The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Clement III (1187-1191)
Consistory of March 12, 1188 (I)


(1) 1. MAINARD, O. Cist., Gérard (?-1188)

Birth. (No date found), France. He is also listed as Gérard and Gherardo only; and as Maynard and Mainardo only.

Education. Entered the Order of the Cistercians.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Elected abbot of the monastery of Potigny, archdiocese of Sens. He was a close friend of Pope Clement III.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Palestrina in the consistory of March 12, 1188 (1).

Death. May 19, 1188 (2), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1222 and 1714; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 176-177; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1150; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 131.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 131; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1222, says that the date of his promotion is not known and that he was the 24th and last cardinal created by Pope Clement III; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 2, 166 and 177, lists him among the cardinals created in September 1190 but says that he died in 1188, the year of his promotion; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1143, says that he was created cardinal in September 1190. Due to the brevity of his episcopate and cardinalate, several sources do not include him in their text.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 131; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1714, says that he died in 1206.

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(2) 2. PIETRO (?-1188)

Birth. (No date or place found). Related to Pope Celestine III. He is also listed as Pietro Orsini.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Clemente in the consistory of March 12, 1188. Subscribed papal bulls issued between March 16 and October 29, 1188; one of the documents was in favor of the Canons Regular of S. Frediano di Luca; and another one was addressed to Oberto, archpriest of Modoezia.

Death. Shortly after October 29, 1188, Rome. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 159; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1139; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 154.

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(3) 3. ALESSIO (?-1189)

Birth. (No date found), region dei Monti, near Suburra, Rome. Of the noble Capocci family (1). Nephew of Pope Anastasius IV. Related to Cardinal Pietro di Miso (1158). He is also listed as Alexius and as Egidio Romano.

Education. Joined the Canons Regular of Saint-Victor de Paris.

Early life. Subdeacon of the Roman Church. During the schism that started in 1159, he sided with Pope Alexander III in spite of his close friendship with Antipope Victor IV. Legate of Pope Alexander III in Scotland; his mission was to solve the controversy between King William I and the metropolitan cathedral chapter of St. Andrews concerning the election of the new archbishop; after informing himself about the cause, the legate deposed and excommunicated Hugh, royal chaplain, who, with the support of the king, had been named and consecrated; the legate confirmed the legitimate election of John the Scot; the struggle continued, and in 1183, both John and Hugh resigned their rights.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Susanna in the consistory of March 12, 1188. Subscribed papal bulls issued between March 28, 1118 and March 23, 1189.

Death. April 24, 1189, Rome. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 161; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1140; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 154; Tillmann, Helene. "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardenalizio nel XII secolo. II/2. Identificazione dei cardinali del secolo XII di provenienza Romana." Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, XXIX (July-December, 1975), 378-381.

(1) This is according to Tillmann, "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardenalizio nel XII secolo", II/2. Identificazione dei cardinali del secolo XII di provenienza Romana", Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, 380; Elfriede Kartusch, Das Kardinalskollegium in der Zeit von 1181-1227 ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Kardinalates im Mittelalter (Dissertation: Thesis (doctoral)--Universität Wien, 1948), p. 84 ff., indicates that he belonged to the Arcipreti or Preti family from Perugia.

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(4) 4. CECCANO, O.Cist., Giordano di (?-1206)

Birth. (No date found), Campania. Of the counts of Ceccano. He is also listed as Iordanus de Ceccano. Other cardinals of the family were Gregorio Gaetani (1099); Stefano di Ceccano (1212 ); Teobaldo di Ceccano, O.Cist. (1275); and Annibaldo di Ceccano (1327).

Education. Entered the Order of the Cistercians." ... uomo nelle umane, e divine lettere versatissimo ... " (1)

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Elected abbot of the monastery of Fossanova.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Pudenziana in the consistory of March 12, 1188. Subscribed papal bulls issued between March 16, 1188 and December 7, 1190; May 2, 1191 and December 3, 1197; and March 13, 1198 and May 30, 1205. Legate in France and Germany in June 1188; the pope sent him, with Cardinal Pietro of S. Pietro in Vincoli; their mission was to negotiate the coronation of Heinrich VI and the settlement of Trier; after the completion of this mission, the cardinals went separate ways; Cardinal Giordano traveled to Cologne, where he probably was at the end of 1188 and at the beginning of the following year; then he went into today's Belgium, where he issued a set of documents for different churches and monasteries; also, in northern France, he testified in several cases; he then traveled straight through France on his way to the Roman Curia, where he signed a papal privilege in May 1189. Participated in the papal election of 1191, in which Pope Celestine III was elected. The new pope send him as legate to France, this time together with Cardinal Ottaviano Conti, bishop of Ostia; they had the mission to request English Chancellor William Longchamp (who was the regent of the realm while King Richard I Lionhearted was absent in the crusade) to mediate between the archbishop of Rouen and the followers of King John I Lackland of England; Cardinal Ottaviano was considered to be more sympathetic to the English; when in the spring of 1192 the two legates arrived at the border of Normandy, the Normans refused to let them enter because they assumed there were machinations of the French king behind the legation; Cardinal Ottaviano excommunicated them and imposed an interdict over Normandy; Cardinal Giordano expressed himself against these measures and was banned by the French king from residing in the territory; he had to withdraw himself to the Angevin area and there, he decided some minor ecclesiastical questions; despite the papal prohibition to both legates to enter Normandy to avoid further difficulties, Giordano seems to have nevertheless gone into the duchy. In 1196, he was present at the consecration of the Marienkirche in Ceccano. Participated in the papal election of 1198, in which Pope Innocent III was elected. Legate in Marca Anconitana to set up an army set up against Markward von Annweiler; he also had the mission of assisting the Benedictine monks of the monastery of Monte Cassino.

Death. March 23, 1206, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 162-163; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1140-1141; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 154-155; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 3, note 1, no. 15; and 46; Kartusch, Elfriede. Das Kardinalskollegium in der Zeit von 1181-1227 ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Kardinalates im Mittelalter. Dissertation: Thesis (doctoral)--Universität Wien, 1948, p. 265-269; Maleczek, Werner. Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardinäle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III. Wien : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1984. (Publikationen des Historischen Instituts beim Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom. I. Abteilung, Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd.; Variation: Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom.; 1. Abteilung ; Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd), p. 86-88.

Webgraphy. His genealogy, A2 (last entry, at the end of the page); and I Conti di Ceccano, in Italian; the biography of the cardinal is toward the middle of the page under "IL CARDINALE GIORDANO DE CECCANO".

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 2, 162: a man very well versed in the human and divine letters.

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(5) 5. PIETRO (?-1191)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli in the consistory of March 12, 1188. Subscribed papal bulls issued between April 5, 1188 and February 17, 1191; and May 2 to July 26, 1191. In June 1188, he was sent as legate in France and Germany, with Cardinal Giordano and Roman Consul Leone de Monumento; their mission was to negotiate the coronation of Heinrich VI and the settlement of Trier to end the controversy with Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa; after the completion of this mission, the cardinals went separate ways; Cardinal Pietro went in an inspection journey to the Saxonian dioceses of Halberstadt, Bremen and Corvey and issued a document concerning the visitation in the fall of 1188. In 1191, when Emperor Heinrich VI went to Italy to receive the imperial crown, he pulled with him Cardinals Pietro Gallozia and Pietro of S. Pietro in Vincoli; they appear as witnesses in a royal document, related to Siena, dated March 8, 1191, in San Quirico d'Orcia; the cardinals might have negotiated with the emperor during those weeks about the return of Tusculum to the Romans. Participated in the papal election of 1191, in which Pope Celestine III was elected.

Death. Shortly after July 26, 1191, Rome. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 163-164; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1140; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 155; Kartusch, Elfriede. Das Kardinalskollegium in der Zeit von 1181-1227 ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Kardinalates im Mittelalter. Dissertation: Thesis (doctoral)--Universität Wien, 1948, p. 324 ff.; Maleczek, Werner. Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardinäle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III. Wien : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1984. (Publikationen des Historischen Instituts beim Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom. I. Abteilung, Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd.; Variation: Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom.; 1. Abteilung ; Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd), p. 92-93.

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(6) 6. PIETRO (?-1190)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso in the consistory of March 12, 1188. Subscribed papal bulls issued between April 12, 1188 and July 23, 1190.

Death. Shortly after July 23, 1190, Rome. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 164; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1141-1142; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 155.

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(7) 7. MALABRANCA, Giovanni (?-1192)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Of a family of Roman bankers. He is also listed as Giovanni di S. Teodoro.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Teodoro in the consistory of March 12, 1188. Subscribed papal bulls issued between March 16, 1188 and December 7, 1190; and May 9, 1191 and November 11, 1192. In 1189, he was legate in Poland to promote church discipline. Participated in the papal election of 1191, in which Pope Celestine III was elected.

Death. Shortly after October 4, 1192, Rome. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 165 ; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1143; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 155; Kartusch, Elfriede. Das Kardinalskollegium in der Zeit von 1181-1227 ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Kardinalates im Mittelalter. Dissertation: Thesis (doctoral)--Universität Wien, 1948, p. 253; Maleczek, Werner. Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardinäle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III. Wien : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1984. (Publikationen des Historischen Instituts beim Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom. I. Abteilung, Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd.; Variation: Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom.; 1. Abteilung ; Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd), p. 88-89; Tillmann, Helene. "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardenalizio nel XII secolo. II/2. Identificazione dei cardinali del secolo XII di provenienza Romana." Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, XXIX (July-December, 1975), 385-386.

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(8) 8. SAN APOSTOLO, Gregorio de (?-ca. 1202)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Of the S. Apostolo family, which was not very well known but acquired certain prestige after his promotion to the cardinalate. He is also listed as Gregorio Galgano.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae in the consistory of March 12, 1188. Subscribed papal bulls issued between April 12, 1188 and December 7, 1190; May 2, 1191 and September 10, 1197; and January 4, 1199 and December 23, 1201. Legate of Pope Clement III in Italy in September 1188. Legate in Hungary and Germany, 1189-1190. Participated in the papal election of 1191, in which Pope Celestine III was elected. Legate in Hungary and Germany, probably in 1192. He attended the canonization of Giovanni Gualberto on October 1, 1193. After the death of Emperor Heinrich VI on September 28, 1197, the cardinal, who legate in Marca Anconitana, took part in the papal policy of the recovering of the Papal States then initiated. Participated in the papal election of 1198, in which Pope Innocent III was elected. Named legate in Lombary in the spring of 1198. After the death of Empress Costanza in September 1198, he went to Sicily as representative of the pope to look after the education of future King Friedrich II, whose tutor was the pope; the pontiff was also regent of the kingdom.

Death. Ca. 1202, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 159-160; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1139; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 155; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 3, note 1, no. 25; and 51; Kartusch, Elfriede. Das Kardinalskollegium in der Zeit von 1181-1227 ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Kardinalates im Mittelalter. Dissertation: Thesis (doctoral)--Universität Wien, 1948, p. 159-163; Maleczek, Werner. Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardinäle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III. Wien : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1984. (Publikationen des Historischen Instituts beim Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom. I. Abteilung, Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd.; Variation: Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom.; 1. Abteilung ; Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd), p. 93-94; Tillmann, Helene. "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardenalizio nel XII secolo. II/2. Identificazione dei cardinali del secolo XII di provenienza Romana." Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, XXIX (July-December, 1975), 383-384.

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(9) 9. FELICI, Giovanni (?-1194)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Of an old and noble Roman family. He is also listed as Ioannes Felix; as Gianfelice only; and his last name as Felice.

Education. Studied in Paris. Obtained a doctorate.

Early life. Cleric of Rome. In 1197, while studying in Paris, he was recommended by Roman senators to King Louis VII of France. In another letter, Giordano Pierleoni, his relative, also recommended him.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Eustachio in the consistory of March 12, 1188. Subscribed papal bulls issued between April 5, 1188 and September 12, 1189. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the tile of S. Susanna in September 1189. Subscribed papal bulls issued between October 6, 1189 and February 17, 1191; and May 9, 1191 and June 28, 1194. Participated in the papal election of 1191, in which Pope Celestine III was elected. He was named legate, with Cardinal Pietro Gallozia, to the court of Constantinople in 1192-1193 (1).

Death. Shortly after June 28, 1194, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 163; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1141; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 155; Kartusch, Elfriede. Das Kardinalskollegium in der Zeit von 1181-1227 ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Kardinalates im Mittelalter. Dissertation: Thesis (doctoral)--Universität Wien, 1948, p. 252 ff.; Maleczek, Werner. Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardinäle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III. Wien : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1984. (Publikationen des Historischen Instituts beim Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom. I. Abteilung, Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd.; Variation: Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom.; 1. Abteilung ; Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd), p. 92; Müller, Hinrich. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1181-1216. Dissertation: Thesis (doctoral)--Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, 1950, p. 42, n. 14; Tillmann, Helene. "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardenalizio nel XII secolo. II/2. Identificazione dei cardinali del secolo XII di provenienza Romana." Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, XXIX (July-December, 1975), 384-385.

(1) Tillmann, "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardenalizio nel XII secolo. II/2. Identificazione dei cardinali del secolo XII di provenienza Romana." Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, 378, assumed that the crusade and the international situation were after the failure of the third crusade the negotiation articles of this legation.

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(10) 10. BERNARDO, Can. Reg. di S. Frediano di Lucca (?-ca. 1204)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. Joined the Augustinian Canons Regular di S. Frediano di Lucca. Obtained a doctorate.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria Nuova in the consistory of March 12, 1188. Subscribed papal bulls issued between April 12, 1188 and February 17, 1191; May 9, 1291 and February 26, 1193. Participated in the papal election of 1191, in which Pope Celestine III was elected. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli in 1193. Subscribed papal bulls from March 5, 1193 and September 10, 1197; March 20, 1199 and April 19, 1204. In 1195, he went to Provence in order to reform the monastery of Saint-Victor in Marseille; at this time, he issued a document addressed to the chapter of the cathedral of Nice, which confirmed the chapter's statutes and ended a controversy between the canons and the provost. In March 1196, he was at the Roman Curia. Shortly after, as papal legate, he went to several dioceses in Lombardy and the Dauphiné; he was in Crest on March 10; in Saint-Pierre-en-Valais on August 26; in Saint-Pierre-de-Clages on August 30; and in Grenoble on November 15. At the end of 1197, Pope Celestine III sent him to Tuscany, where, together with Cardinal Pandolfo Masca, received the oath of the Tuscan communes, formalized in a document dated November 11, 1197; from Tuscany, Bernardo traveled to Lombardy; Milan refused him the legatine power. Participated in the papal election of 1198, in which Pope Innocent III was elected. During this pontificate, Cardinal Bernardo acted several times as auditor and perform other functions in the Curia.

Death. Ca. 1204, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 164; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1142; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p.155; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 3, note 1, no. 11; and 45; Kartusch, Elfriede. Das Kardinalskollegium in der Zeit von 1181-1227 ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Kardinalates im Mittelalter. Dissertation: Thesis (doctoral)--Universität Wien, 1948, p. 95-99; Maleczek, Werner. Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardinäle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III. Wien : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1984. (Publikationen des Historischen Instituts beim Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom. I. Abteilung, Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd.; Variation: Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom.; 1. Abteilung ; Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd), p. 89-90.

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(11) 11. CRESCENZI, Gregorio (?-ca. 1208)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Of a noble family but not related to the Crescenzi or the Cenzi noble families (1). Son of Crescentius Francucii. Relative of Cardinal Gregorio Crescenzi, Can. Reg. of S. Reno (1205). His last name is also listed as Crescentius and de Crescentio. Some souces call him "Caballo Marmoreo" and "Cavaldimarmo" (Marble Horse).

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Aquiro in the consistory of March 12, 1188. Subscribed papal bulls issued between April 5, 1188 and July 23, 1190; May 10, 1191 and September 10, 1197; and March 13, 1198 and July 4, 1199. Participated in the papal election of 1191, in which Pope Celestine III was elected. In May and June 1192, he participated, together with Cardinal Albino of Albano, in the negotiations with Tancredo, king of Sicily, which culminated with the concordat of Gravina of 1192; the concordat amended the Pactum Beneventanum in some points favorable to the papacy. He attended the canonization of Giovanni Gualberto on October 1, 1193. Participated in the papal election of 1198, in which Pope Innocent III was elected. Rector of the duchy of Spoleto, the county Assisi and the adjacent areas with complete spiritual and temporal authority, August 1198. Shortly after his return at the beginning of 1199, he was sent to Hungary, charged with the reorganization of the church and the promotion of the peace between King Imre I and his brother Andreas; the cardinal had the support of Archbishop Kenrad of Mainz. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Vitale at the end of 1200. Subscribed papal bulls issued between February 3, 1201 and August 23, 1207. In the spring of 1202, he interced with the pope for the lifting of the excommunication and suspension that Archbishop Berardo de Messina had issued against Gualtiero da Pagliaria, chancellor of Sicily and the bishop of Troia, in the fall of 1200. Cardinal primoprete in 1202. Gubernator of the church S. Agata in Monasterio (later dei Goti), Rome, 1205. In 1207, he was sent as legate to Hungary and dependent countries (Dalmatia and Ruthenia); his mission was to convince King Imre I to participate, on the side of the Guelphs, in the struggle for the German crown. He prepared his will on June 10, 1207; he left his possessions to his nephew Leone, Cencio and Giovanni Mancino; his executors were Cardinals Giovanni di San Paolo, Nicola de Romanis and Magister Milo. He died shortly after returning from his legation in Hungary.

Death. After August 23, 1207 (2), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 164-165; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1142; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 155; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 3, note 1, no. 23; and 48; Kartusch, Elfriede. Das Kardinalskollegium in der Zeit von 1181-1227 ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Kardinalates im Mittelalter. Dissertation: Thesis (doctoral)--Universität Wien, 1948, p. 163-167.; Maleczek, Werner. Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardinäle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III. Wien : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1984. (Publikationen des Historischen Instituts beim Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom. I. Abteilung, Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd.; Variation: Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom.; 1. Abteilung ; Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd), p. 90-92; Müller, Hinrich. Die Mitglieder des Kardinalkollegiums von 1181-1216. Dissertation: Thesis (doctoral)--Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, 1950, p. 36; Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino. I Testamenti dei cardinali del Duecento. Roma : Presso la Società, 1980. (Miscellanea della Società romana di storia patria ; 25), p. CLV, 3 and 107-109; Tillmann, Helene. "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardenalizio nel XII secolo. II/2. Identificazione dei cardinali del secolo XII di provenienza Romana." Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, XXIX (July-December, 1975), 382-383.

(1) This is according to Maleczek, Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardinäle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III, p. 90; Tillmann, "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardenalizio nel XII secolo. II/2. Identificazione dei cardinali del secolo XII di provenienza Romana." Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, 382, says that the cardinal is listed as Gregorius Crescentii in the relation of the ceremony of canonization of Giovanni Gualberto, which also places him among the Roman cardinals; Tillman the says that it is possible to think that the cardinal belonged to the grand Roman Cenzi family.
(2) Maleczek, Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardinäle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III, p. 92, says that this is the date in which he appears as a subscriber of a papal bull; Paravicini Bagliani, I Testamenti dei cardinali del Duecento, p. CLV, indicates that he died after July 21, 1207, the date in which he signed for the last time.

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