The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Celestine III (1191-1198)
Consistory of February 20, 1193 (III)


(6) 1. COLONNA, O.S.B., Giovanni di San Paolo (?-before November 1215 or 1216)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Son of Oddone Colonna. He had a brother, Giordano. Uncle of Cardinal Giovanni Colonna, iuniore (1212). Other cardinals of the family were Giacomo Colonna (1278); Pietro Colonna (1288); Egidio Colonna, O.E.S.A. (1302); Giovanni Colonna (1327); Agapito Colonna (1378); Stefano Colonna (1378); Oddone Colonna (1405), future Pope Martin V; Prospero Colonna (1426); Giovanni Colonna (1480); Pompeo Colonna (1517); Marco Antonio Colonna, seniore (1565); Ascanio Colonna (1586); Girolamo Colonna (1627); Carlo Colonna (1706); Prospero Colonna (1739); Girolamo Colonna di Sciarra (1743); Prospero Colonna di Sciarra (1743); Marcantonio Colonna, iuniore (1759); Pietro Colonna (1766), who took the last name Pamphili. He is also listed as Iohannes de Sancto Paulo; as Giovanni Colonna, seniore; as Giovanni Colonna, the elder; and as Giovanni I Colonna. He may have been a nephew of Pope Celestine III and therefore, a member of the Bobone family. The German sources generally mention him as a member of the Colonna family. Most of the Italian sources contest his belonging to the Colonna family or consider it with skepticism (1).

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) in the monastery of S. Paolo fuori le mura, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Abbot of the monastery of S. Paolo fuori le mura, Rome.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon without a specific deaconry assigned in the consistory of February 20, 1193 (2); subscribed papal bulls issued between March 23 and April 27, 1193. In May 1193, he was named cardinal priest of S. Prisca; he retained as surname S. Paolo, to honor his monastery; subscribed papal bulls issued between May 28, 1193 and December 2, 1204. Attended the canonization of S. Giovanni Gualberto on October 1, 1193. Some sources indicate that Pope Celestine III, at the end of his life, ca. December 25, 1197, tried to resign the papacy and designate Cardinal San Paolo his successor, naming him his vicar, but the cardinals did not accept his proposition. The pope died on January 8, 1198, and Cardinal San Paolo participated in the papal election of 1198, in which a different cardinal was elected Pope Innocent III. The new pope sent him, in 1198, as legate to Marca Anconitana against Markward von Annweiler, imperial duke. The following year, 1200, he was sent as legate to Provence against the Albigenses, neo-Manichfan sect that flourished in southern France. He heard confessions for the pope concerning absolutions from censures and dispensations which were reserved to the pontiff, the precursor of the cardinal grand penitentiary. He was also the confessor of Pope Innocent III. In 1201, he was sent as legate before King Philippe II Auguste of France to make him receive back Queen Ingeborg of Denmark, whom he had repudiated.

Episcopate. Promoted to the suburbicarian see of Sabina ca. Christmas day 1204. Consecrated (no information found). Subscribed papal bulls issued between January 9, 1205 and April 21, 1214. On July 25, 1208, in S. Germani (now Cassino), he preached, during the mass celebrated by Cardinal Giovanni, bishop of Albano, before Pope Innocent III. Cardinal San Paolo was a friend and protector of Francesco d'Assisi, founder of the Order of the Friars Minor and future saint; he helped the founder obtain the papal approval of the Franciscan rule in 1209. He was the first cardinal protector of the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans). He maintained a life style of simpliciy and humility according to the rule of his monastic order.

Death. Before November 1215, in Rome, because his name does not appear among the participants of the Lateran Council , which was celebrated in that month (3). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Altaner, Berthold. "Zur Biographie des Kardinals Johannes von St. Paul (+1214/15)", in Historisches Jahrbuch, XLIX (1929), 304-306; Bihl, Michael. "De Iohanne de S. Paulo, Cardinali episcopo Sabinensi, primo S. Francisci in Curia Romana an. 1209 fautore." Archivum Franciscanum Historicum, XIX (1926), 2, 282-285; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 181-183; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romæ : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1161-1162; Colonna, Prospero. I Colonna. Dalle origini all'inizio del secolo XIX. Sunto di ricordi storici raccolti per cura di Prospero Colonna. Roma : Istituto Nazionale Medico Farmacologico "Serono", 1927, p. 8-9; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 158-159; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 3, note 1, no. 13; Kartusch, Elfriede. Das Kardinalskollegium in der Zeit von 1181-1227 ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Kardinalates im Mittelalter. Dissertation: Thesis (doctoral)--Universität Wien, 1948, p. 254-260; Maleczek, Werner. Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardindle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III. Wien : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1984. (Publikationen des Historischen Instituts beim Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom. I. Abteilung, Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd.; Variation: Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom.; 1. Abteilung ; Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd), p.114-117; Paschini, Pio. "Il cardinale Giovanni di San Paolo", in Studi di storia e diritto in onore di Carlo Calisse, 3 vol. Milano : A. Giuffrè, 1940, III, 109-118; Tillmann, Helene. "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardenalizio nel XII secolo. II/2. Identificazione dei cardinali del secolo XII di provenienza Romana." Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, XXIX (July-December, 1975), 401-402; Wenck, Karl. "Der designationsversuch weihnachten 1197, Kardinal Johann vons St. Paul (Johann Colonna I.)", part III of "Die Römischen päpstw zwischen Alexander III. und Innocenz III. un der designationsversuch weihnachten 1197" in Papsttum und Kaisertum; Forschungen zur politischen Geschichte und Geisteskultur des Mittelalters. Paul Kehr zum 65. Geburtstag dargebracht. Edited by Albert Brackmann. Aalen : Scientia Verlag, 1973. Hrsg. von Albert Brackmann. Neudruck der Ausg. München 1926. pp. 456-474.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; portrait of the approval of the rule of the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans) by Domenico Corvi, 18th century, Palazzo Barberini, Rome; and his engraving, Bildarchiv der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; Colonna Family by James Loughlin, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; Colónna in Italian, Enciclopedie on line, Treccani.

(1) According to Tillmann, "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardenalizio nel XII secolo. II/2. Identificazione dei cardinali del secolo XII di provenienza Romana." Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, p. 401, this familial denomination is based on the history of Franciscanism by Mariano da Firenze (+ 1523) to which should be denied all proving value because it is a much later source and because he added the word "Columna" to "dominus lohannes de Sancto Paulo", which was mentioned in his source "Legenda trium sociorum". Colonna, I Colonna. Dalle origini all'inizio del secolo XIX, p. 8-9, says the he was the first cardinal of the Colonna family.
(2) This is according to Maleczek, Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216, p. 112; Tillmann, "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardenalizio nel XII secolo", p. 401, says that he was created cardinal in March 1193.
(3) This is according to Bihl, "De Iohanne de S. Paulo, Cardinali episcopo Sabinensi, primo S. Francisci in Curia Romana an. 1209 fautore." Archivum Franciscanum Historicum, XIX (1926), 2, 285. Colonna, I Colonna. Dalle origini all'inizio del secolo XIX, p. 9, says that he died in 1216.

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(7) 2. FIDANZIO (?-1197)

Birth. (No date or place found). He is also listed as Fidantiuz and as Fredericus.

Education. He obtained the title of magistro before December 6, 1176.

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Civita Castellana.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Marcello in the consistory of February 20, 1193 (1). Subscribed papal bulls issued between March 5, 1193 and June 25, 1196. In 1193 the pope sent him to upper Italy, where he was to implement regulations concerning internal church affairs; he first went to Genova; and then to Tortona and Alessandria, where he delegated the decision over controversies to the local clergy; from there, he went to Novara; and at the end of the month of June, he was in Verona, where he remained and delivered his lectures; in the middle of August, he went eastward to the patriarchate of Aquileia and the diocese of Padua. In February 1194, Cardinal Fidanzio stayed again in Verona; in his presence the bishop of Verona consecrated March 20 a church before the gates of the city; the legate delivered an elegant oration. The cardinal was sent in a second legation in 1196 to northern Germany and Scandinavia; he left Rome after June 25; on November 24, he was in Magdeburg, where he confirmed the transmission of goods to the archbishop by the Markgrave of Brandenburg and his brother; the legate also entered in negotiations concerning the possible excommunication of King Sverre of Norway (2); and probably, he also inquired about the marriage affair of King Philippe II August of France and Queen Ingeborg of Denmark (3); he also dealt with the fate of Bishop Valdemar of Schleswig, who was released from a Danish prison, where he had lingered for almost thirteen years since his first rebellion against the king; the bishop was, at the insistence of Pope Innocent III, taken to Rome in chains, but managed to escape a few months later and find his way to Bremen, where he later became archbishop, even though it was without papal approval; the abbott of Ebbelholt (now Æbelholt) complained to the archbishop of Lund over the money greed of the legate, whose expenses for the mission had to be covered by the local churches and monasteries.

Death. February 19, 1197, Lund. Buried in the cathedral of Lund.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 899; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 183; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romæ : Typis Vaticanis, 11677, I, col. 1162; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 159; Kartusch, Elfriede. Das Kardinalskollegium in der Zeit von 1181-1227 ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Kardinalates im Mittelalter. Dissertation: Thesis (doctoral)--Universität Wien, 1948, p. 133-137; Maleczek, Werner. Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardindle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III. Wien : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1984. (Publikationen des Historischen Instituts beim Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom. I. Abteilung, Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd.; Variation: Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom.; 1. Abteilung ; Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd), p.113-114 Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXIV, 239.

(1) This is according to Maleczek, Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216, p. 112; Bertone, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 899, says that he was created cardinal in 1192; Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica, XXIV, 239, says that he was created in 1192 or 1193.
(2) King Sverre of Norway was excommunicated in 1198, because he insisted on maintaining the royal right to nominate bishops. The excommunication never had any political effect. The king kept his power and his popularity in Norway until his death in 1202. He did in fact advise his son, Haakon III, to make peace with Rome.
(3) The marriage affair between king Philip II August of France and his queen, Ingeborg of Denmark, is still a mystery and probably will remain so forever. Ingeborg was hardly 18 years of age, when she in 1193 was married to Philip, ten years her senior and married once before. On the day after the wedding he renounced her and demanded that the marriage be annulled. The pope refused any annulment, but in spite of this King Philip remarried in 1196. Ingeborg was reinstalled as queen in 1213 for political reasons.

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(8) 3. CAPUANO, maior, Pietro (?-ca. 1214)

Birth. (No date found), Amalfi. Of the signori di Capua. Third of the sons of Landolfo Capuano; the other three were Mauro, Giovanni and Mansone. Uncle of Cardinal Pietro Capuano, minor (1219). He is also listed as Pietro di Capua, Petrus Capuanus and Pietro Caputo.

Education. He studied theology and Scholastic philosophy in Paris in the 1180s; he frequented the school of Pierre de Poitiers and became acquainted with Robert Curzon, Stephen Langton, future cardinals; and Lotario dei Conti di Segni, future Pope Innocent III. He was considered an eminent scholar in those disciplines. He returned as cleric to Amalfi.

Early life. Professor at the University of Paris.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata in the consistory of February 20, 1193. Subscribed papal bulls issued between March 5, 1193 and July 1, 1195; and March 13, 1198 and November 11, 1200. In 1197, he was sent to Poland and Bohemia to implement several reforms, among them, the introduction of the ecclesiastical celibacy; and the celebration of marriages publicly in a church. Participated in the papal election of 1198, in which was elected Pope Innocent III. Legate in Sicily. Legate in France, together with Cardinal Soffredo Errico Gaetani, from 1198 until 1200; he attended the Council of Vienne in December 1199 and placed the kingdom under an interdict. In January 1199, he was able to establish a a five year armistice between Kings Richard I of England and Philippe II of France. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Marcello in 1200. Subscribed papal bulls issued between November 23, 1201 and April 21, 1214. He was legate in the Fourth Crusade in 1204; he went to Cyprus and Syria; French and Venetian crusaders sacked Constantinople; the French removed many relics (including the Holy Shroud) to western Europe; to protect the relics of S. Andrea the Apostle, the cardinal legate brought the body of the apostle to Amalfi, where it was solemnly received on May 8, 1208, and buried in an elaborate crypt in the cathedral of the city, dedicated to the saint (1). He founded a hospice for the poor in Amalfi. At the beginning of 1211, he was proposed as patriarch of Constantinople but the promotion was not accepted by the pope. He wrote a commentary about papal law. A "Rhymed Life" of the cardinal was written by Durando de Huesca.

Death. August 30, 1214 (2), Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 183-186; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romæ : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1162-1163; Eggs, Georgius Josephus. "Pietro Capuano." Purpura docta, seu, Vitae, legationes, res gestae, obitus, aliaque scitu, ac memoratu digna, &c. S.R.E. Cardinalium. Farnborough, Hants., England : Gregg International, 1970, 1714. 3 v. Note: Reprint. Originally published: Monachii : Sumptibus Joan. Jacobi Remy Bibliopolae, 1714. I, 110-112; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 159; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 3, note 1, no. 26; Kartusch, Elfriede. Das Kardinalskollegium in der Zeit von 1181-1227 ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Kardinalates im Mittelalter. Dissertation: Thesis (doctoral)--Universität Wien, 1948, p. 330-338; Maleczek, Werner. Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardinäle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III. Wien : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1984. (Publikationen des Historischen Instituts beim Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom. I. Abteilung, Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd.; Variation: Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom.; 1. Abteilung ; Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd), p. 117-124; Maleczek, Werner. Pietro Capuano : patrizio amalfitano, cardinale, legato alla quarta crociata, teologo (+ 1214). Ed. riv. ed aggiornata dall'autore. Amalfi (Salerno) : Centro di cultura e storia amalfitana, 1997. (Biblioteca amalfitana ; 2). Note: Rev. and updated Italian ed. of Petrus Capuanus, Wien, 1988. Traduzione a cura di Fulvio Delle Donne.

<STRONG>Links. Biography, in English; biography, in Italian; biography, in Latin, V, 238 in Jo. Alberti Fabricii bibliotheca latinamediae et infimæ ætatis. Uniform Title: Bibliotheca latina mediæ et infimae ætatis. Fabricius, Johann Albert, 1668-1736 ; Schöttgen, Christian, 1687-1751 : Mansi, Giovan Domenico, 1692-1769. (Graz : Akademische Druck-u. Verlagsanstalt, 1962, 1858. 6 v. in 3. Note: "Cum supplemento Christiani Schoettgenii jam a p. Joanne Dominico Mansi"--Original t.p./ Reprint. Originally published: Florentiae : T. Baracchi, 1858-1859; Cathedral of Sant'Andrea, Amalfi; and his bust, cathedral of Amalfi.

(1) Over time portions of S. Andrea's relics have been given to other churches, including a portion of his skull returned to the Greek Orthodox Church in Patras by Pope Paul VI. Cardinal Walter Kasper, president of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, was special papal envoy to celebrations, held on May 8, 2008, marking the eighth centenary of the translation of the relics of the Apostle Andrew to Amalfi, Italy. The mission accompanying the cardinal was made up of Msgr. Carlo Papa, vicar general of the archdiocese of Amalfi - Cava de' Tirreni, and Msgr. Riccardo Arpino, president of the cathedral chapter and chancellor of the Curia.
(2) This is according to Maleczek, Pietro Capuano : patrizio amalfitano, cardinale, legato alla quarta crociata, teologo, p. 253; Eggs, "Pietro Capuano", Purpura docta", I, 112, says that he died on May 11, 1209; his biography in Latin, linked above, says that he died in 1209.
(3) This is according to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 1163; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 159; Maleczek, Pietro Capuano : patrizio amalfitano, cardinale, legato alla quarta crociata, teologo, p. 253, says that the place of his burial is unknown.

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(9) 4. BOBONE (?-1199)

Birth. (No date found), Rome. Son of Giovanni Bobone, who was a cousin of Pope Celestine III, Later, the family adopted the name Orsini. He is also listed as Bobon, Bobo, Bobone di San Teodoro, Bobone Orsini and Bobone Romano.

Education. (No information found)

Early life. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Teodoro of in the consistory of February 20, 1193 (1). Subscribed papal bulls issued between March 4, 1193 and June 19, 1199. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Participated in the papal election of 1198, in which was elected Pope Innocent III.

Death. October 9, 1199. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 186-187; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romæ : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1164; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 159; Kartusch, Elfriede. Das Kardinalskollegium in der Zeit von 1181-1227 ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Kardinalates im Mittelalter. Dissertation: Thesis (doctoral)--Universität Wien, 1948, p. 105-ff.; Maleczek, Werner. Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardindle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III. Wien : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1984. (Publikationen des Historischen Instituts beim Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom. I. Abteilung, Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd.; Variation: Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom.; 1. Abteilung ; Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd), p.111; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XLIX, 161; Necrologi e libri affini della Provincia romana. A cura di Pietro Egidi. Roma : Forzani e c., tipografi del Senato, 1908-1914. (Fonti per la storia d'Italia, pub. dall' Istituto storico italiano; 44- Antichità. Secoli XI-), I, 289; Tillmann, Helene. "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardenalizio nel XII secolo. II/2. Identificazione dei cardinali del secolo XII di provenienza Romana." Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, XXIX (July-December, 1975), 391.

Webgraphy. His genealogy, A2 B1 C1, Libro d'Oro della Nobilità Mediterranea.

(1) This is according to Maleczek, Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216, p. 112; Tillmann, "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardenalizio nel XII secolo", p. 391, says that he was created cardinal in December 1192; Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica, XLIX, 161, says that he was created cardinal in 1192 or 1193.

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(10) 5. CENCIO (ca. 1150-1227)

Birth. Ca. 1150, Rome. Of a humble family of modest means. Son of Aimerico. He is also listed as Cencius, Cencius Camerarius and Cencio Savelli (1)

Education. His formation and education were entrusted to the Lateran monastery (2).

Early life. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Liberian basilica; later its archpriest. Procurator of Cardinal Giacinto Bobbone, future Pope Celestine III. Camerario (treasurer) of the Holy Roman Church, December 5, 1189 until 1198. Together with Cardinal Domnus Albini, Can.Reg. de S. Maria di Crescenziano, he compiled the "Liber censuum Romanæ ecclesiæ" (3).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Lucia in Orphea or in Silice in the consistory of February 20, 1193 (4). After his promotion, he continued his administrative activities. He exercised the functions of vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church from 1194 until 1198 without having the title. In 1197, he became the tutor of the future Emperor Friedrich II. Participated in the papal election of 1198, in which was elected Pope Innocent III. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1198-1216. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo in 1200. Participated in the conclave of 1216 and was elected pope; the cardinals had delegated Cardinals Ugolino dei conti di Segni, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, and Guido Papareschi, bishop of Palestrina, to make the choice of the new pontiff and then, they elected him unanimously.

Papacy. Elected pope on July 18, 1216 in Perugia. Took the name Honorius III. He was consecrated bishop in the cathedral of S. Pietro in Perugia on July 24, 1218. Crowned by Cardinal Guido Pierleone, protodeacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano. He took possession of the patriarchal Lateran basilica on September 4, 1216. On April 9, 1217, in the basilica of S. Lorenzi fuori le mura, he crowned Pierre II de Courtenay as first Latin emperor of Bizantium; he was the only Byzantine sovereign to be crowned by a pope in Rome (5). In 1225, he issued the bull Summi providentia principis, which established severe punishment for anyone offending a cardinal, making it equivalent to a crime of lesa maestà. He created nine cardinals in six consistories.

Death. March 18, 1227, in the Lateran palace, Rome. Buried in a concha porphyretic in front of the altar of the Nativity in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome.

Bibliography. Boyle, L. E. "The Compilatio Quinta and the Registers of Honorius III." Bulletin of medieval canon law, VIII (1978), 9-19; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 187; Carocci-Marco Vendittelli, Sandro. "Onorio III." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 350-362; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romæ : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1164; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 159; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, p. 3, note 1, no. 22; Guglielmi, Felice. "Onorio III." Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 744-746; Kartusch, Elfriede. Das Kardinalskollegium in der Zeit von 1181-1227 ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Kardinalates im Mittelalter. Dissertation: Thesis (doctoral)--Universität Wien, 1948, p. 109-112; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 188-189; Lefevre, R. "Un papa Savelli (Onorio III) che non fu Savelli?" Strenna dei Romanisti, LII, (1991) 283-290; Maleczek, Werner. Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216 : die Kardinäle unter Coelestin III. und Innocenz III. Wien : Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1984. (Publikationen des Historischen Instituts beim Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom. I. Abteilung, Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd.; Variation: Publikationen des Österreichischen Kulturinstitut in Rom.; 1. Abteilung ; Abhandlungen ; 6. Bd), p. 111-113; Montecchi Palazzi, Teresa. "Cencius camerarius et la formation du Liber censuum de 1192." Mélanges de l'école française de Rome, 96 (1984), 1, 49-93; Powell, James M. "Honorius III and the leadership of the Crusade." The Catholic Historical Review, LXIII, 1977, 521-536; Powell, James M. "Honorius III's Sermo in dedicatione ecclesie Lateranensis and the historical-liturgical traditions of the Lateran." Archivum Historiæ Pontificiæ, XXI (1983), 195-209; Powell, James M. "Pastor bonus : some evidence of Honorius III's use of the Sermons of Pope Innocent III." Speculum, LII (1977), No. 3, 522-537; Sayers, Jane E. Papal government and England during the pontificate of Honorius III (1216-1227). Cambridge [Cambridgeshire] ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1984. (Cambridge studies in medieval life and thought ; 3rd ser., v. 21). Contents: Part I. The diplomatic of the letters: 1. The Papal chancery; 2. The letters; 3. The forms; Part II. The letters in their legal and historical context: 4. The law of the church; 5. Cultural relations with England; Tillmann, Helene. "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardenalizio nel XII secolo. II/2. Identificazione dei cardinali del secolo XII di provenienza Romana." Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia, XXIX (July-December, 1975), 391-393.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English; biography, in English (Britannica); biography, in German; his image, arms and biography, in Italian; images and biography, in English; his portrait by Giuseppe Franchi, 1617, Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Milan; his portrait, attributed to Giuseppe Franchi, 1617, Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Milan; the pope approving the rule of the Dominican Order, fresco, church of S. Maria Novella, Florence; his engraving, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; and three engravings, Bildarchiv der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.

(1) According to modern historiography (Carocci-Marco Vendittelli, "Onorio III." Enciclopedia dei papi, II, 350-351; Lefevre, "Un papa Savelli (Onorio III) che non fu Savelli?", Strenna dei Romanisti, LII, (1991) 283-290; Maleczek, Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216, p.111-113; Montecchi Palazzi, "Cencius camerarius et la formation du Liber censuum de 1192, p. 71, note 84; Tillmann, "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardenalizio nel XII secolo, 391-393) he was not a member of the Savelli family; the attribution to that family started in the second half of the 16th century by historians Onofrio Panvino, O.E.S.A., and Alfonso Ceccarelli; until then, none of the sources mention any relationship between Cardinal Cencio and the Savelli family; in 1553-1555, Panvinio received from Cardinal Giacomo Savelli the assignment of writing a history of the family; the historian then tried to give a solid erudite foundation to the tendency, episodically emerged in previous compilations, of attributing the famous Roman descendence not only to Honorius III, but also to the fourth of such name (1285-1287) (the Commentarii of Pope Pius II attributed Honorius III to the Savelli family, confusing him with the homonymous successor); to such aim, the Panvinio published some authentic documents, but interspersing expressions and references that tried to relate Honorius III to the family of Cardinal Giacomo.
(2) According to Onofrio Panvinio, Onvphrii Panvinii Romani Pontifices et Cardinales S.R.E. ab eisdem à Leone IX. ad Paulum Papam IIII. per quingentos posteriores a Christi natali annos creati. [Et De Episcopatibvs, titvlis, et diaconiis Cardinalivm, liber.]. Venetiis : Apud Michaelem Tramezinum, 1577, p. 133, he joined the Canons Regular Lateranense; none of the other sources consulted mention it.
(3) This work, in addition to the tax and interest register, arranged according to church provinces, registered diocese, and exempted cloister, it described privileges, contracts etc. The work is the most important source for the history of papal income and possessions in the Middle Age. With its assistance, the financial independence of the papal administration was greatly improved.
(4) This is according to Maleczek, Papst und Kardinalskolleg von 1191 bis 1216, p. 112; Tillmann, "Ricerche sull'origine dei membri del collegio cardenalizio nel XII secolo", p. 391, says that he was created cardinal in December 1192.
(5) During the trip to Constantinople, the emperor was captured and died a prisoner of Albanese despot Todoro Angelo.

Note. Werner Maleczek in Pietro Capuano : patrizio amalfitano, cardinale, legato alla quarta crociata, teologo (+ 1214) (Ed. riv. ed aggiornata dall'autore. Amalfi : Centro di cultura e storia amalfitana, 1997), p. 53, indicates that this was the only creation of cardinals celebrated by Pope Celestine III.

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