The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Alexander III (1159-1181)
Consistory of March 1178 (IX)
Celebrated in Frascati


(40) 1. PIETRO (?-1178)

Birth. (No date found), Licate.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Cecilia in the consistory of March 1178 (1). Subscribed a papal bull issued on May 25, 1178.

Death. Shortly after May 25, 1178, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 97; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1069; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 147.

(1) This is according to Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 147; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 2, 97; and Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 1069, indicate that he was created cardinal by Pope Adrian IV in 1159.

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(41) 2. PIETRO (?-before 1190?)

Birth. (No date or place found)

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina in the consistory of March 1178. Subscribed a papal bull on May 30, 1178. He did not participate in any of the conclaves celebrated during his cardinalate.

Death. Before 1190 (?), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 147.

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(42) 3. MATTEO, Can. Reg. of S. Frediano of Lucca (?-1182)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. Joined the Canons Regular of S. Frediano of Lucca.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria Nuova in the consistory of March 1178.Subscribed papal bulls issued between March 28, 1178 and August 15, 1181; and November 5 and December 31, 1181. Participated in the papal election of 1181, in which Pope Lucius III was elected. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli at the beginning of 1182.

Death. Before December 17, 1182 (1), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 64, no. 19; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 127; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1096; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 147.

(1) This is according to Brixius, Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181, p. 64, no. 19. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 147, says that he died before November 1185.

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(43) 4. GRAZIANO (?-1203)

Birth. (No date found), Pisa. Nephew of Pope Eugenius III. He is also listed as Graziano da Pisa.

Education. He obtained the title of magister.

Early life. Subdeacon of the Holy Roman Church. Vice-chancellor from 1168 to 1178. Sent before King Henry II of England; he presented such a reasonable resistance to the threats of the monarch that he received the praise of Archbishop Thomas Becket of Canterbury. On his return, he was promoted to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano in the consistory of March 1178. Subscribed papal bulls issued between March 28, 1878 and May 24, 1181; November 5, 1181 and November 11, 1185; December 9, 1185 and October 13, 1187; October 31 and November 11, 1187; December 23, 1187 and December 7, 1190; May 2, 1191 and December 3, 1197; and March 13, 1198 and May 30, 1203. Legate a latere in England to enact the interdict against the kingdom because of the assassination of Archbishop Becket. He accompanied Pope Alexander III in his travels. Participated in the papal election of 1181, in which Pope Lucius III was elected. Participated in the papal election of 1185, in which Pope Urban III was elected. Participated in the first papal election of 1187, in which Pope Gregory VIII was elected. Participated in the second papal election of 1187, in which Pope Clement III was elected. Participated in the papal election of 1191, in which Pope Celestine III was elected. Cardinal protodeacon in 1191; as such, he crowned new Pope Celestine III. Participated in the papal election of 1198, in which Pope Innocent III was elected; as cardinal protodeacon, he crowned the new pope.

Death. 1203, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 127-128; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1096-1097; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 147.

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(44) 5. ARDOINO (?-ca. 1182)

Birth. (No date or place found)

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata in the consistory of March 1178. Subscribed papal bulls issued between July 4 and September 6, 1178. Did not participate in the papal election of 1181, in which Pope Lucius III was elected.

Death. Ca. 1182, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 147.

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