The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Alexander III (1159-1181)
Consistory of December 1178 (XI)
Celebrated in Frascati


(51) 1. PAVIA, O.S.B., Pietro da (?-1189)

Birth. (No date found), Pavia. He is also listed as Pietro only.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) in Mantua.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Frascati in the consistory of December 1178. Subscribed papal bulls issued between May 4 and July 27, 1179; February 18 and July 14, 1182. Participated in the papal election of 1181, in which Pope Lucius III was elected. Vicar of Rome from 1182 until the return of Pope Clement III in 1188. He was present at the absolution of King William of Scotland given by Pope Lucius III at the Lateran palace. Participated in the papal election of 1185, in which Pope Urban III was elected. Participated in the first papal election of 1187, in which Pope Gregory VIII was elected. Participated in the second papal election of 1187, in which Pope Clement III was elected.

Death. 1189, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 65, no. 23; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 123; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. ; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 148.

Link. Biography, in Italian.

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(52) 2. ROGERIO, O.S.B.Cas. (?-ca. 1184)

Birth. (No date or place found). His name is also listed as Rogerius and Ruggiero.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) in Montecassino.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Eusebio in the consistory of December 1178.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Benevento in 1179. Consecrated (no information found). Did not participate in the papal election of 1181, in which Pope Lucius III was elected. On November 2, 1182, he was present at the dedication of the church of S. Maria di Montevergine.

Death. Ca. 1184 (1), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 123-125; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1095; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 148.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 148; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 2, 124; and Francesco Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa (Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888), p. , say that he died in 1212; Pius Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), p. 672, says that he died in 1221.

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(53) 3. ANJOU, Mathieu d' (?-1183 or 1184)

Birth. (No date found), Angers, France. He is also listed as Mathieu d'Angers (Angers of the capital of Anjou).

Education. Obtained the title of magister.

Early life. Professor in Paris until his promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Marcello in the consistory of December 1178. Subscribed papal bulls issued between January 2, 1179 and May 24, 1181; November 5, 1181 and July 14, 1182. He participated in the Third Lateran Council in 1179. Participated in the papal election of 1181, in which Pope Lucius III was elected. He was present at the absolution of King William of Scotland given by Pope Lucius III at the Lateran palace.

Death. In 1183 or 1184, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 64, no. 18; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 126; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1096; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, II, 158-159; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 148.

Link. Biography, in French, p. 158-59.

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(54) 4. BOSHAM, Herbert of (ca. 1120 -1186)

Birth. Ca. 1120, Bosham, Sussex, England. His father became a priest after Herbert's birth. His first name is also listed as Eribert and Herebert; and his last name as Bossenhan.

Education. Studied canon law under Lombardo da Piacenza at the Cistercian monastery of Potigny, France. Obtained a doctorate in theology at Oxford University. He was a Hebraist, theologian, philosopher, poet and orator.

Early life. Before 1157, he entered the household of Thomas Becket, chancellor of England, and became his clerk and later his chancellor. After Thomas became archbishop of Canterbury, he was his closest and most loyal supporter; he stood by the archbishop at Clarendom and at Northampton during the controversies with King Henry II of England; they escaped together in one horse; he arranged the escape of Archbishop Becket to the continent, accompanied him in exile and undertook several dangerous mission on his behalf; he return to England with the archbishop; when the latter was assassinated, he had been sent in a mission to France (by the archbishop) and, much to his regret, was not present at his martyrdom. Exiled by the king, he went to Rome.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of in the consistory of December 1178 (1); his deaconry is not known.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Benevento in 1179; he refused the promotion. Did not participate in the papal election of 1181, in which Pope Lucius III was elected. He wrote a biography of Archbishop Becket between 1184 and 1186; he also wrote Liber Melorum, in praise of the martyred archbishop. Did not participate in the papal election of 1185, in which Pope Urban III was elected.

Death. 1186 (2), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Bellenger, Dominc Aidan and Stella Fletcher. Princes of the church. A history of the English cardinals. Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire : Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2001, p. 8; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 121-123; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1097-1098; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 148; Heseltine, George Coulehan. The English cardinals. With some account of those of other English-speaking countries. London : Burns Oates & Washbourne, 1931, p. 14-15; Williams, Robert Folkestone. Lives of the English cardinals, including historical notices of the papal court, from Nicholas Breakspear (Pope Adrian IV) to Thomas Wolsey, Cardinal Legate. 2 vols. Westmead, England : Gregg International, 1969. Responsibility: London, Wm. H. Allen & Co., 1868, I, 199-200.

Link. Biography, in English; another biography, in English; Herbert of Bosham, biographer of St. Thomas Becket, in English.

(1) Several sources deny, doubt or ignore altogether his promotion to the cardinalate.
(2) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 2, 123; and "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 148; several sources say that nothing is known about him after 1189.

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(55) 5. JACOPO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found). His name is also listed as Iacobus.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin in the consistory of December 1178. Subscribed a papal bull issued on March 30, 1179 (1) in favor of Errico, bishop of Imola.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 139; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1102; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 148.

(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 2, 139; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 1102; and "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 148, indicate that the bull was signed in April 1179.

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