The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Alexander III (1159-1181)
Consistory of 1168 (V)
Celebrated in Beneveto


(22) 1. GIOVANNI, O.S.B. (?-1177)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Johannes IV).

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines).

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Abbot of the monastery of S. Sofia in Benevento from 1142 until his death. In 1167, as abbot of S. Sofia, he presented a complain, before Pope Alexander III, in Benevento, against the abbot of the monastery of S. Fiovanni in Lama.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Sisto in the consistory celebrated in Benevento in 1168. He appears for the first time as cardinal priest in a private document issued in September 1168. Subscribed a papal bull of January 16, 1169.

Death. 1177, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 63 no. 12; Ganzer, Klaus. Die entwicklung des auswärtigen kardinalats im hohen mittelater ; ein beitrag zur geschichte des kardinalkollegiums vom 11.bis 13. jahrhundert. Tügingen : Niemeyer, 1963, p. 119, no. 47; Loud, G. A. The Latin Church in Norman Italy. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2007, p. 241.

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(23) 2. RAINALDO, O.S.B.Cas. (?-1188)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Rainaldus, Raynaldus and Raynald.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) at the monastery of Montecassino.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory celebrated in Benevento in 1168; his deaconry is not known.

Episcopate. About the same time of his promotion to the cardinalate, he was elected bishop of Gaeta; the exact date of election is unknown, either 1166/1167 or January 1169. He appears as "cardinal-deacon of the Holy Roman Church and elect of Gaeta" in a private privilege he issued in January 1169 in favor of the monastery of S. Teodoro in Gaeta. Consecrated, shortly before March 29, 1170. After receiving the episcopal consecration, he resigned his cardinalitial dignity, as was customary at the time. In March 1171, he was promoted to the metropolitan see of Bari. On 24 November 1172, the archbishop of Bari granted a privilege to the bishop of Giovinazzo (1). In August 1176, he witnessed King William II of Sicily's charter endowing Monreale. In February 1177, he was present at the wedding of William II, king of Sicily to Joanna of England. He attended the Third Lateran Council in 1179, during which the decree Licet de vitanda, concerning papal elections, was enacted.

Death. February 4, 1188, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, p. 856 and 881; Ganzer, Klaus. Die entwicklung des auswärtigen kardinalats im hohen mittelater ; ein beitrag zur geschichte des kardinalkollegiums vom 11.bis 13. jahrhundert. Tügingen : Niemeyer, 1963, p. 118-119, no. 46; Loud, G. A. The Latin Church in Norman Italy. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2007, p. 239.

(1) According to Ganzer, Die entwicklung des auswärtigen kardinalats im hohen mittelater, p. 119, the document is signed "Ego Raynaldus Dei gratia Barensis Archiepiscopus et Canusinus''. The same source indicates that at the Lateran Council of 1179 he signed as: "Rainaldus Barensis archiepiscopus''.

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