The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Alexander III (1159-1181)
Consistory of December 15, 1165 (III)
Celebrated in Rome


(14) 1. ERMANNO (?-ca. 1170)

Birth. (No date or place found). His name is also listed as Hermann.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Subdeacon and apostolic scriptor in the last years of the pontificate of Pope Adrian IV. He wrote the papal bulls issued between April 29 and May 30, 1159. Subdeacon of the Holy Roman Church and apostolic notary from October 15, 1159 to November 19, 1165; because of this, he was called maestro. Vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church from 1159 to 1166.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Susanna in the consistory of December 15, 1165 (or at the beginning of 1166). Subscribed papal bulls issued between April 8 and May 4, 1166.

Death. Ca. 1170, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 62, no. 7; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 108-109; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1087; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 144, no. 14.

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(15) 2. GALDINO (1096/1100-1176)

Birth. 1100, Milan. Of the Valvassi della Sala family. He is listed as Galdinus; as Galdimus; as Galdino della Sala; and as Galdino Valvassi.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Archdeacon and chancellor of the cathedral of Milan. He was called from Benevento to Rome, where Pope Alexander III had recently returned (November 1165) from his exile in France, and was promoted to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Sabina in the consistory of December 15, 1165. He remained in Rome for the entire year 1166.

Episcopate. At the death of Archbishop Uberto Pirovani of Milan on March 27, 1166, Pope Alexander III named him successor of the late archbishop. He was consecrated by the pope on April 18, 1166, second Sunday of Easter. The new archbishop, as papal legate, dressed as a pilgrim, traveled to Milan, where he arrived on September 5, 1167; he was triumphantly received at the basilica of S. Ambrogio, whose monks had recognized, before Cardinal Galdino's arrival, Pope Alexander III as the legitimate pontiff, rejecting Antipope Victor IV. On December 1, 1167, the Veronese and Lombard leagues united; and Lodi, until then loyal to the Ghibellines, allied itself with Milan; Cardinal Galdino obtained that the people from Lodi abandoned Antipope Paschal III and elected, on March 28, 1168, Alberto, provost of Rivolta, as their bishop, replacing Alberico di Merlino, who had been excommunicated for supporting the antipope and Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa. After the departure from Italy of the emperor (March 1168), other Lombard cities such as Novara, Vercelli, and Como, entered a league with Milan; also, the inhabitants of Belforte (Varese) and Seprio, abandoned the emperor and swore on March 20, 1168 to place themselves at the disposition of the cardinal and the Milanese consuls. On March 1, 1169, the cardinal induced the clergy of Monza to recognize the legitimate pope; in that same year, the noble matrons of Milan contributed the funds to rebuild the church of S. Maria Maggiore (duomo). In 1170, Cardinal Galdino had elected Guala, supporter of the legitimate pope, as bishop of Bergamo, in place of Gherardo, who was a schismatic; in that same year, he elected Catholic bishops for Vercelli and Turin; a papal brief of March 1170, named him papal legate before the cities of the Lombard League. In 1175, at the request of the cardinal, of the suffragan bishops and of the rectors of the Lombard League, Pope Alexander III instituted the new diocese of Alessandria, making it a suffragan see of Milan; in that same year, the Milanese forced the Pavesi to pay eighteen thousand lire of their currency as compensation for the damages caused to the major church of Milan. Cardinal Galdino was a tireless preacher of the orthodox doctrine against the heresy of the Cátari, favorite of the schism provoked and maintained for many years by Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa.

Death. April 18, 1176, Milan, while in the pulpit in the church of S. Tecla (then metropolitan cathedral) preaching against the Cátari. Buried in the church of S. Tecla, Milan. When Pope Martin V consecrated the altar of the metropolitan cathedral of Milan in 1418, which was under construction, in the beautiful central window of the apse, Saint Ambrose and Saint Galdino were included in adoration of Christ, unconquered Sun. In 1461, due to the demolition of that church, Archbishop Carlo I da Forlì of Milan transported his remains to the church of S. Maria Iemale (current cathedral). Cardinal Carlo Borromeo, archbishop of Milan, placed his remains, with other relics, in grand altar of the crypt in 1578. In 1940, Cardinal Alfredo Ildefonso Schuster, O.S.B., archbishop of Milan, recomposed the remains and placed them under the altar dedicated to "Virgo potens" in the metropolitan cathedral.

Canonization. He was canonized by Pope Alexander III. His feast is celebrated in the Roman Martyrology on April 18, with the title of cardinal and the mention that he rendered his soul to God while preaching against the heretics. On October 16, 1977, on the fourth centennial of the dedication of the metropolitan cathedral, Cardinal Giovanni Colombo, archbishop of Milan, delivered a homily in which he referred to Galdino, placing him between the two great fathers of the Milanese church, Saint Ambrogio and Saint Charles Borromeo (1). His first biographer was the monk Ilarione.

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 60, no. 4; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 109-111; Cattaneo, Enrico. "Galdino della Sala, cardinale arcivescovo di Milano", Contributi dell'Istituto di storia medioevale in memoria di Sergio Mochi Onory. Milano : 1972, II, 368-; Cazzani, Eugenio. Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano. Nuova ed./ a cura di Angelo Majo, 2. ed. Milano : Massimo : NED, 1996. Note: Originally published 1955, now enlarged and updated, p. 138-141; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1087-1088; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 144-145, no. 15; Majo, Angelo. Storia della chiesa ambrosiana. 5 vols. 2nd ed. Milano : NED, 1983-1986, I, 201-206 and 234; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LXXXVIII, 82-82; Palestra, Ambrogio. "Ricerche sul culto di san Galdino", in Ambrosius, XLII (1966), 92-98; Rimoldi, Antonio, "Galdino (S.)". Bibliotheca sanctorum. 12 vols. Roma : Istituto Giovanni XXIII, 1964, V, 1359-1360

Links. Biographical data, in English, Saints.SQPN.com; biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; Cronologia di Milano dal 1151 al 1200 by Maria Grazia Tolfo, in Italian (references to the cardinal are on September 1162, April 18, 1166 and September 5, 1167; in 1168 and 1170; and on April 10, 1176); and his portrait, Quadreria Arcivescovile, collezione Erba Odescalchi, Milan, eighth row, fourth picture; Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Milano (III-XXI secolo), in Italian, archdiocese of Milan; Galdino. Arcivescovo di Milano by Domenico Agasso jr, Vatican Insider, 17/04/2014.

(1) This were Cardinal Colombo's words, taken from Majo, Storia della chiesa ambrosiana, I, 206:
"Nella Cattedrale diroccata dalle truppe del Barbarossa, il santo arcivescovo Galdino della Sala trovr gli accenti per rianimare i cittadini umiliati, per incoraggiare la ricostruzione di Milano distrutta, per organizzare un ampio ed efficiente servizio di assistenza a favore del popolo prostrato nello squallore. Stremato da questa mmpresa, proprio nella cattedrale, mentre attendeva con la consueta passione al ministero della parola, trovr la morte il 18 aprile 1176, quaranta giorni prima che fosse combattuta sui campi di Legnano la vittoriosa battaglia per le libertà comunali ".

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(16) 3. RANIERO (?-before 1178)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Regnier.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Eusebio in the consistory of December 15, 1165.

Death. Before 1178, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 145, no. 16.

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(17) 4. TEODINO, O.S.B.Cas. (?-1166)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictine) in Monte Cassino.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Elected abbot of Monte Cassino; occupied the post for seven months, October 1166 until September 14, 1167.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 15, 1165; his title is unknown.

Death. 1166, of the plague, (no place found). Buried in Monte Cassino.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 111-112; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1088-1089; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 145, no. 17.

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(18) 5. BONO, Can. Reg. of Santa Maria of Reno, Pietro de (?-1187)

Birth. (No date found), Verona. He is also listed as Pietro Gaetani da Pisa, Pietro di Verona and Petrus Bononiensis.

Education. Joined the Canons Regular of Santa Maria of Reno, Bologna.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro in the consistory of December 15, 1165. Subscribed papal bulls issued between March 18, 1166 and August 14, 1173. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of Susanna between September 21 and 28, 1173. Subscribed papal bulls issued between September 28, 1173 and August 15, 1181; November 5, 1181 and May 13, 1184; May 14, 1186 and October 13, 1187; October 31 to November 11, 1187. He was one of the seven cardinals present at the abjuration of Emperor Friedrich III Barbarossa in Venice in 1177. Participated in the papal election of 1181, in which Pope Lucius III was elected. Participated in the papal election of 1185, in which Pope Urban III was elected. Participated in the first papal election of 1187, in which Pope Gregory VIII was elected. Legate in Sicily with Cardinal Manfredo.

Death. December 11, 1187 (1), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 65, no. 26; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 113-114; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1089-1090; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 145, no. 18.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 145; Brixius, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181, p. 65, no.26, says that according to the necrology of S. Maria of Reno, he died on November 20, 1187; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 1134, he participated in the second conclave of 1187, which took place on December 17 to 19, 1187.

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(19) 6. ERMANNO (?-ca. 1170)

Birth. (No date or place found). His name is also listed as Hermann.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria in the consistory of December 15, 1165. Subscribed a papal bull issued on March 18, 1166; and another one issued on April 28, 1166, at the Lateran palace, in favor of the church and monastery of S. Clemente dell'Isola, Pescara.

Death. Ca. 1170, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 62, no. 7; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 139; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1103; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 145, no. 19.

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(20) 7. BONIFAZIO (?-ca. 1170)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano in the consistory of December 15, 1165 (1).

Death. Ca. 1170, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 98; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1070; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 145, no. 20.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 145; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 2, 98, indicates that he was created cardinal by Pope Adrian IV and manifested himself as a strong supporter of Pope Alexander III against Antipope Victor IV; Cardella also says that is amazing not to find the name of the cardinal among the participants in the election of Pope Alexander III in Chacón's catalog of electors; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 1070, also says that he was promoted by Pope Adrian IV.

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