< The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church - Biographical Dictionary - Consistory of September 1190

The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Clement III (1187-1191)
Consistory of September 1190 (III)
Celebrated in Rome


(15) 1. GALLOZIA, Pietro (?-1211)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Of a family highly placed socially. His last name is also listed as Gallocia, Galluzzi and Galozia.

Education. He obtained a doctorate.

Early life. Subdeacon apostolic. Rector of Campagna in the pontificate of Pope Alexander III.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina in the consistory of September 1190 (1). Consecrated (no information found). Subscribed papal bulls issued between December 7, 1190 and February 17, 1191; May 2, 1191 and December 3, 1197; and March 13, 1198 and February 25, 1211. In March 1191, when Emperor Heinrich VI went to Italy to receive the imperial crown, he pulled with him Cardinals Pietro Gallozia and Pietro of S. Pietro in Vincoli; they appear as witnesses in a royal document, related to Siena, dated March 8, 1191, in San Quirico d'Orcia; the cardinals might have negotiated with the emperor during those weeks about the return of Tusculum to the Romans. Participated in the papal election of 1191, in which Pope Celestine III was elected. He was named legate, with Cardinal Giovanni Felici, to the court of Constantinople in 1192-1193 (2). Cardinal Lotario dei conti di Segni dedicated to him his work "De miseria humanae conditionis". Participated in the papal election of 1198, in which Pope Innocent III was elected. In the spring of 1201, Pope Innocent III sent him as legate to the kingdom of Sicily, where he should particularly gain the support of the Apullia and Terra di Lavoro in the fight against Markward von Annweiler, as well as the assistance of Walter von Brienne; he remained in Sicily until the beginning of the summer of 1202. In 1204, he consecrated King Pedro II of Aragón in the church of S. Pancrazio, Rome; the king was solemnly crowned by Pope Innocent III in the patriarchal Vatican basilica. He dedicated, on May 9, 1204, in the presence of numerous neighboring bishops, the church of S. Andrea in Galeria, in the north of Rome. When bishop Liupold of Worms appeared toward the end of 1204 in Marca Anconitana, in order to increase in central Italy the imperial influence, the pope sent the cardinal into that region; Cardinal Cencio excommunicated the bishop on Christmas Day 1204 in the cathedral of Fermo and then organized with eagerness the papal troops, which attacked in 1205 and caused a setback to the imperial troops in the second half of the year. The pope named him judge in several disputes that occurred among the Roman clergy. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, April 1206. When the pope traveled in the spring 1206 to Ferentino, Cardinal Gallozia stayed as vicar of the pope in the city of Rome. On May 18, 1208, he dedicated an altar in the Roman Pantheon.

Death. March 14, 1211, Rome, at a very advanced age. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 166-167; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1144-1145; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 155-156; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 3, note 1, no. 2; Maleczek, Werner. Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardinäle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III. Wien : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1984. (Publikationen des Historischen Instituts beim Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom. I. Abteilung, Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd.; Variation: Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom.; 1. Abteilung ; Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd), p. 95-96; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. Venice : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXVIII, 152; Necrologi e libri affini della Provincia romana. A cura di Pietro Egidi. Roma : Forzani e c., tipografi del Senato, 1908-1914. (Fonti per la storia d'Italia, pub. dall' Istituto storico italiano; 44- Antichità. Secoli XI-), I, 19-20; Tillmann, Helene. "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardenalizio nel XII secolo. II/2. Identificazione dei cardinali del secolo XII di provenienza Romana." Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, XXIX (July-December, 1975), p. 376-378.

Webgraphy. Brief biographical entry, in English, Wikipedia.

(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 2, 166; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 1144; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle" Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 155; and Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, XXVIII, 152; Maleczek, Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardinäle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III, p. 95, says that he was created cardinal deacon of the Holy Roman Church in 1188 and was promoted to the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina in 1190; Tillmann, "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardenalizio nel XII secolo. II/2. Identificazione dei cardinali del secolo XII di provenienza Romana." Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, p. 376, says that he was created cardinal deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano in 1185 and promoted to the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina in 1190.
(2) Tillmann, "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardenalizio nel XII secolo. II/2. Identificazione dei cardinali del secolo XII di provenienza Romana." Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, 378, assumed that the crusade and the international situation were, after the failure of the third crusade, the negotiation articles of this legation.

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(16) 2. RUFINO (?-1191/1192)

Birth. (No date found), Emilia or Romagna.

Education. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Nola, ca. 1173; resigned the see in 1175. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Rimini in 1185.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Prassede in the consistory of September 1190. Subscribed papal bulls issued between August 20, 1190 and February 17, 1191; and May 9 and July 26, 1191. Participated in the papal election of 1191, in which Pope Celestine III was elected. Legate in Imola.

Death. Between July 26, 1191 and March 23, 1192, when he is referred to as of bons memorie. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 167; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1145; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 156; Kartusch, Elfriede. Das Kardinalskollegium in der Zeit von 1181-1227 ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Kardinalates im Mittelalter. Dissertation: Thesis (doctoral)--Universität Wien, 1948, p. 392 ff.: Maleczek, Werner. Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardinäle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III. Wien : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1984. (Publikationen des Historischen Instituts beim Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom. I. Abteilung, Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd.; Variation: Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom.; 1. Abteilung ; Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd), p. 96-97.

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(17) 3. RINALDO, O.S.B. (?-1191)

Birth. (No date or place found).

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines).

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro in the consistory of September 1190.

Death. Before March 25, 1191, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. ; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 156.

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(18) 4. PARÉ, O.Cist., Guy (?-1206)

Birth. (No date found), France. His last name is also listed as Poré.

Education. Entered the Order of the Cistercians.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Elected abbot of Cîteaux and was superior general of his order for twelve years.He prescribed prayers every Friday for the success of the Third Crusade at the request of King Philippe-Auguste of France, who departed in July 1190.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Maria in Trastevere in the consistory of September 1190. Subscribed papal bulls issued on February 17, 1191. Participated in the papal election of 1191, in which Pope Celestine III was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between June 13, 1191 and December 3, 1197. Participated in the papal election of 1198, in which Pope Innocent III was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between March 13, 1198 and November 6, 1199.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina in 1200. Consecrated (no information found). Subscribed papal bulls issued between November 11, 1200 and May 4, 1206. Named archbishop of Reims on July 6, 1204; he took possession of the see in 1205. Legate in Germany in 1209 to confirm the election of Emperor Ottone IV, which had taken place in March and July 1201.

Death. July 30, 1206, of the plague, Gand. Buried in the choir of the abbatial church of Cîteaux.

Beatification. He is inscribed as a blessed in the Cistercian Martyrology; his feast is celebrated on May 20.

Bibliography. Anselme de Sainte-Marie ; Dufourny, Honoré Caille ; Ange de Sainte-Rosalie ; Simplicien. Histoire généalogique et chronologique de la maison royale de France, des pairs, grands officiers de la couronne & de la maison du roy: & des anciens barons du royaume: avec les qualitez, l'origine, le progres & les armes de leurs familles; ensemble des statuts & le catalogue des chevaliers, cammandeurs, & officiers de l'ordre du S. Esprit. Le tout dresse sur titres originaux, sur les registres des des chartes du roy, du parlement, de la chambre des comptes & du chatelet des Paris ... & d'autres cabinets curieux. 9 vols. Paris : La Compagnie des libraires, 3. éd., rev., corrigée & augmentée par les soins du P. Ange & du P. Simplicien, 1726-1733, II, 4; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 174-176; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1148-1149; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, I, p.185-188; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 156; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 3, note 1, no. 9.

Webgraphy. His arms and biography, in French, p. 185-188; arms and biographical entry, in French, p. 4; brief biographical entry, in English; biographical data, in English, under "July 30".

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(19) 5. CENCIO (?-1217)

Birth. (No date found), region della Regola, Rome. His last name is also listed as Cenci and Cinthius.

Education. Obtained a doctorate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 1190 (1); his deaconry is unknown. Subscribed papal bulls issued on December 9, 1190. He obtained a doctorate and was promoted to the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina. Subscribed papal bulls issued on February 17, 1191. Participated in the papal election of 1191, in which Pope Celestine III was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between May 20, 1191 and November 4, 1197. Legate in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, 1191-1192; the legate had the mission of ending the conflict between archbishop Eirik of Trondheim and Norwegian King Sverre; of settling a controversy between the bishops of Linköping and Växjö; he should also examine the matter of the marriage of Swedish King Knut Eriksson, and arrange the separation of the dioceses, combined in the person of the Absalon of Lund, of Lund and Roskilde; also, he was charged with reestablishing the peace between bishop Waldemar von Schleswig and his cousin with the Duke Walder Schleswig. Cardinal Cencio fulfilled these tasks with success. On the return journey, he stopped in Hildesheim and became acquainted with the life story of Bishop Benward, who had died in 1022; he, thereupon, worked for the canonization of the bishop, which took place at end of the year 1192. He restored his title and it was reconsecrated by Pope Celestine III on May 26, 1196; to this day, a plaque in the church commemorates the ceremony. He was present at the canonization of S. Giovanni Gualberto, founder of the Order of Vallombrosan. Legate in Sicily to stop the enemies of the Church and of the king, who was still a child. Legate in France, with Cardinal Migliore, for the matrimonial cause of King Philippe III. Participated in the papal election of 1198, in which Pope Innocent III was elected. In March 1198, he was sent as legate to Marches, together with Cardinal Giovanni di San Paolo, in order to obtain from Markward von Annweiler the acknowledgement of the papal sovereignty over those areas; Markward refused and he was excommunicated by the legates; after the death of Emperor Friedrich VI, Markward attacked the Papal States. Subscribed papal bulls issued between August 27, 1198 and April 3, 1216. In the autumn of 1199, he went to Sicily, in order to organize the fight against Markward von Annweiler; at the time of this legation, the papal troops, commanded by Giacomo d'Andria, were victorious over Markward in Monreale in July 1200; he also investigated the accusations that the cathedral chapter of Benevento had raised against Archbishop Roger; a document of the legate dated March 1200 and addressed to Abbot Joachim da Fiore, approved the arbitrary translation of Bishop Gualterio di Palearia from the see of Troia to the one of Palermo without papal placet; Pope Innocent III reprimanded the legate sharply and canceled the uncanonical procedure; the pope permitted however that Bishop Gualterio administer the first diocese by procurator. In 1209, he was named legate to resolve particular questions of ecclesiastical discipline. In that same year he was called apostolice sedis legatus. He did not subscribe any papal bulls between June 6 and October 19, 1209. Cardinal protoprete in 1212. Participated in the papal election of 1216, in which Pope Honorius III was elected.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina at the end of the spring of 1217. Consecrated by Pope Honorius III. Subscribed papal bulls issued between March and July 24, 1217. Legate to Pisa and to Sicily.

Death. After July 24, 1217, Rome. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 180-181; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1667, I, col. 1162; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 156; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 3, note 1, no. 8; Kartusch, Elfriede. Das Kardinalskollegium in der Zeit von 1181-1227 ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Kardinalates im Mittelalter. Dissertation: Thesis (doctoral)--Universität Wien, 1948, p. 112-117; Maleczek, Werner. Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardinäle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III. Wien : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1984. (Publikationen des Historischen Instituts beim Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom. I. Abteilung, Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd.; Variation: Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom.; 1. Abteilung ; Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd), p. 104-106; Tillmann, Helene. "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardenalizio nel XII secolo. II/2. Identificazione dei cardinali del secolo XII di provenienza Romana." Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, XXIX (July-December, 1975), p. 386-387.

(1) Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm indicates that he was created cardinal by Pope Celestine III.

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(20) 6. UGO (?-1205)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Of the Bobone family. Nephew of Pope Celestine III. He is also listed as Ugo only; his first name as Uguccione; and his last name as Bobone, Thieneo and Tieneo.

Education. Studied law and was considered "... assai erudito, ed insigne nella scienza delle leggi ... " (1). He was an eminent jurisconsult.

Early life. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti in the consistory of September 1190. Subscribed papal bulls issued on February 17, 1191. Did not participate in the papal election of 1191, in which Pope Celestine III was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between July 28, 1191 and September 10, 1197. Participated in the papal election of 1198, in which Pope Innocent III was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between March 13, 1198 and February 28, 1206. Both Popes Celestine III and Innocent III asked him to be the arbiter in the major sentences and causes of the Roman tribunals; in April 1203, when the murderers of Bishop Konrad of Wuerzburg were brought to Rome, Pope Innocent III assigned the investigation and the sentence to Cardinal Ugo, who thus performed the function of papal penitentiary. In 1203, he traveled in a peace mission to Terracina.

Death. March 9, 1206, Rome. Buried in his titular church of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 177; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1667, I, col. 1159; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 156; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 3, note 1, no. 10; Kartusch, Elfriede. Das Kardinalskollegium in der Zeit von 1181-1227 ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Kardinalates im Mittelalter. Dissertation: Thesis (doctoral)--Universität Wien, 1948, p. 200-202; Maleczek, Werner. Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardinäle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III. Wien : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1984. (Publikationen des Historischen Instituts beim Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom. I. Abteilung, Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd.; Variation: Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom.; 1. Abteilung ; Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd), p. 107.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 2, 277: "very erudite and distinguished in the legal science".

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(21) 7. SALERNO, O.S.B.Cas., Giovanni (?-1208)

Birth. (No date found), Salerno. He is also listed as Giovanni, O.S.B.Cas. only.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) at the monastery of Monte Cassino. He obtained the title of magister.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Stefano al Monte Celio in the consistory of September 1190. Subscribed papal bulls issued on February 17, 1191. In 1191, he obtained the lifting of the interdicts imposed by the pope on his home abbey because of its loyalty to Emperor Heinrich VI. Did not participate in the papal election of 1191, in which Pope Celestine III was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between May 20, 1191 and July 27, 1197. In 1195, together with Cardinal Pietro Diana, he traveled Germany as legate and went to Bavaria, Saxony and the adjacent areas; he probably was, probably at the end of September 1195, in Wuerzburg, where he bestowed a privilege to the abbey Sankt Stefan; on October 28, 1195, in the Diet of Gelnhausen, he delivered a Kreuzpredigt, which had much success with the present Saxonian and Thuringian leaders; then, they traveled the Diet of Worms (December 6), where Cardinal Pietro preached the crusade; together they issued a document for Andreas-Stift in Worms; Cardinal Giovanni went to Saxony and preached in Höxter in mid-December; in Christmas 1195, he solved the controversy between the monastery of Marienfeld and Count Heinrich von Schauenburg; in January 1196, he succeeded in ending a long controversy between the monastery of Helmarshausen and the bishop of Paderborn; on January 20, 1196, he chartered, in Magdeburg, the monastery Ilsenburg im Harz and on the following January 31, gave the monastery of Bosau bei Zeitz to the monks of Ilsenburg with a new charter; Cardinal Giovanni started back to Rome a little later, while Cardinal Pietro remained during the following months in the company of the emperor; on March 5, 1196, Cardinal Giovanni was in the Roman Curia. Participated in the papal election of 1198, in which he declined the election to the papacy in favor of Cardinal Lotario dei conti di Segni, who thus became Pope Innocent III. Subscribed papal bulls issued between March 13, 1198 and February 1, 1208. At the end of 1198, he was sent, together with Cardinal Gerardo, deacon of S. Adriano, as legate to Terra di Lavoro; the area was controlled by the troops of Markward von Annweiler in Montecassino; the legates were going to return to Rome, when the departure of the Germans was bought by a considerable sum of money; from a letter of the pope to the count of Loreto and Conversano, written in November 1199, Cardinal Giovanni, as well as the papal notary Fliippo, must have been very active in the Kingdom of Sicily in the summer of 1199. In 1201, the pope sent him as legate to England, Scotland and Ireland; on August 13, 1201, he was received with a solemn procession in St. Paul' s in London; in York, he obtained the settlement of the dispute between Archbishop Gottfried and the cathedral chapter, but his activity caused a complaint from the archbishop to the pope, which was written by Petrus of Blois; at the beginning of December 1201, he held a synod in Perth, Scotland, and conciliated a controversy between the bishops of Saint Andrew's and Glasgow with the Abbey of Kelso; on the return journey, he celebrated in the Augustinian cloister in Canterbury; at the beginning of 1203, he returned to Rome. Under both Pope Celestine III and Innocent III, he was an auditor at the papal court; he sometimes was also a penitentiary: on behalf of the pope he issued the document absolving a monk of the English monastery of Evesham, who had been excommunicated.

Death. After April 22, 1208, Rome. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, ; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1145; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 156; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 3, note 1, no. 16; Kartusch, Elfriede. Das Kardinalskollegium in der Zeit von 1181-1227 ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Kardinalates im Mittelalter. Dissertation: Thesis (doctoral)--Universität Wien, 1948, p. 260-265; Maleczek, Werner. Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardinäle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III. Wien : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1984. (Publikationen des Historischen Instituts beim Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom. I. Abteilung, Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd.; Variation: Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom.; 1. Abteilung ; Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd), p. 107-109.

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(22) 8. ROMANO (?-1194)

Birth. (No date found), probably in Rome. His name is also listed as Roberto.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Primicerio of the Holy Roman Church.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 1190; his deaconry is unknown. Subscribed papal bulls dated October 23, 1190 and December 7, 1190. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Anastasia in 1191. Participated in the papal election of 1191, in which Pope Celestine III was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between February 17, 1191 and October 1194. Attended the canonization of Giovanni Gualberto on October 1, 1193.

Death. Shortly after October 1194. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 167-168; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1145; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 156; Maleczek, Werner. Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardinäle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III. Wien : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1984. (Publikationen des Historischen Instituts beim Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom. I. Abteilung, Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd.; Variation: Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom.; 1. Abteilung ; Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd), p.98.

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(23) 9. ANAGNI, Egidio di (?-1195)

Birth. (No date found), Anagni. His first name is also listed as Gilles; and as Egidius; and his last name as Anagnia; as Pierleoni; and as degli Arcipreti.

Education. He obtained the title of magister.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano in the consistory of September 1190. Subscribed papal bulls issued on February 17, 1191. Participated in the papal election of 1191, in which Pope Celestine III was elected. The new pope gave him the direction of the papal chancery without the title of the office, which he exercised from 1191 until 1194. Subscribed papal bulls issued between April 20, 1191 and October 11, 1194. He was among the cardinals who traveled in June 1192 to Naples to accompany Empress Konstanze to Rome; however, the empress was convinced by Roffrid of Montecassino to travel from Tivoli directly to Germany. Legate before King Tancredo of Sicily. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Susanna in 1194.

Death. Shortly after October 11, 1194, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 168; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1145-1146; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 156-157; Kartusch, Elfriede. Das Kardinalskollegium in der Zeit von 1181-1227 ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Kardinalates im Mittelalter. Dissertation: Thesis (doctoral)--Universität Wien, 1948, p. 74 ff.; Maleczek, Werner. Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardinäle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III. Wien : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1984. (Publikationen des Historischen Instituts beim Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom. I. Abteilung, Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd.; Variation: Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom.; 1. Abteilung ; Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd), p. 106-107.

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(24) 10. CARELLI, Gregorio (?-1211)

Birth. (No date found), Trastevere, Rome (1). Of an ancient and noble family. Son of Count Alberto de Monte Carello. He is also listed as Gregorio degli Alberti and Gregorio di Sant'Angelo in Pescheria; and his last name as Ceccarello.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro in the consistory of September 1190. Subscribed papal bulls issued between October 23, 1190 and February 17, 1191. Participated in the papal election of 1191, in which Pope Celestine III was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between May 9, 1191 and December 3, 1197. Attended the canonization of Giovanni Gualberto on October 1, 1193. In February 1196, he was named rector of the cloister of S. Benedetto in Nepi. Participated in the papal election of 1198, in which Pope Innocent III was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between March 13, 1198 and March 21, 1210. 27. In 1199, he was named legate in Tuscany and the duchy of Spoleto to reestablish the peace and order. In the first years of the pontificate of Pope Innocent III he was auditor in the Roman Curia for the investigation of processes.

Death. May 30, 1211 (2), (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 171; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1146-1147; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 157; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 3, note 1, no. 21; Kartusch, Elfriede. Das Kardinalskollegium in der Zeit von 1181-1227 ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Kardinalates im Mittelalter. Dissertation: Thesis (doctoral)--Universität Wien, 1948, p. 172-174; Maleczek, Werner. Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardinäle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III. Wien : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1984. (Publikationen des Historischen Instituts beim Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom. I. Abteilung, Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd.; Variation: Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom.; 1. Abteilung ; Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd), p. 96-97; Tillmann, Helene. "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardenalizio nel XII secolo. II/2. Identificazione dei cardinali del secolo XII di provenienza Romana." Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, XXIX (July-December, 1975), 388-389.

(1) This is according to Tillmann, "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardenalizio nel XII secolo. II/2. Identificazione dei cardinali del secolo XII di provenienza Romana." Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, p. 388; and Maleczek, Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardinäle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III, p. 96-97; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 2, 171; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1146; and "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 157, says that he was born in Monte Carello, Tuscany.
(2) This is according to Tillmann, "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardenalizio nel XII secolo. II/2. Identificazione dei cardinali del secolo XII di provenienza Romana." Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, p. 388; and Maleczek, Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardinäle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III, p. 97; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 157, says that he died ca. 1210.

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(25) 11. SEGNI, Lotario dei conti di (ca. 1160/1161-1216)

Birth. Ca. 1160/1161, castello of Gavignano, near Segni. Son of Trasimondo de Comitibus (1) and Claricia Scotti, Roman noble. The family probably moved to Rome. Nephew of Pope Clement III. Cousin of Cardinals Ugolino dei conti di Segni (1198) and Ottaviano dei conti di Segni (1205). Uncle of Cardinals Giovanni dei conti di Segni (1200); and Stefano de Normandis dei Conti (1216). The family gave the church two more popes: Alexander IV and Innocent XIII. Other members of the family promoted to the cardinalate were Andrea Conti, O.F.M. (quasi-cardinal); Lucido Conti (1411) (pseudocardinal); Giovanni Conti (1483); Francesco Conti (1517). Carlo Conti (1604); Giannicolò Conti (1664); and Bernardo Maria Conti, O.S.B.Cas. (1721).

Education. Received his initial formation at the Benedictine monastery of S. Andrea al Celio, Rome, under abbot Petrus Ismael; studied theology at the University of Paris under Pierre de Corbeil; and law at the University of Bologna, where he was a disciple of Uguccione da Pisa. Returned to Rome ca. 1185.

Early life. He joined the service of the Roman Curia in the pontificate of Pope Lucius III as the text of a legal case shows when he is mentioned in it with Teodino de Porto and Enrico de Albano. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Sacred orders. He received the subdiaconate from Pope Gregory VIII in November/December 1187.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of Ss. Sergio e Bacco in the consistory of September 1190. He signed papal bulls issued on December 7, 1190. Participated in the papal election of 1191, in which Pope Celestine III was elected. He signed most of the papal bulls issued by Pope Celestine III. He restored the church of his deaconry at his own expense. During this pontificate he did not perform any relevant activities and dedicated himself to deepening his theological and ascetical studies; at this time, he wrote the treatises De contemptu mundi, sive De miseria conditionis humanæ; De sacro altaris mysterio; and De quadripartita specia nuptiarum; in spite of not having received any major assignments, he must have been busy at the papal curia because in these three works he complained of not having enough time to pursue his literary interests. Participated in the conclave of 1198 and was elected pope; he was the youngest of all the cardinals.

Papacy. Elected pope on January 8, 1198. Took the name Innocent III. Ordained priest and consecrated bishop on February 22, 1198, in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Ottaviano, bishop of Ostia e Velletri. He was crowned in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, on February 22, 1198 by Cardinal Graziano, protodeacon deacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano. He created forty one cardinals in ten consistories.

Death. July 16, 1216, of the fever, Perugia. Buried in the cathedral of Perugia. In December 1891, Pope Leo XIII had his mortal remains transferred to the patriarchal Lateran basilica.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 171-172; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1147; and II, col. 3-4; Cheney, Christopher Robert. Pope Innocent III and England. Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 1976. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 9); Duffy, Eamon. Ten popes who shook the world. New Haven [Conn.] : Yale University Press, 2011. Contents: St Peter -- Leo the Great -- Gregory the Great -- Gregory VII -- Innocent III -- Paul III -- Pio Nono -- Pius XII -- John XXIII -- John Paul II; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 157; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 3; ; Foreville, Raymonde. Le pape Innocent III et la France. Stuttgart : A. Hiersemann, 1992. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 26); The Fourth Crusade Revisited. Atti della Conferenza Internazionale nell'ottavo centenario della IV Crociata 1204-2004. Andros, 27-30 maggio 2008. A cura di Pierantonio Piatti. Vatican City : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2008; Imkamp, Wilhelm. Das Kirchenbild Innocenz' III. (1198-1216). Stuttgart : A. Hiersemann, 1983. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 22).Note: Originally presented as the author's thesis (doctoral)--Pontificia Universitas Gregoriana, 1982; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 186-188; Maleczek, Werner. "Innocenzo III." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 326-350; Maleczek, Werner. Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardinäle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III. Wien : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1984. (Publikationen des Historischen Instituts beim Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom. I. Abteilung, Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd.; Variation: Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom.; 1. Abteilung ; Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd), p. 101-104; Penteriani, Ulderico. Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 608-612; Powell, James M. The Deeds of Pope Innocent III. Washington, DC. : Catholic University of America Press, 2004. Contents: Family, education, election -- Rome and the Papal states -- The kingdom of Sicily -- Spiritual concerns -- The crusade and church unity -- Peter of Aragon in Rome -- The Papal states -- Papal concerns with the churches -- Rome, again! -- Works of piety: the gift lis.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English; biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; another biography, in English; biography, in Spanish; biography, in German; biography, in Italian; .another biography, in Italian; biography, in French; his image, fresco in the monastery of Subiaco (top of the page; his tomb, papal Lateran basilica, Rome (bottom of the page); his image, fresco, representing his dream on the Upper Basilica of Assisi; his image, retable by Giotto, Musée du Louvre, Paris (it was in Pisa until Napoléon Bonaparte took it to Paris); his image, mosaic, Conti chapel, Poli, Italy; his portrait, attributed to Giuseppe Franchi, Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Milan; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; six engravings, Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek, Bildarchiv Austria; and another engraving.

(1) According to Maleczek, Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardinäle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III, p. 101, he was not an owner of the county of Segni but one of those small country nobleman, in Segni, which included the layer of the leading local families. In the Rome of the 12th century, many of such families expressed their status and their influence with the city government with a title of comes, dux or iudex and later it became a family name.

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(26) 12. GREGORIO (?-1202)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Nephew of Pope Celestine III; possibly of the Boboni family, although he may have been related to the pope on his mother's side.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria in the consistory of September 1190. Subscribed papal bulls issued between December 7, 1190 and February 17, 1191. Participated in the papal election of 1191, in which Pope Celestine III was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between May 20, 1191 and December 3, 1197. Legate in Spain; he solved the difficulties of the marriage contract between Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa and Berengaria, daughter and heiress of King Alfonso VIII of Castilla. In the autumn of 1192, he went to Portugal, where he made King Sancho I to follow a course against the Saracens. In March 1193, he testified in Sahagún; in July, in Lérida; in August, in Gerona, where he solved several ecclesiastical controversies as a representative of the pope. In order the fight against the Saracens, he first arranged the peace between the Christian kings and accomplished an alliance between Aragón and Castilla; in spring 1194, he traveled again to Portugal, in order to win King Sancho I. for the coalition; and organized in May of that year a campaign against the Muslims; in late summer 1194, he must have left Spain, because on November 10, 1194, he testified in the Roman Curia. In August 1195 , he brought a letter from Pope Celestine III to Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa, at the court in Strassburg, encouraging him to participate in the Crusade. In March 1196 the pope sent Cardinal Gregorio again to Spain, in order to strengthen the coalition of the Christian kings against the Saracens. While Navarra was at the front of the Christian coalition, King Alfonso IX of León refused, so that now a part of the military energies of the other kingdoms was directed against King Alfonso IX. In the summer of 1197, Cardinal Gregorio returned to the Roman Curia. Participated in the papal election of 1198, in which Pope Innocent III was elected. Subscribed papal bulls issued between March 13, 1198 and July 15, 1202. Under the new pope, he testified several times as auditor in the Curia.

Death. Shortly after July 15, 1202, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 173-174; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1148; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 157; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 3, note 1, no. 19; Kartusch, Elfriede. Das Kardinalskollegium in der Zeit von 1181-1227 ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Kardinalates im Mittelalter. Dissertation: Thesis (doctoral)--Universität Wien, 1948, p. 154-158; Maleczek, Werner. Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardinäle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III. Wien : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1984. (Publikationen des Historischen Instituts beim Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom. I. Abteilung, Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd.; Variation: Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom.; 1. Abteilung ; Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd), p. 98-99; Tillmann, Helene. "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardenalizio nel XII secolo. II/2. Identificazione dei cardinali del secolo XII di provenienza Romana." Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, XXIX (July-December, 1975), 387-388.

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(27) 13. NICCOLÒ (?-ca. 1200)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Nephew of Pope Clement III. Related to the Roman family Scolari.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. For a long time he held the abbey of S. Lorenzo in Capua and the church of S. Lorenzo in Aversa; he resigned the abbey in 1193.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon, without a title, in the consistory of September 1190. Subscribed a papal bulls issued between October 23 and December 19, 1190. Received the deaconry of S. Lucia in Orthea. Subscribed a papal bull dated February 17, 1191. Participated in the papal election of 1191, in which Pope Celestine III was elected. Received the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin. Signed papal bulls issued between May 15, 1191 and August 4, 1200. Participated in the papal election of 1198, in which Pope Innocent III was elected. He was an auditor of causes at the Roman Curia during the first two years of the pontificate.

Death. After August 4, 1200, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 157; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 3, note 1, no. 24; Kartusch, Elfriede. Das Kardinalskollegium in der Zeit von 1181-1227 ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Kardinalates im Mittelalter. Dissertation: Thesis (doctoral)--Universität Wien, 1948, p. 284-286; Maleczek, Werner. Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardinäle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III. Wien : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1984. (Publikationen des Historischen Instituts beim Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom. I. Abteilung, Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd.; Variation: Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom.; 1. Abteilung ; Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd), p. 97-98.

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(28) 14. PAPA, Guido de (?-1221)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Son of Cencius de Papa. His brothers were Giovanni Guidone, Pietro, Romano and Enrico. Relative of Pope Innocent II. His last name is also listed as de Papareschi and Paparoni.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. In the pontificate of Pope Lucius III, he belonged to the college of rectors of the Romana fraternitas and represented the church of S. Maria in Trastevere.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon, without a specific deaconry assigned, in the consistory of September 1190. Subscribed a papal bull dated December 7, 1190. Did not participate in the papal election of 1191, in which Pope Celestine III was elected. Between 1191 and 1193, he was legate in Lombardy. Did not participate in the papal election of 1198, in which Pope Innocent III was elected. At the beginning of his pontificate, Pope Innocent III sent him before Markward von Annweiler, regent of the kingdom of Sicily, in order to obtain safe escort for a possible meeting between the pope and the regent. In the following year, he was part of a commission, together with Cardinals Ottaviano, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, and Ugolino dei conti di Segni, deacon of S. Eustachio, that led the negotiations with Markward at the border between the province of the Patrimonium Petri and the Kingdom of Sicily in Veroli. The legates received the resignation of Markwards to the regency and a number of further promises. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Maria in Trastevere in 1199 (1); he kept the title until his death (2). Legate in Italy in September 1199. Legate in Marches and the province Ravenna in March 1200; he occupied the post until the fall of that same year. Subscribed papal bulls issued between December 10, 1201 and July 25, 1208.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina on January 9, 1207. Consecrated (no information found). Subscribed papal bulls issued between March 27, 1207 and March 7, 1216. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica in 1207. During the pontificates of both Pope Celestine III and Innocent II, he acted as auditor at the Roman Curia. Participated in the papal election of 1216, in which Pope Honorius III was elected; the cardinals had delegated the choice of the new pope to two of their number: Cardinal Guido de Papa and Cardinal Ugolino dei conti di Segni, bishop of Ostia e Velletri. Subscribed papal bulls issued between October 11, 1216 and March 15, 1221.

Death. August 22, 1221, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 168-171; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1146; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 157; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 3, note 1, no. 9; Kartusch, Elfriede. Das Kardinalskollegium in der Zeit von 1181-1227 ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Kardinalates im Mittelalter. Dissertation: Thesis (doctoral)--Universität Wien, 1948, p. 177-182; Maleczek, Werner. Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardinäle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III. Wien : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1984. (Publikationen des Historischen Instituts beim Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom. I. Abteilung, Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd.; Variation: Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom.; 1. Abteilung ; Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd), p. 99-101.

(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 157; Maleczek, Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardinäle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III, p. 100, says that he received the title of S. Maria in Trastevere at the beginning of 1191.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 157, citing an anonymous contemporary author who wrote a history of that title; and adds that, in effect, that the cardinal susbscribed both as titular of that church and as bishop of Palestrina the papal bulls issued between March 27, 1207 and July 23, 1208.

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(29) 15. BARRATA, Giovanni (?-1191)

Birth. (No date found), Rome.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 1190; his deaconry is not known. Subscribed papal bulls issued on December 7, 1190. Participated in the papal election of 1191, in which Pope Celestine III was elected.

Death. 1191, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 171; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1147; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 157.

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(30) 16. NICCOLÒ (?-1200)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Nephew of Pope Clement III. Related to the Roman family Scolari.

Education. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon without title in the consistory of September 1190. Subscribed a papal bull in favor of the monastery of San Benedetto in Mantua on December 7, 1190. Participated in the papal election of 1191, in which Pope Celestine III was elected. Received the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin from the new pope. Participated in the papal election of 1198, in which Pope Innocent III was elected. His name appears for the last time in a document dated April 13, 1200.

Death. After April 13, 1200, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 172-173; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1147; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 157; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 3, note 1, no. 24; Tillmann, Helene. "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardenalizio nel XII secolo. II/2. Identificazione dei cardinali del secolo XII di provenienza Romana." Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, XXIX (July-December, 1975), 390.

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