The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Alexander III (1159-1181)
Consistory of March 1179 (XII)


(56) 1. MARSIAC, O.Cist., Henri de (ca. 1136-1188)

Birth. Ca. 1136, Château de Marcy, near Cluny, Burgundy, France. Of a noble family. His last name is also listed as Marsac, Marsica, Monocule, Maray and Marcy.

Education. Entered the Order of the Cistercians, in Clairvaux, around 1156, when Roberto de Brugis was the second abbot of that monastery.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Abbot of Hautecombe, Savoy, in 1160. Seventh abbot of Clairvaux in 1176. In 1778, he accompanied Cardinal Pietro of S. Sabina in his legation to Toulouse to preach against the Albigenses. He refused the promotion to the see of Toulouse and the generalate of his order. He built a tomb for St. Bernard in the abbatial church of Clairvaux. Participated in the Third Lateran Council at the request of Pope Alexander III, who retained him in the papal court and promoted him to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Albano in the consistory of March 1179. Consecrated on March 14, 1179 by Pope Alexander III at the church of Sainte-Marie Narzissa. Subscribed papal bulls issued between May 4 and December 8, 1179; August 1182 and November 11, 1185; December 9, 1185 and October 13, 1187; October 31 and November 11, 1187. Legate of Pope Alexander III in France. Participated in the papal election of 1181, in which Pope Lucius III was elected. He was present at the death of Pope Lucius III in Verona in 1185. Participated in the papal election of 1185, in which Pope Urban III was elected; he declined the election to the papacy. He was present at the death of Pope Urban III in Ferrara in 1187. Participated in the first papal election of 1187; he refused the election to the papacy in favor of Cardinal Alberto di Morra, Can. Reg. Prem. of Saint-Martin of Laon, who became Pope Gregory VIII. Legate in Germany before Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa to promote the crusade. Participated in the second papal election of 1187, in which Pope Clement III was elected.

Death. July 4 (or 14), 1188. Buried in Arras; later, his remains were transferred to the abbey of Clairvaux and buried between the tombs of St. Bernard and St. Malachi (1)

Beatification. He was inscribed in the Cistercian and Gallican Martyrologies and his feast is celebrated on July 14.

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 60, no. 6; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 128-131; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1097-1098; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, II, 150154; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 148.

Links. Biography, in French, p. 150-154; biography, in English; biography, in Latin, under "B. Henricus S. R. E. Cardinalis"; and his portrait, cathedral of Saint-Pierre,Troyes, Francia.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 1098:

Subjacet huic lapidi quondam notissimus orbi
Abbas Henricus Romano cardine dignus.
Lubrica qui vani contemnens gaudia mundi,
Terrae membra dedit, coelis animamque remisit.

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(57) 2. CHAMPAGNE, Guillaume de (1135-1202)

Birth. 1135, Champagne, France. Fourth child of Thibaud de Blois, count of Champagne, and Mathilde de Carinthie; brother of the queen of France, Adèle (or Alix) de Blois, wife of King Louis VII. Uncle of King Philippe-Auguste of France. First cousin of King Henry II of England. He is also listed as Guillaume de Blois. He was called Guillaume aux blanches mains and Guglielmo albimano.

Education. From his infancy he was destined to an ecclesiastical career. He was educated by Bernard de Clairvaux, future saint. Later, he studied in Paris under Pietro Lombardo.

Early life. Canon of Saint-Quiriace de Provins. Provost of the cathedral of Soissons. Provost of the cathedral of Troyes. Dean of the cathedral chapter of Meaux, 1163-1165.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Chartres, by the unanimous vote of the cathedral chapter, on January 13, 1165; kept the administration of the see until August 8, 1176; received the diaconate from Hugues de Toucy, archbishop of Sens, but was not consecrated bishop until later. Attended the council of Beauvais in 1166. Administrator of Pavia in 1166 (?). Elected by the cathedral chapter to the metropolitan see of Sens in 1168; consecrated on December 21, 1168, by Maurice de Silly, bishop de Paris; he kept the see until his election to that of Reims. By order of Pope Alexander III, he placed an interdict over England and a papal bull, dated May 14, 1172, in Frascati, confirmed this sentence. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Reims in 1176; enthroned on August 8, 1176.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Sabina in the consistory of March 1179. Subscribed papal bulls issued on April 8 and 10, 1179; October 1 and December 11, 1184; and December 23, 1201. Pope Alexander III granted him and his successor the exclusive privilege of crowning the kings of France. Tutor of his nephew Philippe-Auguste, whom he consecrated king of France in 1180. Minister of State of France. Legate of Pope Alexander III in England before King Henry II. Did not participate in the papal election of 1181, in which Pope Lucius III was elected. In 1182, he granted a charter, called charte Willelmine, to the bourgeois of Reims (1); it remained in force for more than five centuries. He also promulgated the law of Beaumont (2). Participated in the papal election of 1185, in which Pope Urban III was elected. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica from 1185 until 1198. Participated in the first papal election of 1187, in which Pope Gregory VIII was elected. Participated in the second papal election of 1187, in which Pope Clement III was elected. Participated in the papal election of 1191, in which Pope Celestine III was elected. Cardinal protoprete in 1191 (?). In 1193, he declared null the marriage of King Philippe-Auguste with Ingeborg of Denmark, for which he was reprimanded by Pope Celestine III. Participated in the papal election of 1198, in which Pope Innocent III was elected. Legate in Cologne and in France.

Death. September 7, 1202, Laon. Buried before the main altar of the metropolitan cathedral of Sainte-Marie, Reims.

Bibliography. Anselme de Sainte-Marie ; Dufourny, Honoré Caille ; Ange de Sainte-Rosalie ; Simplicien. Histoire généalogique et chronologique de la maison royale de France, des pairs, grands officiers de la couronne & de la maison du roy: & des anciens barons du royaume: avec les qualitez, l'origine, le progres & les armes de leurs familles; ensemble des statuts & le catalogue des chevaliers, cammandeurs, & officiers de l'ordre du S. Esprit. Le tout dresse sur titres originaux, sur les registres des des chartes du roy, du parlement, de la chambre des comptes & du chatelet des Paris ... & d'autres cabinets curieux. 9 vols. Paris : La Compagnie des libraires, 3. éd., rev., corrigée & augmentée par les soins du P. Ange & du P. Simplicien, 1726-1733, II, 3 and 840; Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 67, no. 34; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 134-138; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1101-1102; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, II, 165-174; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 148; Mathorez, Jules. Guillaume aux Blanches-Mains, évêque de Chartres. Chartres : Revue des archives historiques du diocèse de Chartres, 1912.

Links. Biography, in Italian; his engraving and biography, in French, p. 165-174; biography, in French; biography, in French; his genealogy, A3 D1 E2 F4; his genealogy, in French, p. 3; another genealogy, in French, p. 840; his image in an illuminated manuscript (14th or 15th century), receiving the book La Bible Historiale by Guiard de Moulins; his image in an illuminated manuscript representing the coronation of King Philippe II August of France; three engravings, Bildarchiv Austria, Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.

(1) The document remained the foundation of their freedoms for five centuries. It recognized freedoms that were essentially judicial: they gave the right to a trial by twelve aldermen elected each year on Ash Wednesday; it also recognized the right of récréance (bail before a judgement). The archbishop retained jurisdiction for the crimes of theft, murder and treason. Their election and their knowledge of local customs were the strength of the aldermen but Cardinal Guillaume had been skillful and mindful of his authority: he did not give a real communal charter (the word is absent and there is no association vowed) and he remained the guarantor of law with the king and the pope, who confirmed the charter.
(2) The document was a charter governing the enfranchisement of many municipalities in the north-east of France, part of southern Belgium and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. It was first enacted in 1182 by Cardinal Guillaume de Champagne and was used until the French Revolution in 1789 in France and in Belgium it was repealed in 1775 by Empress Marie-Therese of Austria. This law enfranchises the people in all localities from the servility to the lord. It allowed the election of managers of the city (magistrates) by the people, every year on the day of Pentecost. The law also set fees vis-à-vis those who depended on the land.

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(58) 3. ROBERTO (?-before 1188)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Pudenziana in the consistory of March 1179. He subscribed a papal bull issued in favor of Alloderio, abbot of the monastery of S. Geronzio in the county of Cagli; and another two issued in April 1179. Did not participate in the papal election of 1181, in which Pope Lucius III was elected.

Death. Before 1188, (no place found). Buried (no information found)

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 139; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1102; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 148-149.

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(59) 4. GALANDO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal in the consistory of March 1179; his title or deaconry is unknown. Legate in Denmark; he was going to impose the pallium on Bishop Absalon of Roschild but the prelate, as a sign profound humility, declined; he obliged the bishop to assume the see of Lunden.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 139; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1102-1103; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 149.

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(60) 5. ILDEBERTO (?-ca. 1182)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. XII Apostoli in the consistory of March 1179. He subscribed a papal bull issued in Venice in 1177 (?) in favor of the church of S. Maria dell'Organo. Did not participate in the papal election of 1181, in which Pope Lucius III was elected.

Death. Ca. 1182, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 139; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1103; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 149.

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(61) 6. SCOLARI, Paolo (1130?-1191)

Birth. 1130?, rione della Pigna, Rome. Of a wealthy family of a high social level but not aristocratic. Son of Giovanni Scolari and his wife Maria. He was also called Paolino because of his short stature.

Education. When he was still a child, he was entrusted to the canons of the patriarchal Liberian basilica for his education.

Early life. Cleric of the patriarchal Liberian basilica. Subdeacon of the Holy Roman Church. Canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica and its archpriest by March 3, 1176; he had a palace built next to the basilica for him and his successors.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of Ss. Sergio e Bacco in the consistory of March 1179. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Pudenziana.

Episcopate. Named cardinal bishop of Palestrina in December 1180 (or January 1181). Consecration (no information found). Subscribed papal bulls issued between January 4 and July 28, 1181; November 5, 1181 and May 13, 1184; April 22, 1186 and October 13, 1187; and October 21 and December 11, 1187. Participated in the papal election of 1181, in which Pope Lucius III was elected. Participated in the papal election of 1185, in which Pope Urban III was elected. Participated in the first papal election of 1187, in which Pope Gregory VIII was elected. Participated in the second papal election of 1187 and was elected pope, after Cardinal Thibaud, O.S.B.Clun., bishop of Ostia and Velletri, declined the election in his favor; he could not attend the voting because of illness on the day of his election.

Papacy. Elected pope in the ecclesia maior of Pisa on December 19, 1187. Took the name Clement III. Crowned on January 7, 1188, by Cardinal Giacinto Bobone, protodeacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin. Enthroned in the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, in February 1188.

Death. March 27, 1191 (1), Lateran palace, Rome. Buried in a marble sepulchre before the old choir of the canons in the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome. His tomb has disappeared.

Bibliography. Brixius, Johannes Matthias. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1130-1181. Berlin : R. Trenkel, 1912, p. 65, no. 22; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 131; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1099 and 1134-1150; Del Re, Niccolò. "Clemente III." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 277; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 149; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 183-184; Petersohn, Jürgen. "Clemente III." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 316-319; Tillmann, Helene. "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardenalizio nel XII secolo. II/2. Identificazione dei cardinali del secolo XII di provenienza Romana." Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, XXIX (July-December, 1975), 370-371.

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in English (Britannica); his engraving and biography, in English; .biography, in English; his portrait and biography, in Italian; biography, in German; biography, in Portuguese; his engraving, Magyar Katolikus Lexikon; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his engraving by Cavallieri; his engraving, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio di Bologna; five engravings, Bildarchiv Austria, Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; and his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic.

(1) This is according to most of the sources consulted; some say that he died on March 25, 1191; Petersohn, "Clemente III." Enciclopedia dei papi, II, 319, says that it is not possible to determine with absolute certainty the day of the pope's death and that the sources he consulted indicate that it happened between March 20 and April 10, 1191.

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(62) 7. TIBURZIO (?-?)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 1179; his deaconry is not known. Legate in Constantinople before Emperor Manuel, together with Cardinal Ardicino of S. Teodoro.

Death. (No date or place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 133; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1100; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 148.

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