illustri pisani, (2 vols. Presso Ranieri Prosperi, 1791), p. 117-138; biography, in French, p. 139-141.

(1) Du Chesne, Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois, II, 139-141, erroneously says that he was French and calls him Henri Moricot.

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(24) 7. MERCONE, Giovanni (?-1169)

Birth. (No date found), Pisa. His last name is also listed as Morrone.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. He was archdeacon of Tyre under Fulcherius, archbishop of Tyre (1134 to 1146), and later patriarch of Jerusalem.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti (Equitii) in a consistory celebrated in 1150. Subscribed papal bulls issued between May 27 and August 1, 1152; September 8, 1153 and October 19, 1154; December 19, 1154 and May 30, 1159. Participated in the papal election of 1153, in which Pope Anastasius IV was elected. Participated in the papal election of 1154, in which Pope Adrian IV was elected. Participated in the election of Antipope Victor IV in 1159; and joined his obedience. Subscribed bulls issued between October-November 1159 and June 9, 1161. Was interdicted by Pope Alexander III in 1161. He went to France to obtain support for the cause of the Antipope Victor IV and was his chied advisor. Chancellor between April 5, 1162 and August 6, 1167. Subscribed the bulls issued by Antipope Victor IV on April 14 and 18, 1164. Participated in the election of Antipope Paschal III on April 22, 1164, in which he had an important role. He died without reconciling with the legitimate Pope Alexander III.

Death. 1169, from a horse fall, near Viterbo. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 55, no. 14; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 73-74; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1048; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 138; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, II, 20, 90, 102, 418 and 426.

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(25) 8. CENZIO (?-1152 or 1154-1159)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro in a consistory celebrated in 1150 (1). Subscribed papal bulls issued between May 10, 1151 and February 20, 1152.

Death. Shortly after February 20, 1152 or during the pontificate of Adrian IV (1154-1159), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, ; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1049; "Essai de liste énérale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 138; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, II, 20.

(1) He may be confused with cardinal Cenzio, priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina (1150).

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(26) 9. GIOVANNI (?-1154)

Birth. (No date found), Naples.

Education. (No information found)

Early life. He was attached to the church of S. Prassede in Rome.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of Ss. Sergio e Bacco in a consistory celebrated in 1150. Subscribed papal bulls issued between October 23, 1150 and June 16, 1153; September 22, 1153 and November 30, 1154; December 19, 1154 and March 12, 1158. Participated in the papal election of 1153, in which Pope Anastasius IV was elected. Participated in the papal election of 1154, in which Pope Adrian IV was elected.

Death. After December 4, 1154, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 77; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1049; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 138-139; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, II, 20, 90 and 103.

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(27) 10. SYLVESTER, O.S.B. (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines).

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Abbot of the monastery of Subiaco.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest or deacon in a consistory celebrated in 1150; his title or deaconry is not known.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 77; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1050; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 139.

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(28) 11. JEAN, O.S.B.Clun. (?-?)

Birth. (No date found), France.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Ordained (no further information found). Abbot of the monastery of Déols, Bourges (1).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in a consistory celebrated in 1150; his deaconry is not known.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 77-78; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1050; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, II, 50-51; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 139.

Link. Biography, in French, p. 50-51.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 139. Du Chesne, Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois, II, 50, says that he was abbot of the monastery of Dol.

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(29) 12. ARDIZZONE (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). His name is also listed as Arditius, Arditio, Ardizio and Ardizzon.

Education. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cumes (or Cama). Consecration (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in a consistory celebrated in 1150; his title is not known. He was present at the peace negotiations between Pope Eugenius III and Friedrich I, king of the Romans, future emperor.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 78; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1050; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 139.

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(30) 13. MATTEO (?-before 1166)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest or deacon in a consistory celebrated in 1150; his title or deaconry is not known. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica in 1153.

Death. Before 1166, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 78; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1050; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 139.

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(31) 14. CREMA, Guido da (ca. 1110-1168)

Birth. Ca. 1110, Crema, Lombardy. Of the counts of Camisano. Nephew of Cardinal Giovanni da Crema (1117).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Eustachio in a consistory celebrated in 1150. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Maria in Trastevere. Subscribed papal bulls issued between March 19, 1158 and May 23, 1159. Legate before Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa. In 1159 joined the obedience of Antipope Victor IV. Subscribed bulls issued between October-November 1159 and 1163. Organized synods in England and France in favor of the antipope. Pope Alexander III interdicted him. Subscribed the bulls issued by Antipope Victor IV on April 14 and 18, 1164. Participated in the election of Antipope Paschal III on April 22, 1164.

Antipapcy. At the death of Antipope Victor IV, in Lucca, on April 20, 1164, Raynald, archbishop of Cologne, imperial chancellor and vicar for Italy, on his own accord, had Cardinal da Crema elected successor of the antipope on April 22, 1164. He took the name Paschal III and was consecrated in Lucca by Henri, bishop of Liège. At the strong request of Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa he proceeded to canonize Charlemagne on December 29, 1165; the canonization was never recognized by the Church. Enthroned in the patriarchal Vatican basilica on July 22, 1167. On the following July 30, he crowned, with a golden circle, Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa, who had already been crowned by Pope Adrian IV. He created ten pseudocardinals.

Death. September 20, 1168, of cancer and unrepentant, Rome. Buried in the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 54, no. 9; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, ; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1051-1052; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 139; Del Re, Niccolò. Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. ; Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, ; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 178-179; Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab conditio Ecclesia. Ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1956. 2 v. Reprint. Originally published : Lipsiae : Veit et comp., 1885-1888. Original t.p. included : Regesta pontificum Romanorum ab condita ecclesia : ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII. Editionem secundam correctam et auctam edidit Philippus Jaffè ; auspiciis Gulielmi Wattenbach; curaverunt S. Loewenfeld, F. Kaltenbrunner, P. Ewald, II, 102 and 418.

Links. Biographical entry, in English; biography, in English (Britannica); biography, in French; biography, in German; I Conti di Camisano, in Italian, second item on the page; and his engraving.

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