(1) 1. SEGNI, Ugolino dei conti di (ca. 1170 -1241)
Birth. Ca. 1170 (1), Anagni. Of the counts of Segni. Son of Tristano dei conti di Segni. Cousin of Popes Innocent III and Alexander IV. His family gave the church another pope: Innocent XIII. Other members of the family promoted to the cardinalate were Giovanni dei conti di Segni (1200); Ottaviano dei conti di Segni (1205); Andrea Conti, O.F.M. (quasi-cardinal); Lucido Conti (1411) (pseudocardinal); Giovanni Conti (1483); Francesco Conti (1517). Carlo Conti (1604); Giannicolò Conti (1664); and Bernardo Maria Conti, O.S.B.Cas. (1721). He is also listed as Ugolino d'Anagni; and his first name as Ugo.
Education. He started his education at the episcopal school of Anagni; later, he studied law at the University of Bologna and theology at the University of Paris (2).
Early life. Papal chaplain. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Eustachio in the consistory of December 1198. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1198 or 1202. Subscribed the papal bulls issued between January 4, 1199 and April 30, 1206. In 1199, he was sent to southern Italy to mediate between the factions who wanted to constitute the regency of the kingdom of Sicily and the education of future king and emperor Friedrich II; the factions were led by Marcovaldo di Anweiler, firm supporter of Emperor Heinrich VI; and Gualtieri di Palearia, chancellor of the kingdom.
Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, 1206. Consecrated (no information found). Subscribed the papal bulls issued between May 4, 1206 and March 7, 1216; and August 12, 1216 and May 9, 1226. Legate in Germany in 1207, together with Cardinal Leone Brancaleone, to mediate between Philipp von Swabia and Otto von Brunswick, claimants to the German throne after the death of Emperor Heinrich VI; legate in Germany again in 1209. Legate in France in 1208. Participated in the papal election of 1216, in which was elected Pope Honorius III; the cardinals had delegated the choice of the new pope to two of their number: Cardinal Segni and Cardinal Guido de Papa, bishop of Palestrina. He was a friend of Francesco d'Assisi, future saint. Named protector of the Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans) in 1217; he hosted the order in Rome; and collaborated in the final redaction of the rule of the Franciscans (finalized in 1223); he fostered the growth of the Clarise nuns; in 1219, he attended the grand chapter of the Franciscans celebrated in Assisi; Francesco predicted his papacy. In 1220, he gave the cross to Emperor Friedrich II at his imperial coronation. Legate in Tuscany, Marches and Lombardy in 1221 to preach the crusade and to bring peace between Guelphs and Ghibellins. He was also a friend of Dominic, founder of the Order of Preachers (Dominicans), future saint. Participated in the papal election of 1227 and was elected pope; the cardinals had delegated the choice of the new pope to three of their number.
Papacy. Elected pope on March 19, 1227. Took the name Gregory IX. Received the pallium in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, March 21, 1227; enthroned on that same day, patriarchal Lateran basilica; crowned, April 11, 1227, patriarchal Liberian basilica, by Cardinal Ottaviano dei conti di Segni, protodeacon of Ss. Sergio e Bacco. In 1234, he promulgated the Decretals, a compilation of canon law that remained the source of ecclesiastical law for the Church until the pontificate of Pope Benedict XV (1914-1922). He created sixteen cardinals in five consistories.
Death. August 22, 1241, Rome. Buried in the patriarchal Vatican basilica.
Bibliography. Capitani, Ovidio. "Gregorio IX." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, II, 363-380; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 190-193; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 17-19; Del Re, Niccolò. Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 575-577; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 109; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 3, 5, 35 and 49; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 189-191; Registri dei cardinali Ugolino d'Ostia e Ottavio degli Ubaldini (sec. XIII). Pubblicati a cura di Guido Levi. Roma :Forzani, tipografi del Senato, 1890. (Fonti per la storia d'Italia. Regesti, secolo XIII [n.8]; Variation: Istituto storico italiano per il Medio Evo.; Fonti per la storia d'Italia ; n. 8).
Links. Biogarphy, in English; his image and biography, in English (Britannica); biography, in English; biography, in German; biography, in German; biography, in English; his portrait and biography, in English; his image, arms and biography, in Italian; biography, by José Goñi Gaztambide, in Spanish; his engraving and biography, in Hungarian; El cardenal Hugolino, Protector de la Orden, in Spanish; his image, fresco in S. Gregorio chapel, Subiaco; his portrait, attributed to Giuseppe Franchi, Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Milan; his image, miniature in an illuminated manuscript of the Decretals; his image, miniature in another illuminated manuscript of the Decretals; his image, stained glass window, Bardi chapel, church of S. Croce, Florence; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his engraving as a cardinal; his engraving as a pope; several of his images; and four engravings.
(1) This is the date which the majority of the sources consulted give although some others fluctuate between ca. 1140 and ca. 1165.
(2) According to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 2, 190, he entered the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) Camaldolese; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 109, says that he joined the Canons Regular of S. Maria di Reno; none of the other sources consulted mention this.
(2) 2. GÉRARD, O.Cist. (-ca. 1200)
Birth. (No date found), France. His name is also listed as Gherardo and Girard François.
Education. Entered the Order of the Cistercians.
Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Elected 8th abbot of the abbey of Potigny.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano in the consistory of December 1198. Subscribed the papal bulls issued between January 4 and April 5, 1199. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Marcello (1) in 1199. Subscribed a papal bull issued between May 5 and July 4, 1199. Together with Cardinal Ugolino dei conti di Segni, was charged with the judgement of a very delicate controversy in 1200.
Death. Ca. 1200 (2), (no place found). Buried (no information found).
Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 193-194; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 19; Du Chesne, François. Histoire de tous les cardinaux françois : de naissance, ou qui ont esté promeus au cardinalat par l'expresse recommandation de nos roys, pour les grands services qu'ils ont rendus a leur estat, et a leur couronne. Comprenant commairement leurs legations, ambassades & voyages par eux faits en divers pays & royaumes, vers les papes, empereurs, roys, potentats, republiques, communautex & universitez, pour affaires importantes à l'église universelle, & à l'auguste majesté de nos souuerains. Enrichie de leurs armes et de leurs portraits. Divisée en deux tomes, et justifiée par tiltres et chartres du thresor de sa majesté, arrests des parlemens de France, registres des Chambres des comptes; donations, fondations, epitaphes, testamens, manuscripts, ancients monumens, chroniques & chartulaires d'abbayes, & autres histoires publiques & particlieres. 2 vols. A Paris : Aux despens de l'autheur, & se vendent chez luy ..., 1660, II, 194-195; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p. 109-110; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen I (1198-1431). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1913; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 3, 43 and 52.
Links. His arms and biography, in French, p. 194-195; and his engraving.
(1) His biography in French, linked above, erroneously indicates that he later was cardinal bishop of Palestrina.
(2) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1929, p. 110, which adds that he was replaced in his title in 1201; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 2, 194, says that he died in 1210.
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